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Fall 2012

**The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle
**

1. The probability that at least one of two events happens

Consider a discrete sample space Ω. We define an event A to be any subset of Ω,

which in set notation is written as A ⊂ Ω. Then, Boas asserts in eq. (3.6) on p. 732 that1

P (A ∪ B) = P (A) + P (B) − P (A ∩ B) ,

(1)

**for any two events A, B ⊂ Ω. This is equivalent to the set theory result,
**

|A ∪ B| = |A| + |B| − |A ∩ B| ,

(2)

**where the notation |A| means the number of elements contained in the set A, etc. In
**

writing eq. (2), we have assumed that A and B are two finite discrete sets, so the number

of elements in A and B are finite.

**The proof of eq. (2) is immediate after considering the Venn diagram shown above. In
**

particular, adding the number of elements of A and B overcounts the number of elements

in A ∪ B, since the events in A ∩ B have been double counted. Thus, we correct this

double counting by subtracting the number of elements in A ∩ B, which yields eq. (2).

The corresponding result in probability theory is given by eq. (1).

1

**Boas uses a nonstandard notation by writing A + B for A ∪ B. The latter is standard in set theory
**

and we shall use it in these notes. A ∪ B means the union of the sets A and B and is equivalent to the

“inclusive or,” i.e. ”either A or B or both.” Likewise, Boas uses a nonstandard notation by writing AB

for A ∩ B. Again, the latter is standard in set theory and we shall use it in these notes. A ∩ B means

the intersection of the sets A and B, or equivalently “both A and B.”

1

.8 on p.org/wiki/Inclusion%E2%80%93exclusion principle. An be a sequence of n events.3 In particular. |A∪B ∪C| = |A|+|B|+|C|−|A∩B|−|A∩C|−|B ∩C| will include all events in A. (3). Thus. (4) Once again. which were all subtracted off. This is equivalent to the set theory result.2 P (A∪B∪C) = P (A)+P (B)+P (C)−P (A∩B)−P (A∩C)−P (B∩C)+P (A∩B∩C) . Check it out at http://en. (1) and (2) to n sets. The corresponding result in probability theory is given by eq. P (A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An ) = n X i=1 − X P (Ai ) − X P (Ai ∩ Aj ) + i<j X P (Ai ∩ Aj ∩ Ak ) i<j<k P (Ai ∩ Aj ∩ Ak ∩ Aℓ ) + . Thus. Let A1 . The Venn diagram above is taken from the Wikipedia webpage on the inclusion-exclusion principle. The Inclusion-Exclusion principle The inclusion-exclusion principle is the generalization of eqs. we must add back the number of events in A ∩ B ∩ C. . The probability that at least one of three events happens It is straightforward to generalize the result of eq. C ⊂ Ω. to include all events in A ∪ B ∪ C exactly once. (4) is immediate after considering the Venn diagram shown above. A ∩ C and B ∩ C not contained in A∩B ∩C twice. (5) i<j<k<ℓ 2 This is problem 15–3. B and C once except for the events in A ∩ B ∩ C. eq. 3.2. the proof of eq. .wikipedia. 734 of Boas. . B and C counts elements in A ∩ B ∩ C three times. and counts elements of A ∩ B. Then. + (−1)n+1 P (A1 ∩ A2 ∩ · · · ∩ An ) . . (1) to the case of three events. . Thus. A2 . (3) for any three events A. (4) is established. B. 3 2 . |A ∪ B ∪ C| = |A| + |B| + |C| − |A ∩ B| − |A ∩ C| − |B ∩ C| + |A ∩ B ∩ C| . adding the number of elements of A.

where m is a number between P n counted m times P in i=1 |Ai |. (8) k=0 where m! m ≡ C(m. 1) + C(m. where P C(m. it follows that 1 − C(m. A2 .where A1 . To compute S. 2) + C(m. 1) − C(m. Thus. An . A2 . An is counted exactly one time. . . . We have therefore verified the inclusion-exclusion principle. both in set theory and in probability theory. An ⊂ Ω. m X (−1)k C(m. |A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An | = n X |Ai | − i=1 − X X |Ai ∩ Aj | + i<j X |Ai ∩ Aj ∩ Ak | i<j<k |Ai ∩ Aj ∩ Ak ∩ Aℓ | + . (6). one finds that the point is not counted at all in any of the terms that involve the intersection of more than m sets. Then. k) = 0 . the point is 2 . 2) − C(m. . 3) − C(m. 1) = m. eq. + (−1)m C(m. The corresponding result in probability theory is given by eq. k) ≡ k k!(m − k)! is the number of combinations of m objects taken k at a time. k=0 Using C(m. 3) times in i<j<k |Ai ∩Aj ∩Ak |. An example is provided in the next section of these notes. (x + y)m = m X C(m.. A1 . every point contained in the union of A1 . where S ≡ C(m. Setting x = 1 and y = −1 in eq. which implies that S = 1 [cf. 0) = 1. (6). k)xk y m−k . . . Suppose a point is contained in exactly m of the sets. m) = 1]. . (6) is established. 3 . . . . it is counted C(m. This is equivalent to the set theory result. AP 1 and n. (6) i<j<k<ℓ The proof of eq. That is. (6) is an exercise in counting. 4) + · · · + (−1)m+1 C(m. k) is the number of combinations of m objects taken k at a time. There are numerous applications of the inclusion-exclusion principle. . The net result is that a point that is contained in exactly m of the sets will be counted S times in |A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An | given by eq. (7) after noting that C(m. m) . (5). it is counted C(m. where the point is counted once [since C(m. eq. we recall the binomial theorem. 2) times in i<j |Ai ∩ Aj |. etc. 3) + . (8) yields. + (−1)n+1 |A1 ∩ A2 ∩ · · · ∩ An | . Thus. . it provides a powerful tool for certain types of counting problems. (7)]. . After reaching i1 <i2 <···im |Ai1 ∩ Ai2 ∩ · · · ∩ Aim |. In particular. we have shown that there is no multiple counting of points in eq. m) = 0 .

Since there are n! possible permutations of n objects. i=1 since there are n terms in the sum. Then |A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An | counts the number of permutations in which at least one of the n objects ends up in its original position. Hence. i. Third.e. In general. Hence. which we shall denote by the symbol Dn . there are n! possible permutations of n objects. Hence. since if exactly one of the n objects ends up in its original position. is given by Dn = n! − |A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An | . the total number of derangements of n objects. 2! 2! since there are C(n. how many different permutations are there such that none of the objects end up in their original positions? Such permutations are called derangements or permutations with no fixed points. First. 2) = (n − 2)! · i<j n(n − 1) n! = . 4 n(n − 1)(n − 2) n! = . 3) = (n − 3)! · i<j<k since there are C(n. 2) terms in the sum above. eq. 3! 3! . n X |Ai | = n · (n − 1)! = n! . since if exactly three of the n objects end up in their original positions. In this section. it follows that the number of permutations such that none of the objects end up in their original positions. Second. Derangements Starting with n objects. |Ai ∩ Aj | = (n − 2)! . X P (Ai ∩ Aj ∩ Ak ) = (n − 3)! C(n. |Ai ∩ Aj ∩ Ak | = (n − 3)! .4. that leaves the other n − 3 objects to be freely permuted in (n − 3)! possible ways. X |Ai ∩ Aj | = (n − 2)! C(n. The derivation of Dn will be based on the inclusion-exclusion principle. we shall count the number of possible derangements of n objects. |Ai | = (n − 1)! . since if exactly two of the n objects end up in their original positions. that leaves the other n − 2 objects to be freely permuted in (n − 2)! possible ways. that leaves the other n − 1 objects to be freely permuted in (n − 1)! possible ways. (9) One can compute |A1 ∪A2 ∪· · ·∪An | using the inclusive-exclusive principle [cf. (6)]. 3) terms in the sum above. Let Ai be the subset of the set of permutations of n objects such that the ith object alone ends up in its original position under the permutation.

|A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An | = n! 1 − + − + · · · + (−1) 2! 3! 4! n! k! k=1 Inserting this result into eq. Dn = n! n X (−1)k k=0 k! . and the hats are hopelessly scrambled during storage.. A free copy of this textbook is available from http://www. (6).367879.wordpress. (6) yields n X (−1)k+1 1 1 1 n+1 1 = n! . (9) yields the number of derangements of n objects. References 1.The pattern should be clear. 1997).4 Hence.files. Laurie Snell. 4 This is the so-called trivial permutation of the original n objects in which none of the objects are permuted. NJ.mac. which corresponds to all objects ending up in their original position. if n is large (in practical applications.pdf under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. Upper Saddle River. 2nd edition (American Mathematical Society. Brualdi. any n greater than about 10 can be considered to be large). Introductory Combinatorics. 2010). What is the probability that no customer gets his or her own hat back? This is equivalent to asking for the probability of a derangement of n objects. we have |A1 ∩ A2 ∩ · · · ∩ An | = 1 . Providence.pdf courtesy of the China Machine Press. eq. Unfortunately the hat checkers fail to do their jobs. which is counted as one of the n! possible permutations of n objects. When we reach the final term in eq. the probability that a permutation of n objects is a derangement is given by ∞ Dn X (−1)k 1 lim P (derangement) = lim = = . n→∞ n→∞ n! k! e k=0 Moreover. It is amusing to note that as n → ∞.com/2010/12/combiatoric. then the probability is approximately 1/e ≃ 0. then the probability that the permutation of the n objects is a derangement is approximately 1/e almost independently of the precise value of n. If the number of customers involved is large. 5th edition (Pearson Education. Richard A. Grinstead and J. Inc. 2. Introduction to Probability. Charles M. (10) The probability that a permutation of n objects is a derangement is given by Dn /n! since there are Dn possible derangements and n! possible permutations. A free copy of this textbook is available from http://filetosi.edu/~chance/teaching aids/books articles/ probability book/amsbook. RI. An example of derangements arises in a very famous problem called the hat check problem in which n hats are checked by customers at a restaurant.dartmouth. 5 .

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