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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Carbon Capture
As the climate change fear has achieved a great importance, various methods have been
developed to mitigate CO2 emission. For the last 5 decades there has been growing concern as
the average global temperature is increasing at a moderate rate The main cause behind in CO2 is
due to various activities adopted by human beings which directly or indirectly contribute to the
rise in CO2 concentration. The main source for the increase in CO2 concentration in the
atmosphere is electricity generation sector which mainly comprises of Natural gas and Coal fired
power plants. So there is a urgent need of deploying CO2 mitigation technologies on this sector
which will provide a cleaner environment in future.
1.2 CO2 is a greenhouse gas
CO2 is essential to life on Earth. Greenhouse gases, including CO2, prevent some of the sun's
heat from escaping back into space, keeping the Earth warm enough for plants and animals to
survive.
Common, naturally-occurring greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that can trap some of this heat
include water vapour, CO2, methane and nitrous oxide.
CO2 is a vital part of the food chain for most living creatures. It is also used to put the ‘fizz’ in
soft drinks, beer and champagne.
1.3 Excess of CO2
CO2 naturally moves into and out of the atmosphere. For example, plants take up and use CO2 to
produce energy, and animals breathe out CO2 made from using energy. The greatly increased
amount of CO2 in the atmosphere resulting from human invention and industrialization, however,
is causing the Earth’s temperature to rise rapidly.
When fossil fuels are burnt in a power plant to make electricity, large amounts of CO2 are
released into the atmosphere. CO2 is released from the ground into the atmosphere during natural
gas production.[5]

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The CO2 can then be compressed for transport and storage. In an absorption-based approach. once absorbed by the solvent.2 Post-combustion capture Post-combustion processes separate CO2 from combustion exhaust gases. the CO2 is released by heating to form a high purity CO2 stream.1 Mechanism of precombustion capture 2.2 CHAPTER-2 CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION There are three basic types of CO2 capture: pre-combustion.1 Pre-combustion capture Pre-combustion capture processes convert fuel into a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and CO2. CO2 can be captured using liquid solvent or other separation methods. 2. post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion.2 Mechanism of postcombustion capture 2 . The hydrogen is separated and can be burnt without producing any CO2. Fig 1. Fig 1. making the technology more difficult to apply to existing power plants. The fuel conversion steps required for pre-combustion are more complex than the processes involved in post-combustion.

3 Oxyfuel combustion Oxyfuel combustion processes use oxygen rather than air for combustion of fuel.[1] Fig 1. This produces exhaust gas that is mainly water vapor and CO2 that can be easily separated to produce a high purity CO2 stream.3 2.3 Mechanism of oxyfuel combustion 3 .

Compression of CO2 A detailed flowsheet of the process is given below: Fig 2. 3. which are the combinations of alcohols and ammonia. Alkanolamines.2 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS The process used for capturing CO2 using MDEA can be divided into 3 different sections: 1. removal of CO2 from synthesis gas in ammonia or hydrogen plants.1 AMINE PROCESS In most of the industries absorption with the help of chemical solvents.4 CHAPTER-3 AMINE PROCESSING 3. Cooling of Flue gas and its compression 2. which is also known as chemical absorption is the commercially most widely used process to remove acid gas(mainly CO2 and H2S) from various gas streams. chemical absorption of acid gases by alkanolamines has been utilized in a various industries like petroleum refining. In addition to natural gas processing. Absorption of CO2 and solvent regeneration 3. are the mostly preferred solvents for removing acid gas. CO2 capture from combustion and flue gases. Currently preferred chemical solvents for acid gas removal by chemical absorption are amine based absorbents.1 Flowsheet for CO2 capture by MDEA solvent 4 .

Because of the upward movement of the flue gas in the absorber (tray column).e. the pressure of the flue gas needs to be raised before feeding to the absorber. Similarly the recommended concentration for SOx should be less than 10 ppmv for MDEA solvent. If the amine stream has CO2 loaded in it. the loading is defined on a mole basis as given by The amine stream which is stripped off CO2 is referred to as Lean amine off i. the amine stream entering from the absorber’s top.DCC may be tray tower or packed tower where counter-current flow of flue gases. where vapor and liquid leaving the stage are in equilibrium. flue gas is fed whereas lean amine solvent is fed from the top.4 SOLVENT REGENRATION The absorber used is a tray column. which react irreversibly with MDEA to form heat stable salts which cannot be reclaimed. it is sent to a blower. 3. If the flue gases have not been through a scrubber then cooling is done by other means. The recommended concentration for NO2 should be less than 20 ppm. SOx and other impurities.5 3.e. Direct contact cooling tower (DCC) is used for cooling the flue gases by feeding it the tower.3 COOLING OF FLUE GAS AND COMPRESSION The absorber for the CO2-H2O-MDEA system should operate at temperature of around 40°C and therefore. the flue gases must be cooled before feeding it to the absorber. temperature is also increased. then it is known as rich amine i. A wet electrostatic precipitator or a mist eliminator must be employed in the flue gas desulfurization unit so as to remove SO3. From the absorber’s bottom. the flue gases temperature at the exhaust in industries ranges from 110120°C and hence.35 and rich amine stream leaving the absorber has a loading close to 0. Flue gas needs to be scrubbed prior to chemical absorption with MDEA to remove NOx. The loading of the lean amine stream which is entering to the absorber from the top is between 0. Sometimes wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber is used for cooling the flue gases.30. The flue gas coming out of the DCC needs to be compressed and therefore. Usually. Along with the pressure. the stream leaving from the absorber’s bottom. In a MDEA system. which can form sulfuric acid aerosol in scrubbers which can cause corrosion.8. the gases temperature at the inlet of the absorber should lie in the temperature ranging from 40-50°C. The lean amine stream is entering 5 .

6 inside the absorber through the second stage from the top and make-up water is entering at the top stage. Typically. the heat is exchanged between the rich amine stream from the absorber and the lean amine stream from the desorber. a reciprocating compressor with 4 stages is used for cooling.5 SOLVENT RECLAIMATION A MDEA reclaimer is used necessarily when the flue gas is coming out from coal fired power plants to treat the stable salts that are formed because of SOx and NOx. after which the liquid CO2 can be pumped through pump with the discharge pressure of 130 atm. The rich amine leaving at the absorber’s bottom is sent to the heat exchanger. 3. Drying is one of the important steps as the presence of even small amount moisture in the stream can corrode the pipelines. The compressor is employed for compressing the CO2 to a pressure of 90 atm.[6] 6 . via a pump. These salts should not accumulate on the amine stream as it is not desirable since it reduces the solvent’s capacity for absorbing CO2. which are used for transporting CO2.6 CO2 COMPRESSION The CO2 gas coming out from the desorber’s top needs to be dried and should be compressed before sending it for storage. The removal of the purge stream of MDEA solvent is done and is then sent to the reclaimer where strong alkali like NaOH and heat are added because of which heat stable salts can be dissociated contributing to the recovery of the solvent 3. which is also known as cross-heat exchanger. In the cross heat-exchanger.

2 220. Problem statement-Analysis of CO2 absorption using 50% MDEA solvent at 70°C in Aspen Plus[4] Steps for regression using VLE data for ethanol-ethyl acetate system.6786 0. Data regression follows the least square method.9 813.5259 0.5894 0.6898 = +1) = =1 Mole fraction of MDEA= =0.2367 0.6058 0.4834 0.5489 0.3 581.7 177.7 488.7 There are various thermodynamics equations like Wilson.4 688.1308 7 . Temperature 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 343 p(CO2) 95.279 0.1 486.7 379.6609 0.9 273.4 α 0. NRTL and UNIQUAC etc.4029 0.1 776.4718 0.3582 0.5858 0.6 306.1 430.7 117. the generated data from experiment and calculated data should have minimum error which is achieved by data regression.

In the Home Tab of the Ribbon. Select the property method. 3. click Regression. Use the Methods-Specification-Global sheet to choose property method (WILSON). 8 .8 CHAPTER-4 STEPS OF REGRESSION 1.[2] 2. Start Aspen Plus and create a new run. in the Run Mode group. Enter the components on the Components-Specification-Selection sheet 4.

Enter experimental data 9 .9 5.

10 .Mixture form to enter the VLE data 6.10 Use the Data. Specify the regression case.

Specify additional regression cases. 11 . Run the regression. 8.11 7.

12 .12 9.Parameter form. Examine the result on the Regression-Results.

On the Home tab of the ribbon.13 10. open the plot gallery and click Residual to plot the residual of pressure for case VLE.[3] Merged graph by E-NRTL Model & WILSON Model 13 . in the Plot group.

H2O-MDEA system over a wider range of conditions and gives morereliable predictions than those from Wilson works. and loadings of CO2 close to 0. 14 . concentration of MDEA up to 50wt %. the E-NRTL and Wilson model was used to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of CO2-H2O-MDEA system with the experimental data available for the CO2-H2O-MDEA system.5.The relation of CO2 capture on the lean loading. The E-NRTL model is validated to predict vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and partial pressure of CO2 of the MDEA-H2O-CO2 system with temperature ranging 70°C. The model provides a representation for thermodynamic property for the CO2. desorber temperature and pressure was sufficient to ensure the completion of the simulation and designing of the Carbon Capture and Storage work.14 CHAPTER-5 CONCLUSIONS To carry out simulation and modeling for the CO2 capture process with MDEA.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology. P. Stephensonb. Ajou University Wonchon-dong San-5. C. University of Mumbai. bRWE npower.Svendsen*)Department of Chemical Engineering. of Energy Studies. Cranfield University. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in 30 mass % Monoethanolamine and 50 mass % Methyldiethanolamine Solutions (Sholeh Ma’mun. Institute of Chemical Technology. Post-combustion CO2 Capture with Chemical Absorption: A State-of-the-art Review(M. Aspen user manual 4. Lawala. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption:A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman B. Chem. J. 2005 M. UK.15 References 1. Aspen Simulation of CO2 absorption system with various Amine Solution Seok Kim. Yeunga process Systems Engineering Group.Ramshawa and H. Chemical Engineering Practice Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Wanga* A. 2006 6. Aspen plus help 3. School of Engineering.† Roger Nilsen.) 2. Paldal-gu 15 .N-7491 Trondheim. Eng. Norway 5. Siddersb. and Hallvard F. UK. Hyung-Taek Kim Dept.S.