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Katherine Wright

A Classification System for Ground Stone Tools from the


Prehistoric Levant.
In: Palorient. 1992, Vol. 18 N2. pp. 53-81.

Abstract
Comparative studies of ground stone artifacts have been limited, due to widely varying terminology and typological schemes
restricted to material from one or two specific sites. Most interim site reports describe such artifacts only briefly. Yet ground stone
has important implications for the development of prehistoric technology and therefore deserves at least as much attention as is
routinely given to chipped stone tools. This article presents definitions of technological and morphological terms and a general
classification applicable to prehistoric Levantine sites. While morphological typology should certainly not be the final goal of
ground stone analyses, few would dispute the need for relatively standardized terminology that will permit communication of
finds.
Rsum
Les tudes comparatives du mobilier en pierre sont restes limites en raison d'une terminologie trs variable ainsi que d'une
typologie restreinte du matriel provenant seulement d'un ou deux sites. La plupart des rapports prliminaires ne dcrivent ces
objets que trs sommairement. Or, le mobilier en pierre joue un rle important dans le dveloppement de la technologie
prhistorique et mrite autant d'intrt que celui accord aux outils taills. Cet article prsente des dfinitions de termes
technologiques et morphologiques, ainsi qu'une classification gnrale applicable aux sites prhistoriques du Levant. La
typologie morphologique n'est pas le but final des analyses de mobilier en pierre mais est ncessaire afin de permettre les
comparaisons.

Citer ce document / Cite this document :


Wright Katherine. A Classification System for Ground Stone Tools from the Prehistoric Levant. In: Palorient. 1992, Vol. 18 N2.
pp. 53-81.
doi : 10.3406/paleo.1992.4573
http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_1992_num_18_2_4573

PALEORIENT, vol. 18/2 - 1992


A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR GROUND STONE
TOOLS FROM THE PREHISTORIC LEVANT
K. WRIGHT

ABSTRACT. - Comparative studies of ground stone artifacts have been limited, due to widely varying terminology and typological
schemes restricted to material from one or two specific sites. Most interim site reports describe such artifacts only briefly. Yet
ground stone has important implications for the development of prehistoric technology and therefore deserves at least as much
attention as is routinely given to chipped stone tools. This article presents definitions of technological and morphological terms
and a general classification applicable to prehistoric Levantine sites. While morphological typology should certainly not be the
final goal of ground stone analyses, few would dispute the need for relatively standardized terminology that will permit com
munication
of finds.
RESUME. - Les tudes comparatives du mobilier en pierre sont restes limites en raison d'une terminologie trs variable ainsi
que d'une typologie restreinte du matriel provenant seulement d'un ou deux sites. La plupart des rapports prliminaires ne
dcrivent ces objets que trs sommairement. Or, le mobilier en pierre joue un rle important dans le dveloppement de la technologie
prhistorique et mrite autant d'intrt que celui accord aux outils taills. Cet article prsente des dfinitions de termes tech
nologiques
et morphologiques, ainsi qu'une classification gnrale applicable aux sites prhistoriques du Levant. La typologie
morphologique n'est pas le but final des analyses de mobilier en pierre mais est ncessaire afin de permettre les comparaisons.

Studies of ground stone assemblages from Near


Eastern prehistoric sites have been hampered by
inconsistent terminology (1). Many typologies are
based on a diverse mix of criteria, often loose ca
tegories
of shape and size (2) ; most are descriptions
of (often small) samples from one or two sites,
usually without general definitions that can be ap
plied to different assemblages (3); others focus only
on a few artifact classes (4) ; nearly all ignore ground
stone debitage. Thus, comparisons of assemblages
have been difficult to make. By contrast, chipped
stone studies employ relatively standard terms useful
for such comparisons (5). A standard descriptive
classification is a prerequisite for addressing the
significance of ground stone assemblage variations.

(6) WRIGHT, 1991, 1992. Specific instances of most of the


types presented here are described and illustrated in WRIGHT,
1992.
(7) RUNNELS, 1981 218f.
(8) JELINEK, 1976 22; cf. DIBBLE, 1987.
(9) WRIGHT, 1991, 1992; cf. JELINEK. 1976; TOTH, 1985;
DIBBLE, 1987.
(10) MARKS, 1983 : xiii.
: :

(1) As previously noted by HOLE et al, 1969 170; KRAYBILL, 1977 487; HERSH, 1981 77f; RUNNELS, 1981 ; NIERL, 1983; VOIGT, 1983: 247. Type names, definitions and
numbering schemes all vary widely.
(2) Exceptions to this criticism include DORRELL, 1983;
NIERL, 1983; VOIGT, 1983; CLUZAN, 1984; MOUTON,
1984; ROODENBERG, 1986, though the typologies are still sitespecific and emphasize different attributes. The studies by NIERL
,1983; MOUTON, 1984 and ROODENBERG, 1986 are also
outstanding in their emphasis on ground stone technology.
(3) DUNNELL, 1971; cf. SOLECK1, 1969; NOY, 1979;
BANKS, 1980; HERSH, 1981; DAVIS, 1982; DORRELL, 1983;
MOHOLY-NAGY, 1983. Among comparative studies of wider
scope, KRAYBILL (1977) covers the entire Old World (but in
very general terms); essays by FUJIMOTO (1984, 1985) cover
the Levant (in Japanese); WRIGHT (1992) has a comprehensive
review of Levantine prehistoric material.
(4) SUMNER, 1967; SOLECKI, 1969; NOY, 1979; ADAMS,
1983; NIERL, 1983; MOUTON, 1984, ROODENBERG, 1986.
(5) E.g. BORDES, 1961; TIXIER, 1963; BAR-YOSEF, 1970.

The purpose of this article is to present such a


classification for application to the prehistoric
Levant. Discussions of space-time systematics,
specific assemblages and functional significance of
the artifact classes are presented elsewhere (6).
The term "ground stone" is a misnomer (7).
Such tools may be made on flakes detached from
cores; some exhibit retouch; others are analogous
to "core tools." Here, the term refers to any tools
made by combinations of flaking, pecking, poundi
ng,grinding, drilling and incising. These include
mortars, pestles, grinding slabs, handstones, grooved
and perforated stones, axes and other types. Howe
ver, figurines and beads are excluded. Although
abrasion plays a prominent role in the technology,
a few artifact categories included here need not have
involved grinding (e.g. pounders, choppers).
Jelinek (8) suggests that chipped stone assembl
agesmainly reflect stages in progressive modificat
ion
of an original "functioning" toolkit. A similar
situation has been documented for Levantine ground
stone assemblages (9). A morphological classifica
tion
based on progressive lithic reduction is here
considered the best way of describing assembl
ages(10). This approach avoids assumptions that

53

morphological classes primarily reflect either stylis


tic"norms" or tool functions as inferred from eth
nographic
analogy. Variations resulting from
function or style will be better understood if tech
nological
criteria are addressed first (11).
The classification given here is regional in
scope (12) and based on defined classes as distinct
from individual samples (13). It gives definitions
applicable to Levantine assemblages of the Upper
Paleolithic through Chalcolithic time range (45,000
to 5,500 b.p.) It was derived from (a) direct exami
nation of 22 Levantine assemblages from diverse
environments, comprising 2,713 artifacts and (b)
comparison with ground stone presented in site re
ports
(14). The typology was constructed to meet
three prerequisites :
(a) It must be hierarchical, composed of larger
classes to which subclasses may be added. This
facilitates addition of types when new assemblages
are reviewed. The format is similar to that of wide
ly-used chipped stone classifications (15);
(b) Classes must be based on explicit, easily-r
eproduced attributes.

(c) Wherever possible, type names should em


ploy terms commonly used in the literature.
This typology depends on (a) definitions of raw
material properties ; (b) definitions of technological
terms; (c) definitions of "anatomical" terms for de
scribing
individual tools ; (d) definitions of vari
ables; (e) a type list; and (f) definitions of classes
(types). These are presented below.
RAW MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Discussion of raw material properties is based on


1972 Table 1.
SPETH, 1972 : Table 1.
HAYDEN, 1987 18.
:

54

(16)
SPETH,
(17)
(18)

(11) JELINEK, 1976; MARKS 1983: xiii ; TOTH, 1985:


107; OLSZEWSKI, 1986 79. Criticisms of chipped stone typo
logies such as those of Bordes center on the scope and interpre
tationof the types (BINFORD and BINFORD 1966; KERRICH
and CLARKE, 1967 JELINEK, 1976; MARKS, 1981 371 ; BIN
FORD, 1982 25; DIBBLE, 1987). Recent research stresses tech
nology, but no one disputes the need for classifications that permit
consistent description of finds (BINFORD,1983 96; DIBBLE,
1987 116). It should be emphasized that despite functional names
here assigned to artifact classes, the classification is not an allpurpose functional typology. Indeed, it is unlikely that such t
ypol gies
can be created (MARKS, 1983 xiii). The classification
presented here will be useful for subsequent functional interpre
tations if it is remembered that (a) establishing functional attr
ibutes depends entirely on the research questions asked
(b) functional interpretations are most reliable at the level of more
inclusive tool classes (CLOSE, 1978: 234; GORING-MORRIS,
1987 54); (c) general functions (e.g. "grinding") must be di
stinguished
from specific functions ("grain grinding"). Microwear
and residue analyses may prove useful for ground stone (ADAMS,
1989; JONES, 1990). See WRIGHT, 1992.
(12) Cf. BAR-YOSEF, 1970: 17.
(13) DUNNELL, 1971.
(14) WRIGHT, 1991, 1992 in press. The classification is i
ntended
primarily for Levantine material, but parallels are cited
from elsewhere in the Near East. The ground stone assemblages
from which this classification was developed come from the fo
l owing
sites UWAYNID 18, JILAT 6, JILAT 8, AZRAQ 17, JILAT 22, AZRAQ 32, WADI HAMMEH 27, AZRAQ 18, BEIDHA
(NATUFIAN), BEIDHA (PPNB), JILAT 7, JILAT 32, JILAT 26,
BA'JA, AZRAQ 31 (PPNB), DHUWEILA (PPNB), AZRAQ 31
5LATE NEOLITHIC), DHUWEILA (LATE NEOLITHIC), J
ILAT 25, JILAT 13, AIN GHAZAL (PPNC + YARMOUKIAN),
ABU HAMID. Unpublished material from AIN MALLAHA, BASTA and AIN GHAZAL (PPNB) was also made available to the
author. Direct examination of ground stone artifacts from these
sites was supplemented by examination of published assemblages.
The classification used here was developed from these sources.
Forthcoming reports by this author on specific Levantine assem
blages employ a slightly briefer version of the typology given here
(e.g. WRIGHT, 1992).
(15) BORDES, 1961; TIXIER, 1963; BAR-YOSEF, 1970.

Ground stone involves diverse raw materials and


there may be relationships between stone and tool
types. Physical properties affecting these patterns
may include hardness, density, brittleness and rough
ness. Some of the most common raw materials used
in Levantine ground stone technology are as fo
llows :
Flint. Flint is hard (Mohs = 7) and brittle with
high compressive strength and low tensile
strength (16). Low resistance to deformation by an
impact, conchoidal fracture and fine texture permit
predictability in flaking. These qualities make flint
disadvantageous for grinding tools, unless the sur
face is roughened via battering. Flint would be best
for pounding tools requiring an edge ("pecking
stones", "choppers").
Basalt. Feldspar basalts are softer than flint
(Mohs = 6) ; flaking is less controlled due to het
erogeneous
texture. Basalt has lower compressive and
higher tensile strength than flint and is more resis
tant to deformation (17). Making vesicular basalt
artifacts with stone tools requires "pics" of denser
materials with greater compressive strength, but they
need not be harder. Nonvesicular basalts have these
qualities (18). Vesicular basalt has a natural, durable
roughness that limits the need for re-pecking after
grinding. Grits are not easily detached and basalt
thus permits long use-lives for grinding tools.
Sandstone. Quartzitic sandstone is hard (Mohs
= 7) and can be flaked (with less control than flint,
as a result of its coarse, heterogeneous texture).
Coarse sandstones erode quickly under abrasion, a
drawback for long-lived grinding tools, since
roughening will be required. Sandstone probably
played a key role in manufacture (abrasion) of
ground stone tools.
Limestone. Limestone is soft (Mohs = 1-3.5)
but not brittle. Flaking is easily accomplished but
edges are quickly dulled. Hard limestone resists
deformation by an impact. These qualities make

FIG. 1. - Techniques in ground stone lithic reduction.


limestone useful for pounding tools, if long-term
durability is not needed. Most limestones are easily
smoothed and require much repecking if used for
grinding.
Granite. Granite is a hard (Mohs = 6-7), porphyritic igneous rock composed largely of silica
quartz and alkali feldspars. Under abrasion, some
granites easily lose surface roughness and would
require repecking if used for grinding tools. Particles
are not easily detached, however, and thus ground
products would remain relatively free of grit.
Quartzite. Quartzite is a hard (Mohs = 7) meta
morphosed
sandstone. Flaking of fine-grained homo
geneous quartzites can be almost as easily controlled
as flint. Coarser quartzites of heterogeneous textures
permit less control in flaking; but the coarseness
may be desirable if the intended use of the tool is
for grinding.
An important determinant of tool forms is the
size of raw material blocks available for tool pro
duction
(19). Variations in the form of an original
nodule or block exerted a strong influence on sizes
and shapes of ground stone tools at certain Levantine
prehistoric sites (20).

TECHNOLOGICAL TERMS

Terms for ground stone reduction follow many


of the definitions used for chipped stone. Where they
are identical, previously published definitions are
cited. Figure 1 illustrates reduction techniques and
the traces they produce on artifacts. The usages in
this study differ slightly from previous ones (21).
The scheme below encompasses a variety of possible
reduction alternatives and is intended to be general
enough to account for the reduction of most artifact
types. Table 1 shows a working scheme for describ
ing
reduction stages. Detailed discussion of ground
stone technology is given elsewhere (22) ; only a
summary of relevant terms is given here.
Nodule = raw material from which reduction begins.
Source Waterworn, riverine ("wadi")
Loose surface boulder
Bedded outcrop (quarried)
Bedrock outcrop (in situ)
(21) RUNNELS, 1981; HERSH, 1981; NIERLE, 1983;
MOUTON, 1984; ROODENBERG, 1986; HAYDEN, 1987.
(22) WRIGHT, 1992.

(19) Cf. TOTH, 1985.


(20) WRIGHT, 1992.
55

TABLE 1
Stages in the reduction of ground stone tools and their products
(adapted from Bar-Yosef 1981a : Fig. 3)
BASIC TECHNOLOGY Selection of Raw Material
Rock type
Basalt Sandstone Granite etc.
Source type...
Bedrock Bedded Surface boulder etc.
Size of block.. Pebble (4-64 mm); Cobble (65-256 mm); Boulder (256+)
Primary Reduction: Initial Preparation and Blank Production
None
Unmodi f ied raw block
Splitting from bedded source. .. .Quarried blank
Flaking
Core, Flake, Debitage
SPECIFIC TECHNOLOGY
Selection of Blanks
Chosen blanks
Discarded blanks
Unprepared (raw blocks)
Prepared
Cores

Flakes

Secondary Reduction/Roughout Debitage


Products
Coarse f laking. .... .Medium flakes
Preform
Pecking
Pecking fragments Preform
Retouch/Thinning
Edge/margin retouch. . Microf lakes
Tools
Pecking
Pecking fragments Tools
Grinding
Drilling
Particles. . . .
Coarse grinding. ....... Particles. . . .
Fine grinding.
Particles. . . .
Incising
Particles. . . .
Finishing
Polishing
Particles
Incising
Particles
Relief Decoration
Particles
Rim/Base finishing
Particles
Tools ("retouched" pieces)
MORPHOLOGICAL
TYPOLOGY
Perforated Tools
Grooved Tools
..Grinding slabs, Handstones. . .
Mortars , Pestles
Axes
Vessels
:
Use
Grinding
:
Pounding
: ... Battering
Chopping . .
Cutting .... :
Chiseling. ... :
.... Polishing
Resharpening = edge rejuvenation, repecking, flaking
Transformation = modification to new tools
Post-depositional fragmentation
,

Outils a posteriori
Pounders
Polishing Pebbles
Worked Pebbles, Cobbles

Size

Pebble = diameter between 4 and 64 mm.


Cobble = diameter between 64 and 256
mm.
Boulder = diameter greater than 256 mm.
Blank = "initial form" = product of primary reduct
ion, prior to thinning and shaping of preform.
Core (23)

Flake (24)
Blade (24)
Unmodified boulder/cobble/pebble = surface no
dule;
no primary reduction.
Flake Morphology
Ventral Surface (25)
(24) TIXIER, 1974 14.
surface"
(25) for
TIXIER,
the side1974
opposite
5. HAYDEN'S
a metate use(1987)
surfaceusage
is notof the
"ventral
same
as that used here. Some ground stone artifacts made on large flakes
exhibit the grinding surface on the ventral side (WRIGHT, 1992).

(23) TIXIER, 1974: 14; HAYDEN, 1987: 26.


56

Dorsal surface (26)


Platform = butt (27)
Bulb of Percussion (28)
Percussion
Direct (29)
Hard-hammer (30)
Primary Reduction = blank production
None = selection of raw nodule for use.
Splitting = quarrying (via wedging and poundi
ng)from bedrock.
Flaking = detachment of flakes either for use as
blanks or as debitage from a core to be used
as a blank.
Secondary Reduction/Roughout = shaping of pre
form (31)
Coarse flaking = removal of medium to large
flakes (ca. 30-200 mm).
Pecking = removal of amorphous pecking frag
ments ("pecking shatter") from a stable tar
get blank, via short percussions directed at
random angles to the blank (see fig. 1).
Retouch/Thinning = preform thinning and final
shaping (32)
Edge/Margin Retouch (33)
Retouch of accomodation(34)
Retouch of shaping (34) = any gracile flaking
which produces small flakes or microflakes
(< 30 mm) in shaping the artifact.
Pecking = as above but more gracile and regular
in spacing.
Grinding = preform abrasion = removal of micro
scopic rock particles.
Drilling = removal of particles via rotary motion
of a pointed object directed at 90 degrees
into a stable target (fig. 1).
Coarse grinding (35) (fig. 1).
Fine grinding (35)
Incising = cutting of narrow grooves (fig. 1).
Finishing = final, nonfunctional surface treatment.
Polishing = production of smooth surface which
reflects light and is visible to the naked eye.
Incising = as above.
Relief decoration = additional grinding on a
non-functional surface to produce decorative
patterns in relief.

Rim or Base finishing = abrasion producing


symmetrical rim or base.
Fire-treatment = any intentional firing of stone.
Use = reduction through use
Grinding = as above.
Pounding = percussion directed through a blunt
surface (fig. 1).
Battering = percussion of a mobile tool with
angular edges blunted by impact against a
stable target. Battering scars are internal
fractures from percussion force directed into
the moving tool. They are usually wedgeshaped and slightly hollow (fig. 1).
Chopping = percussion directed through a sharp
edge at 90 degrees to the target (fig. 1).
Cutting = slicing with cutting edge perpendicul
ar
to the target, along a path parallel to the
cutting edge (fig. 1).
Chiseling = cutting with sharp edge at angle less
than 90 degrees to target along a path per
pendicular
to cutting edge of the tool.
Resharpening = modification of working surface
Edge rejuvenation (36) = resetting an edge on a
cutting tool using the same process as orig
inally.
Repecking = rejuvenation of the roughness of a
grinding surface.
Ridge reduction = marginal flaking to expose
more working surface in an artifact with a
heavily-used concave use surface.
Transformation = modification into new tools (37)
Outils a posteriori = tools made on raw nodules
unmodified by primary or secondary reduc
tion(38)
Core tools = tools made on core blanks.
Flake tools = tools made on flake blanks.
Debitage (39)
Cores
Flakes
Blades
Pecking fragments/"shatter" = byproduct of
pecking
Grits = byproduct of grinding

(26) TIXIER, 1974 : 5. Note that HAYDEN'S (1987) use of


this term to refer to a metate use surface is not the same as that
used here.
(27) TIXIER, 1974 4.
(28) TIXIER, 1974 5.
(29) BORDES, 1968 24f.
(30) BORDES, 1968 24f.
(31) Cf. "estillar;" HAYDEN, 1987: 27.
(32) Cf. "repellar;" HAYDEN, 1987 35.
(33) TIXIER, 1974: 19f.
(34) BORDES, 1969.
(35) Cf. "afnar;" HAYDEN, 1987: 41.

An artifact is placed with the main (or most


heavily worn) use surface either facing up (querns,
handstones, perforated stones, "shaft straighteners")

57

Cf. "afftage;" TIXIER, 1974 22.


TIXIER, 1974 22.
BORDES, 1970 199f. ; JELINEK, 1976 26.
TIXIER, 1974 14.
:

(36)
(37)
(38)
(39)

: : :

: : : :

"ANATOMICAL" TERMS FOR


DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL ARTIFACTS

'

/f

- .*4
tf J

4 . J

(c)

(d)

(b)

FIG. 2. - Anatomical terms for description of selected artifact types.


(b) Mortar
A = Face (Use Surface)
= Sides
= Dorsal Side
FE=DA(a)=Face
Grinding
Transverse
Face
Lateral
End
Longitudinal
Dorsal
(if (Use
bifacial)
Side
SlabSection
Surface)
(ifSection
unifacial)
D = Transverse Section

id) Pestle
A = Face (Use Surface)
= Shaft
= Transverse Section

or facing the observer at 90 degrees from the line


of sight (pestles). Figure 2 shows the anatomy of
several artifact types.
Face (also "active face;" "use surface") = surface(s)
showing use.
Side = surface showing no clear indications of use.
Limits = boundaries of a use surface.
Margins - long lateral sides of an artifact.
Ends = shorter sides of an artifact.
Edge = restricted to the working edges of cutting
tools.
Base = resting side. A true base is only present if
there are traces of intentional shaping to create
a stable resting surface.
Ridge = a rim-like feature bordering a heavily used
surface.

Rim = a true rim is only present if there is symmetry


and finishing.
Shaft = the central part of a cylindrical tool such
as a pestle.
Longitudinal axis = axis of symmetry along longer
dimension.
Transverse axis = perpendicular to longitudinal
axis ; in same plane.
Opposed = faces on opposite sides of artifact, meet
ingnowhere.
Adjacent = faces are adjacent if they meet along
one limit.
Polar = refers to the ends of an elongated artifact
such as a pestle. If the artifact has evidence of
use on only one end, it is called "unipolar;" if
on two ends, "bipolar."

(c) Handstone
A = Face (Use Surface)
= Lateral Side
= End
D = Dorsal Side (if unifacial)
= Face (if bifacial)
E = Longitudinal Section
F = Transverse Section

58

WAF
LAF

RDO

HGT

FIG. 3. - Metric variables used in definitions of artifact classes.


KEY L = Length of artifact ; W = Width of artifact ; T = Thickness of artifact ; MT = Maximum thickness of artifact ; LAF = Length
of use surface; WAF - Width of use surface; dl, d2, d3 = depths of use surface; PD = Perforation diameter; BL = Bit length; EA =
Edge angle; D = Diameter of artifact; HGT = Height from base to rim; RDI = Inner rim diameter; RDO = Outer rim diameter; DPTH
= Depth (vessels) ; BD = Base diameter.
59

VARIABLES

of working surfaces ; and macroscopic wear patterns


of the working surfaces. Metric variables used in
construction of the typology are shown in figure 3.
Of the nominal variables used in the typology, the
most important are the following :

The classification is based on variations in blank


type; artifact shape in plan and section; presence/ab
sence
of secondary reduction, grinding, finishing and
resharpening ; the number, shapes, and distribution
Blank Type
Flake
Flaked Core
Flake or Core
Umodified Boulder/Cobble/Pebble
Indeterminate
Shape of Artifact in Transverse Section
Irregular
Piano-irregular
Plano-convex
Triangular
Wedge
Spherical
Oval
Tapered
Lens
Flat
Shape of Artifact in Plan
Spherical
Discoidal
Ovate
Loaf shaped
Squared
Irregular
Other
Shape of Use Surface in Plan
Subcircular
Oval
Squared
Rectangular
Other

Shape of Use Surface in Transverse Section


Flat
Concave, dished
Concave, U
Concave, V
Convex, arc
Convex, rounded
Convex, beveled
Sinuous
Circular (perforations)
Number of Use Surfaces
Unifacial
Bifacial
Unipolar
Bipolar
Multiracial
Shape of Use Surface in Long Section
Flat
Concave, dished
Concave, U
Concave, V
Convex, arc
Convex, rounded
Convex, beveled
Sinuous
Biconical (perforations)
Cylindrical (perforations)
Relationship of Use Surfaces
Opposed
Adjacent
Superimposed

One variable measures the degree of concavity


or convexity of use surfaces. The rationale is that
concavity and convexity of certain tools would
change with prolonged use (40). To measure curvat
ure, the limits of the use surface were located.
Using a profile gauge, the long cross-section of the
surface was traced onto graph paper. A straight line
from each end of the surface was drawn (= LAF, or
"Length of Active Face"). Perpendiculars were
drawn extending to the use surface (dl, d2, d3)
(fig. 4). For a convex surface, the "depth" measure -

ments dl, d2, and d3 were assigned negative values.


For concave surfaces, dl, d2, and d3 were assigned
positive values. From these, an index of concavity
(CI) was created, such that :
Concavity/ Convexity Index (CI) = dl + d2 + d3
LAF
A surface perfectly flat in section has an index of
zero. When the surface is concave, CI > 0 ; and when
the surface is convex, CI < 0.
A study was made of concavity of use surfaces
from Neolithic sites (41), to determine whether the
variable CI would permit clear distinctions between

(40) Cf. BARTLETT, 1933; VOIGT, 1983 : 247. Microwear


studies may prove promising (ADAMS, 1989). For the moment,
the need is for simpler morphological measures to permit commun
ication of finds.

(41) WRIGHT, 1992.


60

use surfaces. The goal was to refine loose categories


of surface curvature via a simple measurement. The
results were promising and the means and standard

Concave surfaces
CI
(a) Flat
CI
(b) Dished :
(c) V-shaped CI
(d) U-shaped
(shallow) : CI
(e) U-shaped
CI
(deep)

deviations were used to construct the following


classification :
Convex surfaces
(a) Fiat :
(b) Arc-shaped :
(c) Beveled :
(d) Rounded
(gently) :
(e) Rounded
(pronounced)

= 0-0.05
= 0.10-0 .40
= 0.45-0 .75
= 0.80-1 .10
= 1.15-2 .00

CI = 0- [-0.05]
CI = -10.10-0.40]
CI = -[0.45-0.75]
CI = -10.80-1.10]
CI = -[1.15-2.00]

These categories are used in definitions of querns, mortars, handstones and pestles (see below).
TYPE LIST
The following list gives names and numbers of the artifact classes. Nomenclature is discussed in the
definitions. Figures 4 through 12 illustrate most but not all of the types.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Block Quern
Block Grinding Slab
Boulder Quern
Boulder Grinding Slab
Saddle-shaped Quern
Saddle-shaped Grinding Slab
Trough Quern
Pebble Mortar
Bowl Mortar
Boulder Mortar
On flaked/pecked boulder
Hollowed Mortar

24. Bifacial Discoidal/Oval


25.
/Lens
26.
/Tapered
27.
/Planoconvex
28.
/Flat
29.
/Wedged
30.
/Triangular
31.
/Piano-irregular
32. Bifacial Ovate/Oval
33.
/Lens
34.
/Tapered
/Planoconvex
35.
36.
/Flat
37.
/Wedged
38.
/Triangular
39.
/Piano-irregular
40. Bifacial Loaf/Oval
41.
/Lens
42.
/Tapered
43.
/Planoconvex
44.
/Flat

A. Grinding slabs/querns
8. Trough Grinding Slab
9. Basin Quern
10. Basin Grinding Slab
11. Hollowed Quern
12. Hollowed Grinding Slab
13. Fragment
14. Miscellaneous
B. Mortars
20.
21.
22.
23.

Pillar Mortar
Bedrock Mortar
Fragment
Miscellaneous Mortar

C. Handstones
45.
/Wedged
46.
/Triangular
47.
/Piano-irregular
48. Bifacial Rectilinear/Oval
49.
/Lens
50.
/Tapered
51.
/Planoconvex
52.
/Flat
53.
/Wedged
54.
/Triangular
55.
/Piano-irregular
56. Handstone on Flake
57. Bell-shaped Muller
58. Handstone a posteriori
59. Unifacial Discoidal
60. Unifacial Ovate
61. Unifacial Rectilinear
62. Unifacial Loaf
63. Fragment
64. Miscellaneous Handstone
61

65.
66.
67.
68.
69.

Bipolar Cylindrical
Unipolar Cylindrical
Bipolar Conical
Unipolar Conical
Unipolar Knobbed

75. Irregular Core Pounder


76. Spherical/irregular
77. Spheroid
80. Unifacial
81. Bifacial

D. Pestles
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.

Unipolar "Collared"
Soft Mini-pestle
"Figurine" Pestle
Fragment
Miscellaneous Pestle

E. Pounders
78. Cuboid
79. Fragment
F. Polishing pebbles
82. Fragment

G. Worked pebbles and cobbles


83. Ground Cobble/Pebble
86. Flaked Cobble/Pebble
84. Ground Sphere
87. Ochred Cobble/Pebble
85. Pecked Cobble/Pebble
88. Small Slab Abrader
89.
90.
91.
92.
94.
93.

Trapezoidal Axe
Trapezoidal Celt
Ovate Celt
Chisel
Miniature Celt
Ebauchoir

100 Shaft Straishtener


101. Cutmarked Slab
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120
121.
122.
123.
124.

H. Axes and celts


95. Preform
"Knife"
96. Flaked/Ground
"Hoe"
97. Flaked
98. Misc. Flaked Chopper
99. Fragment
I. Grooved stones
102 . Pattern-Incised Pebble
103. Miscellaneous

J. Perforated stones/disks
Counterpoise Weight
109. Loomweight
Perforated Axe-head
110. Macehead
111. "Pendant Palette"
Perforated Post Socket
Perforation on Disk
112. Unperforated Disk
Spindle Whorl
113. Miscellaneous
Platter
"Potlid" Platter
Drill-marked Platter
Globular Bowl
Upright Bowl
V-shaped Bowl
Carinated Bowl
Miniature Vessel
Vase
Fenestrated Vessel
Solid-foot Vessel

135. Quern/Mortar
136. Grinding Slab/Mortar
137. Pestle/Bell Muller

K. Stone vessels
125. Hollow-foot Vessel
126. Tripod Vessel
127. Quadripod Vessel
128. Spouted Vessel
129. Lugged/Handled Vessel
130. Miscellaneous Vessel
131. Rim Fragment
132. Base Fragment
133. Body Fragment
134. Unfinished Vessel
L. Multiple tools
138. "Baguette" Pestle/Handstone
139. Other Pestle/Handstone
140. Miscellaneous
62

M. Debitage
143. Flake
144. Indeterminate Spall

141. Pecked Preform


142. Flake Core

N. Unidentifiable ground stone fragments


145. Possible Handstone/Quern
147. Unknown
146. Possible Vessel
DEFINITIONS OF ARTIFACT CLASSES

applicable. Use surface : as No. 1, but use surface


may extend to edges of the boulder (44).

A. Grinding slabs/querns (fig. 4 : 1-12 b)

No. 4 Boulder Grinding Slab


As No. 3, but use surface rectangular; striae
imply lateral grinding (45).

Lower, stationary stone in a pair of grinding


tools. Most grinding is in a plane parallel to the side
on which artifact rests. Blank : variable. Preform
variable. Use surfaces : broad, long in plan ; concave
or flat in section; may have striae. Heaviest wear
from grinding
slabs"
have rectangular
is at deepest
use part
surfaces
of face.
or wear
"Grinding
striae
indicating lateral grinding in a linear path. "Querns"
have oval use surfaces or wear striae indicating
rotary grinding in an oval path (42). Each type i
ncludes
subtypes (a) unifacial ; (b) bifacial ; (c) multi
racial.

No. 5 Saddle-shaped Quern


Blank : variable. Preform : pecked or flaked on
side opposite use surface. Opposed lateral sides par
allel; has concave/convex ("saddle") shape. Use sur
face oval in plan, "dished" in long section. Surface
extends to sides and ends of blank and is thus
"open." No ridges (46).
No. 6 Saddle-shaped Grinding Slab
As No. 5, but use surface rectangular; striae
imply lateral grinding (47).

No. 1 Block Quern


Blank : unmodified tabular-stone boulder with
naturally stable base. Preform : not applicable. Use
surface : unifacial, oval in plan, dished or U- shaped
in section. Surface is "closed" (surrounded on all
sides) and small relative to blank (length of surface
less than 50 % of length of artifact). No ridges; face
is set into blank without other modification (43).

No. 7 Trough Quern


Blank : core or unmodified boulder. Preform :
flaked or pecked. Use surface : oval in plan, Sshaped in long section, curving downward from
"shelf at high proximal end to an opening at the
thin distal end. Side walls may rise steeply from the
use surface. May have flake scars on lateral ridges,
for reduction of side walls. Surface is thus large
relative to blank, "closed" on three sides, open on
one side. Base usually unstable (48).

No. 2 Block Grinding Slab


As No. 1, but use surface rectangular; striae
indicate lateral grinding.

No. 8 Trough Grinding Slab

No. 3 Boulder Quern


Blank : unmodified irregular boulder, no primary
reduction ; lacks naturally stable base. Preform : not

As No. 7, but use surface rectangular; striae


indicate lateral grinding (49).

63

(44) Cf. DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.7, 6; NIERL, 1983 PI. 6,


71.
(45) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969: fig. 70, a-d; NOY, 1979
fig. 11; NIERL, 1983 PI. 7, 91.
(46) Cf. DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.7, 3,9,11,12,14; NIERL,
1983 PI. 5, 58.
(47) Cf. PERROT, 1966 : fig. 19, 9-10; HOLE et al., 1969
171; fig. 71; NOY, 1979: fig. 10; NIERL, 1983: PL 2, 19;
QADI in GEBEL et al, 1988 fig. 12, 1.
(48) Cf. STEKELIS and YIZRAELY, 1963 fig. 6; NIERL,
1983 PI. 5, 61,62; PI. 6, 71 ; DORRELL, 1983 534f.
(49) Cf. NIERL, 1983 PI. 5, 59.
:

(42) In the literature, terms for grinding slabs and querns are
extremely variable (e.g. "grinding stone" "mette", "meule",
"rpercutant", etc. Although the term "quern" is widely em
ployed
to refer to a rotary handmill such as used since historic
times (HOLE et al, 1969 170; RUNNELS, 1981), there was a
need for a term to distinguish more primitive grinding tools i
nvolving
rotary motion from those involving lateral grinding.
"Quern" was considered acceptable. For French equivalents,
ROUX (1985 45) uses "meule plane" and "meule-rnortier" but
these terms would be misleading in the scheme used here. Conseq
uently, the term "meule" is used here as an equivalent of grin
ding slab (lateral motion) and "moulin" is used as the equivalent
of "quern" (rotary motion). Neither the English "quern" nor the
French "moulin" is entirely satisfactory but these seem to be the
best terms available.
(43) Cf. CLUZAN, 1984 fig. 65, 2; WRIGHT, 1992 fig. 510, a.

64

16

21
FIG. 5. - Artifact types : mortars.
No. 9 Basin Quern

No. 13 Slab/Quern Fragment

Blank : variable. Preform : flaked or pecked on


exterior; modification of ridges. Use surface :
oval/concave, indicates rotary grinding, and is large
relative to the blank (50).

Fragment whose remaining use surface is con


cave; lacks evidence that it is from a vessel (s.v.).
Fragment with flat surface is classed as No. 145.
No. 14 Miscellaneous Grinding Slab/Quern
Grinding slab/quern not meeting any of the
above definitions.

No. 10 Basin Grinding Slab


As No. 9, but use surface rectangular; striae
indicate lateral grinding (51).

B. Mortars (fig. 5 : 15-21)

No. 11 Hollowed Quern

Lower, stationary stone in a pair of tools used


for pounding and "vertical rotary grinding" on side
walls of use surface. Blank : variable. Use surfaces :
subcircular plan, concave in section (dished to Ushaped) ; deepest part is pitted from pounding.
Grinding wear most pronounced on upper use sur
face near the opening. Formally distinct from vessels
(s.v.) (52). Each type includes subtypes (a) unifacial;
(b) bifacial; (c) multiracial.

Any quern with one oval use surface penetrating


the side opposite it.
No. 12 Hollowed Grinding Slab
As No. 11, but use surface rectangular; striae
indicate lateral grinding.

(52) DORRELL (1983 : 521f.) does not make this distinction.


Under "Stone Vessels," his Types H, J, and L would be considered
mortars according to the scheme presented here.

(50) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969 fig. 74, c-d; NOY, 1979 fig. 7NIERL, 1983 PI. 1, 1.
(51) Cf. NIERL, 1983 PL 5, 60.
65

42

40

43
44
45
FIG. 6. - Artifact types : handstones.

46

47

No. 17 Boulder Mortar


Blank : unmodified irregular boulder. Preform
not applicable. No modification except on use sur
face. Use surface : subcircular plan ; variable in sec
tion (55).

No. 18 Mortar on flaked/pecked boulder


Blank : variable (boulder). Preform : reduced by
flaking and/or pecking on the exterior. Use surface :
as No. 17.
No. 19. Hollowed Mortar
Any mortar in which the use surface has pene
trated the base (56).
No. 20 Pillar mortar
Blank : elongated boulder. Preform : flaked or
pecked on exterior. Use surface : set into one end
of boulder; small relative to the blank (57).
No. 21 Bedrock Mortar
Blank : in situ bedrock outcrop. Not to be con
fused with large, heavy boulder mortars. Use sur
face : subcircular in plan; variable in section.

(53) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 7, 9,12; PERROT, 1966:


fig. 16, 11 ; fig. 20, 22; HOLE et ai, 1969 fig. 77, a-b; NOY,
1979 fig. 2; DORRELL, 1983 fig. 226, 1-2 (Types LI, L2).
(54) Cf. DORRELL, 1983 524 (Type HI some of Type LI).
(55) Cf. PERROT, 1966 fig. 10; HOLE et ai, 1969 fig.76,
b,d; NOY, 1979 fig. 3; DORRELL, 1983 524 (Type J; some
of Types LI and L2).

(56) Cf. HOLE et al. 1969 fig. 76, ; DORRELL, 1983


fig. 225, 9.
(57) Cf. EPSTEIN, 1988 fig. 6, 41-3; fig. 7, 46.

No. 15 Pebble Mortar


Blank : variable. Preform : may be flaked or
pecked. Easily held in one hand. Use surface : subcircular in plan; variable in section (53).

: :

No. 16 Bowl Mortar


Blank variable. Preform : flaked or pecked. Ex
terior
lightly pecked but lacks an intentionally f
ashioned
rim or base. Use surface : subcircular in
plan ; U-shaped in section ; large relative to the
blank (54).

66

65

66

67

70

72

FIG. 7. - Artifact types : handstones, pestles.


No. 22 Mortar Fragment

grinding slab/quern if it can be easily manipulated.


Handstones are named by number of faces, plan
shape and transverse section shape (defined by con
vexity,
as discussed above). Plan shape is separated
from transverse shape by a slash (/). Thus "bifacial
discoidal/oval" refers to a handstone with two use
surfaces, discoidal in plan and oval in transverse
section.

Fragment with concave surface indicating


pounding but no finishing suggesting that it is from
a vessel.
No. 23 Miscellaneous Mortar
Mortar not falling any of the above categories.

No. 24 Bifacial Discoidal/ 'Oval

C. Handstones (fig. 6 : 24-47 ; fig. 7 : 48-62)

Blank : variable, often a water-worn stream


cobble. Subcircular tool (see No. 59). Preform :
often pecked. Use surfaces : two opposed surfaces
with rounded transverse sections and rounded
sides (59).

Upper, mobile stone in a pair of grinding


tools (58). Blank : flake, core or unmodified cobble.
Use surfaces : broad, covering large areas of blank;
elongated or constricted in plan; convex or flat in
section ; may have striae. Evidence of pounding is
absent (see Multiple Tools). When such an artifact
has a flat use surface it is distinguished from a

67

(58) Cf. "grinders," "grinding stones," "mullers" "molettes,"


"meules actives," "percutants," etc. (e.g. KIRKBRIDE, 1966; SOLECKI, 1969; DORRELL, 1983; NIERL, 1983; CLUZAN,
1984; ROLLEFSON and SIMMONS, 1988).

: :

(59) For discoidal handstones, cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966 fig. 9,


2-3; PERROT, 1966 fig. 19, 1,4-8; HOLE et al., 1969 fig.78,
a-f; NOY, 1979: fig. 14, b; DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.5, 1,7,8;
fig. 3.6; DORRELL, 1983 537 (Types AI, A2, B) LECHEVALLIER et al., 1989: fig. 4, 10. For ovate handstones, cf. QADI
In GEBEL et al, 1988 fig. 12, 6-7; VOIGT, 1983 251. For
loaf handstones, cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966 fig. 9, 1 ; NIERL,
1983 PI. 4, 27,29. For rectilinear handstones, cf. DAVIS, 1982
fig. 3.5; fig. 3-6, 9.

No. 25 Bifacial Discoidal/Lens


As No. 24 but with use surfaces less convex
(arc-shaped) in section and with straight sides, pro
ducing
lens-shaped transverse section.

No. 38 Bifacial Ovate/Triangular


As No. 32 but opposed faces are flat and
beveled.

No. 26 Bifacial Discoidal/Tapered


As No. 24 but opposed use surfaces meet at the
sides and are more convex. Transverse section thus
has a tapered lenticular section.

As No. 32 but opposed faces are flat and irregul


ar.

No. 39 Bifacial Ovate/Planoirregular

No. 40 Bifacial Loaf/Oval

No. 27 Bifacial Discoidal/Planoconvex


As No. 24 but opposed faces are flat and
rounded and meet at the sides.

Blank : variable. Loaf-shaped (see No. 62). Pre


form : often pecked. Use surfaces two opposed
surfaces with rounded transverse sections; rounded
sides.

No. 28 Bifacial Discoidal/Flat


As No. 24 but both faces are flat and parallel ;
sides are straight.

No. 41 Bifacial Loaf/Lens


As No. 40 but with use surfaces less convex
(i.e. arc-shaped) in section and with straight sides,
producing lens-shaped section.

No. 29 Bifacial Discoidal/Wedged


As No. 28 but opposed faces are not in parallel
planes.

No. 42 Bifacial Loaf/Tapered


As No. 40 but opposed use surfaces meet at the
sides and are more convex. Transverse section thus
has a tapered lenticular section.

No. 30 Bifacial Discoidal/Triangular


As No. 24 but opposed faces are flat and
beveled.

No. 43 Bifacial Loaf/Planoconvex

No. 31 Bifacial Discoidal/Planoirregular


As No. 24 but opposed faces are flat and irregul
ar.

As No. 40 but opposed faces are flat and


rounded and meet at the sides.
No. 44 Bifacial Loaf/Flat
As No. 40 but opposed faces are flat and par
allel ; sides are straight.

No. 32 Bifacial Ovate/Oval


Blank : variable. Ovate tool (see No. 60). Pre
form : often pecked. Use surfaces : two (opposed),
with rounded transverse sections; rounded sides.

No. 45 Bifacial Loaf/Wedged


As No. 44 but opposed faces are not in parallel
planes.

No. 33 Bifacial Ovate/Lens


As No. 32 but with use surfaces less convex
(i.e. arc-shaped) in section and with straight sides,
producing lens-shaped section.

No. 46 Bifacial Loaf/Triangular


As No. 40 but opposed faces are flat and
beveled.

No. 34 Bifacial Ovate/Tapered


As No. 32 but opposed use surfaces meet at the
sides and are more convex. Transverse section thus
has a tapered lenticular section.

No. 47 Bifacial Loaf/Planoirregular

No. 35 Bifacial Ovate/Planoconvex


As No. 32 but opposed faces are flat and
rounded and meet at the sides.

No. 48 Bifacial Rectilinear/Oval

As No. 40 but opposed faces are flat and irregul


ar.

Blank variable. Rectilinear tool (see No. 61).


Preform : flaked or pecked. Use surfaces : two op
posed
surfaces with convex, rounded transverse sec
tions and rounded sides.

No. 36 Bifacial Ovate/Flat


As No. 32 but both faces are flat and parallel;
sides are straight.

No. 49 Bifacial Rectilinear/Lens


As No. 48 but with use surfaces less convex
(i.e. arc-shaped) in section and with straight sides,
producing lens-shaped section.

No. 37 Bifacial Ovate/Wedged


As No. 36 but opposed faces are not in parallel
planes.
68

surfaces one, with variable transverse section


shape.
No. 61 Unifacial Rectilinear Handstone
Blank : variable. Final tool form is square or
rectangular in plan and variable in section. Use sur
faces : one, with variable transverse section.
No. 62 Unifacial Loaf Handstone
Blank : variable. Final form is loaf-shaped
(elongated oval) in plan (L/W = 1.75-2.0 ), variable
in section. Use surfaces : one, with variable trans
verse section shape.
No. 63 Handstone Fragment
A fragment is identified as a handstone if the
ground surface is convex relative to what remains
of the blank. Similar fragments with flat surfaces
are classified as No. 145.
No. 64 Miscellaneous Handstone
Handstone which does not fall into any of the
preceding classes.
:

No. 50 Bifacial Rectilinear/Tapered


As No. 48 but opposed use surfaces meet at the
sides and are more convex. Transverse section thus
has a tapered lenticular section.
No. 51 Bifacial Rectilinear/Planoconvex
As No. 48 but opposed faces are flat and
rounded and meet at the sides.
No. 52 Bifacial Rectilinear/Flat
As No. 48 but opposed faces are flat and par
allel ; sides are straight.
No. 53 Bifacial Rectilinear/Wedged
As No. 52 but opposed faces are not in parallel
planes.
No. 54 Bifacial Rectilinear/Triangular
As No. 48 but opposed faces are flat and
beveled.
No. 55 Bifacial Rectilinear/Planoirregular
As No. 48 but opposed faces are flat and irregul
ar.

D. Pestles (fig. 7 : 65-72)

No. 56 Handstone on Flake


Blank : large flake. Use surface : if unifacial,
located on the ventral surface. If bifacial, the tool
is piano-irregular or planoconvex in transverse sec
tion. May have flaked retouch on sides near use
surface.

(60) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966 fig. 7, 2; HOLE et al. 1969


fig. 79, d-c; DORRELL, 1983 fig. 221, 10. The French equival
ent
is that of CLUZAN, 1984 122 and fig. 76, 2. CLUZAN also
calls this " cne en champignon" (fig. 76 2).

(61) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 7, 4; PERROT, 1966:


fig. 17, 9,13-14; DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.3, 1,5,6; DORRELL,
1983 fig. 226, 10-12 (Types Cl, C2, CX) ; NIERL, 1983 PI. 8,
108,110; LECHEVALLIER et al. 1989 fig. 4, 7.
(62) Cf. PERROT, 1966: fig. 17, 12,17 (?) ; DAVIS, 1982:
fig. 3.4, 1 ; NIERL, 1983 PI. 4, 44,49,50.

No. 57 Bell-Shaped Muller


Blank : variable. Preform is usually pecked ;
bell-shaped in plan and oval or circular in section.
Length/Width ratio (L/W) < 2. Use surface : unifac
ial, with a flat or slightly convex (arc-shaped) use
surface (60). No evidence of pounding (see No. 137).

: :

No. 58 Irregular Handstone a posteriori


Blank : unmodified pebble or cobble of irregular
shape. Use surface : single grinding surface.

No. 59 Unifacial Discoidal Handstone


Blank : variable. Final tool form is subcircular
in plan (L/W = 1 ) and variable in section. Use
surfaces : one, with variable transverse section
shape.
No. 60 Unifacial Ovate Handstone
Blank : variable. Final tool form is ovate in plan
(L/W = 1.5-1.75 ) and variable in section. Use

Upper, mobile stone in a pair of pounding tools.


Blank : core or unmodified cobble. Preform
often pecked to even elongated shape. Use surfaces
constricted in plan and confined to one or more of
the ends of an elongated blank. Use surface : subcircular or slightly oval in plan, sometimes irregular;
convex (arc-shaped), rounded, or flat in section.
There are often flake scars on the sides, with the
negative bulb of percussion near the use surface,
showing the direction of use. Subtypes are defined
by convexity categories (see above) : (a) flat; (b)
arc-shaped; (c) beveled; (d) rounded (gentle); (e)
rounded (pronounced).
No. 65 Bipolar Cylindrical Pestle
Blank : elongated cobble. Preform : reduced by
pecking to an even elongated shape, cylindrical in
plan, subcircular in section. Use surfaces : two faces
on opposing ends bear evidence of pounding, i.e.
battering marks and/or flake scars struck off the
shaft alongside the face. Faces are flat or convex
(arc-shaped or rounded) and of similar diamet
ers
(61).
No. 66 Unipolar Cylindrical Pestle
As No. 65, but only one use surface has evidence
of pounding (62).

69

No. 67 Bipolar Conical Pestle


As No. 65, but plan is conical; use surfaces are
of different diameters (63).

pounding directed into


angles. Easily held in
materials other than
pounders if battering
edges (69).

No. 68 Unipolar Conical Pestle


As No. 67, but only one use surface has evidence
of pounding (64).

No. 75 Irregular Core Pounder


Blank : flint nodule or core. Irregular, angular
polyhedron shape. Battering marks restricted to a
small area (< 25 %) of the blank.

No. 69 Unipolar Knobbed Pestle


Similar to No. 68, but the end lacking evidence
for pounding is shaped into a subspherical knob for
grasping the tool (65).
No. 70 Unipolar "Collared" Pestle
Similar to No. 69, but the "knob" is elongated
and narrower than the lower part of shaft near the
use surface. The effect is of a use surface having a
"band" or "collar" around it (66).

No. 76 Spherical/Irregular
Blank : as No. 75. Battering marks cover be
tween
25 and 90 % of blank, but the tool is not
completely spherical and there are angular edges
remaining.
No. 77 Spheroid
Blank : as No. 75. Battering marks cover 90100 % of the blank and the overall shape is a nearly
perfect sphere.

No. 71 Soft Mini-Pestle


Blank : small elongated cobble of soft stone,
usually cylindrical, not intended for heavy pounding.
Use surfaces : bipolar or unipolar; flat, rounded or
pointed in section (67).
No. 72 "Figurine" Pestle

No. 78 Cuboid
As No. 77 but there are at least 2 flat facets
and the shape is closer to a cube than a sphere. Has
evidence of grinding on the facets.

Any pestle in which either the shaft or proximal


end has been carved or sculpted to an anthropomorp
hic,
zoomorphic or other decorative form (68).

No. 79 Fragment
Any broken flint core or nodule with battering
marks.

No. 73 Pestle Fragment


A fragment with a circular transverse section of
an elongated shaft and/or evidence of pounding at
an end.

F. Polishing pebbles (fig. 8 : 80-81)


Pebble or cobble, often waterworn, with brightly
polished surface(s). Usually flint or quartzite (other
materials occasionally encountered). Use surface :
broad, variable in plan, always slightly convex or
flat in section (70).

No. 74 Miscellaneous Pestle


A pestle which does not fall into the above
categories.

No. 80 Unifacial Polishing Pebble


Blank : as above. Use surface : one.

75-78)

E. Pounders (fig. 8

sharp edges at a variety of


one hand. Battered tools of
flint are only classed as
has dulled irregular sharp

No. 81 Bifacial Polishing Pebble


As No. 80, but two opposed use surfaces.

(63) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 7, 6; PERROT, 1966:


fig. 17, 16; DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.3, 4; DORRELL, 1983:
fig. 226, 8-9 (Types Bl, B2).
(64) Cf. DAVIS, 1982 fig. 3.3, 8; fig. 3.4, 1,5.
(65) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966 fig. 7, 1,3; DORRELL, 1983
fig. 221, 14; fig. 226, 13 (Type Sp).
(66) Cf. NOY, 1979 fig. 14, ; DAVIS, 1982 fig. 3.2, 3-5;
DORRELL, 1983 fig. 221, 12 (Type Sp) ; LECHEVALLIER et
al., 1989 fig. 4, 3.
(67) Cf. DORRELL, 1983 fig. 221, 8 (Type H).
(68) Cf. PERROT, 1966: fig. 17, 4; DORRELL, 1983:
fig. 221, 11 (Type Sp).

(69) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969 fig. 79, a-c,f,g; KOZLOWSKI,


1989
4. Other terms
include
"bolas,"
balls," fig.
"percuteurs,"
"pecking
stones"
and "sling
"hammerstones"
stones," "stone
(e.g.
LEAKEY 1948 48; WOODBURY 1954 86; DORRELL 1983
533; VOIGT, 1983 261). Ethnographic and experimental studies
show that these can be used for pecking ground stone tools
(WOODBURY, 1954: 86; ABBES, 1991). Studies by WILLOUGHBY, 1985 and WRIGHT, 1992 indicate that forms of poun
ders reflect progressive reduction of a battering tool until it is no
longer useful as such. Diameters of tools from Beidha decreased
continuously from irregular to spheroid forms ; cuboids appeared
to be spheroids adapted for use in grinding (WRIGHT, 1992).
(70) Cf. DORRELL, 1983 530; VOIGT, 1983 255.
:

70

Blank : core or angular nodule. Outils a poster


iori, generally flint, with battering fractures. The
latter are small wedge shaped internal fractures from


80
75

76

77

81

78

88

84

85

86

87

FIG. 8. - Artifact types : pounders, polishing stones, worked pebbles and cobbles.
No. 82 Polishing Pebble Fragment

No. 85 Pecked Cobble/Pebble


Cobble with irregular traces of pecking (73).

A fragment whose blank is as above and with


visible traces of polish.

No. 86 Flaked Cobble/Pebble


Cobble with one or two flake scars.

G. Worked pebbles and cobbles (fig. 8 : 84-88)

No. 87 Ochred Cobble/Pebble


Cobble with traces of ochre.

Blank unmodified cobble. These artifacts have


traces of reduction by ad hoc use but with diffuse
use surfaces.

No. 88 Small Slab Abrader


Small, irregular tool of tabular sandstone, with
diffuse ground surface that is generally flat or con
cave ("sandpaper"). Sometimes has ochre (74).

No. 83 Ground Cobble/Pebble


Cobble or pebble with diffuse, irregular ground
surface(s) (71).
No. 84 Ground Sphere

H. Axes and celts (fig. 9)

Cobble ground on all sides to form a nearly


perfect sphere (72).

Tool with a cutting edge, manufactured partly


via abrasion (except Nos. 97-98). Blank : flake,
(73) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969 : 200; fig. 84, e.
(74) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969: 184; DORRELL, 1983: 524
(Type K, under "Stone Vessels"); VOIGT, 1983 251.
:

(71) Cf. VOIGT, 1983 261.


(72) Cf. D0RRELL, 1983 fig. 228, 3.
71

%J

\J

93

97

95
96
FIG. 9. - Artifact types : axes and celts.
blade, or core of any stone other than flint. The
exclusion of flint axes and celts from this typology
is arbitrary. The chief technological difference be
tween
flint and non-flint axes/celts lies in the role
of pecking and grinding/polishing in manufacture.
Pecking is not used for flint celts and grinding is
often limited to the bit (75).
The classification here modifies types defined
by Roodenberg (76). Roodenberg distinguishes
manufacturing striae on the bit (visible to the naked
eye) from use-wear striae (visible at 40x), but it is
not clear that this distinction can be consistently
applied. Resharpening and reuse often obscure usewear traces. Here, the categories of traces on the bit
are all defined as visible to the naked eye. They
include : presence/absence of polishing, grinding,
flake scars and whether flake scars are superimposed
on a polished bit (or vice versa). These may reflect
manufacture, use or resharpening. Roodenberg's
types also incorporate percussion traces on the butt.
Here, these categories include flaking and pecking.

No. 89 Trapezoidal Axe

Blank : variable. Robust elongated axe (L/W >


2) ; trapezoidal in plan ; oval or rectangular in trans
verse section. Butt : pecked or flaked. Bit : unifacially or bifacially ground and polished. Bit length
equal to maximum width (i.e. tool is widest at the
bit). Retouch : if present, flake scars generally semisteep and squamous ; may be either "under" the
ground/polished surface (scars dulled by edge grind
ing); or superimposed on a ground edge (flaking
rejuvenation). Edge angle generally greater than
75o(77).
No. 90 Trapezoidal Celt
Blank : variable. Size medium to small, shape
trapezoidal. Smaller than No. 89 ; L/W < 2. Butt :
traces of pecking or flaking. Bit : unifacially or
bifacially ground and polished; symmetrical or
asymmetrical in section. Bit length equal to max
imum width of tool. Retouch : as No. 89. Edge angle :

(75) Thus, terminology used here differs from that of M0RTENSEN, 1970.
(76) ROODENBERG, 1986.
72

(77) HOLE et al, 1969 fig. 82, a; CLUZAN, 1984 fig.


2; fig. 69, 3; ROODENBERG, 1986: fig.55, 1 ("hache").

No. 96 Flaked/Ground "Knife"


Elongated (L/W > 2) non-flint tool ground on
sides but flaked along the long lateral edges. No
evidence of polishing or grinding on the edges (84).
No. 97 Flaked "Hoe"
Blank : non-flint flake or thin core. Thin, pearshaped tool with flaking around widest end forming
a cutting edge and sometimes with a groove at the
narrow end (85).

ca. 40-70 if resharpening has not been exten


sive(78).
No. 91 Ovate Celt
Blank : variable. Thick, ovate tool with lower
L/W ratio than Nos. 89-90. Butt : traces of percuss
ion.Bit : unifacially or bifacially ground or pol
ished.
Bit length less than maximum width of the
tool (i.e. tool is widest at a point between the butt
and the bit). Retouch : as in No. 89. Edge angle :
70-85, if resharpening has not been extensive (79).

No. 98 Miscellaneous Flaked Chopper


Any robust chopping tool with an irregular
flaked bit but no evidence of grinding or polishing.
Includes pebble choppers (86).
No. 99 Axe/Celt Fragment
Fragment with a flaked, ground or polished edge
and/or a butt fragment.

No. 92 Chisel
Blank : thick blade. Elongated, with parallel lat
eral sides and oval or triangular transverse section.
L/W ratio > 2. Butt : percussion traces. Bit : unifa
cially or bifacially ground/polished; symmetrical or
asymmetrical in section. Bit length less than or equal
to maximum width of tool. Retouch : as No. 89.
Edge angle : 60-75 if resharpening has not been
extensive (80).
No. 93 Ebauchoir
Blank thick blade. Similar to No. 92, but thin
ner and without percussion on butt. May be facetted
on shaft. L/W ratio > 2. Butt : no percussion traces.
Bit : narrow, thin, bifacially ground and polished ;
symmetrical or asymmetrical in section. Bit length
less than or equal to maximum width of tool. Edge
angle : less than 60 (81).

2.

: :

b.)
(86) Cf. PERROT, 1966 fig. 20, 21,23 ; HOLE et al., 1969
fig. 80; CLUZAN, 1984: fig. 71, 3; LECHEVALLIER et al.,
1989 fig. 4, 6.
(87) Cf. PERROT, 1966 fig. 20, 3-12; HOLE et al., 1969
fig. 83, a-f; DORRELL, 1983 fig. 222, 1-11.
(88) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969: 192; DORRELL, 1983:
fig. 222, 17; fig. 226, 17; NOY, 1989: fig. 4, 1.
(89) Cf. PERROT, 1951 : 172f. ; PERROT, 1966 fig. 21, 15
HOLE et al. 1969 : fig. 86; VOIGT, 1983 : fig. 118 ("stamps");
CLUZAN, 1984 fig. 73-75.

(84) HOLE et al., 1969 fig. 83, i; DAVIS, 1982 fig. 3.5,
(85) Cf. "chipped stone hoes" (HOLE et al, 1969, fig. 81,

73

: :

(78) Cf. "herminette" ; ROODENBERG, 1986: 108f. and


fig. 59; see variants In: KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 10, 5; HOLE
et ai, 1969 fig. 82, b-c ; DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.8, 11-12; DORRELL, 1983 fig. 221, 10; fig. 228, 26; VOIGT, 1983 fig. 11 7,
f; NOY, 1989 fig. 4, 4.
(79) Cf. "cogne"; ROODENBERG, 1986 fig. 56-7; KIRK
BRIDE, 1966: fig. 10, 6-8; DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.9, 4-6; DORRELL, 1983: fig. 221, 15,19; VOIGT, 1983: fig. 117, g. (80)
DAVIS, 1982 fig. 3.9, 8,10 (?) ; ROODENBERG, 1986 fig. 54,
1-3.
(81) HOLE et al, 1969 fig. 84, ; ROODENBERG, 1986
104 and fig. 54, 4-6; DORRELL, 1983 : fig. 221, 16.
(82) KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 10, 2-4; DAVIS, 1982:
fig. 3.8, 1-6; DORRELL, 1983: fig. 221, 17; ROODENBERG,
1986: fig. 58, 1-4 ("hachette").
(83) Cf. CLUZAN, 1984 fig. 67, 1 ; fig. 70, 3.

No. 102 Patterned-Incised Pebble/Cobble


Any pebble or cobble with patterned incisions
(parallel, crossed, other) but lacks other use surfaces.
Excludes anthropomorphic or animal figurines (89).

No. 95 Axe/Celt Preform


Axe or celt which lacks an edge or is otherwise
unfinished. Distinguished from dulled axes by ab
sence
of any tapering from the butt to the opposite
end; and from small pestles by the preparation of
the butt and the asymmetrical (non-circular) distal
end (83).

No. 94 Miniature Celt


Any celt of which length is less than 70 mm.
May have traces indicating that it is a long-used,
resharpened stage of a once-larger celt (82).

Any tool with a groove, i.e. a concave use sur


face over 3 times longer than it is wide; lenticular
in plan; V- or U-shaped in transverse section.
No. 100 Shaft Straightener
Blank variable. Use surface : long relative to
width and depth; lenticular in plan; flat, convex, or
concave in long section; dished or U- shaped in
transverse section. Width of groove rarely exceeds
15 mm. Interior of surface often highly polished
through use; may have traces of residue (87).
No. 101 Cutmarked Slab
Any stone with a long, narrow cut mark, len
ticular
in plan, always sharply angled V shape in
transverse section (cf. "slicing slabs") (88).
:

I. Grooved stones (fig. 10: 100-102)

102
100

101

104

105.,f~ -v. ,*T

106

QD
107

108

109

111

11 2

110
FIG. 10. - Artifact types : grooved and perforated stones.
No. 103 Miscellaneous Grooved Stone
Any grooved or incised stone not falling into
the above categories (90)

single large off-center perforation set into the nar


rower end of the blank. Has no cutting edge (91).
No. 105 Perforated Axe-head
Flaked and/or pecked cobble with single large
off-center perforation and a ground cutting edge at
the end opposite the perforation (92).
No. 106 Perforated Post-Socket
Blank : cobble or boulder, unmodified or
flaked/pecked into subcircular preform. Perforation
set into center of blank and is large relative to the
blank. Perforation diameter suggests "posthole" but
functions may vary (93).

J. Perforated stones (fig. 10: 104-112)


Characterized by a perforation (which connects
two sides of an artifact), or drill marks (which do
not fully penetrate opposing sides). Perforation is
always subcircular or circular in plan and biconical
or cylindrical in section. (Note : beads and pendants
are excluded.).
No. 104 Counterpoise Weight
Blank : large pebble or cobble, generally pecked
and ground to symmetrical shape. Use surface : a

(90) Includes grooved or notched "waisted" pebbles (cf.


"poids pche", PERROT, 1966 fig. 20, 1-4.)
74

(91) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966 fig. 9, 5-6; FROST, 1984 125


and fig. 11.
(92) Cf. MALLON et ai, 1934: fig. 25; PERROT et al.,
1967: fig. 14,5; CAUVIN, 1963 fig. 11.
(93) HOLE et ai, 1969 fig. 85, d.

No. 107 Perforation on Disk

K. Stone vessels (fig. 11)

Blank : cobble or pebble, flaked/pecked to discoidal shape but irregular in thickness from one end
to another. Small perforation or drill mark, may be
central or off-center (94).

Vessels must have (1) a well-defined, uniform


rim; (2) a well-defined base; (3) a continuous ex
terior
surface ; (4) consistent (or gradually changing)
thickness of walls ; (5) exterior finishing. A vessel
fragment must have a definite rim or base, or walls
of continuously changing thickness and exterior fin
ishing.
Classifications are based on relationships be
tween
vessel height (HGT), outer rim diameter
(RDO), inner rim diameter (RDI), depth (DPTH) and
the openness of the walls (see figure 4 for definitions
of metric variables). These are considered to reflect
lithic reduction and possible ranges of function.
Each vessel category may exist in (a) "fine wares"
(maximum wall thickness < 20 mm) or (b) "coarse
wares" (maximum wall thickness > 20 mm). These
can be refined for specific assemblages (100).

No. 108 Spindle Whorl


Blank : pebble, ground to small (ca. 30-60 mm
diameter) discoidal preform and even in thickness
(about 5-15 mm). Perforation always centrally
placed. May be incomplete and have two opposed
drill marks. A "preform" for a spindle whorl has the
same size and shape characteristics but neither per
foration
nor drill marks (see No. 112) (95).
No. 109 Loomweight
Blank : pebble or small cobble. Preform : pecked
and ground to symmetrical biconical or spherical
shape. Perforation always centrally placed. Artifact
size usually 40-80 mm diameter; perforation about
15-25 mm diameter. No stress breaks at perforation
openings (see No. 110). Some of these artifacts may
have actually functioned as spindle whorls (96).

No. 114 Platter


Shallow vessel with large ratio of outer rim
diameter to height (RDO/HGT > 3) and large ratio
of inner rim diameter to depth (RDI/DPTH > 3).
Base flat or rounded; walls splayed or upright. Size
variable, but RDI exceeds 100 mm. Variants may
include (i) oval platters with convex walls ; (ii) oval
platters with upright walls ; (iii) rectangular platters
with convex walls ; (iv) rectangular platters with
upright walls, etc (101).

No. 110 Macehead


Similiar to No. 109 but often piriform, wider at
one end than the other; usually polished; stress
breaks at one perforation opening (97).

No. 115 "Potlid" Platter


Vessel with large ratio of outer rim diameter to
height (RDO/HGT > 3) and little or no depth, i.e.
a circular or rectilinear slab with only a slight de
pres ion.
Base is flat and sides upright or slightly
convex (102).

No. Ill Perforated "Pendant Palette"


Perforation on one end of an elongated blank
finely ground to rectangular plan shape and of even
thickness (about 10-15 mm) across the entire arti
fact. Generally rectangular in long and transverse
sections (98).

(100) Stone vessel typologies vary significantly. For a detai


ledreview, see WRIGHT, 1992. Most typologies are based on a
mixture of criteria, e.g. profile shape, base shape, artifact size
(ADAMS, 1983; DORRELL, 1983; MOUTON, 1984; ROODENBERG, 1986; EPSTEIN, 1988), but employ different definitions
and terminology. This is because they are in reality groupings of
artifacts from one or two sites, instead of true classifications
(DUNNELL, 1972). The classification given here is intentionally
general and does not attempt to be comprehensive for all varia
tions. Many artifacts called mortars in the literature are more ac
curately
described as vessel-mortars, since they exhibit fine
finishing, rims and bases, and continuous or gradually changing
wall thickness. Many Kebaran through Natufian artifacts found in
archaeological association with pestles, or with other evidence
suggesting their use as mortars, should be classified as such. Here,
these artifacts would be classified according to the vessel typo
logy, but with the name "vessel-mortar." For example PERROT,
1966 fig. 15, 14; fig. 16, 1 (No. 124, Solid-foot Vessel-Mortar);
RONEN et al, 1975 fig. 9 (No. 119, V-shaped Bowl-Mortar).
Note that the more general category of "bowl mortars" (No. 16)
refers to small mortars lacking fine finishing, rims, bases and
continuous or gradually changing wall thickness.
(101) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 7, 8; PERROT, 1966:
fig. 16, 13; DORRELL, 1983 fig. 224, 1-12; MOUTON, 1984 :
fig. 57, 1-4; fig. 59; ROODENBERG, 1986: fig. 77, 7-9;
fig. 81, 1-7; NOY, 1989 fig. 4, 6.
(102) Cf. MOUTON, 1984: fig. 62, 1.

No. 112 Unperforated Disk


Any small subcircular object without perfor
ation. May often be preforms for spindle whorls, if
diameter is less than about 70 mm and if thickness
is even across the artifact (99).
No. 113 Miscellaneous Perforated Stone

Any perforated or drilled stone not of the above


categories.

: :

(94) Cf. PERROT, 1966 fig. 20, 18-20; DORRELL, 1983


fig. 227, 2-4; CLUZAN, 1984 fig. 71:5.
(95) Cf. HOLE et a/., 1969 fig. 85, e-f.
(96) Cf. VOIGT 1983 fig. 177, h.
(97) Cf. DOLLFUS et al. 1988 P1.3, 1-2.
(98) Cf. KIRKBRIDE, 1966: fig. 9, 4,8,9; DAVIS, 1982:
fig. 3.16, 1-2; DORRELL, 1983 fig. 230, 12-13.
(99) Cf. DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.13, 12-13; DORRELL, 1983:
fig. 228, 4.

75

115

114

117
1 21

119

1 22

1 24

1 25

1 23

1 26
FIG. 11. - Artifact types : stone vessels.

No. 116 Drill-marked Platter

No. 119 V-shaped Bowl


Open bowl (RDO/HGT < 3) with flat base and
walls flaring outward toward rim. Outer rim
diameter exceeds base diameter. Rims tapered or
rounded ; walls thin relative to base. Generally deep
(HGT/DPTH < 2) (106).

Any platter with a central drill-mark (103).


No. 117 Globular Bowl
A bowl is any vessel in which 1 < RDO/HGT
< 3. Exterior walls convex; rim varies. Outer rim
diameter less than the maximum width of vessel.
Base flat or rounded (104).

No. 120 Carinated Bowl


Any bowl
shoulder (107).

with

carinated

wall

or

Bowl in which the outer rim diameter, the base


diameter and maximum diameter are approximately
equal (RDO = BD = W) (105).

Any vessel with rim diameter less than 100 mm


and height less than or equal to 100 mm. Varieties
may include any of the other types listed.

(103) Cf. PERROT, 1966: fig. 18.


(104) Cf. DORRELL, 1983: fig. 224, 13-14; MOUTON,
1984 fig. 60, 1-5; ROODENBERG, 1986 fig. 73, 1-13; fig. 74,
1-7; fig. 78, 4-7.
(105) Cf. ROODENBERG, 1986: fig. 77, 3-5; MOUTON,
1984 fig. 61 1.

(106) Cf. HENNESSY, 1969 fig. 12, 1-2; EPSTEIN, 1978


fig.3, b; DOLLFUS et al. 1988 PI. 3, 4.
(107) Cf. ROODENBERG, 1986 fig. 80, 9.
:

: :

No. 121 Miniature Vessel

No. 118 Upright Bowl

76

1 37
135

136

1 38

141

142

1 43

FIG. 12. - Artifact types : multiple tools, debitage.


No. 125 Hollow-foot Vessel
Any vessel resting on a foot which has been
hollowed out; similar to a fenestrated foot but with
out"windows" or legs.

(108) Cf. MALLON et al. 1934 PI. 33, 2; PERROT et ai,


1967 fig. 13, 1-2; EPSTEIN, 1978 fig. 13, a.
(109) WRIGHT, 1992: fig. 5-63c.

(110) Cf. ROODENBERG, 1986 fig. 75, fig. 76, fig. 79.
(111) Cf. MOUTON, 1984: fig. 58, 5-9,11,16
(112) Cf. MOUTON, 1984: fig. 58, 10.

No. 126 Tripod Vessel


Vessel resting on a stand of three legs.
No. 127 Quadripod Vessel
Vessel resting on a stand of four legs (110).
No. 128 Spouted Vessel
Vessel with any kind of spout (111).

No. 129 Lugged/Handled Vessel


Vessel having any kind of lug or handle (112).

: :

No. 122 Vase


Open form in which the ratio of outer rim
diameter to height is less than 1 (RDO/HGT < 1).
Generally deep (RDI/DPTH < 3, HGT/DPTH < 2).
Walls straight or flared, base is variable.
No. 123 Fenestrated Vessel
Any vessel on a stand of three or more legs
which terminate in a ring- shaped pedestal ; the stand
thus forms small "windows." The pedestal is a true
ring (not to be confused with a ring base) (108).
No. 124 Solid-foot Vessel
Any vessel resting on a solid pedestal. Pedestal
walls may be straight or flared. Base may be flat,
concave, or a ring base (109).

77

No. 130 Miscellaneous Vessel


tegories

No. 140 Miscellaneous Multiple Tool


Any multiple tool not falling into the above
categories.

A vessel not falling into any of the above ca


(113).

No. 131 Rim Fragment

M. Debitage (fig. 12: 140-142)

Any fragment clearly belonging to a rim.

Vessel with partially-obliterated traces of manuf


acture.

No. 141 Pecked Preform


Nodule pecked to symmetrical shape suggesting
preform of a tool. Identification depends on manuf
acture patterns observed in an assemblage.
No. 142 Flake Core
Nodule with at least three flake scars. Includes
cores from which primary flakes were detached to
serve as blanks; and blanks for "core tools".
No. 143 Flake (111)
No. 144 Miscellaneous Indeterminate Spalls
Spalls that may be flakes but do not retain bulbs
or platforms.

L. Multiple tools (fig. 12

N. Unidentifiable ground stone fragments

No. 132 Base Fragment


Any fragment of a base or foot.
No. 133 Body Fragment
Fragment exhibiting continuous change in wall
thickness and exterior finishing, but not clearly part
of a rim or base.

No. 134 Unfinished Vessel

135-138)

No. 145 Possible Handstone/Grinding Slab


Fragment with flat ground surface from handstone or grinding slab.

Any artifacts falling into more than one of the


above categories.
No. 135 Quern/Mortar
Any quern with mortar surface set into grinding
surface (114).
No. 136 Grinding Slab/Mortar
Any grinding slab with mortar surface set into
grinding surface (115).
No. 137 Pestle/Bell Muller
As No. 57 but with flake scars on shaft near
grinding surface (116).
No. 138 "Baguette" Pestle/Handstone
Elongated (L/W > 3) rectangular cobble ground
on all sides ; subrectangular or oval transverse sec
tion. Use surfaces diffuse.
No. 139 Other Pestle/Handstone
Any combination of the other categories of
pestle and handstone.

No. 146 Possible Vessel


Fragment suggesting a vessel but too small to
determine finishing.
No. 147 Unknown
Unidentifiable ground stone fragment (UGSF).
CONCLUSION
Ground stone artifacts are an underused source
of information about technology, subsistence and
social relationships in the prehistoric Levant. It is
hoped that the foregoing will encourage better, more
consistent descriptions of ground stone artifacts, es
pecial y
in preliminary site reports. It is also hoped
that excavators will preserve such artifacts without
washing them (since residue studies may prove suc
cessful
in determining tool functions) (118) and that
possible debitage (e.g. non-flint flakes and nodules)
will be conserved when encountered in archaeologic
al
deposits.

(113) For this classification, it was considered preferable to


keep vessel categories simple. Thus, the "miscellaneous" category
here includes types that can be added as separate categories for
specific assemblages.
(114) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969: 176, fig. 75; NOY, 1979:
fig. 6; NIERL, 1983 fig. 11, 76,95; PL 6, 76; PI. 7, 95. Va
riants may include saddle-shaped, basin, etc.
(115) Cf. HOLE et al, 1969: 176, fig. 77; NOY, 1979:
fig. 9; NIERL, 1983 PI. 2, 23,24. Variants may include sad
dle-shaped,
basin, etc.
(116) cf.. DAVIS, 1982: fig. 3.2, 1; GORING-MORRIS,
1987 : 328 ;isWRIGHT,
"broyeur"
reserved for
1992multiple
fig. 5-25.
tool Note
handstone/pestles.
that the French term
:

(117) TIXIER, 1974 14.


(118) JONES, 1990.
78

1969

For discussions about earlier versions of this paper, I


thank the following colleagues (none of whom bears any
responsibility for flaws in this version) Daniela Burroni,
Brian Byrd, Genevive Dollfus, Randy Donahue, Andrew
Garrard, Frank Hole, Nabil Qadi and the anonymous re
viewers.
Katherine WRIGHT
Institute of Archaeology, University College London
31-34 Gordon Square, London WC1H OPY

1970

Reflections on typology and techniques in the Pale


olithic. Arctic Anthropology 6, 1 1-29.
Rflexions sur l'outil au Palolithique. Compte
Rendu des Sances Mensuelles de la Socit Pr
historique
Franaise 1 199-202.
:

Acknowledgements

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1989
Methods for improving ground stone artifacts ana
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AMICK D. and MAULDIN R. (eds), Experiments
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ADAMS R. MCC.
1983
The Jarmo stone and pottery vessel industries. In
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of Chicago Press.
BANKS K.
1980
The grinding implements of Wadi Kubbaniya. In
WENDORF F. and SCHILD R. (eds), Loaves and
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BARTLETT K.
1933
Pueblo milling stones of the Flagstaff region and
their relation to others in the Southwest. Bulletin of
the Museum of Northern Arizona 3.
BAR-YOSEF O.
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