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Sanitation and

Nutritional Grading of
Food Establishments in
UP Diliman
11.26.2015

FSN & Biology Student Researchers Association


University of the Philippines - Diliman
Diliman, Quezon City
Philippines

Table of Contents
Executive Summary

Introduction

Background

Proposed Plan

Proposed System for Workplace Sanitation

Proposed System for Nutritional Grade

Necessity, benefits, practicability

Scope and Limitation

11

Staffing

12

Budget

13

Authorization

14

References

15

Appendix

16

Executive Summary

Based on a previous survey of select food establishments in Area 2 and Shopping Center, both
considered popular and conveniently located spots for students to get their food, our group was made aware
of the nutritional value of food in such establishments as well as their sanitation practices. Since most
students lack the expertise to assess them themselves, we propose a grading system of nutrition and
sanitation to evaluate food establishments on campus to inform students of the general quality of what
theyre buying. This is a proposal requiring minimum funds and manpower but with the great benefit of
hopefully improving the health of students, preventing infection by food-related pathogens, and making
food establishments compete with other.

Introduction
It is well known that students and faculty of the University of the Philippines, Diliman have hectic
schedules, and as such, the convenience of having nearby food shops is nearly a necessity. Thus, a number
of canteens and food stalls are present near every college building in the campus. Asides from that, there
are also food shops established in the residential areas such as the ones in Area 2, an entire street with
various

food

shops.

Students are limited to the proximity of the food shop and the taste of their products as the only
parameters for selecting which food shop they are going into. This is often because they do not have the
time to fully assess the nutritional value or lack the experience and knowhow to judge the sanitary practices
of these food shops.
Considering that students are incapable of assessing the sanitary practices and the nutritional value
of food served in food business establishments, it is due time that an accessible system of grading the quality
of food sanitation and nutrition of food establishments around the campus is put in place, for the benefit of
the students and for the entire community as well.

Background
Nutrition is undoubtedly a very important part of life that we must all consider and prioritise. It is
through the food that we eat that we get the nutrients that we require to sustain ourselves in our daily lives.
Among all the nutrients that we have to consider, the macronutrients namely protein, fat, and carbohydrates
warrant the highest priority. These three macronutrients are the basis for the caloric expenditure and
distribution when planning diets. The United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database
is the widest, most accessible, and most frequently updated online database that can be used to determine
the nutritional content of the food that we eat. The basis of the computation of calorie content is based on
atwater factors, which analyse nutritional content through calorimetry. The gross energy is equal to the sum
of the combustion energy formed by protein, fat, and carbohydrates. (USDA, 2015).

Certain stages of the human life cycle have varying nutritional needs, with the adolescents and
young adults of UP Diliman requiring a higher intake of protein to support physiological growth and
development. Older adults and elderly individuals, on the other hand, should have a limited intake of protein
because any excessive intake of protein can lead to urinary calcium excretion. That, in turn, would lead to
more fragile bones due to lack of calcium in the body for bone remineralisation. In that instance, these age
groups should attain more of their daily caloric intake through carbohydrates and fat, with more emphasis
on carbohydrates due to the fact that excessive fat may lead to a vast array of lifestyle diseases. In order to
prevent these diseases, the fat provided to the older part of the population should be composed of
unsaturated fats and medium-chain fatty acids for ease of digestion and absence of factors that can lead to
clotting of blood vessels from cholesterol and other undesirable products from fat (Worthington-Roberts &
Williams, 2000).
During an initial survey of Area 2 and the Shopping Center, three establishments were chosen at
random to check the nutritional value of their most popular food item in terms of macronutrient content.
This nutritional value was then related to the cost of the item to provide a value of how much nutrition one
peso gets you. Their sanitary practices were compared with the guidelines for food safety set by the United
States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (2013). As a standard in terms of
nutrition and sanitation, the Tea Room of the College of Home Economics was also surveyed.
The results (summarized in Appendix Figures 1 to 4) show that in terms of nutrition, the meal
closest to the ideal ratio of macronutrients while fulfilling enough of a persons daily protein requirement
is the Endless Summer Cafe garlic chicken. The sanitary practices of the Area 2 and Shopping Center
establishments were alarmingly subpar, particularly with storage of the food and with the separation of the
work area. The findings of this initial survey alerted us to how important it is for students and general
customers to be informed. Thus, we propose a grading system mirroring our initial survey.

Proposed Plan
Proposed System for Workplace Sanitation
Most food establishment owners do not pay much attention to the sanitation of their food products.
Their focus is mainly on the quality of the menu, particularly the appearance and the flavor of the food. But
the nutrition of the food and general sanitation of the establishment is just as important as the end product.
To ensure the safety of the food served to the students, a system for workplace sanitation has been made.
The food establishments inside UP Diliman campus will be evaluated by a group of people. A grade
will be given to each establishment depending on their implementation of the standard sanitary practices.
Below is the guideline that can be used in evaluation the workplace environment of each establishment:
I. Attire (3 points)
a.

Are all the kitchen employees in their proper attire?

i.

Hairnet / Cap

ii.

Apron

iii.

Shirt with sleeves (ideally Chefs jacket)

iv.

Pants

v.

Closed shoes
II. General Cleanliness of the Workplace (5 points)
a.

i.

Sink
Is the sink cleaned on a regular basis?

b.

Floor

Is their floor flooded?

i.

Are the spillages mopped immediately?

ii.

Are there any broken flooring that can be infested by pests?


c.

Kitchen Equipment

Do they clean (at least wipe) their kitchen equipments daily?

i.

Are these equipment exposed to animals/insects?


d.

Storage Area
Are their storage area exposed to animals/pests? Outside pollution?

i.

Do they regularly check for spoiled ingredients?

ii.

Do they regularly clean their storage area? Do they throw out spoiled ingredients immediately?
e.

Presence of Animals and Insects

Are cats/dogs allowed to enter the kitchen/cooking area?

i.

Are there pests inside the establishment?


III. Garbage Disposal (2 points)
a.

Are there garbage cans available inside the kitchen?

b.

Do they practice segregation of biodegradables and non-biodegradables?

c.

Are their garbage cans covered?


There are corresponding points for the main concerns. 3 points will be given for following the

standard kitchen attire; 5 points for General Cleanliness; Lastly, 2 points for garbage disposal. Every
violation of the standard sanitary practices will have a deduction. The grade of the establishment will
depend on the points they accumulate based on the evaluation conducted. Higher number of points equates
to a higher rating of workplace sanitation.
Each establishment will be tagged and assigned stars depending on the points they have during
the evaluation.
9-10 points

7-8 points

5-6 points

3-4 points

1-2 points

Figure 1. The grading scheme for food sanitation.


Proposed System for Nutritional Grade
The nutritional aspect of the different meals provided by the food stalls around UP also plays a very
important role because it may influence the food preferences and selection of the students, teachers, staff,
and other members of the University of the Philippines Diliman community. Therefore, a proposed tagging

system

has

also

been

made.

The tagging system that was devised for nutritional quality is similar to the one used for workplace
sanitation. It will use the same design and levels of quality used. This is to help the buying public know
that the two systems are a joint effort to improve the quality of food overall in the campus. However, the
nutritional tagging system still differs from the sanitation tagging system in certain key aspects. For one,
the tagging for nutritional quality will be done per dish offered by the food establishment, instead of having
only one grade for the whole stall. This is to ensure that consumers will be informed and be able to pick not
only the food stalls that offer nutritious meals, but also select the meals that possess the optimal nutritional
quality.
Nutritional quality of meals can be assessed and ranked based on the energy they provide for the
macronutrients, namely, protein, fat, and carbohydrates. In an ideal scenario, a meal should provide energy
with a division of 15% protein, 20% fat, and 65% carbohydrates. In addition to that, the meal should provide
around 30% of the daily protein requirement for it to be considered adequate for providing nutrients as one
of the main meals. Meals that match these requirements for distribution of kilocalories and the 30% daily
protein protein requirement are given full ratings for nutritional quality. Meals that do not meet the 30%
daily requirement of protein, whether lacking or exceeding but fulfil the percent distribution for
macronutrients will be given one rating lower than the full rating. Lastly, meals that do not fulfil both
conditions will be given the lowest rating.

Necessity, benefits, practicability


The group strongly believes that this is necessary because it can help improve the overall health of
the University of the Philippines Diliman community and at the same time, keep them safe through
prevention of any possible food borne illnesses. Having meals that meet our nutritional requirements is
necessary because it is what will provide us the nutrients that would enable us to function properly and
perform our tasks adequately in daily life. Any possible lack of nutrients would be detrimental to our health.

Protein deficiency would deprive people of opportunities for growth and development, which is of utmost
importance especially for the students who still have opportunities to reach their full growth potential. On
the other hand, excess fat would lead to increased disposition to various cardiovascular diseases such as
coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarctions, and many more. Consumption of meals
with reasonable levels of fat provide us a fair chance of avoiding the development of such diseases. In terms
of workplace sanitation, our health can also be protected because it enables the staff of the food
establishments to operate in an environment that is free from pathogenic strains of microorganisms such as
Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus
(Gropper and Groff, 2005). By law, information about food should be available to consumers anyway
(Republic

Act

10611

Article

III

Section

5).

When the human body is provided with adequate nutrients and pathogen-free meals, several
benefits can be attained. Individuals are able to live healthier lives wherein they can be more productive in
the workplace or school environment. We are now also able to avoid times of sickness and possible absences
and failure to do what is asked of us in our tasks and requirements. In a financial perspective, consumers
can now spend their money on foods that are of better value in terms of overall quality. The food
establishments that attain high ranks for sanitation and nutritional quality may also gain profit from it
because more health-conscious people would be enticed to go to their stall and buy their meals. Such a
change would also challenge other food stalls to provide cleaner and healthier options to make sure that
they remain competitive amongst all the selections found in the campus.
The proposal is considered practical because it requires minimal funds. Also, minimal skills are
required for the assessment of sanitation and nutritional quality because the criteria for assessment are
already constructed from various references that can also be found online.
Scope and Limitation
This proposal only seeks to inform potential customers of the quality they should expect from the
various food establishments in the campus. It does not aim to change the quality of food or forcibly improve

the practices of the establishments. That type of change has to be initiated by the proprietors. Nutritionwise, this proposal focuses on the macronutrients, namely, protein, carbohydrates, and fat; vitamins and
minerals are not considered because these may vary wildly, requiring case-specific technical analyses.
This proposal also only handles establishments willing to participate in the program.
Establishments that are not registered by the UP Campus will not be included because they are not being
regulated by UP, such as those establishments in Area 2 that do not have the permit from the Business
Concessions Office of the university. The proposal will not be able to inform students of the nutritional
values of the food and sanitation in such establishments. Students are fully responsible for their decisions
regarding food selection. Food establishments in Area 2 is generally not regulated by the UP administration,
particularly the Business Concessions Office (BCO), as they are built on residential lots and are therefore
beyond the ability of the BCO to regulate. We do, however, recommend stricter policies targeting the
regulation of food establishments.

Staffing
The FSN & Biology Student Researchers Association are a team of qualified students of the
University of the Philippines - Diliman hailing from the College of Science and the College of Home
Economics. We have assigned Liz Perez as the director of team operations. Liz is a Food Technology
student from the College of Home Economics and is experienced in spearheading projects of food
committees and has been trained in the Department of Science and Technology on the examination of food
samples. Assisting her is Rissa Catibog, a Hotel, Restaurant, and Institution Management student from the
College of Home Economics who will be the assistant director for sanitation and will be overseeing the
operations on the sanitation grading. Risa has had an experience in managing workstations inside kitchens
and managing resources. We also have Carlo Luanzon, a Community Nutrition student from the College of
Home Economics, who will be the assistant director for nutritional content grading. Carlo is experienced
in assessing the nutritional needs of different age groups and has handled community work in the aspect of

nutrition

at

various

communities.

We also have our specialists, FC Estoesta, BS Biology from the College of Sciences who
specializes in studying food pathogens and Miguel Bautista, also a Biology student from the College of
Science whose studies focuses on human biology. Both of whom are highly proficient on the biological
aspects involved in human systems that can be affected by external factors. FC and Miguel are also both
knowledgeable on the aspects of food microbiology.

Budget
The amount of manpower needed for this proposal is minimal compared to a direct overhaul of the
food items being sold and the food establishments being allowed to operate in the campus. The collection
of data, its processing, and the tagging of the establishments and their food items only need to be done
annually. Changes to the initial score given to either the establishments or the food items would only be
needed

should

anything

change.

The collection of data and the tagging can be performed by, at most, two staff members. The actual
processing and analysis of the data gathered, on the other hand, might need a team of three to five people
depending on the amount of food items and the number of establishments being scored. In comparison, a
total overhaul of the food items and the establishments allowed to operate in the campus could take many
more people. It would also be a continuous, time consuming, and labour intensive process. The tagging
process is much less demanding of labour and can be flexible in the time needed to accomplish since each
food establishments only need to be scored annually.

Authorization
The food safety and nutrition of your constituents is vital for them to perform their best in their
daily tasks as a member of the University of the Philippines, Diliman community. Our executed survey and
framework for a grading system for food sanitation and nutritional content of food served in food
establishments inside the campus will help you in your goals of improving the quality of food business and
service inside the campus and cater to the nutritional needs of the members of the community. By entering
this contract, not only do you set the standard for food sanitation and nutrition, you also help the community
in giving them the chance to opt for a healthier choice.
Please sign the enclosed copy of this letter and return it to us with a retainer of Php1,000 so that we
may begin assessing the food sanitation and nutrition grades of the food establishments present around the
campus.

The

rates

in

this

offer

are

only

valid

until

December

5.

Thank you for giving us the chance to help you improve the nutritional aspect of the lifestyle of the
UP community.

Sincerely,
Liz Perez
Director
FSN & Biology Student Researchers Association

References
Basics for Handling Food Safely. (2013). United States Department of Agriculture Food
Safety and Inspection Service.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory.
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. Version
Current: September 2015. Available online at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/ndl
Republic Act No. 10611 - Food Safety Act of 2013
Gropper, S., & Groff, J. S. (2005). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, 5th Edition. Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Worthington-Roberts, B. S., & Williams, S. R. (2000). Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle. Washington
D.C.: McGraw Hill.

Appendix

Garlic Chicken Nutrition

Total Protein
Total Fats
Total Carbohydrates

Figure 1. A pie chart illustration of the nutritional value of garlic chicken

Tuna Melt Nutrition

Total Protein

Total Fats
Total Carbohydrates

Figure2. A pie chart of the nutritional value of Tuna Melt Sandwhich

Quarterpounder Nutrition

Total Protein

Total Fats
Total Carbohydrates

Figure 3. A pie chart of the nutritional value of a Quarter Pounder Burger

Tapsilog Nutrition

Total Protein

Total Fats
Total Carbohydrates

Figure 4. A pie chart of the nutritional content of a Tapsilog