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Meitei (Manipuri) Speakers in Bangladesh:
A Sociolinguistic Survey

Amy Kim
Seung Kim

SIL International
2008

SIL Electronic Survey Report 2008-002, February 2008
Copyright © 2008 Amy Kim, Seung Kim, and SIL International
All rights reserved

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Contents
Table of Figures
List of Abbreviations
Preface
1. Introduction
1.1. Purposes and goals
1.1.1. Study of the dialects of the language
1.1.2. Language use, attitudes, and vitality study
1.1.3. Bilingualism study
1.2. Geography
1.3. History
1.4. People
1.5. Language
2. Summary of findings
2.1. Study of the dialects of the language
2.1.1. Lexical similarity study
2.1.2. Dialect intelligibility study
2.2. Language use, attitudes, and vitality study
2.3. Bilingualism study
3. Study of the dialects of the language
3.1. Lexical similarity study
3.1.1. Procedures
3.1.2. Discussion of sample
3.1.3. Results
3.2. Dialect intelligibility study
3.2.1. Procedures
3.2.2. Discussion of sample
3.2.3. Results
4. Language use, attitudes, and vitality study
4.1. Procedures
4.2. Discussion of sample
4.3. Results
4.3.1. Language use
4.3.2. Language attitudes
4.3.3. Language vitality
4.3.4. Other aspects of language
5. Bilingualism study
5.1. Perceived bilingualism
5.1.1. Procedures
5.1.2. Discussion of sample
5.1.3. Results
5.2. Measured Bangla bilingualism
5.2.1. Procedures
5.2.2. Discussion of sample
5.2.3. Results
6. Recommendations
Appendices
A. International Phonetic Alphabet (revised 1993)

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B. Wordlists
B.1. Standard procedures for counting lexical similarity
B.2. Wordlist notes
B.3. Wordlists
C. RTT
C.1. Standard RTT procedures
C.2. Meitei HTT: Humerjan
C.2.1 Text of the story
C.2.2. Questions and answers
C.3. Meitei HTT: Imphal
D. RTT Scores
D.1. Scoring and answer notes
D.2. RTT answers and scores
D.2.1. Imphal HTT validation participants
D.2.2. Humerjan HTT validation participants
D.2.3. Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Humerjan text
D.2.4. Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Imphal text
D.3. Post-HTT questionnaire responses
D.3.1. Post-Imphal HTT validation participants
D.3.2. Post-Humerjan HTT validation participants
D.4. Post-RTT questionnaire responses
D.4.1. Post-Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Humerjan text
D.4.2. Post-Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Imphal text
E. Questionnaires
E.1. Sociolinguistic questionnaire
E.2. Post-HTT questionnaires
E.2.1. Imphal HTT validation
E.2.2. Humerjan HTT validation
E.3. Post-RTT questionnaire
E.4. Participant biodata questionnaire
E.5. Community Information Questionnaire
F. Sociolinguistic questionnaire responses
F.1. Responses on topics of language use and attitudes towards language use and other languages
F.2. Language attitudes towards literacy classes responses
F.3. Language vitality responses
F.4. Dialect responses and bilingualism responses
G. Bangla SRT
G.1. Standard SRT procedures
G.2. Bangla SRT
G.3. SRT scores
H. Meitei community information
H.1. Mukabil
H.2. Humerjan
H.3. Shivganj
H.4. Shivnagar
H.5. Choto Dhamai
H.6. Kunagaon
I. Participant biodata
I.1. Biodata notes
I.2. Wordlist and CIQ participant biodata
I.3. HTT participant biodata

4 I.6. Sociolinguistic questionnaire participant biodata I. Bangla SRT participant biodata References . RTT participant biodata I.5.4.

5 Table of Figures Figure 1: Overview of methods Figure 2: Sylhet division. “Can you always say what you want to say in your second-best language?” Figure 19: Score ranges on the Bangla SRT corresponding to RPE levels Figure 20: Bangla SRT results according to demographic categories Figure 21: Bangla SRT results according to combinations of demographic categories Figure 22: Range of individual SRT scores according to RPE levels Figure 23: Projected Bangla bilingualism among Meitei speakers in Bangladesh Figure C. Bangladesh Figure 3: Approximate locations of Meitei villages in Sylhet division Figure 4: Lexical similarity percentage matrix Figure 5: Summary of RTT results Figure 6: Language use among the Meitei Figure 7: Summary of responses regarding what languages should be used Figure 8: Summary of responses to the question. “What is the most useful language to know in your village?” Figure 9: Summary of responses to the question. “Do you think it’s okay if your children speak another language better than your mother tongue?” Figure 10: Summary of responses to questions regarding literacy classes Figure 11: Reasons participants gave for why they responded as they did to the questions about sending their children to a Meitei literacy class or attending such a class themselves Figure 12: Summary of responses to three language vitality questions Figure 13: Summary of responses to two follow-up vitality questions Figure 14: Summary of responses to questions about literacy abilities Figure 15: Summary of responses to questions about literacy abilities.1: Descriptions of RPE proficiency levels Figure G. according to age Figure 16: Summary of responses to questions about what languages people speak and when they learned them Figure 17: Summary of responses to questions about language fluency Figure 18: Summary of responses to the question.2: Bangla SRT scores and predicted RPE levels List of Abbreviations BRAC = Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee CIQ = Community Information Questionnaire HTT = Hometown Test RPE = Reported Proficiency Evaluation RTT = Recorded Text Test SRT = Sentence Repetition Test .l: RTT scores and standard deviation Figure G.

Many thanks to Abujam Hiren. and graciously prepared meals and snacks. a Meitei from Bhanugach. Seung and Amy Kim Language Survey Specialists SIL-Bangladesh 18 November 2003 Dhaka. He greatly reduced the time it would have taken us to decipher Bengali handwriting and to enter it into the computer. We wish them every success in their future. particularly those in Adampur. Meeting such people reminds us that what we do is a privilege and an honor. Kunagaon.6 Preface As part of SIL-Bangladesh’s project to develop the local languages in Sylhet division. We also want to thank Donald Bapi Das for his help in typing sections of the report. who worked as language-survey assistants throughout the survey. particularly portions of appendix C. and Gulam Faruque Choudhury. Choto Dhamai. Finally. in arranging for transportation. a young Meitei from Humerjan. We want to thank them for making themselves available to be interviewed. They did what would have been very difficult and time-consuming for us. No matter when we showed up. they deserve high praise. Bangladesh . They often worked long days of multitasking as interpreters. Shivganj. and Shivnagar. 2003. Without their help in planning the survey. provided comfortable places to work. for accepting us not just as researchers but also as friends. and more than that. we want to thank all the people and leaders of the Meitei community. no matter how late we stayed. two young Indian women who collected two wordlists and developed a Recorded Text Test from Manipur state. and in making key contacts. and surveyors. For their contribution. travel agents. we researched the Meitei language and community. Mukabil. and also hope that they’ll continue to serve their people. This report is the fruit of field research conducted from April 1–15 and November 9–10. We want to acknowledge the work of Rebecca Tombing and Elina Kinny. Humerjan. and they did it well. this field research would not have been possible. they always extended a warm welcome. guides.

Figure 1: Overview of methods Study Study of the dialects of the language Study of language use. and (3) a study of bilingualism. whether there are clear reasons to warrant literature production and/or literacy programs in Meitei. and vitality Study of bilingualism Method Brief description Focus Sample size Lexical similarity comparison 307-item wordlist Lexical variation among Meitei villages in Bangladesh and India Wordlists from 8 Meitei villages Recorded Text Test (RTT) Cross-dialectal comprehension test of recorded stories Intelligibility between the Meitei spoken in Bangladesh and India 11 participants from 3 villages Sociolinguistic questionnaire A 22-item questionnaire Sociolinguistic questionnaire A 5-item questionnaire Sentence Repetition Test (SRT) A 15-sentence test calibrated to FSI scale 0 to 4+ Language preferences Attitudes towards various language varieties and programs Domains of language use Perceived ability in any second language Measured ability to speak Bangla 65 participants from 6 villages 65 participants from 6 villages 100 participants from 3 villages . Just as importantly. 4. (2) a study of language use.7 1. the following goals were established: 1. we wanted to know the community’s attitude towards such programs. this sociolinguistic survey of Meitei was carried out in three interrelated parts: (1) a study of the dialects of the language. To investigate possible dialectal differences among Meitei speakers To determine the Meitei people’s attitudes towards their own language and towards other language varieties used in the area To assess the Meitei community’s fluency in Bangla To assess the long-term viability of the Meitei language in Bangladesh To accomplish these goals. Purposes and goals The purpose of this sociolinguistic survey of Meitei was to gather information that would be used to plan a language-development program for the Meitei living in Bangladesh. 3. attitudes. attitudes. To meet these purposes. and vitality. Introduction 1. We wanted to know whether the Meitei language varies in any significant ways throughout their community and. 2. Figure 1 gives an overview of the sociolinguistic methods used in this survey. from a sociolinguistic point of view.1.

2.1. and vitality study In order to assess the Meitei people’s pattern of language use and their attitudes towards their own and other languages. Bilingualism study A SRT in Bangla was specifically developed to assess the level of bilingualism among speakers of traditional languages in Bangladesh.1. Thus. as they are close to main roads and towns.1. In order to meet these purposes.5.2. These wordlists were compared as a way of determining lexical similarity between Meitei varieties. Post-Hometown Test (HTT) and post-RTT questionnaires were used to shed further light on people’s attitudes towards different dialects. respectively. Living on flat farmland—and in Bangladesh one is never too far from a sizable river— their villages are prone to the yearly flooding that afflicts most of Bangladesh.3.8 1. it was the primary tool used in the survey of the Meitei to study their bilingual ability in Bangla as well as patterns of bilingualism within the community.2. The results of the comparison were then used to decide which dialect to use for dialect intelligibility testing. five were Hindu Meitei villages. The sociolinguistic.1.3.1.) 1. and appendix H for the results of the CIQ. Study of the dialects of the language Lexical similarity study The first method. (See appendix C.) 1.. for standard RTT procedures. India.) The vast majority of Meitei villages are easily accessible by public buses and/or rickshaws. In Kamalganj .1. attitudes. post-HTT.. The RTT was used to assess how well the Meiteis living in Bangladesh could understand the Meitei spoken in Manipur state. a sociolinguistic questionnaire was used. Then the Manipur state story was tested in a Meitei village in Bangladesh. used was a 307-item wordlist taken at eight Meitei villages: six in Bangladesh and two in Manipur state. for procedures for lexical similarity comparison. The Community Information Questionnaire (CIQ) and the sociolinguistic questionnaire were also used to gather information about the depth and breadth of bilingualism. see appendix E. and E.) Dialect intelligibility study The second method used to study Meitei dialects was the RTT. Of the eight. two stories were recorded and comprehension tests for them were developed. Geography In Bangladesh. and post-RTT questionnaires are given in appendices E. (See appendix B. 1. (See appendix G. for the CIQ.1. and three were Muslim Meitei (or Meitei Pangan) villages. They also reside in a few villages in the other three districts of Sylhet division. for procedures for using the SRT. Language use.. (See figure 3 for approximate locations of the villages we visited during the research. almost the entire Meitei community lives in the flat farmlands of Sylhet division (see figure 2). mainly in Moulvibazar district. E. the first one in Bangladesh and the second one in Manipur state. This information gives an indication as to whether the Meitei would accept and use materials translated into their own language or into another language which is highly intelligible with their own.1. or tool.

the Meitei live primarily in Manipur state. There they are the majority. and society in India. language. In India. . which is the population and cultural center of the Bangladesh Meitei community. bringing both life and destruction. Imphal is the capital city in Manipur state. This is the reason why Meitei speakers call themselves Manipuri.9 subdistrict of Moulvibazar district. and their language is the official state language and the language of wider communication among the various ethnic communities. and the center of Meitei culture. the Dhalai river flows through the heart of the Meitei community.

10 Figure 2: Sylhet division. Bangladesh India India I n d i a India Bay of Bengal Myanmar .

80 miles 1 cm = 8.11 km S T A T E .11 Figure 3: Approximate locations of Meitei villages in Sylhet division MEGHALAYA STATE Jaflong Sunamganj Shivganj Sunamganj District Sylhet District Sylhet D h a k a D i v i s i o n A S S A M Moulvibazar District Habiganj District Moulvibazar Kulaura Choto Dhamai Habiganj Dhalai River Srimangal Humerjan Chunarughat Kunagaon Shivnagar Mukabil TRIPURA STATE 1 inch = 12.

Kyangkleipang. we feel that as language surveyors and as members of a language development nongovernment organization (NGO). The geographical origin of the Meitei-speaking people in Bangladesh is the area that is now the state of Manipur in India. That being said. One simply cannot talk about the Meitei without mentioning Manipur. The state of Manipur was previously known by various names (Kyangleipak. As both the Meitei and Bishnupriya have admitted. Both groups want the name Manipuri attached to their group. as there are certain economic and political advantages to being so recognized by the Bangladesh government. It is not our goal to resolve this dispute. His successors started the process of nation building by conquering all the clan territories in the valley that was completed in the 15th Century. Kyanglei. The relevant issue for us is what the Meitei—and the Bishnupriya—want and need in terms of language development for the future. The Bishnupriya in general do not seem to mind sharing the Manipuri name with the Meitei. and education. One theory is that the land was named Manipur by missionaries who arrived there from Sylhet during the reign of Maharaj Garibniwaz in the first half of the eighteenth century (Islam 2003:409). Traditional Puya attributes this land with the first anointment of a king in 33 AD. Whether it be eyewitness accounts of events or interpretation of those events by historians. Manipur state is universally recognized as the hub of Meitei language. Even today. Her territory saw its greatest expansion in 1475 with the annexation of Kabow valley by Garibniwaz Pamheiba and lost that territory in 1834… The reference to losing the territory in 1834 gives a hint as to how the Meiteis ended up in Bangladesh. and a land is never perfectly clear or universally agreed upon. and Mekhali). this middle road of not taking either side is the high road that will lead to the brightest future.12 1. not historical. explains their presence in Bangladesh: . National encyclopedia of Bangladesh.3. However. we continue with the history of the Meitei. History The history of a people. This is not simply an academic exercise of disagreeing over past events. and language. Meitrabak. While this does not satisfy everyone and can be justly seen as avoiding the issue. culture. preferring simply to use the terms Bishnupriya and Meitei. For this reason. there are several strong voices among the Meitei rejecting the notion that the Bishnupriya should in any way be considered Manipuri. there is rarely only one point of view. This is how the Banglapedia. The causes behind divergent views of history are often far more meaningful because history can have a significant bearing on the present as well as the future. our research was sociolinguistic in nature. there are political reasons for the current division and disagreement. we have purposely omitted the use of the word Manipuri when referring to language. Farooque Ahmed writes: Manipur is one of the oldest civilizations in Southeast Asia and has a long history of monarchy before coming under British imperialism in 1891 and merging into India in 1947. Writing about the history of the Meitei in Bangladesh is tricky because they and the Bishnupriya are mired in just such a disagreement. a language.

there is one section of society who look very much like their Bengali neighbors. the Pangans have some [of their] own customs and observances. Manipuris belong to the Kuki-Chin group of the Tibeto-Burman family of the Mongolian race. But a good admixture of Aryan and other blood groups took place in the mainstream of Manipuri nation” (Islam 2003:409). A palace was built at that time at Mirzajangal of Sylhet town. mostly in Sylhet division. and finally the birth of Bangladesh as a nation. The facial features of the Meitei leave no doubt that they are not native to Bangladesh. King Chourajit Singh along with two younger brothers.13 Manipuris migrated to the Bangladesh area and settled here at different times due to wars. Of course. but they don't celebrate Muharram. having originally come from the east from a predominantly Mongoloid stock.) The following can be known about the Muslim Meiteis: The Pangans are mostly Sunni Muslims. or Pangans. as they witnessed India’s independence from the British. although there are a fair number of businessmen as well. During that period. The Maulavi conducts their marriage and circumcision etc. experienced the years as East Pakistan. it was quite easy for us to tell who are Meitei and who are not. the Meitei put down roots in present-day Bangladesh.) in prefix of their name and the women choose to use Musammat. conflicts and socio-political reasons. The Banglapedia explains that “ethnologically. when traveling through various subdistricts in Sylhet. This kind of living pattern seems typical among the speakers of traditional languages of Bangladesh. . 1. who are also sometimes called Khasi Pangals or Meitei Pangals. They are very orthodox in their religious prescriptions and rituals. Marjit Singh and Gambhir Singh took refuge in Sylhet. not as integrated members of a wider Bangladeshi community—and there are very few who live in a large city such as Dhaka. for a possible explanation of the Pangan/Pangal difference. Their migration started during the reign of Rajarshi Baghyachandra (1764–1789) and the process was accelerated by the Manipur-Burma War (1819–1825) which is a black chapter in the history of Manipur.3. (Islam 2003:409) After fleeing war and its effects. Almost all Meiteis live in Meitei villages—that is. Their dresses are quite different from that of the Bishnupriyas and Meiteis. Eid remains their annual festival of all importance. as one of the forty or so language groups of Bangladesh. Manipur was ruled by the Burmese invaders for about seven years. However. among the Meiteis. their post-Manipur years have also been fraught with great historical turmoil. These are the Muslim Meiteis.000 or so Meiteis of Bangladesh predominantly rely on rice farming for much of their livelihood. particularly when they are wearing their traditional clothes. A hoard of Manipuri subjects followed them. Although there are restrictions in cultural activities. Still. (See section 3.4. After the war with Burma. People The 15.1. The male population of Pangal used the word Mohammed (Md.

But before accepting the Sanatana Dharma in the 18th century. fewer than twenty families still hold on to the Apokpa religion. Meitei is the state language of Manipur. Because of this status and widespread use. In addition to the variety and richness in religion. and many works of world literature.14 Pangan men and women are extremely expert in agriculture and handicrafts (http://pangons. the worship of Radha-Krishna Jugal Rupa. marks them as having their origins in the east. Their new religion was a form of Hinduism. the Meiteis can boast of a similarly rich culture. in spite of the dominance of Vaisnaism. Thus. (Vaisnavism. and it can be categorized into the Kuki-Chin group of the Tibeto-Burman subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages (Grimes 2000:394). perhaps even more than their facial features. In his reign when he took shelter in Tekhal (Assam) in a war with Ava (Burma) he found the image (darshan) of the almighty Lord Shri Krishna in his dream in the most beautiful and special dress more suitable for the softest dances. In Bangladesh. the king left a great legacy. In addition. Tolstoy. Especially important is the Ras Lila dance. music. According to one Meitei speaker. section A). Rather. part of the NeoVaisnavism movement that spread to Manipur state at the end of the eighteenth century. Their rites and rituals reflect a synthesis of the old and new beliefs” (Islam 2003:410). is the most widespread faith in Hinduism. The king had a dream telling him to make idols from the jack fruit grown in Kaina hills and worship it. After his life. Language Meitei is the language of the Meitei people. became the dominant religion of the Meiteis (Singh. one of the eighteen state languages of India. as well as works by Tagore.5.tripod. especially in dance. The majority of Meiteis are not Muslim. . The union (jugal murti) of Lord Krishna and Srimati Radhika was seen in his future vision. such as Ramayana and the Bible. Manipuris practised Apokpa Dharma. the worship of the Hindu god Vishnu. This fact. music and dance seem to play the critical role in preserving the traditional beliefs of the Meitei people. the legend of Rajrishi Bhagyachandra. The Lord was in his Natabar besh and a flute in his hand and a top-knot (Chura) of peacock feathers on his head. He had his dream to make true and with his aspiration he resolved to worship Lord Shri Krishna performing the Ras-Lila-dances which he had seen in his dream (Singh. 1. Rabindranath Tagore thought highly enough of the Manipuri dance to have it taught at his school in West Bengal. the Lai Haraoba is also important. eventually Gouriya Vaisnavism. literature in Meitei is growing. which was explained in this way: Rajrishi Bhagyachandra Maharaj was born in 1748. and woven clothing. as it had been preached by Gouranga Mahaprabhu. this form of Vaisnavism exists side by side with the traditional Apokpa religion of the Meiteis. section B). they are “the followers of the Chitanya cult of Sanatana Dharma. as it is through this dance that Meiteis worship the 364 traditional deities of the Meitei people.) After vacillating between different sects of Vaisnavism.com/).

especially between the four Hindu Meitei villages and between the two Muslim Meitei villages that were tested. “a characteristic feature of the old Manipuri script is that each and every alphabet is named according to a limb of the human body. Meitei is not used much as a written language. and music videos all being produced in Meitei. and Sophocles have been translated into Meitei (Islam 2003:410). Here is a sample of this ancient script.) As Bangla is the dominant language of education and media. is absolutely unique to the Meiteis. The Meitei who live in Bangladesh have told us that they have no trouble understanding the Meitei spoken in Manipur state. Similarly. the drop is not major: there is still a high degree of lexical similarity.1. In Bangladesh. including colleges and universities.1. .1. Summary of findings 2. And while the percentage of similarity does drop slightly when comparing Hindu Meitei villages with Muslim Meitei villages. This ancient script. The difference between the Meitei spoken in Bangladesh and the Meitei spoken in Manipur state was significant enough that a dialect intelligibility study using the RTT was conducted. they do admit that when they travel to Manipur state. (See section 3 for our study of the differences between these dialects. When it is written. of which they are very proud. Meitei is primarily an oral language. However. 2. they are easily recognized as being from Bangladesh because of some differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. Bengali script is used. It is also the language of mass media and popular culture.15 Shakespeare. songs. Study of the dialects of the language 2. It is the language of instruction in state schools. however. with films. used exclusively by and within the Meitei community. According to the Banglapedia. which displaced their traditional script in the eighteenth century during the reign of Raja Garibniway in Manipur (Islam 2003:410). Homer. we were told that there are some dialectal differences between the Meitei spoken by Hindu Meiteis and the Meitei spoken by the Muslim Meiteis. Lexical similarity study Lexical similarity results show that there is generally a high degree of lexical similarity between the Meitei spoken in various villages of Bangladesh. and there are some people in Bangladesh who are eager to teach it to the next generations. It is not at all surprising that the geographical separation and the relatively infrequent travel between Bangladesh and Manipur have created such dialectal differences. which is known as Meetei Mayek: abcdeghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz There has been a growing movement in Manipur state to reintroduce this script. Their shapes are also in consonance with those of the limbs” (410).

Meitei speakers acknowledge the need to know other languages. and that it is okay for their children to speak another language better than Meitei. 2. while acknowledging the need and even desire for other languages. Meitei speakers express positive attitudes towards their children’s learning to read and write in Meitei. Meitei children do appear to continue to speak Meitei as their best language. Because nearly all Meitei children attend Bangla-medium schools. more often than not. and vitality study Mother-tongue Meitei speakers consistently reported that the Meitei language is widely used in their villages.2. this will be a threat to the vitality of the Meitei language in Bangladesh. mother-tongue Meitei speakers also express some pride in their own language. they will be less apt to use Meitei widely.16 2. They seem to think this would be good for the children themselves and for the Meitei community as a whole. attitudes.1. primarily Bangla. They also appear to be comfortable using a second language to communicate. especially if they were taught using the traditional Meitei script. On the other hand. Meitei adults also appear to be interested in learning to read and write in Meitei. at least in the domains in which a second language is needed. as nearly all say they speak some Bangla and as many speak other languages. This is apparently true whether Meitei speakers are praying or conversing at home or with neighbors. They tend to feel that Bangla should be the medium of education in primary schools. too. Because most Meiteis in this generation are attending school . 2. Possibly in an effort to preserve their language. and. As a result. which is an indication that the Meitei language is not being lost. Dialect intelligibility study RTT results confirm what all the Bangladeshi Meiteis say: that they can easily understand the Meitei spoken in India. and they are generally understood by mother-tongue Bangla speakers. Measured Bangla bilingualism testing shows that the majority of Meitei speakers in Bangladesh do in fact have a good command of Bangla. They can easily understand Bangla in a variety of situations. Probably because Meitei is widely used in Meitei villages.2. Over time. Thus. this is seen as the most useful language to know in Meitei villages and as the language mothers should speak with their children. Though people in general could recognize that the Meitei spoken in India sounded different—most thought that it was “better” and “more polite-sounding” than the variety spoken in Bangladesh—the differences in pronunciation did not hinder comprehension. it is very possible that children of the next generation will become increasingly fluent in Bangla. Furthermore.3. Bilingualism study Meitei speakers in Bangladesh feel they are bilingual and even multilingual. Language use. they are also younger. it is likely that they will learn a broader vocabulary and become increasingly fluent in Bangla. because younger people are more literate in Bangla than in Meitei. Many of these people have passed their Secondary School Certificate (SSC) exams.

because the Meitei have regular contact with those from other villages. those words were elicited from a second person from the village. The WordSurv© computer program designed by SIL (Wimbish 1989) was used to do the final lexical similarity calculations. Shivnagar. and more importantly. notwithstanding 1 See the IPA in appendix A. In cases where two different but valid words were given by the two people. Generally. We chose more Hindu Meitei villages than Muslim Meitei villages because the number of Hindu Meitei villages and the overall population are larger. and a Muslim Meitei wordlist was taken from Lilong Bazaar. and sometimes checked with a second informant separately. only one full wordlist was taken from each site. and Mukabil. it is likely that in another generation. 3. Results The lexical similarity study confirms what we were told: the Meiteis in Bangladesh have no trouble understanding one another because their vocabularies are quite similar. During the Meitei survey. it was deemed unnecessary to check with a second speaker.17 through class 10 and then passing their SSC exams. First of all. villages in three of the four districts of Sylhet division were chosen. the Meitei population as a whole will have very good proficiency in Bangla.1.2. Discussion of sample Wordlists were taken at the following Meitei villages in Bangladesh from speakers who had lived there for a number of years: Choto Dhamai. Manipur state.) The researchers transcribed the wordlists using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Lexical similarity study 3. 3.1. where there seemed to be confusion over the meaning or the pronunciation of a word.1. since we were told that there are some differences in vocabulary and pronunciation. lexical similarities between various Meitei villages were calculated as a percentage of words from a 307-item list which resemble each other in sound and meaning (Blair 1990:28–29). (Because of the great similarity between most of the varieties. second speakers were used only to check obviously questionable. Secondarily. confusing. However. or aberrant data. A Hindu Meitei wordlist was also taken from Imphal. 3. Manipur state. Thus. . The first four are Hindu Meitei villages. Humerjan. we wanted to include both Hindu Meitei as well as Muslim Meitei villages.3. both were accepted. Study of the dialects of the language 3.1 They then compared the wordlists by following the established procedures outlined in appendix B. Shivganj. a wordlist was gathered from one informant.1. and the last two are primarily Muslim Meitei villages. hence. In each village.1. Procedures Comparing the vocabulary of language varieties is one way to measure the lexical similarity among them.1. Kunagaon. the villages in Bangladesh were selected to give a geographically diverse sampling.

). there was no need for dialect intelligibility testing using the RTT. Similarly. see wordlist item 73). see wordlist items 87 and 110 in appendix B. such as kinship terms. There were some consistent phonetic changes between the two.) When we interviewed all sixty-five participants in the sociolinguistic questionnaire. That is. The Hindu Meitei villages (Shivnagar. For example.3. However.18 geographical separation and religious differences. were different (e. and the 80 to 86 percent similarity still suggests that the two dialects are quite similar. see wordlist item 136). And based on these high percentages. but the lexical similarity study gives some hard linguistic data to back up their assertion. the two Muslim Meitei villages had a higher degree of similarity between them (87 percent) than between the Hindu Meitei villages.g. Choto Dhamai. they said there is no place where people speak their mother tongue (Meitei) very differently. Certain words that are more tied to culture and/or religion.g. 2. Humerjan. Another example is where Hindu Meiteis had a syllable-final alveolar nasal /n/. where Hindu Meiteis use the voiced postalveolar fricative /d/ word initially. the lexical similarity between the Hindu Meiteis and Muslim Meiteis is still quite high. which is within the accepted range to be considered the same language.3. (See figure 4 for the lexical similarity percentages between all the villages. For whatever reason— . it must be noted that what is more important than the drop in similarity percentage is that the drop is quite minor. the numbers in parentheses are the codes for the villages used in the wordlists found in appendix B. Muslim Meiteis would substitute a lateral approximant /l/ (e. Muslim Meiteis would either use the palatal approximant /j/ or omit the consonant altogether (e. and Shivganj) in general had a higher degree of similarity between them (88 to 91 percent) than the Hindu Meitei villages and the Muslim Meitei villages (Kunagaon and Mukabil). we see that the percentage drops to a consistent range of 65 to 70 percent. Figure 4: Lexical similarity percentage matrix Shivnagar (4) 91 Choto Dhamai (5) 90 88 Humerjan (2) 88 88 89 Shivganj (3) 86 85 85 83 Kunagaon (6) 80 80 81 81 87 Mukabil (1) 67 68 69 68 70 69 Imphal (7) 67 68 68 68 68 65 88 Lilong Bazaar (8) 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 Bangla (0) The lexical similarity ranged from 80 to 91 percent between the villages in Bangladesh. This kind of questionnaire response sometimes can merely be the result of a desire to show ethnolinguistic unity. The greater difference (both in actual percentages and speakers’ perceptions) between the Hindu and Muslim Meitei villages can be partly explained by the following reasons: 1. There was only an 80 to 86 percent similarity between the Hindu and Muslim Meitei villages.g. When comparing the wordlists of the Bangladesh Meitei and the Indian Meitei.

(For a detailed description of standard RTT procedures. Tetoigao. Once both of these HTTs were developed and validated. to state the obvious. Dialect intelligibility study 3. This accounts for the difference in the number of questions between appendices D. Also. being residents of Manipur state. refer to appendix C. the capital of Manipur state and the heart of Meitei life and culture. Procedures RTT were used to assess how well the Meiteis living in Bangladesh could understand the speech of the Meiteis living in Manipur state. see wordlist item 38). 3. omitting three questions that we felt were unclear or too closely bunched together.1. and Humerjan villages) on their ability to understand the Imphal text. a Bangladeshi Meitei HTT was developed in Humerjan.g. As a first step. Moreover. Thus.4.2. Comprehension questions were then inserted into the text. or mixing of words—the results of the comparison suggested that more research was necessary. a dialect intelligibility test using the RTT (see section 3. a text was recorded in Humerjan and later translated into Bangla. and D. we tested Bangladeshi Meiteis living in Kamalganj subdistrict (Adampur.2. simplification of words. Finally. This test was then validated by testing ten residents of Humerjan. and that the few words they do share are simply borrowed words (e. Rebecca Tombing and Elina Kinny developed the HTT in Imphal.19 phonetic changes over time. We reduced the number from thirteen questions to ten questions. these subjects were tested using the Humerjan HTT. Humerjan could be a suitable substitute since its similarity percentages were almost identical. had better access to the Meiteis there.1. since this could have an impact on literature development and literacy program planning. We changed the Imphal HTT slightly before testing the Bangladeshi Meiteis. . different patterns of borrowing from other languages. we relied wholly on two Indian surveyors who.) First. the 2 to 4 percent similarity between Meitei and Bangla means that Meitei and Bangla are wholly different languages. In order to develop a Manipur state Meitei HTT. it is morecentrally located in the heart of the Meitei community in Kamalganj subdistrict. and graciously gave the cassettes and texts to us. we decided to develop the HTT in a Hindu village since the population of Hindu Meiteis is significantly higher than that of the Muslim Meiteis.2. it was decided that although Shivnagar had slightly higher similarity percentages when compared to the other Bangladeshi Meitei villages. using comprehension questions that were also spoken by another long-time resident of Humerjan.).2. Those who scored at least 80 percent on the HTT were then tested using the Imphal story. We wanted to know whether or not the differences in the lexicon would impede Bangladeshi Meiteis’ ability to understand the Meiteis living in India. this served as a control test by familiarizing subjects with the testing procedure and by alerting the researchers to subjects who may not have sufficiently understood the procedures or who for some other reason were unable to adequately complete the testing. They developed and validated their HTT using the same procedures. From the results of the lexical similarity study. namely.2.

Also.9 percent on the Humerjan text. an average RTT score of 80 percent or more and a low standard deviation (less than 10) means that there is good dialect intelligibility. which means that as a group the Bangladeshi Meiteis understand the Imphal story almost as well as their own.9 s = 10. This confirms what was reported to us by the Bangladeshi Meiteis.44 n = 11 Imphal text x = 98.20 3.76 n = 11 The results show that the Bangladeshi Meiteis understand the Imphal dialect quite easily as shown by the average score of 87. A total of eleven participants were tested by the Bangladeshi Meitei RTT in November 2003.9 s = 2. at least five people represented each of the six categories: older (defined as 40 years old or above) and younger.2.8 percent is only slightly lower than the average score of 90. their ability to understand is not acquired. however.81 n = 15 x = 87.2. Tetoigao. education. They came from three villages: Adampur. Results Dialect intelligibility results Figure 5 summarizes the results of the Bangladeshi Meitei RTT.8 s = 8. is important when administering an RTT. sampling is not significant. that they have no problem communicating with the . Figure 5: Summary of RTT results Abbreviation key: x = average score out of 100 s = standard deviation n = number of subjects Imphal Meitei participants Bangladeshi Meitei participants Humerjan text not tested x = 90. 3. Sampling. a diverse sample of ten mother-tongue Meitei speakers was tested in an effort to develop a good control test. Thus. the score of 87. or sex. male and female. The numbers in bold are the results in which we are most interested. and Humerjan. sex. the fairly low standard deviation means that Bangladeshi Meiteis are naturally able to understand the Meiteis of Manipur state. and educated (defined as SSC pass or above) and uneducated. The participants were chosen to represent the population as a whole with regard to age.3. the epicenter of Meitei society in Bangladesh. Generally. The reason is that any mother-tongue speaker. regardless of age.9 percent scored by Imphal participants.8 percent.2. which are all in Kamalganj subdistrict. In fact. Still. and education. should be able to easily understand the HTT and answer the questions. Discussion of sample For HTT validation tests conducted at the time of the HTT development in April 2003. although the score is not surprisingly lower than the 98.

the Bangladeshi Meiteis’ opinion of the Imphal dialect is an idealization only and not something grounded in experience or practice: they believe that the Imphal dialect must be beautiful and correct. Post-HTT questionnaire results Nine of the eleven participants said that the HTT (Humerjan story) sounded just like the speech in their own village. the numbers were exactly the opposite of the post-HTT results: after listening to the Imphal story. while the other nine recognized differences ranging from minor to major. and they would also probably make an easy transition to using literacy materials developed in Manipur. while women scored 87 percent. or (2) there is limited contact between the communities. who had an average score of 92. rather than acquired—although. both through travel (limited though it seems to be) and mass media (books. only those who personally knew the storyteller recognized his speech as being local (from Humerjan). and VCDs of Meitei movies and music videos).5 percent versus the older participants who had an average score of 82 percent. All this suggests two possibilities: (1) there is a fluidity of intelligible dialects across the Hindu Meitei speaking communities of Bangladesh. three of the six participants who identified the speaker to be from Imphal not only said that the speech was good. newspapers. the first possibility seems more likely. This difference could be due to something as simple as better hearing for the younger participants or perhaps as complex as a difference in exposure to the Imphal dialect.3. However.1. for a discussion on the consistent phonetic changes between the Hindu Meitei and Muslim Meitei dialects. and that in many cases. This suggests that there is only limited exposure to the Imphal dialect. which prevents the people from easily recognizing separate dialects. men scored 88. but many do not know what it sounds like.5 percent. greater exposure could only help to augment comprehension. Of the six participants who did not recognize his voice. Post-RTT questionnaire results This time. (See section 3. of course. while the less educated scored 87.21 Meiteis of Manipur state. there was a strong.) Even so. while the other two—not surprisingly. especially since the Bengali script is also used widely there. From our observation of the Meitei communities in Bangladesh.7 percent. This analysis only underscores the fact that the Bangladeshi Meiteis’ intelligibility of the Imphal dialect is inherent. both Muslim Meiteis—said that it sounded a little different. two participants thought the Imphal story sounded just like the speech in their own village. but also voluntarily added that it was “very good” or “very . when participants recognized the text as being from Imphal. Still. Sex and education were not important to results. only one could identify the speech as being from the Kamalganj subdistrict area—and he was one of those who said it sounded a little different. positive reaction. We can infer that they would certainly be able to use any audiovisual materials developed in Manipur. Of the demographic categories. the only notable difference seemed to be between the younger Bangladeshi Meitei participants. and those dialects are not highly distinct to be identified easily. the more educated scored 88 percent. only six of the eleven could identify the speaker as being from Imphal—even though almost every Meitei speaker we met had told us that the Imphal dialect is the “correct” or “best” speech.

thirty-five were younger (defined as less than 40 years old). Thirty-one participants were categorized as “more educated” (defined as having passed their SSC exams). The ones who did not recognize it as being from Imphal. A sociolinguistic questionnaire was administered as a way of gathering language use. Procedures A language-use study is a method used to examine language choice. while participant responses are given in appendix F. and thirty were 40 years old or older. A study of language attitudes is generally carried out in an effort to ascertain people’s perceptions of the different speech varieties with which they have contact.1. Discussion of sample The questionnaire was administered to sixty-five participants. and thirty-four had not passed their SSCs and therefore were categorized at “less educated”. (The questionnaire is found in appendix E. If a given participant was not fluent in Bangla. educational materials from Imphal might be readily acceptable.1. Among the sixty-five participants. the results of which are discussed in their corresponding sections. there were also questions concerning bilingualism and dialect boundaries. By studying how various languages are perceived. attitudes.2. and religion. twenty were Hindu. and vitality information. Domains are everyday situations in which one language variety is considered more appropriate than another (Fasold 1984:183).. education. They were chosen to represent the population as a whole with regard to age. and possibly even more effective. This is done by asking participants which language(s) they use in various domains. attitudes. Such an assessment is an important part of the recommendations of a sociolinguistic report because any recommendations regarding language and literature development are dependent upon the projected long-term vitality of the language. A study of language vitality is designed to assess the probability of whether a language will be used by mother-tongue speakers in the future. and one was Buddhist. Furthermore. On the questionnaire. in an educational program among the Bangladeshi Meiteis. As a result. it is possible to determine how positively or negatively people feel toward their own language. did not offer such unsolicited praise. Language use. These locations were chosen based on factors such as location of the village in . sex.) 4. the questions were asked in Meitei. The questions were generally asked in Bangla. This highlights the fact that there is an especiallypositive attitude toward the Imphal dialect. The mother tongue of each of the sixty-five participants was Meitei. and vitality study 4. and the mother tongue of each of the participants’ father and mother was also Meitei. Thirty-one participants were male. twenty-one were Apokpa. Six test locations were chosen to represent the areas within Bangladesh where Meitei speakers live. superior to their own dialect. 4.22 beautiful” speech. twenty-three were Muslim. and thirty-four were female.

In addition. Bangla. the percentages for two of the questions equal more than 100 percent. and other. responses that are notably different according to a particular demographic factor will be mentioned. two of the villages were primarily Muslim. All three were younger and educated through at least their Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) exams. All six villages are located in Sylhet division. In all.3. 4. 4. Of the two (3 percent) who said they use some “other” language when they pray.. Instead. more highly educated woman said she speaks Bangla at home. Three (5 percent) said they pray in Bangla. The results are given as a percentage of participants who use a particular language in each of the three situations. . Results For all items in the questionnaire. and one said his religion was Islam. one said she speaks Arabic. only one said she does not speak Meitei at home. Four Moulvibazar district locations were chosen as this is where the majority of Meitei speakers live and where nearly all Muslim Meiteis live. Sixty-one participants (94 percent) said they pray in their mother tongue. nearly all (97 percent) said they speak Meitei with their neighbors. respectively. this young.3. and the other said she speaks Urdu. while the other four were Hindu and Apokpa. although three (5 percent) said they speak Bangla with neighbors. more highly educated Muslims. Because some said they use more than one language in some situations.23 relation to other Meitei villages and the religion of the majority of the villagers.1. Individual responses and biographical data for each participant are given in appendices F and I. The aggregate of their answers is given in figure 6 according to three categories: Meitei. This is apparently true whether Meitei speakers are praying or conversing at home or with neighbors. data will be presented for all sixty-five participants combined. Similarly. Meitei is also commonly used for praying. two said their religion was Apokpa. Of the sixty-five participants. Figure 6: Language use among the Meitei Question What language do you use most of the time… at home? with Meitei neighbors? when praying? Meitei Response Bangla Other 98% 97% 94% 2% 5% 5% 3% Results indicate that the Meitei language is widely used in Meitei villages in Bangladesh. These two women were young.5. Of these three. Language use The questionnaire contained three questions that asked participants which language(s) they speak in a given situation. one in each of Sunamganj and Sylhet districts and four in Moulvibazar district. These three participants were younger and educated.

Only 23 percent (15 participants) said Meitei should be the primary school medium. 6 percent (four participants) said English should be the medium of education.2. Arabic. while most value teaching in Bangla.3. the majority of respondents (71 percent) said Bangla should be the medium of education in primary school. A significant minority. participants were asked their opinion about what language(s) should be used in two different situations. or Urdu in certain domains. This indicates that a few Meitei speakers value teaching primary school children in English.24 In spite of these few participants who said they speak Bangla. it is often helpful to assess their attitudes toward other languages. however. “What is the most useful language to know in your village?” Response Meitei Other 100% - . Thus. first. Some participants gave more than one answer to the questions. Language attitudes Attitudes regarding language use Along with being asked what language(s) they use in various situations. Attitudes toward other languages In assessing people’s attitudes toward their own language. Figure 8: Summary of responses to the question. an international language. Two questions on the questionnaire were designed for this purpose. the national language of Bangladesh. the sum of responses equals more than 100 percent. and one said a Meitei mother should use only Bangla with her children. value teaching children in their mother tongue. Also. 4. A summary of the results from these questions is given in figure 7. although two participants did say a mother should use both Meitei and Bangla with her children. They feel strongly that Meitei should be spoken between a mother and her children. On the other hand. most Meiteis do appear to speak Meitei most of the time when they are with other Meitei speakers. Figure 7: Summary of responses regarding what languages should be used Question What language should be used… between a mother and her children? as the medium in primary school? Meitei 98% 23% Response Bangla 5% 71% English 6% The responses displayed in figure 7 suggest that Meitei speakers feel various languages should be used in various domains. A summary of responses to these questions is given in figures 8 and 9. Meitei.

The responses in figure 9. with regards to language attitudes. Fifty-seven (88 percent) said they would go to such a class and six (9 percent) said they would not. or if others also paid (2 percent). “Do you think it’s okay if your children speak another language better than your mother tongue?” Response Yes No 62% 38% Figure 8 shows that all participants said Meitei is the most useful language to know in their villages. but that they also take pride in their own language. one said he would maybe go and another said he would go if he was able. Figure 10 displays a summary of their responses to the first part of each of these sets of questions. if paying was necessary (3 percent). show that a majority (62 percent) think it is okay for their children to speak another language better than Meitei. These responses indicate that they acknowledge the need to know other languages. would you go?” Pay for adults = “Would you pay a little for such classes (for adults)?” Question Children’s class Pay for children Adults’ class Pay for adults Yes No 94% 82% 88% 80% 6% 9% - Response Maybe If able 2% - 13% 2% 15% If necessary If others do 3% 2% 2% 2% The responses summarized in figure 10 show positive attitudes towards Meitei children’s learning to read and write in Meitei. Also. however. Figure 10: Summary of responses to questions regarding literacy classes Question key: Children’s class = “If your community leaders set up a class to teach young children how to read and write in your mother tongue. When asked if they themselves would go to a Meitei literacy class. Among the fifty-nine participants who said they would or might go to an adult Meitei literacy class.25 Figure 9: Summary of responses to the question. would you send your children?” Pay for children = “Would you pay a little for such classes (for children)?” Adults’ class = “If your community leaders set up a class to teach adults how to read and write in your mother tongue. participants’ overall response was slightly less positive. forty-seven (80 percent) said they would pay for such a class. Attitudes toward literacy classes Finally. . two sets of questions were asked about literacy classes in Meitei. Others said they would pay for such a class if they were able to do so (13 percent). Nearly all participants (94 percent) said they would send their children to such a class and a majority (82 percent) said they would pay for their children to attend such a class.

Twenty-four (39 percent) gave this reason for sending their children. Fifteen (25 percent) gave this reason for sending their children. . Other Response about Response about children’s class adults’ class Yes No Yes No n = 61 n =4 n = 59 n = 6 39% 25% 10% 8% 8% 7% 2% 5% 25% 50% 25% - 29% 29% 3% 7% 7% 3% 12% 8% 3% 17% 50% 33% Figure 11 shows that. An additional five (8 percent) said they would go to a Meitei literacy class to learn the Meitei alphabet. They’ll learn Meitei at home. Figure 11 displays their reasons. the most common reason was to be able to learn Meitei. while seventeen (29 percent) gave this reason for going themselves. but that they would attend the class in order to help others. Another common reason given was simply “to learn”. They need to learn Bangla. Interestingly. Because some participants gave more than one reason. seven participants (12 percent) said they themselves would go to a Meitei literacy class in order to be able to help others. Participants were also asked why they had responded as they did regarding whether they would send their children and go themselves to Meitei literacy classes. Figure 11: Reasons participants gave for why they responded as they did to the questions about sending their children to a Meitei literacy class or attending such a class themselves Abbreviation key: n = sample size Reasons To learn their mother tongue (better) To learn It’s important to know one’s own language. and one participant said they would pay if necessary or if others do. They explained that they already know how to read and write Meitei.26 Another nine (15 percent) said they would pay if they were able to. a traditional script that is not widely used today as it has been replaced by Bangla script. while seventeen (29 percent) gave this reason for going themselves. of the sixty-one participants who said they would send their children to a Meitei literacy class and of the fifty-nine participants who said they would go to such a class themselves. There’s no use or need for this. Other common answers given were to learn to read and write Meitei and to help with development. the percentage totals are greater than 100 percent. To learn to read and write Meitei To help with development To retain their mother tongue To then be able to help others learn To learn the Meitei alphabet It’s not important.

All of these responses indicate that Meitei speakers as a whole are interested in having their children learn to read and write in Meitei. and fifty-seven participants (88 percent) said Meitei children speak Meitei as their best language. A few “other” reasons were also given.3. learning Bangla is more important or Meitei could be learned at home. This is an indication that the Meitei language is not being lost. Fifty-nine participants (91 percent) said Meitei children speak Meitei well. Language vitality Vitality according to children’s speech patterns In an attempt to assess whether Meitei will be used by mother-tongue speakers in future generations. Two participants said they would send their children to a Meitei class because “children should first learn their mother tongue and then Bangla. They seem to think this would be good for the children themselves and for the Meitei community as a whole. Meitei adults also appear to be interested in learning to read and write in Meitei. especially if teaching were to include the traditional Meitei script. Figure 12: Summary of responses to three language vitality questions Question key: Speak well = “Do young people (age 10) in your village speak your language well. Two others said they would not attend class because they were too old or because they had family issues. A summary of responses is given in figure 12.” Also. participants were asked several language-vitality questions. First they were asked about the languages that children speak and the ways in which they speak them. .27 Four participants said they would not send their children to a Meitei literacy class. The reasons they gave indicate that they feel such classes would not be important because. the way it ought to be spoken?” Another language better = “Do children in your village speak another language better than your language?” Before school = “Do many children in your village know another language before starting school?” Question Speak well Another language better Before school Yes Response No Some 91% 8% 43% 8% 88% 55% 2% 5% 2% The answers to each of the questions presented in figure 12 indicate that Meitei children are still using Meitei. and six said they would not attend an adult Meitei literacy class. two said they would attend class themselves because they thought it would be fun.3. for example. 4. but instead that it is being used fluently by children today.

along with the responses to one other question about children’s speech patterns. and another said they know Sylhetti. are given in figure 13. what language do you think those children will speak?” Question Language before school Future language Bangla 86% 8% Response Meitei Other 95% 7% - No data 10% - Figure 12 shows that twenty-eight participants (43 percent) said children in their village know another language before starting school. nearly all (95 percent) apparently believe Meitei will continue to be used by children in the future.28 On the other hand. Two straightforward questions were asked. Vitality according to literacy ability In addition to being asked about children’s speech patterns. These participants were then asked what other language(s) children know how to speak. Thus. . One said Meitei children know Arabic before starting school. Figure 13: Summary of responses to two follow-up vitality questions Question key: Language before school = [If the participant said children know another language before starting school] “Which language do children know?” Future language = “When the children in this village grow up and have children of their own. Figure 13 shows that. Their responses. There were no data for three participants (10 percent). of these twenty-eight participants. While a significant number of participants acknowledged that Meitei children are learning Bangla at an early age. participants were asked about their own literacy abilities. as the education level of Meitei youth increases. they are likely to learn more and more Bangla. although Meitei is reportedly being used fluently by children today and may likely be used by children of the next generation. twenty-eight participants (43 percent) said Meitei children do know how to speak another language before starting school. they will perhaps be less apt to use Meitei widely. twenty-four (86 percent) said the children know Bangla. As a result. which is the medium of education for most. Their responses are given in figure 14. Actually. it is very possible that they will also become more fluent in Bangla.

according to age Question Meitei literate: overall Younger Older Bangla literate: overall Younger Older Response Can read. while many more (88 percent) said they are able to read and write in Bangla. . 43 percent said they are not literate in Meitei. This suggests that even those who say they are literate in Meitei may not be as fluent or as comfortable in reading and writing Meitei as they are in reading and writing Bangla. not surprisingly. all of the younger people said they are literate in Bangla. These are displayed in figure 15. Most answers regarding Bangla literacy were not qualified in such a way. however. thirty-four (52 percent) said they are able to read and write in Meitei. This compares with 73 percent of the older people who said they are literate in Bangla. Twenty-one of the thirtyfive younger participants (60 percent) said they are literate in Meitei. only 14 percent of the younger participants said they are not literate in Meitei. younger people are more likely to consider themselves to be literate. Figure 15: Summary of responses to questions about literacy abilities. Among the older participants. a number of participants qualified their answers about Meitei literacy by saying they knew “some” or a “little” or by saying they could read but not write in Meitei. Younger people also report a higher literacy rate in Bangla. Little can't write Yes Some 52% 60% 43% 5% 6% 3% 12% 14% 10% 3% 6% - 28% 14% 43% 88% 100% 73% - 3% 7% - 9% 20% No Looking at participants’ literacy abilities according to age shows that. In other words. Looking at these answers according to age also shows some telling patterns. Little can't write 12% 3% 3% - No 28% 9% Among the sixty-five participants.29 Figure 14: Summary of responses to questions about literacy abilities Question key: Meitei literate = “Can you read and write letters and messages in your mother tongue?” Bangla literate = “Can you read and write letters and messages in Bangla?” Question Meitei literate Bangla literate Yes Some 52% 88% 5% - Response Can read. and another 26 percent said they are literate to some extent. In fact. Also.

their language attitudes. Procedures First. In addition.1.1.5.1.30 Because younger people are more literate in Bangla than in Meitei. and 4. the questions were generally asked in Bangla. Bilingualism study Bilingualism refers to the ability of an individual or an entire speech community to handle communication in a language other than the mother tongue. The results of these questions have been discussed in sections 4.1. Bilingualism study. Thus. Among the Meitei in Bangladesh.. and vitality study.2. 5.3. Study of the dialects of the language. it is likely that they will learn a broader vocabulary and become increasingly fluent in Bangla. Over time. and I. There were also two dialect boundary questions in the questionnaire.. and the vitality of the Meitei language. This was done through a series of five questions. Results For all five questions regarding perceived bilingualism. this will likely be a threat to the vitality of the Meitei language in Bangladesh. Individual responses and biographical data for each participant are given in appendices F.1.3. respectively. Perceived bilingualism 5. As mentioned in that section. which were administered orally as part of the sociolinguistic questionnaire discussed in section 4.2. the questions were asked in Meitei. Other aspects of language The sociolinguistic questionnaire contained questions about Meitei speakers’ languageuse patterns. 5. regarding the questionnaire sample. two types of bilingualism data were collected: perceived bilingualism and measured Bangla bilingualism. 5. Language use. Discussion of sample The five questions that asked participants about their perceived ability in various languages were part of the sociolinguistic questionnaire discussed in section 4. The questionnaire also contained several questions about Meiteis’ speaking and comprehension abilities in other languages.2. responses that are notably different according to a particular demographic factor will be mentioned. along with the results of a Bangla bilingualism test that was administered to one hundred Meitei speakers.3..3.1. 5.3.3. data about participants’ perceived ability in various languages were collected. the demographic profile for the sixty-five participants is the same as given in section 4. The results of these questions are discussed in section 5. along with a discussion of the results from wordlist comparisons and intelligibility testing.4. The responses to these questions have been discussed in section 3. data will be presented for all sixty-five participants combined. If a given participant was not fluent in Bangla. . 4. 4. attitudes.4.

The results of these two questions indicate that Bangla is by far the most common second language among Meitei speakers in Bangladesh. two participants (3 percent) said they cannot speak any language other than their mother tongue. Of the respondents who said they speak Bangla. the former most likely being learned as a subject in school and the latter most likely being learned through watching Hindi television. The age at which Meitei speakers start to learn a second language other than Bangla is older. Figure 16: Summary of responses to questions about what languages people speak and when they learned them Question key: Languages speak = “Other than your mother tongue. Finally. Twenty-seven participants (42 percent) said they are able to speak this language. Their responses are given in figure 17. English. the four people who said they speak a language other than Bangla. This is a reflection of the age at which many Meitei speakers start attending Bangla-medium government schools. while seventeen participants (26 percent) said they can speak Hindi. Languages in the “other” category include Arabic. or Hindi learned this language as adults. A summary of responses to these questions is given in figure 16. Oriya. Thus. the average age at which they started was 6 years old. The second most common language that Meitei speakers reportedly are able to speak is English. and Urdu. Meitei speakers in Bangladesh feel they are bilingual and even multilingual.31 The most basic question about perceived bilingual ability simply asked participants what languages they speak. . what languages do you speak?” Average age learned = “At what age did you begin to learn each?” Question Languages speak Average age learned Bangla English Response Hindi 95% 6 42% 12 26% 14 Other None 6% 24 3% - Participants’ responses in figure 16 indicate that nearly all Meitei speakers in Bangladesh feel they can speak Bangla. For each of these four languages. They reportedly start to learn English and/or Hindi around class 8. Naga. one participant named that language as one he could speak. as nearly all speak some Bangla and as many also speak other languages. A question followed that asked participants when they began to learn each language they are able to speak. It is also apparently the language that Meitei speakers learn earlier than any other second language. as sixty-two participants (95 percent) responded in this way. Finally. Participants were also asked to name their most fluent and second most fluent languages.

more people will consider Bangla as their best language and Meitei as their second-best language. This question was not applicable to the two participants (3 percent) who said they do not speak any language other than Meitei (figure 16). “Can you always say what you want to say in your second-best language?” Yes Response No NA 80% 17% 3% The question in figure 18 is an attempt to ascertain how confident Meitei speakers are using a second language. Of the fifty-nine participants (91 percent) who said Meitei is their best language. . This could mean that they are most fluent in speaking Meitei or that they are most comfortable using Meitei. they were then asked about their perceived ability in that language. after participants named their second-best language. Figure 18 displays a summary of responses to this question. This indicates that Meitei speakers in general are pretty comfortable using a second language to communicate.32 Figure 17: Summary of responses to questions about language fluency Question key: Best language = “What language do you speak best?” Second best = “What language do you speak second best?” Response key: NA = Not applicable Response Question Meitei Bangla English NA 91% 6% 9% 88% 3% 3% Best language Second best Participants’ responses to these two questions about language fluency indicate that most Meitei speakers think Meitei is their best language. All six have been educated at least through passing their SSC exams. Six participants (9 percent) said Bangla is their best language. however. Also. at least in the domains in which a second language is needed. and they have lived outside of Meitei villages for a number of years. all said their second-best language is Bangla. Of these six participants. but the other two said their second-best language is English. It should be noted that these two are a father and son. Figure 18: Summary of responses to the question. that as they become increasingly educated in Bangla-medium schools. A majority of participants (80 percent) said they can always say what they want to say in their second-best language. four said their second-best language is Meitei. Finally. five of these six were younger than age 40. It appears that today most Bangladeshi Meiteis still consider Meitei to be their best language. It is possible.

sixty were younger (defined as less than 40 years old). eight (80 percent) were less educated. This one is a young more-highly educated woman.2. contains the final form of the Bangla SRT. Also. It can be assumed. Discussion of sample SRT methodology was developed as a means of testing a target community’s level of bilingualism in a national language or in another language of wider communication. or had not passed their SSC exams.2. The idea behind the SRT is basic. Furthermore. then. participants listen to each of fifteen carefully-selected sentences one at a time and are asked to repeat exactly what they have heard. Figure 19: Score ranges on the Bangla SRT corresponding to RPE levels SRT raw score range Equivalent RPE level 0–2 3–8 9 – 14 15 – 21 22 – 27 28 – 33 34 – 39 40 – 45 1 1+ 2 2+ 3 3+ 4 4+ Summary description of proficiency level Minimal. Appendix G.2.33 Of the 11 participants (17 percent) who said they cannot always say what they want to say in their second-best language. The total point value is also expressed as an equivalent bilingualism proficiency level. A total of one hundred Meitei speakers were tested using the Bangla SRT. among the ten participants who said Bangla is their second-best language. based on the participant’s ability to mimic a given sentence. The results are then expressed as a point total out of 45 possible points. limited proficiency Limited.1.1. Each repeated sentence is scored according to a four-point scale (0–3). the target community was mother-tongue Meitei speakers living in Bangladesh. Figure 19 displays SRT score ranges with the equivalent RPE levels for the Bangla SRT (Kim 2003). while the other . Among the one hundred participants. This was done through the use of a Bangla SRT. that as Meitei speakers become more and more educated. basic proficiency Good. Measured Bangla bilingualism 5. they will become increasingly fluent in and comfortable with speaking Bangla. while the other one said it is Meitei. basic proficiency Good. 5. and the national language that was tested was Bangla. gives a detailed description of the RPE levels and of SRT testing.2. In this case. and forty were older.2. or reported proficiency evaluation (RPE) level. ten said their second-best language is Bangla. Fifty-five participants were male and forty-five were female. general proficiency Very good. Procedures The second type of bilingualism data that was collected was participants’ measured ability in Bangla. sixty participants had been educated through less than class 10. general proficiency Excellent proficiency Approaching native speaker proficiency 5. basic proficiency Adequate. and Appendix G.

Three test sites were selected. This village is located on the east side of Sylhet city. the test sites were chosen to represent all Meitei villages in Bangladesh. The third test site was Shivganj in Katowali subdistrict of Sylhet district. . while the other (Kunagaon) is largely Muslim. educated speech quite well and seldom requires repetition (Radloff 1991:153). It also gives the aggregate score discussed in the previous paragraph.3. Finally. the average Meitei speaker in Bangladesh is able to communicate well in Bangla in a fairly broad range of domains and depths of conversation. someone who communicates at an RPE level 3 is able to understand normal. sex. Two (Humerjan and Kunagaon) lie in Kamalganj subdistrict in Moulvibazar district. Discussion of the sample. and religion shows that there are certain groups of Meitei speakers who tend to speak Bangla better than other groups. These one hundred participants were chosen in an effort to test a demographic variety of Meitei speakers so as to then be able to draw sound conclusions about Bangla bilingualism for the Meitei population as a whole.8 out of a possible 45 points.3. Two villages were selected in this area because one (Humerjan) is composed primarily of Hindu and Apokpa people. As mentioned in section 5. Furthermore. thirty participants were Muslim. there were one hundred mothertongue Meitei speakers who took the Bangla bilingualism test. This area is the heart of Meitei life in Bangladesh and is where many Meitei villages are. This section therefore presents the findings first as an aggregate of all one hundred participants and then according to various combinations of demographic factors. thirty-one were Apokpa. and their biodata is in appendix I. described in figure 19 as “good. Results As is the case with perceived bilingual ability. Each participant’s SRT test scores are given in appendix G. measured bilingual ability frequently correlates with certain demographic factors. education.2.34 forty participants had achieved at least SSC pass. Similarly. and one was Buddhist.6.” A person who speaks a second language at this level is one whose vocabulary is adequate to cope with many situations. These 100 speakers had an average SRT score of 25. and it was chosen because Meitei speakers there may have been exposed to more Bangla or Sylhetti than those Meiteis who live in other areas. 5.2. but they could easily understand them. Thus. This SRT score equates to an RPE level 3. Mother-tongue Bangla speakers would know that it is not their mother tongue. Looking at the SRT data according to the four demographic factors of age. thirtyeight were Hindu.2. general proficiency. Figure 20 gives statistics for each of two groups according to each of these four factors.

described as “good.5 SD = 11.9 on the 45point SRT. although for males this is a very high level 3.5.3 n = 60 s = 21. which is briefly described as “very good. The fifty-five male Meitei speakers averaged an SRT score of 27.7 SD = 10.7 points between the two averages.9 SD = 7.8 s = 27. and lesser-educated speakers’ average score was a full ten points lower than the average more highly educated Meitei speaker’s score.0002.8 RPE = 3 SD = 10. This shows that age is a statistically significant factor in determining a Meitei speaker’s ability to speak Bangla.8.5 s = 23.” In fact. general proficiency. however. The most significant demographic factor studied was education. there is a difference in the SRT scores and their corresponding RPE levels. Both of these correspond to an RPE level 3. the twenty-three lowest scores were of lesser educated.7 s = 25.2 SD = 11.” The lesser educated Meitei speakers. Running a t-test on these scores results in p = .8 on the SRT.4 The numbers in figure 20 show that within three of the demographic factors studied.35 Figure 20: Bangla SRT results according to demographic categories Abbreviation key: n = sample size s = average SRT score RPE = corresponding RPE level SD = standard deviation Overall Age Younger Older Education Educated Uneducated n = 60 n = 40 n = 40 n = 100 s = 21.079. education is a very significant factor in a Meitei person’s ability to speak Bangla. with time Meitei speakers in general are becoming more bilingual in Bangla. which corresponds to a low RPE level 3.8 s = 25. Thus. while the forty-five female Meitei speakers averaged an SRT score of 23.8 for a difference of 3. showing that the sex of a Meitei speaker is not a statistically significant factor in determining how well he or she will do on the Bangla SRT. scored an average of only 21. general proficiency.3 Sex Male Female Religion Islam Other n = 55 n = 45 n = 30 n = 70 s = 27. Figure 20 shows that Meitei speakers who have at least passed their SSC exams averaged an SRT score of 31.2 s =31.0 RPE = 3 RPE = 3 RPE = 3+ RPE = 3 SD = 8.8 s = 28. This is not surprising since the medium of education for most Meiteis is Bangla. A two-sample t-test of the scores between more highly-educated and lesser-educated participants results in p = 9. This score corresponds to an RPE level 3+. .7 points. The sex of a participant was not such an important factor in how well he or she performed on the Bangla SRT. Furthermore. running a two-sample t-test on this data results in p = .9 SD = 5.2 SD = 9. respectively. Thus. while the older participants scored an average of 21.9 RPE = 3 RPE = 3+ RPE = 2+ RPE = 3+ SD = 9. They are moving from having only basic proficiency to having a general proficiency in Bangla. These scores correspond to RPE levels of 3+ and 2+. and the difference between the average SRT scores is 7. among the one hundred SRT participants.1E-9.2. Looking at the demographic factor of age as an example shows that younger participants scored an average of 28.

even those . education.3.3 RPE = 3+ SD = 4.1 n = 10 s = 30.8 n = 14 s = 19.7 points on the SRT. more highly educated females were tested. According to these two measures of difference—SRT scores and of probability levels— then.3. Figure 21: Bangla SRT results according to combinations of demographic categories Abreviation key: n = sample size s = average SRT score RPE = corresponding RPE level SD = standard deviation Male Female Educated Younger Older Uneducated Younger Older n = 15 s = 32. respectively. and Buddhism. Figure 21 shows that. respectively.9 RPE = 2+ SD = 9. This means that the most bilingual group of Meitei speakers can speak Bangla with “very good.36 Similarly. general proficiency. It is not surprising that younger.262.6 RPE = 3 SD = 7. and sex result in eight possible combinations. basic proficiency. Looking at all the possible combinations of the three remaining factors of age. and sex reveals some interesting implications. The thirty Muslim participants averaged 27.0 SD = 6. no older.3 RPE = 2+ n = 14 s = 20. Conversely. This latter category includes followers of Hinduism. Though their corresponding RPE levels are different at 3+ and 3.0 RPE = 3+ n = 16 s = 26.0 SD = 11. These scores correspond to RPE levels 3+ and 2+. Apokpa. and the non-Muslim participants averaged 25.0 points.3 n = 16 s = 15.7 points. showing that religion is not a significant factor in determining a Meitei speaker’s ability in Bangla. the religion of a participant does not appear to be a very useful factor in predicting a Meitei speaker’s ability in Bangla. older.3 RPE = 2+ SD =10.1 n=0 The three factors of age. This is because older Meitei women who have passed their SSC exams are still rare. a t-test results in p = .” It also means that even the least bilingual group of Meitei speakers is able to speak Bangla with “good.” In other words. Moreover. the difference in the average SRT scores is only 2.9 n = 15 s = 32. These results are given in figure 21.8 RPE = 3+ SD = 5. education. and none were found for testing. religion is the least important of the four factors in determining a mother-tongue Meitei speaker’s ability in Bangla. more highly educated males performed the best on the SRT with an average score of 32. less-educated females performed the poorest with an average SRT score of 15. among these eight possible combinations.

and she scored 21 points. only one had been educated through her SSC exams. A look at how the one hundred participants scored on the SRT shows that even today some mother-tongue Meitei speakers speak Bangla basically as well as mother-tongue Bangla speakers. then the Bangla ability of the population as a whole can be projected. Because most young Meitei speakers today are being educated at least through their SSC exams and because there is apparently little difference between males’ and females’ ability in Bangla. is depicted by the graph in figure 23. This again shows that as more and more Meitei speakers are educated through at least passing their SSC exams. this group of Meitei speakers also has “very good. The range for individual scores is given in figure 22. twenty-five participants scored 0–21 points on the SRT. . The younger. which is based on the numbers in figure 22. more highly educated females scored nearly as well as their male counterparts. meaning that they were at a level 3 or 3+ in Bangla with “good” or “very good. general proficiency” in Bangla. This projection. If the assumption is made that the SRT sample is representative of all Meitei speakers in Bangladesh. This means that nearly one-quarter of the participants had excellent proficiency in Bangla or were “approaching native speaker proficiency.37 Meitei speakers who are least likely to speak Bangla well could likely manage a routine conversation in Bangla without too much difficulty. Among these. With an average SRT score of 32. Figure 22: Range of individual SRT scores according to RPE levels RPE level SRT scores Participants 1 0–2 1% 1+ 2 2+ 3 3–8 9 – 14 15 – 21 22 – 27 8% 7% 9% 25% 3+ 4 4+ 28 – 33 34 – 39 40 – 45 28% 18% 4% Figure 22 shows that four participants scored 40–45 points on the 45-point Bangla SRT.0 and an RPE level of 3+.” Another fifty-three participants scored 22–33 points on the SRT. the Meitei population as a whole will have “very good” proficiency in Bangla. general proficiency. at the high end of level 2+. they will become increasingly bilingual in Bangla. Another eighteen participants scored 34–39 points.” Conversely. it is very likely that in another generation.

and another 22 percent of the population may be able to speak at a level 4 or 4+. and some would even be able to understand uncommon words and idioms (Radloff 1991:153). Few mother-tongue Meitei speakers appear to speak Bangla with the limited proficiency representative of RPE levels 1 or 1+. and their speech would be easily understandable. They can easily understand Bangla in a variety of situations. In other words. more often than not. Possibly over half of the population is able to speak at level 3 or 3+. Their vocabulary would be adequate. and they are generally understood by mother-tongue Bangla speakers.38 Figure 23: Projected Bangla bilingualism among Meitei speakers in Bangladesh 30% 28 25 Percentage of population 25% 20% 18 15% 9 10% 8 7 4 5% 1 0% 1 1+ 2 2+ 3 3+ 4 4+ R P E level The graph in figure 23 shows that more mother-tongue Meitei speakers are able to speak Bangla at a RPE level 3 or 3+ than at any other level. then. it is likely that future generations of Meitei speakers will become increasingly bilingual in Bangla. They would be able to understand educated speech quite well. . about three-fourths of the population of Meitei speakers are able to use Bangla with ease. Because most Meitei people in this generation are attending school through class 10 and then passing their SSC exams. they are also younger. that the majority of Meitei speakers in Bangladesh have a good command of Bangla. These people tend to have passed their SSC exams. Among the remaining one-quarter of the population. The measured Bangla bilingualism testing shows. most would have a basic command in Bangla and should be able to communicate about everyday topics in Bangla. and.

If this is successful. combined with their impressive education records. Given these recommendations. the children could later learn the traditional Meitei script as well. Some of these factors have been discussed in this report. if successful. we would recommend that literacy classes be started to help Meitei children learn to read and write in their mother tongue. Meitei parents and community leaders seem to understand the importance of education. These are fine activities. Other factors that could come into play when recommending certain types of language development programs include the existence of an established orthography for the language. the Meitei community in Bangladesh appears to be fairly bilingual in Bangla. These include dialect boundaries. These classes could also be adapted to serve as adult literacy classes if and after the children's classes are received well. When these leaders have been asked how they would be willing to help. again. Based on these factors. Such classes could first start in a pilot location and. attitudes towards various languages and language programs.39 6. Among all of these factors. one other factor needs to be mentioned. their adequate ability in spoken Bangla. however. These should be taught using Bangla script. the motivation and desire on the part of Meitei community leaders. the extent and types of literature already available in the language. An opposing factor. During these interactions. and a desire to . Presently. and they expressed interest in sending their children to an additional class outside of Bangla-medium school in which their children could learn to read and write Meitei. and since that is what is used widely in Manipur state. We have interacted with Meitei leaders not only during this survey fieldwork but also for several months leading up to the fieldwork and for the months that have followed. We understand that many of these leaders have very full lives as many have families and also are involved with businesses. and level of bilingualism among the community. attitudes towards their own language are positive. since that is what the children will be learning simultaneously in government schools. A number of adults also expressed interest in learning the traditional Meitei script. however. indicate that the Meitei in Bangladesh could succeed by using Bangla in the future generation. which is exemplified by the high rate of Meitei children who attend school for at least ten years. Furthermore. Recommendations Knowing the type and extent of a language development program to recommend for any language community is dependent upon many factors. resources available within the language community. a few in particular stand out. as a word of caution to literacy workers and/or linguists who may consider starting a language development program among the Meitei. vitality of the language in question. is that Meitei people continue to speak Meitei widely in their homes and communities. and motivation for various types of programs. a lack of motivation seemed apparent. We mention this. could later expand to include more areas in which Bangladeshi Meiteis live. For example. a number of leaders have shown interest in the types of work that SIL does and have expressed a desire to have SIL help establish Meitei literacy classes in their communities. They have positive attitudes about their mother tongue. which have shown themselves to be prominent in this survey. and we do not fault them at all if they do not have a vision for Meitei mother-tongue literacy.

2. Standard procedures for counting lexical similarity B. Language vitality responses F. Participant biodata questionnaire E.1. Humerjan HTT validation participants D.1.1.2. Post-RTT questionnaire E.2.3.2.2. Post-RTT questionnaire responses D.3.4. Questionnaires E. Meitei HTT: Humerjan C. Wordlists C.1.3.1.3.3. We therefore recommend that literacy workers and/or linguists who seek to help the Meitei in Bangladesh should first try to ensure the support of influential people within the Meitei community. Scoring and answer notes D. RTT answers and scores D. Language attitudes towards literacy classes responses F.2. RTT C. Standard RTT procedures C. Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Humerjan text D. Post-Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Humerjan text D. but support from community leaders may be lacking at first. Meitei HTT: Imphal D.2. Post-HTT questionnaire responses D.3. Wordlist notes B. Sociolinguistic questionnaire responses F.4. International phonetic alphabet B. Dialect responses and bilingualism responses .2.2.5. Humerjan HTT validation E.4.2. Imphal HTT validation E. Post-Imphal HTT validation participants D.4. Questions and answers C. Appendices A. Community Information Questionnaire F. Post-Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Imphal text E.2.4.40 become literate is high.1.2. Text of the story C.2. Sociolinguistic questionnaire E. Imphal HTT validation participants D. Post-Humerjan HTT validation participants D. Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Imphal text D.3. Responses on topics of language use and attitudes towards language use and other languages F.4. Wordlists B.2.2.1. RTT scores D.1.1.2. Post-HTT questionnaires E.3.2.1.2.

3. HTT participant biodata I.3.6. Choto Dhamai H. Meitei community information H. Standard SRT procedures G. Wordlist and CIQ participant biodata I.5. Shivnagar H. Kunagaon I. Bangla SRT participant biodata .1. Biodata notes I.2. SRT scores H. Bangla SRT G.1.1.2. Mukabil H.2. Bangla SRT G. Shivganj H.4. RTT participant biodata I.41 G.4. Sociolinguistic questionnaire participant biodata I.6. Humerjan H.3. Participant biodata I.5.

42 A. International phonetic alphabet (revised 1993) .

however. Normally. The procedure was repeated for each pair of dialects. Phonetically similar segments (of the sort which frequently are found as allophones) which are seen to correspond in at least three pairs of words Category 2 All other phonetically similar pairs of segments which are not. A phonetic chart presenting the transcription conventions used in this survey report is given in appendix A. This list is presented in appendix B. Rather.3. a single term is recorded for each item of the wordlist. supported by at least three pairs of words Category 3 a. Vocoid (vowel-like) segments which match exactly or differ by only one articulatory feature c.43 B.1. the percentage of items judged similar was calculated. Wordlists B. For example. A segment which is matched by no segment in the corresponding item After pairs of items on two wordlists had been determined to be phonetically similar or not. The list is then checked with a second speaker. No attempt is made to identify genuine cognates based on a network of sound correspondences. if two items of eight segments in length are compared. However. Any differences in responses are examined in order to identify (1) incorrect responses due to misunderstanding of the elicitation cue. The pair-by-pair counting procedure was These standard procedures are taken largely from Frank Blair (1990) Survey on a shoestring. (2) loan words offered in response to the language of elicitation when indigenous terms are actually still in use. The wordlists are compared to determine the extent to which the vocabulary of each pair of speech forms is similar. two items are judged to be phonetically similar if at least half of the segments compared are the same (category 1) and of the remaining segments at least half are rather similar (category 2). Contoid (consonant-like) segments which match exactly b. and (3) terms which are simply at different places along the generic-specific lexical scale. In standard procedure. according to the criteria stated above. the 307 words are elicited from a person who has grown up in the target locality. The criteria applied are as follows: Category 1 a. chapter 3. Standard procedures for counting lexical similarity A standard list of 307 vocabulary items was collected from speakers at geographically representative Meitei villages in Bangladesh. Pairs of segments which are not phonetically similar b. . more than one term is recorded for a single item when synonymous terms are apparently in general use or when more than one specific term occupies the semantic area of a more generic item on the wordlist. these words are judged to be similar if at least four segments are virtually the same and at least two more are rather similar.

are field transcriptions and have not undergone thorough phonological and grammatical analysis. it was not . Thus. we present a few notes on the way the comparisons were made. These elicitations are transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet shown in appendix A. Where there are no elicitations for a given entry. In those few cases. B. Following each of the 307 English glosses are the elicitations from the wordlist collection sites. the problematic lexical items were excluded from the lexical similarity counts. Wordlist notes A few other comments about wordlist procedures are in order for this survey. Complexities usually arise when two people’s wordlists are used to make the comparisons. a computer program written by SIL (Wimbish 1989) for this purpose. Occasionally. due to differences in their mother tongues. These factors can all affect their IPA transcriptions. there were bound to be differences in the transcriptions. those differences were then discounted. and their previous exposure to the target language. since the two wordlists from Manipur state were taken by an Indian surveyor. These numbers represent the wordlist site of that particular elicitation. The codes for these wordlist sites are as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Bangla (standard Dhaka variety) Mukabil Humerjan Shivganj Shivnagar Choto Dhamai Kunagaon Lilong Bazaar (Manipur State) Imphal (Manipur State) Finally. the word was not used for one of two main reasons: (1) the word was judged to be confusing or imprecise to several of the informants. The wordlist data and transcribed texts.2. This was the case for this survey. Following each elicitation is a list of one or more numbers underlined and in brackets. or (2) the word consistently elicited words borrowed from English. one or more of the standard 307 lexical items were found to be so problematic that consistent elicitation was impossible or evaluation of similarity became anomalous. because while it was consistently used in the Manipur wordlists. Wordlists are given in appendix B. Thus. vowel length was discounted as a marked difference. For each gloss all elicitations which have the same preceding number are considered to be phonetically similar and are grouped together. as included in the subsequent appendices.44 greatly facilitated by the use of WordSurv©.3. In cases where subtle differences in the transcriptions were judged to be easily accountable by the individual “preferences” of the surveyor. Each elicitation is preceded by a number. their ability to hear and discern sounds.

45 “heard” as a feature when collecting the Bangladesh wordlists. We feel comfortable with the decision. by-the-book method. especially in light of the fact that the RTTs showed easy comprehension of the story from Manipur state. but in order to minimize the possibility of overemphasized differences between the two transcription styles. wordmedially and word-finally. [] and []. those differences were discounted. especially since the Manipuri wordlists used [] everywhere: word-initially. Also. Wordlists 6 rain 1 sky 1 aka 2 asman [0] 3 t  3 atija [16] i [78] 1 bri 2 n 2 no [0] [78] [123456] [23456] 7 rainbow 2 sun 1 1 udo [0] 2 nmt [7] 2 numt 3 n [123456] [8] ad 2 ta [123456] 2 t [8] 2 h [0] t  h [7] 4 star 1 taa 2 t wnmtsk 2 t wnmtsk 2 t awaimaa h 2 tsmt  3 nodabi [234] h st a h [78] [16] [5] 1 bata 2 noit [6] 2 nst [78] [0] 2 nuit 2 nuit [1245] [3] [6] t awamasa 2 t awamaa 2 t awanmeia h 9 lightning [7] [8] h 2 [3] h h [145] [2] 5 cloud 1 m 2 no 3 nt kup 4 umd a [0] h h [0] le tsl 1 bddut mkano 2 namt a kupp [8] [7] h 2 nt xkp 2 nt  2 nod a kupp hw h [0] [1] [7] [8] h [34] 2 not a kupp [6] 2 nut a kapp [5] 3 [123456] h i [0] h 8 wind 1 h h 2 4 3 moon rd nu h h nudabi [2] .3. [ei] and [ei]. B. or [ou]. and [r] and [] were counted as category 1 segments for similar reasons. and [ow] were counted as category 1 segments because it was obviously only a matter of transcription style. [ou]. It is acknowledged that this is not the ideal.

46 10 thunder 16 mud 1 m don 2 nok akp 2 nuk akp h h [2] h [5] 2 nuk ob 3 nit ouk ob h h [0] 3 nt  xb 4 bz h w [8] 11 sea 1 1 2 mudo [04] smd [78] daija 2 dija 3 ipak [1] [6] [5] 12 mountain 1 paha 2  [0] [123456] 2 tsi 3 ts [8] w [7] 13 water 1 pani [0] 2 s [7] [8] 2 i [123456] 14 river [0] 2 tul [7] 2 tun [8] 2 turl 2 turn [6] [12345] mai [78] 2 leik om [1456] [6] [7] h leik um h [23] 17 dust 1 d ula [0] 2 p ul [78] h h 2 uul [12] 2 ufun [5] 2 up un 3 h [3] leip un h [2456] 18 stone 1 pat or 2 lu 2 h [0] [1] nu [2345678] 19 sand 1 bali [0] 2 l  2 leioi 1 i i [78] up un h [12456] [3] [0] ona [0] 1 una [2] 2 ana [13456] 2 sn [78] 1 lupa [1] 1 rupa [02456] 2 kondak 21 silver 3 15 soil/ground 1 l k m [0] i h 20 gold si nodi 2 3 2 1 kada 2 [134] h 1 silb [3] [78] 22 today 2 laibak [1] leibak 1 2 [236] ad leipak 2 2 [45] si 2 s [7] [1] 2 ahi [1] 2 ai [2345] 3 laibak 3 l m 3 leibak i i [78] [236] 2 i [0] [8] [6] .

47 23 yesterday 30 noon 1 tokal / kalke 2 aa 2  [3] 2  2 aa [8] [0] 1 dupur 2 nut n 3 numtjub [12456] 24 tomorrow 1 aamikal 2 hj [0] [78] haj [123456] 1 hpt [78] 1 hapta [146] 1 pta [0235] 26 month ma [8] 31 evening anda [4] 1 ond a 2 numt tabi [6] 2 numt tab [13] h [02] 3 daaba 4 numid m 5 25 week 1 [7] [7] 1 2 [0] h [5] i l  w [7] 32 night 1 rat [0] 2 h [7] 2 ah [1] [0] 3 numid [8] 2 ta [123456] 3 numida [6] 2 t [8] 3 nuda [2345] 2 t  h h h [7] 33 paddy rice 1 b or h 2 hi 2 tsh d an h [0] 2 p [78] [123456] 2 p ou [78] 3 fou 1 27 year [0] 4 h w h au [2456] [3] [1] 28 day 1 dn 2 nmt [0123] 34 uncooked rice [7] 1 al [0] [123456] 2 numt [258] 2  3 noma [4] 2 ts 4 not n h [6] kal 2 juk 2 ajuk ts [8] 35 cooked rice 29 morning 1 2 [7] [0] 1 b at [0] [78] 2 ak [123456] [123456] 2 tsk h [78] [78] .

48 36 wheat 43 tree 1 m 2 hu [0123456] [78] 37 corn 1 b ua 2 udak h [0] 1 a 2 upal 3 pamp i [1] h [6] pnbi 3 upambi u [8] [2345] [7] 2 tsuzk 3 udak [6] 3 ukiak [5] 1 [234] 2 m 2 ms [78] 3 ukuak 4 udak 4 [0] 3 4 [1] h 44 branch [1] udak [6] al [0] [8] [7] 2 masa [6] 2 maa [12345] 1 pata [0] 2 mn 38 potato 1 1 lu 45 leaf [78] alu [0123456] 39 cauliflower 1 p ulkopi 2 kbit mtst 3 kobil h [0123456] h i [8] [7] 2 mana [12345] 2 mna [6] 2 un [8] kaa [0] [7] 46 thorn 1 40 cabbage 1 bad akopi h 2 kbi 3 kbip un [0123456] [8] h 2 tnk a [123456] 2 tik  [78] h h [7] 47 root 41 eggplant 1 bun 2 k mn h [0] k aml [1] 2 k amn [23456] h mul 2 m 2 [78] 2 h 1 42 peanut badam 2 l bkhw [0123] i i [123456] ba [0] 2 wa 2 w [78] 1 p l [0] 2 mahei [123456] [7] 2 leibak hawai 3 hw th i maa [78] 48 bamboo 1 1 [0] [8] [456] 49 fruit 2 h uh i [123456] [78] .

49 50 jackfruit 56 sugarcane 1 ka al 2 h p 2 t aibo h 1 ak [0] [8] 2 u [13456] [1456] 3 tsu [0] i h 2 t  b 2 t eibo h i [23] 57 betelnut 1 51 coconut (ripe) 1 naikl 2 dobi dubi 2 jobi [0] jubi 2 zub upai [0] 2 kua 3 k mu [123456] w [78] [23] [456] 58 lime for betelnut [1] 2 [78] [7] h 2 h [7] 1 unu [12345678] 1 un [0] [8] 59 liquor 52 banana 1 1 kla 2 lp  2 ju 2 ju [7] 3 du [23456] 2 laoi [1] 2 lafoi [3] 2 lap oi h [2456] 53 mango am [0] 2 hainou 2 h n 2 hno i w [78] [3] hnou [2] 2 heino [56] 54 flower p ul 2 l 2 h i lei dud h [0] 2 aom 2 sm 1 tl [0] 2 t [78] [123456] [78] [14] 2 1 [18] 60 milk 1 1 [0] [78] [0] h i md 61 oil 2 h w t au h [123456] 62 meat mao [0] 1 [78] 2 a 3 s [123456] 4 [0] [123456] [7] dum [8] lbon / 55 seed 1 bid [0] 2 mu [78] 2 mau [4] 2 mu [12356] 63 salt 1 2 t um h nun [12345678] [0] .

50 64 onion 71 monkey 1 pad 2 tlh 2 tilou [0] w [78] [123456] 1 banor 2 j 2 jo 3 [0] [78] [16] do [2345] 65 garlic 1 run 72 rabbit [0] 2 anam [12] 1 k ro 2 anm [3456] 2 t b [7] 2 tsnm [78] 2 t b [8] 66 red pepper 1 h [0] h h 73 snake lal mo [0] 1 ap [0] 2 mk [8] 2 ll [16] 2 mk [7] 2 ln [234578] 2 mook [123456] 74 crocodile 1 kumir [02345] [0] 2 koial [16] [123456] 3 mb 3 umb i 67 elephant 1 hati 2 amu 2 smu [78] 1 ba [0] 1 kkki 2 kai [12] 2 dum 68 tiger [7] h [8] 75 house lizard h 2 k 2 ki i [78] [3456] 69 bear [0] [16] 2 um [2345] 2 tsm [78] 76 turtle 1 b aluk 2 aom h 1 kt op [123456] 2 t u [8] 2 t u [8] 2 t eu [123456] [0] 2 sm 2 swm [7] 1 hon [0] 2 adi 70 deer h h [0] [7] h h 77 frog 2 szi 2 adi [13456] [78] [2] 1 bæ 2 h 2 [0] i haoi [78] [123456] .

51 78 dog 84 goat 1 kukur [0] 1  aol [0] 2 hui [123456] 2 hm [78] 2 h i [78] 2 ham [123456] ukor [0] w 79 cat 1 h 85 pig bial [0] 1 2 h d [8] 2 k 2 h d [7] 2 uok 2 haodo 1 idur [0] 2 ui [123456] u w [478] [12356] [123456] 86 rat 80 cow 1 ou [0] 2 al [1] 2 an [23456] 3 an [23456] 3 sn 2 [78] 81 buffalo 1 mohi 2  2 ioi i [0] [78] [123456] utsi [78] 87 chicken (adult female) 1 muri 2 l 3 dl (muuk) [16] [2] 3 dn [345] 4 dn [345] 4 jn [8] n [7] 1 im [0] 5 82 horn (of buffalo) 1 i 88 egg [0] 2 mtsi 2 mts [7] 2 dum 2 mai [123] 2 um [456] 2 um 2 jum 2 mi [8] 2 83 tail 1 ld [0] 2 mm i [8] 89 fish 2 mm [7] 1 i [345] [7] [16] [8] maum [2] ma [0] h 2 mamai [1] 2  [123456] 2 mamei [2345] 2  [8] [6] 2 2 mami  [7] [0] .

52 90 duck 97 ant 1 ha 2 nu 2 nu 2 1 pipa 2 kkts [78] [8] 2 kak [126] [123456] 2 [0] [7] anu 91 bird [0] ka [345] 98 mosquito 1 pak i [0] 1 ma 2 uk [123456] 2 kok 2 utsk [78] 2 kuok h 3 [0] [12346] [5] k [78] [0] 92 insect 1 poka 99 head [0] 2 tl [6] 1 mat a 2 tn [12345] 2 mai 2 tin [8] 3 kk 3 tnk [7] 93 cockroach 3 tlapoka 2 t aoabi 3 k albi [0] h h [16] [2345] 4 t  tn 5 k mbi h w kk [7] [8] 1 muk 2 m 2 mai [8] 94 bee 1 mouma i 2 k h [0] [7] k oi 3 h k  h i [0] [78] [123456] 101 neck 1 2 h [7] h i [123456] 100 face 1 h i h [123456] h i la [0] 2 k 2 k 3 ak m 3 [78] [13] h km [2] [456] [8] 102 hair 95 fly 1 ul [0] 1 ma i [0] 2 sm [6] 2 hj [78] 2 am [123] [123456] 2 m [45] 2 sm [78] 2 h haji 96 spider 1 makora 2 mia 3 mi 3 m [0] [123456] [7] [8] 103 eye 1 ok 2 mt [0] [12345678] .

53 104 nose 111 elbow 1 nak 2 ntn 2 ntn 2 [0] [7] [8] naton [123456] 105 ear 1 konui 2 k un [123456] 2 k uni [8] 2 [0] h h k utn h [7] 112 hand 1 kan 2 na 2 n [0] [123456] 1 hat 2 k ut [0] h [12345678] [78] 113 palm 106 cheek 1 al [0] 2 uba 3 k z 3 k adai h [16] i [78] h [2345] 107 chin 1 1 hatr tla 2 k b h [0] [8] 2 k ubk 2 k ubak [12346] 2 k upak [5] h [7] h h 114 finger ibuk [0] 2 k d 2 k d 2 k ada h 1 [7] h h [8] aur [0] 2 k us [8] 2 k uz [7] h h [123456] 115 fingernail 108 mouth 1 muk [0] 2 n [123456] 2 tsn [7] 3 tsmbl [8] 109 tongue 1 db [0] 2 leiton 3 l i [123456] [78] 110 tooth 1 dat 2 ja 2 j 3 da 1 nk 2 k udn 2 [0] h [123456] k uzin h [78] 116 knee 1 hau 2 k uklu 2 k uklu [0] h [126] h [7] 2 k uu 3 ku [358] 1 pd [0] 2 k o h h [4] 117 foot [0] [16] [78] [2345] h [123456] 3 k bk 3 k pk h h [7] [8] .

54 118 bone 124 heart (organ) 1 ha 2 au 2 u idi [0] 2 t m [7] [6] 2 t amoi su [7] 3 mihun 3 su 4 t bmbi [12345] 2 3 1 [0] [7] su h i h [123] [456] h [8] [8] 125 back 119 fat 1 orbi [0] 1 pi 2 abl h [0] [1] 2 mh [7] 2 an 2 mahao [1236] 2 nn w 3 mato [245] 4 sd [8] 3 [23456] k  hw [8] [7] 126 body 120 skin 1 1 ama 2 maor 2 mor 3 un 4 uns 2 hkts 2 haka [6] 2 [0] [78] rkto i 2 i [78] [16] haka [2345] [2345] 121 blood 2 [0] [1] 127 person 1 1 a [0] [123456] lok 2 mi 2 mi 2 [0] [123456] m [8] [7] [78] 128 man 122 sweat 1 1  am 2 hum h [0] 2 huma 2 k um [7] [123456] h [8] 123 belly puu [0] 2 nipa [12456] 2 nip [8] 2 nupa 2 nup [3] [7] 129 woman 1 p [0] 1 mohla 2 puk [12345678] 2 nupi 2 nup [0] [1234568] [7] .

55 130 father 136 elder brother 1 bb 1 baba 1 mp 2 1 bo b ai 2 tts [7] [8] 2 taao [16] [123456] 3 jiamba 4 mjmb [7] [0] ipa h w [0] [2345] [8] 131 mother 1 ma 2 m [7] 1 bo bon 2 ima [123456] 2 phl [8] 3 i [2345] 3 iou [6] 2 137 elder sister [0] mm ami 2 mw 2 mawa ts [7] 4 mtse [8] [7] 5 ts [16] 5 [0] 3 mp b [8] 3 mapuroiba [235] 3 i mapuruiba [4] 133 wife 1 sti 2 mtu 2 matu 2 mtu 3 l nb [0] [7] [12345] [2345] 138 younger brother 1  oto b ai 2 inao 3 inao nipa [6] 3 w mn nip [8] 3 mn nup [7] 4 ijupa h h [0] [1245] w [3] 139 younger sister [8] 1 1  l 2 ia nipa mtsnup 2 mtsnup 2 nipa maa nupa maa 3 ian nupi [1256] 3 mtsnupi [7] 4 ian 5 mtsn [8] mj 2 ia nupi 2 mtsnupi [3] mtsnupi 2 nupi maa [1346] [2] [8] [5] [7] 140 friend 1 bond u [0] 2 mup [78] 2 [0] 2 [0] [4] 135 daughter 1 h inao nupi [0] 2  oto bon 2 134 son 2 [7] i [6] i h [1] 4 132 husband 1 [0] h maup / itao [12] [7] [8] [3456] 141 name 1 nam [0] 2 m [12345678] [123456] .

56 142 village 148 pillow 1 am [0] 1 bal 2 k un [1234578] 2 mn 3 k lak [6] 2 mol [78] 2 4 h h l k i i 143 house [78] [16] [2345] 149 blanket 1 bai /  r 2 m 3 dum 4 mon [0] h [16] [2345] jum [0] 1 kmbl [8] 1 km [7] 1 kmbol [0] [78] 150 ring (on finger) 144 door 1 1 drda 2 t  2 t  2 [0] h [78] h ati [0] 2 k udp [78] 2 k udop [123456] h h [45] t o h [1236] 145 window 1 danala 2 t n h [0] w [78] 151 clothing 1 poak 2 p in [0] h [8] 2 p l 2 p ioi 2 p ion/p idt h h h [7] [6] h 146 roof 1  ad 2 dumt k h 152 cloth [0] h 2 mt k 2 jumt k 3 p ua h [2] [16] h h [7] 1 kapo 2 pi 2 p i h [0] [123456] h [78] [45] 153 medicine 147 wall of house 1 dal [0] 1 oud 2 haidak [0] [25] 2 pkl [7] 2 hdk [78] 2 p kl [8] 2 hidak [1346] 2 p akla [16] h h 2 p ala [5] 3 lei [23] 4 h p ua h [4] 154 paper 1 kaod 2  3 ts [0] [123456] [78] [12345] .

57 155 needle 162 bow 1 u 2 dtum 2 tum 2 [0] [2345] 1 d nuk 2 tn h [0] [78] [16] jtum [78] 156 thread 163 arrow 1 tir 2 tnz i [7] i [8] [05] 1 uta [0] 2 tnz 2 l [78] 2 tndei 2 la [1234] 2 tndi [56] 3 2 l 157 broom [1] [34] 164 spear 1 d au 2 umdt 2 sumdt 2 tn [26] h 1 bra [2345] 2 dat a [16] 3 lo [2] [78] 4 laoi 5 t [78] [0] sumtsit [0] h [13] [456] 158 spoon (for eating) 1 amo [02345] 2 amdal [16] 3 tsms [78] 165 fire 1 aun 2 m 2 mai 159 knife (to cut meat) 2 m su 2 1 [8] 1  ui 2 t z h [0] i [8] [13] i [7] mi [2456] [0] h w [7] 166 ashes 1 2 160 hammer 1 hatui 2 lut a h 2 nud  2 nut  h h 1 ku ar 2 da 2 d 2 sz h ut [0] [12345678] [0] [16] [2345] [78] 161 axe h  ai [0] 167 smoke 1 d oa 2 maik u [12346] 2 m k u [7] h [0] h i h 2 m k u 2 meik u i h h [8] [5] [12] [3456] [78] 168 candle 1 mombati [0] 2 mmbti [78] .

58 169 boat 175 to sit 1 nouka 2 hi 2 hi [0] [123456] [78] 170 road [0] 2 lamdao 3 lmbi [8] 3 lmb lambi 3 lamp n [15] p mb 2 p amb [0] h [78] h [123456] sk pt oa [0] 2 hpp 3 pt b 3 pt b [123456] h [8] h [7] [23] h [6] 177 to walk [7] 1 171 path 1 2 1 [7] 3 4 ba 176 to lie down asta 1 1 [0] 2 lambn [5] 2 lambi [2346] haa [0] 2 atp [123456] 2 tstp [8] 2 tstp [7] 178 to fly 2 lamp i [1] 1 3 kln [7] 2 [78] 4 lmbimts p b 2 paib [123456] h [8] 172 to go 1 [0] atp 2 tstp [123456] [78] 173 to come aa 2 lkp  oka 2 ab 2 h tsb [0] [123456] [78] 1 la i maa [78] [123456] [0] lakp 174 to stand h [0] 2 w k b [78] 2 kaob [123456] 181 to swim daano [0] 2 lp 2 lp 3 1 180 to kick 1 1 [0] i 179 to enter dawa 2 2 oa [7] [123456] kp [8] 1 atar kaa [0] 2 i b [78] 2 ioib [123456] i .

59 189 to drink 182 to see 1 dæk a 2 db 2 ib 3 h [0] [2345] [16] ub 1 pani k awa 2 akp 2 t kp h [0] [123456] h [78] [78] 190 to sing 183 to hear 1 1 ona 2 tb 2 tab [0] [78] an awa [0] 2 iei akp 3 skp [123456] [78] [123456] 191 to bite 184 to wait 1 pkk a ka h [0] 1 kamano 2 kp [123456] 2  b [78] 2 tskp 2 aib [123456] 2 tsp i 185 to cry [7] [8] 192 to laugh 1 kada 2 kp 2 [0] [0] kapp 1 [78] 2 [123456] 186 to cook 2 haa [0] nkp nokp [78] [123456] 193 to speak 1 ranna ka 1 bla 2 t b [78] 2 b 2 t ob [123456] 2 ab h h [0] 2 [0] [7] [123456] wb [8] 187 to boil (water) 1 idd o ka h 2 utb 2 p tp 2 p utb [1] h h 3 s b 4 lnb w [0] [7] 194 to tell 1 bla 2 h b i [8] [7] 195 to know 1 dana 2 kb 2 k ab h 1 k awa [0] 2 ab [123456] 196 to forget [7] 1 2 tsb 3 t kb [8] 2 3 tsb k b [7] 2 kaob h [78] [23456] 188 to eat h [0] [0] [78] [123456] b ul dawa h w [0] [78] [123456] .

60 197 to sleep 204 to lift 1  umano 2 tumb 2 tumb h [0] [78] [123456] 1 tola 2 louk atp 3 t tp 3 [0] h [1246] h t atp h [78] [35] 198 to dream 1 pno dæk a h 205 to push [0] 2 m 2 madaub/mamab [123456] [78] 199 to do/make 1 ka 2 ub / toub 2 [0] t b w [123456] [78] 1 d akka dwa 2 nb 2 ilb h [0] [7] [1] 2 inb 3 nb 3 inb 3 tinb [23456] [7] [23456] [8] 206 to pull 200 to work 1 kad ka 2 t bksub 2 t abk ub/toub [0] h [8] h 2 t abuk ub/toub 3 sub h 1 ana 2 b [0] [23456] 2 tib [1] 2 tsb [123456] [8] [7] [7] 207 to tie 201 to play 1 k la 2 anab h [0] [12345] 2 snb 2 sanab [78] [6] 2 naa dooi ab [2345] ooi ab [6] 2 z sb [78] i kisnb h [0] 2 ksikib 3 pulb [16] 3 punb [2345] mo a h npt kp 2 t t kp 2 teit okp h 2 p i ab [7] 3 qb lb [7] [23456] tat bona [8] 2 [8] i h hunb lb [0] 2 [0] 2 [8] h  oa h [7] 209 to weave (on loom) 203 to throw 2 2 1 [0] 2 1 bad a 208 to wipe 202 to dance 1 1 [123456] 1 h [0] [123456] [78] .

61 210 to sew 217 to steal 1 lai ka 1 ui ka 2 otp [12] 2 hunb 2 fotp [3] 2 huamb [0] 2 p otp [456] 3 tub [78] h 2 [0] [78] [12345] huanb [6] 218 to lie. fib 211 to wash (face/hand) 1 d oa 2 tsmt kp h [0] h [78] 1 mtt a bla 2 nt ib 3  dbb 4 h h [0] [123456] i p i h [78] [8] 212 to take bath 1 osol ka [0] na [8] 2 l b iub / iut okp [123456] 2 loub ub 2 uzb 2 [7] h 213 to cut (something) 1 kaa 2 kkp 2 kp 2 kakp 2 219 to take 1 2 [0] [78] [123456] 220 to give 1 da [0] 2 bib [7] 2 pib [234] 2 pib [8] kkp [0] w [1] [78] [23456] [56] 221 to kill 214 to burn 1 1 poano 2 t adokp 3 m tskp 3 [0] h 2 tskp [8] [7] 1 kena 2 l b [78] 2 leib [123456] [78] 222 to die 1 maa dawa 2 ib 2 sib [0] [123456] [78] [0] i 223 to love 216 to sell biki ka 2 jnb 2 jorb 3 donb 3 htp [0] [123456] i 215 to buy 1 maa fla jnb [0] [78] [1] [23456] [78] 1 b alobaa h 2 nuib 2 nusib [0] [123456] [78] .

62 224 to hate 231 seven 1  ina ka 2 it ib 3 tuktzb h h [1] 3 tukkab 4 tat ib 5 [0] h [8] [6] nusidb ek ma 3 m 2 tt 2 tat 1 2 ni 2 ani [78] [0] [123456] npn npal [16] 2 npan [2345] tn 2 hum [78] 2 ahum [123456] [0] 2 mai [0] 2 mapn 2 m 2 maa [123456] [0] [123456] 234 ten d [0] t [78] taa [123456] 235 eleven 1 æao 2 tmt  [78] 2 taamat oi [123456] [0] h i h 236 twelve bao [0] 2 tnith 2 taanit oi i h [78] [123456] [78] [123456] 230 six 1  i [0] 2 tuk [78] 2 tauk [123456] h [78] [78] 229 five pa [0] mpn 1 1 ni 2 2 228 four mi [78] 233 nine 2 1 2 [0] [78] 227 three ar a 2 1 1 [123456] [123456] 226 two dui [78] 2 1 1 [0] 232 eight [7] [0] 2 at [2345] 225 one 1 1 237 twenty 1 bi [0] 2 kun [12345678] 238 hundred 1  2 ama 2 [0] tsm [123456] [78] .

broad  oto h 2 pikp 2 apkp [0] [78] [123456] 1 a [0] 2 pkp 2 apakp [78] [123456] .63 239 thousand 246 long 1 hadar [0] 1 lmba 2 lsi [78] 2 akuib [16] 2 li [123456] 3 ab [23456] 4 [0] sb [78] 240 few 1 kjk 247 short (length) [0] 2 k aa 3 k zikt h [123456] h [78] 1 k ao 2 tnb 2 atnb 2 241 some 1 k u 2 k adk h k ata 4 k  [0] [78] [23456] atrb [1] [0] h 3 h [12456] h 248 heavy [3] 1 b ai [0] [78] 2 lumb [123456] 3 umb h h [78] 242 many 1 nk 2 mjm 249 light (not heavy) [0] [8] 2 mjm 2 majam 1 [7] [123456] halka [0] 2 jb [78] 2 adab [2356] 2 ajab [14] 243 all 1 b 2 l n 250 fat [0] i [7] 1 moa [0] 2 loina [16] 2 aaob [124] 3 punb [2345] 2 aoub [356] 4 punmk 3 n b [8] 3 i n b i [7] [8] 244 big 1 bo 251 thin [0] 2 ts b 2 aaob 2 aoub 1 ikon [12] 2 kb [3456] 3 mjkb u [78] 245 small 1 [0] [7] [8] 252 wide.

64 253 narrow 259 thirsty 1 u 2 k ub 2 ak ub [0] h h [78] [123456] 1 pipaa pawa [0] 2 k  b [78] 2 k aoab 2 h w h [1456] k oab h [23] 254 deep 1 ob ir h 2 ub 2 alub 260 sweet [0] [78] 1 mii [123456] 2 t umb 2 at omb 255 shallow 1 ob ir 2 t nb h [0] h at nb [3456] 2 at elb [1] 3 ludb h [2] 256 full (cup) 1 purno t alb [1] 2 t anb [2345] 2 t nb h h h 3 t nb 3 t anb h [78] t nb k ali [6] [12345] 3 kt um [7] h 261 sour 1 k 2 ilb [0] [1] 2 inb [23456] 2 snb [78] 1 tita 2 k b 2 [0] h [78] k ab [123456] h 263 spicy. hot [0] 2 daodb 2 jaodb 3 at umb [2345] h 257 empty (cup) 1 2 262 bitter [6] h h [6] h [0] 2 3 [8] h [78] 2 h [0] h [2345] [16] hb 1 d al 2 ab 2 sb h [0] [123456] [8] 3 sb [7] 3 sb [8] [78] 264 ripe 1 paka [0] 2 munb [123456] 2 amulb [1] [7] 2 amunb [23456] [78] 3 258 hungry 1 k id laa h 2 ak lamb 3 mb 3 lmb numb [0] [7] [8] .

65 265 rotten (fruit) 1 pa 2 pumb 2 apumb 272 hot (weather) [0] [78] [123456] 266 fast 1 taatai 2 dab 2 jab 3 t ub 3 1 om 2 ab 2 sb [0] [123456] [8] 3 sb [7] 3 sb [8] [0] 273 cold (weather) [2345] [16] h [7] t ub h [8] 1  ana [0] 2 b [7] h 2 b 2 b [8] [123456] 267 slow 1 d i d i 2 tapna tapna 3 tp 3 h h [0] [123456] [7] tp [8] 1 b alo 2 p b h [0] h [78] ap ab [123456] 1 k aap [0] 2 p tb 2 p attab 2 268 same h 275 bad 1 æki 2 amata 2 amta 3 274 good [0] [23] [456] mnb h h [78] h [123456] [78] 276 new 269 different 1 notun [0] 1 b inno [0] 2 n b 2 toan [123456] 2 anaob [12] 3 k nb 2 anoub [3456] puano [0] 3 h h [7] k tnb h u [78] [8] 277 old 270 dry 1 1 ukna 2 kb 2 k b 2 amanb [23] 2 amnb [456] [8] 2 amulb [1] 3 [0] [7] h 2 akab [1234] 2 akb [56] ib [78] 278 broken 1 b aa 2 k b [78] 2 k b [123456] 2 271 wet 1 b ida 2 tstp 2 h aotp [0] h i i kaib [0] [7] [8] [123456] .

66 279 above 286 white 1 upoe 2 mt k 2 mat k 1 ada [78] [123456] [0] h h [0] 2 w  b [78] 2 aaob [1] 2 aoub [23456] 280 below 1 ni 287 red [0] 2 mk  2 mak a h [78] h [123456] 1 lal 2 b 2 aab [0] [78] [123456] 281 far 1 du 2 lp 2 288 green [0] lap [78] [123456] 1 obud [0] 2 sb 2 aab [78] [123456] 282 near 1 ka  [0] 2 nkp [78] 2 nakp 2 h [1] nkp 289 yellow 1 holud 2 hmpl [0] [78] [23456] 290 when (near future) 283 right 1 1 an 2 t 3 dt 4 jt 4 jt kk on h [0] [0] 2 kmbmtm [16] 2 kambamatam [1] [2345] 2 kambamatum [6] [7] 2 [78] karmbamtm [2345] [8] 291 where 284 left 1 bam 2  2 i [0] [78] oi [123456] 285 black 1 kot ai 2 kaida 3 kd d 3 h [0] [1] i [78] kadaida [23456] 292 who 1 kalo 2 mub 2 amub 1 k [78] 2 kn [123456] 2 kanano [0] [0] [78] [123456] .

67 293 what 299 1s 1 ki 2 kaino 3 qi [0] [123456] [78] 1 ami 2 ai [123456] 2 i  [7] n [8] 3 [0] 294 how many 1 kia 300 2s (familiar) [0] 2 kaja 2 kajano 3 kjmjmb 3 [23] [1456] kjjmn [8] 295 this thing 1 ea 2 i 3 ai [7] 1 tumi 2 n [78] 2 na [1234] 2 [0] n [56] 301 2s (honorific) [0] [1] [6] 3 mai 4 ss 1 apni 2 nhk [78] 2 nahak [123456] [0] [2345] [78] 302 3s (generic/male) 1 296 that thing  [0] 2 mhk 1 oa [0] 2 mahak 2 ahi [1] 3 m 3 ai 4 aia 5 [5] mdudu ulo [7] 303 3s (female) [78] 1  [0] 2 m 3 mhk [7] [8] [0] 1 sss 2 i i [78] [16] 298 those things 1 oulo 2 ahi i [0] 2 ai i 3 ai punma 4 [123456] [2346] 297 these things 1 [8] mdusdu 304 1p 1 ama 2 aik oi h [0] [12346] 2 ak oi [5] 2 k  [78] h i h i [6] [123] [45] [78] 305 2p (familiar) 1 toma 2 nk   2 h i nak oi h [0] [78] [123456] .

Unsuitable questions are then deleted from the preliminary set. From the percentage of correct answers. these questions must be recorded in the regional variety of the test subjects. Such studies investigate whether speakers of one variety understand a narrative text in another variety and are able to answer questions about the content of that text. . The story is then transcribed and a set of comprehension questions is constructed based on various semantic domains covered in the text.1. a set of fifteen or more questions is initially prepared. The RTT used in this survey is based on the procedures described in Casad (1974) and Blair (1990). Short. Standard RTT procedures The extent to which speakers of related linguistic varieties understand one another can be studied by means of tape-recorded texts.perhaps because the answer is not in focus in the text. participants heard the complete story text once. RTT C. and then checked with a group of speakers from the same region to ensure that the spoken forms are truly representative of that area. leaving a minimum of ten final questions for each RTT. Normally.68 306 2p (honorific) 1 apnaa 2 nhkh  2 nahak hoi 307 3p [0] i [78] [6] 2 nahak k oi 3 nak oi punm h 4 nohoibu 5 k uai mjam h taa 2 nohoi 3 mk   3 [1] h 1 [5] [4] [2] 4 [0] [1] h i mak oi h [78] [2] nohoi majam 5 mohoi bu 6 mak oi i h [3] [45] [6] C. A three. after which the story was repeated with test questions and the opportunities for responses interspersed with necessary pauses in the recorded text. Folklore or other material thought to be widely known is avoided. Appropriate and correct responses are directly The description of RTT procedures is adapted from that found in appendix A of O’Leary (1992). To ensure that measures of comprehension are based on the subjects' understanding of the text itself and not on a misunderstanding of the test questions. or because the question is confusing to native speakers of the test variety.to five-minute story is recorded from a speaker of the regional vernacular. (O’Leary 1992) In the RTTs used in this study. The accuracy with which participants answer these questions is taken as an index of their comprehension of that speech form. the amount of intelligibility between speech forms is inferred. Some of the questions will prove unsuitable -. It is used by permission of the author. personal-experience narratives are deemed to be most suitable for recorded text testing in that the content must be relatively unpredictable and the speech form should be natural. This requires an appropriate dialect version of the questions for each RTT for each test location.

The average or mean of the scores obtained from participants at one test location is taken as a numerical indicator of the intelligibility between speakers of the dialects represented. The purpose of this pretest is to teach the participant what is expected according to the RTT procedures. the text is first tested with participants from the region where the text was recorded. it is assumed that he or she would serve as a suitable participant. standard deviations of 15 or more are considered high. a very short pretest story with four comprehension questions is recorded in the local variety before beginning the actual testing. increasing the number of participants should not significantly increase the range of variation of the scores. Once a text has been hometown tested with a minimum of ten participants who have been able to correctly answer the selected comprehension questions. the implication is that the community as a whole probably understands the test variety rather well. If the standard deviation is relatively low. The HTT serves to introduce participants to the testing procedure in a context where intelligibility of the dialect is assumed to be complete. the test scores of ten participants from the test point tend to be more similar—especially when the scores are in the higher ranges. When speakers of one linguistic variety have had no previous contact with that represented by the recorded text. and the mean score for participants from the selected test point is high. while others have not. say 10 or below. If the sample of ten participants accurately represents the speech community being tested in terms of the variables affecting intelligibility. when some participants have had significant previous contact with the speech form recorded on the RTT. Data from such participants are eliminated from the final evaluation. Occasionally. not of his or her memory. In addition. On an RTT with 100 possible points (that is 100 percent). In order to ensure that the RTT is a fair test of the intelligibility of the test variety to speakers from the regions tested.69 extractable from the segment of speech immediately preceding the question. a participant fails to perform adequately on an already validated HTT. It is possible that a participant may be unable to answer the test questions correctly simply because they do not understand what is expected of them. If the participant is able to answer the pretest questions. intelligence. such that memory limitations exert a negligible effect and indirect inferencing based on the content is not required. hometown testing ensures that native speakers of the text dialect could accurately answer the comprehension questions used to assess understanding of the text in non-native dialect areas. Thus the RTT aims to be a close reflection of a participant’s comprehension of the language itself. However. In this study. Therefore. the test is considered validated. Such consistent scores are often interpreted to be closer reflections of the inherent intelligibility between speech forms. the assumption being that uncontrollable factors unrelated to the intelligibility of speech forms are skewing such test results. Each one then participates in the HTT in his or her native variety before participating in RTTs in non-native varieties. or reasoning. This is especially true with those unacquainted with test-taking. the scores usually vary considerably. This initial testing is referred to as the Hometown Test (HTT). and the RTT scores show such consistency. reflecting the degree of learning that has gone on through contact. participants performing at levels of less than 80 percent on their HTT were eliminated from further testing. even after the pretest. . For this reason it is important to include a measure of dispersion which reflects the extent to which the range of scores varies from the mean—the standard deviation.

Recorded texts and test questions will vary in terms of their relative difficulty and complexity or in terms of the clarity of the recording. The relationship between RTT scores and their standard deviation can be seen in the following figure: AVERAGE SCORE Figure C. It is therefore recommended that results from RTTs not be interpreted in terms of fixed numerical thresholds. the results of field-administered methods such as the RTT cannot be completely isolated from potential biases. but a few are able to answer correctly. . or contacts with schoolmates from other dialect regions are examples of the types of contact that can occur. Situation 4 Few people are able to understand the story on the test tape. inherent intelligibility between the related varieties may be mixed with acquired proficiency which results from learning through contact. In contrast to experimentally controlled testing in a laboratory or classroom situation.70 either because the variety in the RTT is inherently intelligible or because this variety has been acquired rather consistently and uniformly throughout the speech community. however. If the standard deviation is low and the mean RTT score is also low. Conversely. RTT means below 60 percent are interpreted to indicate inadequate intelligibility. If the standard deviation is high. In this last case. Questionnaires administered at the time of testing can help researchers discover which factors are significant in promoting contact which facilitates acquired intelligibility. on the test tape. dialect opinions. the implication is that the community as a whole understands the test variety rather poorly and that regular contact has not facilitated learning of the test variety to any significant extent. In general. intermarriage between dialect groups. Travel to or extended stays in other dialect regions. regardless of the mean score. Situation 3 Many people cannot understand the story. but some have difficulty. such as inconsistencies in the circumstances of test administration and scoring or differences in attentiveness or intelligence of participants. RTT mean scores of around 80 percent or higher with accompanying low standard deviations are usually taken to indicate that representatives of the test point dialect display adequate understanding of the variety represented by the recording. High standard deviations can result from other causes.l: RTT scores and standard deviation (Blair 1990:25) High Low STANDARD DEVIATION High Low Situation 1 Situation 2 Many people understand the story on the Most people understand the story test tape well. Researchers involved in recorded text testing need to be aware of the potential for skewed results due to such factors and to control for them as much as possible through careful test development and administration. Comparisons of RTT results from different texts need to be made cautiously. but rather be evaluated in light of other indicators of intelligibility such as lexical similarity. one implication is that some participants have learned to comprehend the test variety better than others. and reported patterns of contact and communication.

happy . from a 32year old male who had lived there his whole life.71 C.1.2.time Dhaka to. haraulammi nvivDjv¤§x was. bro. Meitei HTT: Humerjan This section contains the text of the story used as the Meitei hometown test for Bangladesh. \n 2 \p \m \g \f eii inau adud atlammi GBwM BbvDMv Av`y`v Pvrjv¤§x my with. first. In the following text. atlammi Pvrjv¤§x went \Question 1 \Q: With whom did he go to Dhaka? \A: His younger brother.younger.brother there went I went there with my younger brother. the following line codes are used: \n # \p \m \g \f Line number Phonetic transcription Meitei transcription Word-by-word English gloss of transcribed text Free (natural) English translation of the text \Question # \Q \A Question number Free (natural) English translation of the question Expected answer for the question C. It was recorded at Humerjan. The English gloss was then translated from that Bangla gloss by Seung Kim. Kamalganj subdistrict on 10 April 2003.2. \n 3 \p \m \g \f eii inaudu ahanb aka atpd mahak damn GBwM BbvD`y Avnvbev WvKv Pvrcv`v gvnvK Rvgbv my y.go he very My brother was very happy to be going to Dhaka for the first time. Text of the story \n 1 \p \m \g \f ahi homi mmada aka Pvwn A‡nvgwM gvgvs`v WvKv year three before Dhaka Three years ago. I went to Dhaka. Later it was transcribed using Bangla script by Abujam Hiren. \Question 2 \Q: Why was his younger brother happy? \A: He was going to Dhaka. who also gave the Bangla gloss for each Meitei word or phrase.

train inside people.happy \Question 3 \Q: What was his younger brother especially happy to see? \A: A big bridge. \n 8 \p \m \g \f treni manud mina pk talammi †UªbwM gvbys`v gxbv wcK _vjv¤§x the. there were people selling things. however. \n 9 \p \m \g \f adui manudau ptei dnb miu Av`yMx gvbys`vmy cr†PB Rbev wgmy there inside things selling people In the train.morning We got up very early in the morning to catch the train.up steond †ókb`v station lakki jvKwLª went haauki nvivDwL was. .catch we very early. we were happy as we saw many beautiful things outside.other was.things see was.72 \n 4 \p \m \g \f tren pabatmak akoi damn ann ‡Uªb dvevwMZvgvK Av‡LvB Rvgbv Ovbœv train to. \n 10 \p akoi \m Av‡LvB \g we \p \m \g \f teni †UªbwM train’s manod gv‡bvs`v inside aopt AvPvcr food kaio Kvwi‡mv any loiammi ˆjivw¤§ were. \n 5 \p \m \g \f akoi dan dum am futn aa Av‡LvB Rvsbv †Ri“g Avgv dzrbv PvivMv we quickly egg one boiled ate We quickly ate a boiled egg and went to the station. bro.crowded The train was crowded with other people. \n 6 \p \m \g \f tren ton ton mapani padab majamdo ubd haauji †Uªb gvcvbwM dvRvev gvqvg‡`v Dev`v nvivDwq Zsbv Zsbv train while.not adudi iaa inaui laik am lei BbvDwM jvBwiK Avgv †jB| Av`yw` ABivMv however brother’s book one bought There wasn’t any food in the train. especially big bridge one see My brother was especially happy when he saw a big bridge. \n 7 \p \m \g \f eii inaudu maru na aoub to am ubd GBwM BbvD`y AvPDev _s Avgv Dev`v gvi“ ABbv my y.going outside beautiful many. houpatlammi †nŠMvrjv¤§x got.happy While the train was moving.there loiamdr ‰jivg‡`ª was. I bought a book for my brother.

73 \n 11 \p akoii tendo pu mai tabd cys gvix Zvev`v \m Av‡LvBwM †Uªb‡`v \g our train o’clock four time \f Our train arrived at Dhaka at 4 o’clock. . kammi wKiv¤§x was. too.from. but I said he couldn’t because the river was too deep.not. we saw some boys swimming in the river. brother \f My brother was scared at seeing all the big cars on the street. \n 14 \p eina manod hai kaiu kiunu eii nvq Kvwimy wKi“by GBwM \m GBbv gvOb`v \g I to.play in.fear my \f I told him to not be scared and to hold my hand.river too deep My brother said he wanted to swim. akad WvKv`v at. kutt LyrZv hand paiju cvBqy hold \n 15 \p doratta atlaa ubapai aa kaan tund PvrjvMv DevdvOqx AvOvswms Lvivbv Zy‡ib`v \m m`iNvUZv \g Sadar Ghat went saw boys some river \f At Sadar Ghat.scared \Question 5 \Q: What was his younger brother scared to see? \A: Big cars.Dhaka tui _yswO arrived \Question 4 \Q: What time did they arrive? \A: Four o’clock. kon Lsbv by.him said any do. \n 16 \p eii \m GBwM \g my \p \m \g \f inauu BbvDmy brother haiakli nvBivKwj said mahaku gvnvKmy he.foot atli Pvrjx went \n 13 \p lmbid aoub aoub ai ubd eii inaudo Av‡PŠev Av‡PŠev Mvox Dev`v GBwM BbvD‡`v \m j¤^x`v \g on. \n 12 \p akoi rel steondai dorat paub m`iNvU dvDev \m Av‡LvB †ij †ókb`vMx \g we train.also ioin BiBbv swim ioin BiBbv swim anb Qvbvev playing ana mvbv‡M want ein hai anarunu tuens damn lubni GBbv nvq mvbvi“by Zz‡ib‡m Rvgbv jyewb I said cannot.street big big car seeing my y.station Sadar Ghat until \f We walked from the train station to Sadar Ghat.

we suddenly saw a man running.chasing \f Behind him were two men chasing him.thief \f A bit later. am Avgv one am Avgv one nb †Pbev running jui qyB saw daui RvDwi was \Question 7 \Q: What color was the bag? \A: Black. \n 20 \p eii \m GBwM \g my \p \m \g \f wakand IqvLvb`v thought mahak as gvnvK Av‡m he hoanbani †nvivbevwb thief paiib bæ amub as hoandun pun nbani cvBwiev e¨vM Avgyev Av‡m ‡nvivb`ybv cybv †Pbevwb holding bag black that stolen take running I thought that he was a thief who was running with a black bag that he had stolen. \n 17 \p akoin dahad dd kaoudan mi †RswO‡O`v Lv‡OŠ`vbv wg \m Av‡LvBbv RvnvR \g we boats when.hand black bag \f There was a black bag in his hand. pa dv‡i caught . \n 19 \p mahakki matud nip anin tanai gvZzs`v wbcv Avwbbv Zvbvwi \m gvnv°x \g his behind man two were. \n 18 \p mahakki makutt amub bæ gvLyrZv Avgyev e¨vM \m gvnv°x \g his at. \Question 8 \Q: How many men were chasing him? \A: Two.74 \Question 6 \Q: Why did he tell his brother that he couldn’t swim? \A: The river is too deep. the thief was caught.looking suddenly person \f While looking at the boats. \n 21 \p ahakki mkad hoanbado gvLv`v ‡nvivbev‡`v \m OvnvKwK \g later after to.

.that we from. my brother cried because he was scared. \Question 10 \Q: Where did the thief bleed from? \A: His head. we went from Sadar Ghat to another place. \n 23 \p hoanbadui makoktoi i ta gv‡KvK‡ZvwM B Zv‡i \m †nvivbev`yMx \g thief’s from. \n 25 \p adudi akoi kuai majomd atli Av‡LvB LyivwM gv‡qvg`v Pvrjx \m Av`y`vMx \g after.fear kaplaklo Kvc−vK‡jv cried adun akoi dorattai toppad atli Av`ybv Av‡LvB m`iNvUZvwM AZàv`v Pvrwj after. After that.Dhaka numt bywgr day ani Avwb two loiammi ‰jiv¤§x stayed adudi matamd atei atei mapamd atlammi Av`y`vMx gvZvg`v gvdvg`v Pvrjv¤§x Av‡ZB Av‡ZB that time various place went We stayed in Dhaka two days.place went Seeing what happened.Sadar Ghat other. \n 26 \p akoi \m Av‡LvB \g we \p \m \g \f akad WvKv`v at. and during that time went to various places. pub hou dzev †nŠ‡i hit \Question 9 \Q: With what was the thief hit? \A: A stick.head blood fell \f There was blood falling from the thief’s head. brother ado Av‡`v he kidun wKiv`ybv in. we went to our uncle’s house.that we uncle’s house went \f After that. \n 24 \p adui \m Av`ywM \g that \p \m \g \f majo gvqs situation ubd Dev`v seeing eii GBwM my inau BbvD y.75 \n 22 \p hoanbado nip anidon ein wbcv Avwb‡`vbv ‡PBbv \m ‡nvivbev‡`v \g to.thief man two stick \f The two men hit the thief with a stick.

Question 4: \p makoi kaamb mtamd Kviv¤^v gvZvg`v \m gv‡LvB \g they what time \f What time did they arrive? tui _yswO arrived .whom to. said Sadar Ghat besides other places very \f My brother said that besides Sadar Ghat. Question 2: \p inaudo kaii haauammi KvwiwM nvivDiv¤§x \m BbvD‡`v \g y. brother why was. Then it was translated into English by Seung Kim.2.happy \f What was his younger brother especially happy to see? Answer 3: \p aoub to _s \m AvPDev \g big bridge \f A big bridge.Dhaka went \f With whom did he go to Dhaka? Answer 1: \p inau \m BbvDMv \g young. Question 1: \p kana akad atlammi WvKv`v Pvrjv¤§x \m KvbvMv \g with. Question 3: \p inau adu mau ina kai ubd haauki Kvwi Dev`v nvivDwL \m BbvD Av`y gvi“ ABbv \g young. the other places were very nice. Questions and answers The following questions were recorded by a 20-year-old female native resident of Humerjan.76 \n 27 \p eii inaun hai doat nattan atei mahamd damn nvq m`iNvU bvZZvbv Av‡ZB gvnvg`v Rvgbv \m GBwM BbvDbv \g my y.2. It was transcribed and translated in Bangla script by Abujam Hiren.happy \f Why was his younger brother happy? Answer 2: \p aka atpd Pvrcv`v \m WvKv \g Dhaka going \f He was going to Dhaka. bro.brother especially what seeing was.brother \f His younger brother. padi dvwR good C.

hand what. Question 6: \p kaii manaud anaunu haii mvbvi“by nvqwi \m KvwiwM gvbvD`v \g why to.play said \f Why did he tell his brother that he couldn’t play (swim)? Answer 6: \p tuns damn lubni Rvgbv jyewb \m Zz‡ib‡m \g river too deep \f The river was too deep.scared \f What was his younger brother scared to see? Answer 5: \p aoub ai Mvox \m Av‡PŠev \g big car \f Big cars. Question 5: \p inau adu kai ubd kimmi Kvwi Dev`v wKiv¤§x \m BbvD Av`y \g the.y.kind color \f What color was the bag in his hand? Answer 7: \p amub \m Avgyev \g black \f Black. bæno e¨vM‡bv bag tanei Zv‡bB were.y.many \f How many men were chasing him? Answer 8: \p anin \m Avwbbv \g two \f Two.77 Answer 4: \p pu mai gvix \m cys \g o’clock four \f Four o’clock. Question 7: \p mahakki makutt kaamb maui gvLyrZv Kviv¤^v gvPyMx \m gvnv°x \g his at. brother what seeing was. Question 8: \p mahakki matud nipa kajana gvZys`v wbcv Kvqvbv \m gvnv°x \g his behind man how.chasing . bro cannot.

78

Question 9:
\p hoanbaduu kin
pui
Kvwibv
dzB
\m ‡nvivbev`yMy
\g to.thief
with.what hit
\f
With what was the thief hit?
Answer 9:
\p ein
\m ‡PBbv
\g stick
\f
A stick.
Question 10:
\p hoanbadui kadadi
i
Kv`v†`wM
B
\m ‡nvivbev`ywM
\g Of.thief
from.where blood
\f
Where did the thief bleed from?
Answer 10:
\p makoktai
\m gv‡KvKZvwM
\g from.head
\f
From his head.

tai
Zvq
fell

C.3. Meitei HTT: Imphal∗
The story in this section was told on April 1, 2003 by a 36-year-old Meitei man with a
BA in education. His mother tongue is Meitei and he has lived in Lamlong, Imphal district,
Manipur from childhood.
The following codes are used in the transcription of this story:
S
\r
\g
\f
Q
Ans
S1
\r Eina
\g I

Sentence number
Romanized transcription of text
Word-by-word gloss into English
Free (natural) English translation of text
Question number
Expected answer for question
angang oiringeida chahi tara amukthang subaduaidah ngasaigi nga phase haina
child was/when year ten only
reached
then
fish catch.to say

\r imanabaga eikhoi ani chatle
\g friend.male we
to
went
\f When I was a 10-year-old child, I asked my friend to come and catch fish, and so we both
went.

Everything in section C.3. is taken directly from the work of Rebecca Tombing and Elina Kinny, who developed
the Imphal HTT. They recorded, transcribed, and typed out the story. The one notable difference between the text
in this section is that it has a romanized transcription instead of a phonetic transcription using IPA.

79

Q1. How old was he when he went fishing with his friend?
Ans- 10 years old
S2
\r chatpa sidah ahaanba chatpah numit
\g to.go
here first
to.go
day
\f The first day I went, it was evening time.

sidah numitu
here day.that

nungdaang
evening

ramoini
was

Q2. When did he go for fishing?
Ans- Evening
S3
\r nungdaang ramyuaiduda eina nga-si phaadribamin
\g evening
time/was
I
fish.the catch.not.yet
\f That evening I had not yet caught any fish.
S4
\r eikhoi ani
paattudah eikhoi ani
nga-si
phaagi
\g We
pond.at we
two
fish.the catch.will saying

haina
try

hourakpa
to

\r matam sidah ngasaigi
mana ngasi
pangaphadah phaabah
\g time at
before.then he
fish.the easily.catch.to catch.to
\f While we two were saying that we would try to catch fish in that pond, at that time he easily
began to catch fish.
S5
\r phaaba sidah eina ngasi
amata phaadabah adugi
wakhansi eina asum
nungaitana
\g catch.to here I
fish.the one
catch.not because mind.is
I
like.this happy.not
\f I did not catch a single fish, and because of this, my mind was unhappy.
S6
leiringei sidah ei manphamsi longthonge atopah amadah phaarage eina khanbah
\r asum
my place.the
change
another one.at catch.they I
think.at
\g like.this remain at
\f I tried to change my place thinking I would catch fish.
S7
\r khanbah sidah ngasaigi ei
\g think.at here before
I

hek
moment

khongtokhibaga
realise

ei
my

imaana
friend

\r maana kari wakhan khanbana khangde
\g he
what mind
thinking
not.know
\f At that time, I began to realise that I did not know what my friend was thinking.

duna
was

80

S8
\r eigi zagaadudah amuk laahaga mana ngasi
\g my place.in
again come
he
fish.the
\f He came to my place again and caught fish there.

phadou
tok rahe
catch.out of it

Q3. What did his friend catch when he came to his place?
Ans- Fish
S9
\r phadou tokba sidah, ikai
keeiduna mana achouba nga
\g catch
out
here
long
long.not he
big
fish
\f Not long after this, he once again caught a big fish.

amuk phaae
again feels

Q4. What kind of fish did his friend catch?
Ans- A big fish
S10
\r achouba nga phaahe mana haraaba
\g big
fish catch
he
happy
\f He was happy catching a big fish.

toure
do

Q5. What was he happy about?
Ans- Catching a big fish
S11
\r adu eina somda nga
\g that I
there fish

phadabada adu
catch.not
that

eigi mapham hongtokkhiba
I
place
changed

\r maphamda phakhibaga
eisi nungai tadana eisiyam nungaitere
\g place.that catch.already this happy
not.is
I.very
happy.not
\f I did not catch fish there, and so I changed to another place; but fish were already caught
there, and so I felt very unhappy.
Q6. Why was he unhappy even after changing to another place?
Ans- Because he could not catch any fish
S12
\r adugi maana ngasi puduna mayumd chatlega meiyunda ngagada chichi
\g then he
fish.the carrying his.house going his.house fish.that eaten
\f Then he went to his house carrying the fish and ate it.
Q7. Where did he go with his fish?
Ans- Home

Q9. we began reaching the place where the fish were. . I again asked him to catch fish. S18 \r aduda ekhoi ani amuk \g then we two again \f Then we both went again.also plainly happy happy yes \f As I asked.hot time. S19 amuk \r eikhoi ani asum \g we two like.morning my again to.him fish \f So. When he asked how did his friend agree? Ans.to hourakpa matam trying time \r asida ngasaigi mapam du yaurakan duda \g here before place that reach began \f As we two again went trying to catch fish. and the sunshine was very hot.to amuk again houre ask S15 \r hoobasida maasu adum harao harao yaae \g asked.is heart feel \f Being a child and seeing my friend eating fish.is very happy. in my heart I felt unhappy. he also readily and happily agreed… Q8. Why did his friend happily agree to go fishing? Ans.Happily S16 \r haibadi maasu ngaraang amuk phaabanina \g since he.is eating my mind. S14 \r adugi nonganlaga eina amuk mangonda nga \g then tomorrow.was \f …since he had caught fish yesterday.as he.that again chatle went chatalga amuk nga going again fish phaasi catch.81 S13 \r ngadu chaaduna eina wakhanduda angaang oibadu yaamna nungaiteba thanoigida phaae \g fish. phaarusi catch.early.Because he caught fish yesterday S17 \r adugi matamdu numit chaap yungba matamda nongsa yaamsaba matamni just about time sunshine very.was \g that time day \f It was during the daytime.in child have.not. the next day at dawn.also yesterday again catch.

for very happy \f As I brought it and came. Q11.Scary snake-like fish S23 \r phaabadu eina ngasi laira ngara gianmantaadana yam kiire \g catch.to can \f There was a big long fish in the place. what did he think about the fish? Ans.spirit.That it was a dragon S24 \r adu nga khangbadudah eina ngasi namdana hatlega ngasi puraga lahe \g when fish knowing.82 S20 \r ngasaigi yam kiina \g before very afraid nga fish du eikhoigi that we. S21 \r eigi mapam duda amuk nga \g my place on again fish achouba amah big one amuk eikhoigi asaangba eikhoigi again our long we \r harai maya paanbah haiba taare \g saw blade attached say.is snake. my mind was. What kind of fish did they catch? Ans.the dragon. for a moment.understand very afraid \f As I caught the fish.dwell \r haibadudha kiina kiina leiringei sidah \g saying afraid afraid having here \f The place where the fish were was said to be the dwelling place of an evil spirit. Q10.the forcefully killed fish. and we were very scared. S25 yaam nungaibah \r puraga laakpadah ei wakhansidia amuk ngahak \g bring coming my thinking again moment.Very happy .like fish caught \f We caught a very scary snake-like fish. How was his mind when he brought the fish and came? Ans. I forcefully killed the fish and brought it. S22 \r yaam kiinabah linmaanba nga phaare \g very afraid. When he caught the fish.as I fish.is I fish. very happy. I did not understand whether the fish was a dragon or fish.is not. and it looked as if there was a saw blade attached to it.for mapham du lainunglei place that evil.the bring came \f When I knew that it was a fish. Q12. since I was very scared.is fish.

this elders.in fish catching karino dah yaamna nungai khidabah what to very happy not \r amukka yaamnungnaibah amaga thoudok ama sumai touna ei thengna khie \g once very. Q13. To whom did he show the fish? Ans. feeling proud for the big catch. .to show fish big cached saying I happy \f On reaching home.in come I fish.Elders S27 \r dumai toudana eina eigi punshibah nga phaabagi \g like do I my life. in my life I came across such incidents like sadness and happiness by fishing. I showed this fish to the elders.this do I came across \f So.83 S26 ahandaga attana nga achaoba phaareka haina eina haraobah \r yumdah lahaga eina ngadu \g house.happy once incident one like.

based on 100 points per text. RTT Scores D.3. Also.3. and D.: • • • Par.1. The following abbreviations and scoring codes are used in the tables in section D.2.3. When the Imphal text was administered in Bangladesh. only the ten best questions were used.84 D. Scoring and answer notes The following tables display the answers given by RTT participants. Score = Total score for the given participant. they gave them 10 points for a correct answer and 0 points for an incorrect answer. Correct answer: Full credit Partially correct answer: half credit Incorrect answer: No credit For the HTT from Imphal.2. instead.2. through C. the test they developed contained thirteen questions. Actual questions and accepted answers are given within the texts shown in appendices C. no. = participant identification number A1 – A13 = Answer given to questions 1–13 about the content of the text. The tables in sections D. display post-HTT and post-RTT questionnaire responses. the researchers did not write down the answers given by the participants. They are displayed according to participant location and text location. The following abbreviations are used in the tables throughout appendix D: • • • • N = no Y = yes DK = does not know NA = not applicable . and E. Questions and correct answers vary among tests. The questionnaires are given in appendices E.4.1.

85 D.2. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 3 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 10 10 92 4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 12 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 92 13 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 14 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 15 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 A10 A11 A12 A13 Average score = 98. RTT answers and scores D. Imphal HTT validation participants Par.9.2. Standard deviation = 2.1.81. no. Sample size = 15 Score % .

2.86 D. Humerjan HTT validation participants Par. Sample size = 10 .22. A1 1 big brother 2 little brother 3 little brother 4 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 Score % 4:00 seeing cars river is deep black two stick head 90 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 90 first time big bridge to Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 5 little brother first time big bridge to Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two men stick head 100 6 younger brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 7 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 8 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 9 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 10 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 A2 A3 going to big bridge Dhaka seeing cars bridge Average score = 98. no.2. Standard deviation = 4.

Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Humerjan text Par.87 D. Sample size = 11 .9. no. Standard deviation = 10.2.3.44. A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 Score % 1 little brother going to Dhaka train 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people belt head 80 2 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 3 little brother seeing river big bridge 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people hand head 80 4 little brother going to Dhaka train 4:00 seeing big trains river is deep black two people stick head 80 5 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 6 big brother see big bridge country 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 80 7 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 8 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 9 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 10 little brother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars river is deep black two people stick head 100 11 mother going to big bridge Dhaka 4:00 seeing big cars DK black two people stick head 80 Average score = 90.

no. Participants’ responses to these ten questions are given below.3. Sample size = 11 .4. however.88 D. Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Imphal text The original Imphal text contained thirteen questions. A1 A2 A3 1 10 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 2 10 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 3 10 years old DK fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 4 10 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 5 child night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 6 10 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 7 child night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 8 10 years old night fish catching caught no fish a fish home 9 10 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 10 12 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home 11 10 years old night fish catching a caught no big fish fish home A5 A6 A7 A9 caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday to catch fish caught fish yesterday caught fish yesterday A10 A12 A13 Score % snake-like fish very happy elders or parents 100 swordlike very happy elders or parents 90 snake-like fish very happy elders or parents 90 long very happy elders or parents 90 long very happy elders or parents 80 snake-like fish very happy elders or parents 100 snake-like fish very happy elders or parents 90 like a saw very happy elders or parents 85 snake-like fish very happy elders or parents 90 like a saw scared elders or parents 70 DK scared elders or parents 80 Average score = 87. and the answer number corresponds with the questions given in appendix C.76. Standard deviation = 8.8. Par. During field research in Bangladesh. only ten of the thirteen questions were used.2.

1. no.89 D. Post-Imphal HTT validation participants Par.3. with 20% Bengali 7 Thoubal Y Y N 8 Loktak Moirang Y Y N 9 Moirang Y Y N 10 Loktak Moirang Y Y N 11 Kanba Imphal Y Y N 12 Imphal Y Y N 13 Moirang Thangnga Y Y N 14 Longol Y Y N 15 Khurai Lamlong Y Y N D. Mixed? 1 Singzamei Y Y N 2 Thoubal Y Y N 3 Moirang Y Y Y 4 Tribal. 1. not MT speakers Y N. which? 1 N Y Bangla 2 Y N NA 3 A little different N NA 4 Y Y Bangla 5 Y Y Bangla 6 Y N NA 7 Y N NA 8 Y N NA 9 Y N NA 10 Y N NA . Where from? 2. Speech good? 3. Post-Humerjan HTT validation participants Par.3.3.2. Like your village? 4. Speak like you? 2a. no. not MT speakers Y 95% like ours N 6 Imphal Y Y Y. doesn’t flow well N 5 Chandel. Mixed? 2b. If so.1. Post-HTT questionnaire responses D.

Where from? 2. Like your village? 3b. better than own A little different 4 Dhaka 5 Imphal 6 Imphal Y Very different Pronunciation 7 Manipur state Y. better than own Y NA 8 Adampur area Y A little different Pronunciation 9 Humerjan Y A little different Pronunciation 10 Manipur state Y A little different More polite speech 11 Manipur state Y Y NA Y Y Y.90 D. better than own A little different Pronunciation NA Pronunciation . no.1. no. Like your village? 3b. Speech good? 3a. Post-Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Imphal text Par. Different how? 1 Tetoigao (in Bangladesh) Y A little different Longer vowels Somewhat different Pronunciation 2 A village (not city) Not as good as own 3 Imphal Y.2. Post-RTT questionnaire responses D. Post-Bangladeshi Meitei RTT participants: Humerjan text Par.4. 1. Different how? 1 Bangladesh Y A little different More polite 2 Dhaka Y Y NA 3 Imphal Y Y NA 4 Dhaka Y Y NA 5 Dhaka Y Y NA 6 Adampur Y A little different Pronunciation Y Y NA Y Y NA Y Y NA Y Y NA Y Y NA 7 8 9 10 11 These five participants recognized the storyteller’s voice since they all live in the same village D. Where from? 2.4.4. Speech good? 3a. 1.

When praying 6L. which one(s)? 2L. Other than your MT. Do young people (age 10) in your village speak your language well. †ekxifvM mg‡q Avcbviv †Kvb fvlvwU e¨envi K‡ib? 6a. Avcwb wK g‡b K‡ib Zv‡`i †Q‡j-†g‡qiv †Kvb fvlvq K_ v ej‡e? 6. hLb Avcwb cÖv_©bv K‡ib 6c. what languages do you speak? 7K. Do many children in your village know another language before starting school? 2K. Avcbvi MÖv‡gi `k eQ‡ii eqmx wkïiv wK †hgb K‡i ejv DwPZ †Zgb K‡i Avcbvv‡`i gvZ…fvlv mwVKfv‡ e ej‡Z cv‡i? 4. the way it ought to be spoken? 3. ¯‹‡z j hvevi Av‡MB wK Avcbvi MÖv‡gi A‡bK wkïiv gvZ…fvlv Qvov Ab¨ fvlv Rv‡b? 2b. When the children in this village grow up and have children of their own. what language do you use? 1L. †Kvb †Kvb MÖv‡gi †jv‡Kiv Avcbvi fvlv †_‡K m¤c~Y© wfbœZi fvlvq K_v e‡j †hUv eyS‡Z Avcbvi Kó n q? 1b. When you go to these villages. evox‡Z 6b. At home 6K.1. Do children in your village speak another language better than your language? 4. Zvn‡j †Kvb fvlvwU? 3.91 E. Avcbvi ˆg‡UB cÖwZ‡ekxi mv‡_ 7a. Questionnaires E. what language do you think those children will speak? 5. Avcbvi gvZ…fvlv Qvov †Kvb †Kvb fvlvq Avcwb K_v e‡jb? . If yes. In which villages do the people speak very differently from you. GB MÖv‡gi wkïiv eo n‡q hLb wcZv-gvZv n‡e. With Meitei neighbors 6M. hw` n¨uv. Avcbvi MÖv‡g wkïiv wK Avcbvi fvlvi PvB‡ZI Ab¨ †Kvb fvlv †ekx fvj K‡i ej‡Z cv‡i? 5. wb‡gœ ewY©Z ¯’vb Ges Kvh©µ‡g. what language do you use most of the time? 6. In each of the following places and activities. so that you have trouble understanding them? 1K. Sociolinguistic questionnaire 1a. GB mKj MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z wM‡q Avcwb †Kvb fvlv e¨envi K‡ib? 2a.

Avcwb wØZxq †h fvlvwU fv‡jv ej‡Z cv‡ib †mB fvlv‡Z wK memgq hv ej‡Z Pvb ZvB ej‡Z cv‡ib? 11. wk¶vi gva¨g wn‡m‡e cÖv_wgK ¯‹‡z j †Kvb fvlvwU e¨envi Kiv DwPZ? 15. Avcwb wK Avcbvi wkï‡`i †mLv‡b cvVv‡eb? 17b. Can you read and write letters and messages in your MT? 15. Can you read and write letters and messages in Bangla? 16. †Kvb fvlvwU Avcwb wØZxq fv‡jv ej‡Z cv‡ib? 10. Can you always say what you want to say in your second-best language? 10.92 7b. What language do you speak best? 8. What language do you speak second best? 9. hw` Avcbvi MÖv‡gi †bZ„¯v’ bxq e¨w³iv Avcbvi gvZ…fvlv wk¶vi Rb¨ ¯‹jz cÖwZôv K‡ib.What language should be used as the medium of education in primary school? 14. At what age did you begin to learn each? 7L. Why or why not? 17L. †Kvb eq‡m Avcwb GB fvlv¸‡jv wk‡L‡Qb? 8. What is the most useful language to know in your village? 13. Avcbvi fvlvfvlx gv‡q‡`i Zv‡`i wkï‡`i mv‡_ †Kvb fvlvq K_v ejv DwPZ e‡j Avcwb g‡b K‡ib? 12. If your community leaders set up a class to teach young children how to read and write in your MT. †Kvb fvlvwU Avcwb me‡P‡q fv‡jv ej‡Z cv‡ib? 9. Do you think it’s okay if your children speak another language better than your MT? 12. GB iKg K¬v‡mi Rb¨ Avcwb wK wKQy LiP Ki‡eb? . What language should a mother in your language group speak to her children? 11. Avcbvi MÖv‡g †Kvb fvlvwU me‡P‡q †ekx Kv‡R jv‡M? 14. Avcbvi Kv‡Q wK GUv fvj jvM‡e hw` Avcbvi wkïiv Avcbvi gvZ…f vlv Qvov Ab¨ fvlv AviI fvjfv‡e ej‡Z cv‡i? 13. Avcwb wK evsjvfvlvq wPwV Ges evZv©mgyn co‡Z I wjL‡Z cv‡ib? 17a. Would you pay a little for such classes? 17M. †Kb ev †Kb bv? 17c. would you send your children? 17K. Avcwb wK Avcbvi gvZ…fvlvq wPwV Ges evZv©mgyn co‡Z I wjL‡Z cv‡ib? 16.

93 18a. Is so.3. Post-HTT questionnaires E.4. If your community leaders set up a class to teach adults how to read and write in your MT. 3. Where do you think the person who told this story is from? Is the speech good? Is this the way people talk in your village? Did you hear any mixing with another language? E. Avcbvi bvg wK? 2.2. What is your religion? 2. Is his speech mixed with another language? 2b. 3b.2. GB iKg K¬v‡mi Rb¨ Avcwb wK wKQy LiP Ki‡eb? E. Where do you think the speaker is from? Is his speech good? Is his speech the same as the one in your village? If not. 3a. hw` Avcbvi MÖv‡gi †bZ„¯v’ bxq e¨w³iv Avcbvi gvZ…fvlv wk¶vi Rb¨ ¯‹jz cÖwZôv K‡ib. Participant biodata questionnaire Number of interview: mv¶vrKv‡ii µwgK bs: Date of interview: mv¶vrKv‡ii ZvwiL: Location of interview: mv¶vrKv‡ii ¯’vb: 1. which one? E. Would you pay a little for such classes? 18M.1.2. Imphal HTT validation 1. What is your name? 1. Why or why not? 18L. Avcbvi ag© wK? . Post-RTT questionnaire 1. Avcwb wK hv‡eb? 18b.2. 4. 2. 2. in what way is it different? E. †Kb ev †Kb bv? 18c. would you go? 18K. Does the storyteller speak like you? 2a. Humerjan HTT validation 1.

Gi Av‡M Avcwb Ab¨ †Kv_vq emevm K‡i‡Qb? KZw`‡bi Rb¨? E. Up to what standard have you studied? 5. GLvbKvi ‡jv‡Kiv †Kvb †Kvb ag© cvjb K‡i? 4. gvZ…fvlv wn‡m‡e †Kvb †Kvb fvlvwU Avcbvi MÖv‡gi ‡jvKRb e¨envi K‡i? . What is your mother’s mother tongue? 8K. How old are you? 3. How many people and families live in this village? 2. Sex of interviewee: 4. Avcbvi gvZvi gvZ…fvlv wK? 8b. Avcwb †h MÖv‡g evm K‡ib Zvi bvg wK? 7. Avcwb †Kvb †kªYx ch©šZ cov‡jLv K‡i‡Qb? 6. What religions are followed here? 3.5. What is the location of your village by subdistrict and district? 1. What is your father’s mother tongue? 8L. Which languages are spoken as mother tongues in your village? 4. Where else have you lived and for how long? 9. GB MÖvgwUi RbmsL¨v KZ †jvK I KZwU cwievi emevm K‡i? 3. Avcbvi wcZvi gvZ…fvlv wK? 9. What do you call your mother language? 7. Avcbvi eqm KZ? 4. DËi`vZvi wj½ cwiPq: 5. Community Information Questionnaire Name of village: MÖv‡gi bvg: Transportation to village: hvZvq‡Zi gva¨g: 1.94 3. Avcbvi gvZ„fvlvi bvg wK? 8a. What is the name of the village you are now living in? 6. Avcbvi MÖvgwU ‡Kvb _vbvq I ‡Kvb †Rjvq Aew¯’Z ? 2.

What jobs do people in your village do? 5. me‡P‡q Kv‡Qi wK¬wbKwU (ev wPwKrmv ‡K›`ª) †Kv_vq? 9a. AímsL¨K) . A‡a©KmsL¨K. How many girls in your village go to school? (all. Avcbvi MÖv‡g hviv ¯‹jz ïiy K‡i Zv‡`i g‡a¨ KZRb cÂg †kªYx †kl K‡i? (mevB. most. Where is the nearest hospital? 8K. Avcbvi MÖv‡gi ‡jvKRb ‡Kvb †Kvb ai‡Yi KvR K‡i? 6. Avcbvi MÖv‡g KZ msL¨K †g‡qiv ¯‹‡z j hvq? (mevB. Can you make mobile calls in your village? 7L. few) 12. how many students who begin school end up finishing 5th standard? (all. me‡P‡q Kv‡Qi nvmcvZvjwU †Kv_vq? 8b. most. Can you make TNT calls in your village? 7K. hw` bv cv‡ib. Avcbvi MÖv‡g wK miKvix ¯‹jz Av‡Q? 9b. most. How many children in your village go to school? (all. Avcbvi MÖvg †_‡K wK Avcwb wUGbwU †dvb Ki‡Z cv‡ib? 7b. †ekxifvM. Are there government schools in your village? 9K. A‡a©KmsL¨K. Avcbvi MÖvg †_‡K wK Avcwb †gvevBj †dvb Ki‡Z cv‡ib? 7c. Where is the nearest clinic? 8L. AímsL¨K) 13. If yes. Are there any other types of schools or non-formal educational institutions in your village? 10. Avcbvi MÖv‡g KZ msL¨K wkïiv ¯‹z‡j hvq? (mevB. half. Avcbvi MÖv‡g †Kvb †kªYx ch©šZ cov‡jLv †k‡l †ekxifvM wkïiv ¯‹z‡j hvIqv eÜ K‡i †`q? 14. †ekxifvM. If not. In your village. †ekxifvM. half. Where is the nearest post office? 6. few) 11. what kinds? 9L. Avcbvi MÖv‡g wK Ab¨ †Kvb ai‡Yi ¯‹jz A_ev DcvbyôvwbK wk¶v cÖwZôvb Av‡Q? 11.95 5. hw` _v‡K †mwU wK ai‡Yi? 10. AímsL¨K) 12. where is the nearest place you can make phone calls? 7M. half. me‡P‡q Kv‡Qi †Kvb RvqMv †_‡K Avcwb †dvb Ki‡Z cv‡ib? 8a. few) 14. me‡P‡q Kv‡Qi †cv÷ AwdmwU †Kv_vq Aew¯’Z? 7a. A‡a©KmsL¨K. At which standard do most children in your village stop going to school? 13.

Avcbvi MÖv‡g hviv ¯‹jz ïiy K‡i Zv‡`i g‡a¨ KZRb `kg †kªYx ‡kl K‡i? (mevB. AímsL¨K) 16. A‡a©KmsL¨K. In your village. Do you watch TV programs? 20K. How many people in your village have completed a BA or higher? 16. Do you listen to radio programs? 19K. most. Avcbv‡i MÖv‡gi KZ msL¨K gvbyl we. Avcbvi MÖv‡g wK we`y¨r Av‡Q? 18. Do you have electricity in your village? 17. In what language(s)? 19L. †ekxifvM. Avcb wK wUwf †`‡Lb? 20b. half.96 15. Avcwb wK †iwWI †kv‡bb? 19b.G. few) 15. how many students who begin school end up finishing 10th standard? (all. A_ev Zvi †P‡q DPPZi wWMÖx jvf K‡i‡Q? 17. Avcbvi MÖv‡g cvwbi Drm wK? 19a. †Kvb †Kvb fvlvq? . †Kvb †Kvb fvlvq? 20a. In what language(s)? 20L. What is your water source? 18.

no. Lg. The following abbreviations are used in these tables: Languages: B = Bangla E = English H = Hindi Other: Lg = language MT = mother tongue NA = not applicable ND = no data F. Other lg.1. Most 14. and the subject numbers given in the biodata correspond to those in this appendix.. Mom with kids lg. The questionnaire itself is in appendix E. Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B B B B B Meitei B B Meitei B B B Meitei B E E B B B B B E Meitei E . Lg. better okay? Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei & B yes yes yes yes yes no no no yes yes yes no no no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 13. 6a. Responses on topics of language use and attitudes towards language use and other languages Par. Primary school useful medium village lg. and the question numbers correspond with the numbers given at the top of each table in this appendix. 12. Sociolinguistic questionnaire responses The following tables display participants’ responses to the sociolinguistic questionnaire.97 F..1.5. use 6c. Participant biodata is given in appendix I. use with when neighbor praying Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Urdu Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei 11. use at home M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 S1 Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei 6b. Lg.

no. Most 14. Lg. better okay? no yes no yes yes yes no no yes no no no yes yes no yes no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no yes yes yes no no yes yes yes no yes no no 13.98 Par. Primary school useful medium village lg. Lg. use 11. use at home Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei 6b. neighbor praying Meitei & B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B & Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei & B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B B Meitei Arabic B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei 12. Mom with kids with when lg. use 6c. Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei . S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 Sh1 Sh2 Sh3 Sh4 Sh5 Sh6 Sh7 Sh8 Sh9 Sh10 Sh11 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10 6a. Other lg. Lg.

Go to MT class 18b. Pay 18a. Why 17c. They need to learn science. To learn to write their MT To be able to understand MT easily It's important to learn own lg. To learn to read & write their MT To learn to read & write their MT Everyone needs to know their MT well. It's not important. NA H6 yes yes yes To help & to teach yes H7 yes yes yes To know her MT better yes H8 yes yes maybe To learn more yes Learning will help them find better jobs. 17a. yes yes To teach yes H1 yes yes yes To learn better yes H2 yes yes yes To learn the MT alphabet yes H3 yes yes no No use. To learn MT better It's important to learn more of their MT. First they should learn their MT and then B. no. etc. Language attitudes towards literacy classes responses Par. if able M2 yes To learn their MT if necessary yes To learn MT better if necessary M3 yes To learn their MT well yes yes To know more if necessary M4 yes yes yes To learn MT better yes M5 yes yes yes To develop the area more yes M6 yes yes yes To learn to write her MT yes M7 yes yes yes To help others learn yes M8 yes yes yes To later be able to teach her children yes M9 yes To learn yes yes To learn yes M10 yes To learn to write their MT yes yes To be able to understand his MT better yes M11 yes To learn yes yes To learn more yes M12 yes To learn yes yes To learn more yes M13 yes It's our MT. Kids to MT class 17b. no need NA H4 yes if able yes To learn difficult MT words if able H5 no NA no It's not important.2. too. Why 18c.99 F. Pay M1 yes To be able to learn about their MT if able yes It's important for me to learn. To better understand their MT . This will help them be more developed.

she will. yes yes She needs to be more educated. Pay H9 yes To learn their MT well if necessary yes To learn & for fun if able H10 yes They can learn more easily using MT. NA S11 yes To learn yes yes To learn better yes Sh1 yes To learn the MT alphabet yes yes To learn the MT alphabet yes Sh2 yes To learn their MT purely yes yes To learn his MT purely yes Sh3 yes To retain their MT yes yes To know her MT better if able Sh4 yes To learn their MT if able yes To know her MT better if able Sh5 yes To learn their MT better yes yes To help others & to cooperate yes Sh6 yes To be able to speak MT more clearly yes yes To help with teaching & with developing their lg. S6 yes To learn better yes yes To learn better yes S7 yes To learn fully yes yes To learn more fully yes S8 yes To learn MT if able yes To help & to cooperate if able S9 yes To learn perfectly. & be able to understand she will. if able yes To learn the MT alphabet yes S1 yes To learn yes yes To learn yes S2 yes To learn more yes yes To learn more & know more yes S3 yes To learn yes yes To learn more yes S4 yes To learn their MT yes yes So that his MT won't be lost. yes Sh9 yes To learn yes if able For the sake of the MT if able Sh10 yes To know their MT if able yes To be with everyone at the class if able To learn their MT better If others do. Pay 18a. Why 17c.100 Par. Why 18c. 17a. yes Sh7 yes To strengthen their MT (Now it's becoming weak. to correct mistakes yes yes To improve the people as a whole yes S10 yes To learn. more . young people need this. to be sucessful yes Sh8 yes The more they learn the better. Kids to MT class 17b.) yes yes For the development of their lg. no. Go to MT class 18b. yes no She's too old to learn. yes S5 yes yes To learn Manipuri script If others do.

NA yes K7 yes To learn their MT better yes yes To learn her MT yes K8 yes To learn yes yes To learn to read her MT yes K9 yes To learn yes yes To learn to write her MT yes K10 yes To learn if able yes To learn if able 17b. NA C1 yes yes yes To learn MT well yes C2 yes To learn their MT well yes yes To learn the MT alphabet yes C3 yes To learn their MT better yes yes To know his MT better yes C4 yes To improve their MT ability yes yes To be able to know her MT better yes C5 yes To learn their MT better yes yes To learn yes C6 yes yes yes He needs to know more of his MT. yes C10 yes To learn more yes no Because of family issues NA K1 yes yes yes To be able to read and write his MT yes K2 yes yes yes To know his MT well yes K3 no Bangla is needed here. It's important for them to learn their MT better. yes yes He needs to know more. Why 18c. no. For their educational development This is a primary step in learning. Pay Sh11 yes if able no She doesn't need to learn more MT. NA yes To learn her MT well yes K4 yes To learn their MT yes yes To learn his MT yes K5 yes To learn their MT yes yes K6 no Bangla is more important here. Go to MT class 18b. Kids to MT class 17c.101 Par. NA no No need NA C9 yes It's important for learning. Everybody needs to learn their MT. Pay 18a. So their MT won't be ruined yes yes . yes C7 yes yes yes To learn the MT alphabet yes C8 no He'll teach them at home. Why To be able to read MT well To learn & to preserve their MT They need to learn their MT better. 17a.

102 F. Lg. 2a. Kids 5. Other 3. can't write S2 yes B no no Meitei yes yes S3 yes B yes no Meitei S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 Sh1 Sh2 Sh3 yes no yes yes no no no no no no little B NA B B NA NA NA NA NA NA B yes yes yes no yes yes yes no yes no yes no no no no no no yes no no no no B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei can read. no. use 4. Language vitality responses Par. Which speak MT next another better school well generation 15.3. Kids speak lg. Bangla literate M1 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M2 no NA yes no Meitei little yes M3 yes B yes no Meitei yes yes M4 no NA yes yes Meitei yes yes M5 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M6 yes B yes no Meitei no no M7 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M8 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M9 no NA yes no Meitei no no M10 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M11 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M12 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes M13 yes B yes no B yes yes H1 no NA yes no Meitei no yes H2 yes B yes no Meitei yes yes H3 no NA yes no Meitei no yes H4 no NA some no Meitei yes yes H5 yes B yes no Meitei yes yes H6 yes B yes no Meitei little yes H7 no NA yes no Meitei no yes H8 no NA yes no Meitei yes yes H9 no NA no no Meitei little little H10 yes Sylhetti yes no B yes S1 yes B yes no Meitei some can read. before 2b. MT literate 16. can't write little some no yes yes yes no yes yes yes little yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes .

Dialect responses and bilingualism responses Par. no. speak & age 8. MT literate 16. little E:15 B:10. 9. H:7 B:5 none B:5.4. 2nd best lg. Lgs. MT different M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 no place no place no place no place no place no place no place 1b. Bangla literate no yes some do yes yes no no some do some do no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no Meitei Meitei Meitei & B Meitei & B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei no yes yes some no yes no yes little yes yes yes yes yes yes little yes no no no no little yes yes no no no no yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes little yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no F. Always say in 2nd best NA NA NA NA NA NA NA B:6. & b. Where no. Which speak MT school well no no no yes no no no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes no yes no no no no no NA NA NA B NA NA NA B B B ND B ND ND B NA B B B B B NA Arabic.103 Par. Sh4 Sh5 Sh6 Sh7 Sh8 Sh9 Sh10 Sh11 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10 2a. E:10 Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B B B B B NA B yes yes yes yes yes NA yes . use there 7a. 1a. 10. before 2b. Kids speak another better 5. B NA NA NA NA NA yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes 4. H:15. use next generation 15. Other 3. Best lg. Lg. Lg. Kids lg. Naga:15 B:7 B:7.

H:15.104 Par. 9. E:5 B:6 B:6. little E:15 B:4. MT different M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 Sh1 Sh2 Sh3 Sh4 Sh5 Sh6 Sh7 Sh8 Sh9 Sh10 Sh11 C1 C2 no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place no place 1b. Where no. E:12 B:6. E:12. E:15 B:8 B:3 B:5 B:5. & b. H:15. E:4 B:5. Lg. E:12 B:6. E:18 B:6 B:6 B:5. 10. use there 7a. E:15 B:5 B:6. H:12 B:5. 2nd best lg. E:13 B:8 B:6. H:6. H:12. H:12 B:5 B:5 Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei Meitei B NA B B B B B B B B B B B B B Meitei B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B Meitei B B B B B B B yes NA yes yes yes yes no yes no no yes yes no yes no yes no yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes no no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no . Best lg. E:12. speak & age 8. H:15 B:6 B:6 B:6. E:15 B:6 B:15 B:5. E:12 B:5. little E:6 B:6 B:6 B:6 B:6. Lgs. Always say in 2nd best NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA B:6 none B:10 B:10 B:6 B:5 B:6 B:6. E:18 B:6. 1a.

Where no. H:12 Meitei B yes K5 no place NA B:3. 10. speak & age 8. H:18. H:15 B Meitei yes K6 no place NA B:6. E:10. Arabic:40 Meitei B yes C4 no place NA B:7. MT different 1b. E:12. 1a. E:12 Meitei B yes K9 no place NA B:6 Meitei B yes K10 no place NA B Meitei B yes . Always say in 2nd best C3 no place NA B:5. E:12. use there 7a. 9. & b. E:12. Best lg. H:12 Meitei B yes C6 no place NA B:6. E:12 B E yes K3 no place NA B:3 B Meitei no K4 no place NA B:6. :23 Meitei B yes K1 no place NA B:6. 2nd best lg. Lgs. Urdu:18 Meitei B yes K7 no place NA B:7 Meitei B yes K8 no place NA B:6. E:15 Meitei B yes C10 no place NA B:6. E:15 Meitei B yes C5 no place NA B:6. E:14.105 Par. H:10 Meitei B yes C7 no place NA B:6. H:40. Lg. H:14 Meitei B yes C8 no place NA B:6 Meitei B yes C9 no place NA B:6. H:14 B E yes K2 no place NA B:3.

106

G. Bangla SRT
G.1. Standard SRT procedures∗
A SRT is based on the premise that people's ability to repeat sentences in a second
language is limited by the level of their mastery of the morphology and syntax of that second
language. The greater proficiency they have in that language, the better able they are to repeat
sentences of increasing length and complexity. A SRT is developed separately for each language
to be tested. Detailed procedures for developing and calibrating a SRT are presented in Radloff
(1991). The sentences selected are calibrated against an evaluative instrument called the RPE,
where mother-tongue raters are provided with a detailed framework of proficiency descriptions
against which to evaluate the proficiency of their second-language speaking acquaintances.1 The
half-levels of the RPE describe increasing levels of proficiency in a second language, as
elaborated in figure G.1.
Figure G.1: Descriptions of RPE proficiency levels
RPE proficiency level
0+
1
1+
2
2+
3
3+
4
4+

Brief description
Very minimal proficiency
Minimal, limited proficiency
Limited, basic proficiency
Adequate, basic proficiency
Good, basic proficiency
Good, general proficiency
Very good, general proficiency
Excellent proficiency
Approaching native speaker proficiency

A SRT provides a rapid assessment of a person's second language proficiency, suited to
the purposes of a bilingualism survey. It is often the goal of a bilingualism survey to obtain a
profile of the second-language proficiencies in the community under investigation, that is, a
picture of what percentage of the population can be projected to be at each of the different levels
of proficiency. In order to do this, a large and representative sample of the population must be
tested. This speaks to the need for an assessment instrument that is quick and easy to administer.
The short administration time, however, is offset by careful attention to the development
and calibration of a SRT. The SRT provides a general assessment; thus, the researcher must be
able to place full confidence in the results through strict attention to the quality of each
developmental step.

The description of procedures for a SRT is quoted from appendix A of O'Leary (ed. 1992); it was authored by
Carla F. Radloff. It is used by permission of the author.
1

RPE levels as assigned by mother-tongue raters show an internal consistency but have not yet been correlated with
any other, more widely-recognized scale of second-language proficiency. The rationale and methodology for the
RPE is also included in Radloff (1991).

107

The development and calibration of a SRT proceeds through several steps: A preliminary
form of the test is developed through the assistance of mother-tongue speakers of the test
language. A large group of second-language speakers of the test language have their proficiency
assessed through a second, more descriptive proficiency standard instrument, in this case, the
RPE. These people are then administered the preliminary form of the test. Based on their
performance, fifteen sentences are selected, which prove to be the most discriminating of
performance and also represent increasing complexity and length. These fifteen sentences are
calibrated against the proficiency assessments from the RPE. This fifteen-sentence final form of
the test is used in the bilingualism survey and the resulting test scores are interpreted in terms of
equivalent RPE proficiency levels.
The Bangla SRT was developed by Amy Kim (2003). The ranges of Bangla SRT scores
corresponding to RPE levels are presented in figure G.2.
Figure G.2: Bangla SRT scores and predicted RPE levels
Bangla SRT score
0–2
3–8
9–14
15–21
22–27
28–33
34–39
40–45

Predicted RPE level
1
1+
2
2+
3
3+
4
4+

G.2. Bangla SRT
In the following sentences, the following line codes are used:
\#
\b
\p
\g
\f

Sentence number
Bangla sentence
Phonetic transcription
Word-by-word English gloss of transcribed text
Free (natural) English translation of the text

The following abbreviations are used in the glosses:
1
2
3
emph
p
poss
s

first person
second person
third person
emphatic marker
plural
possessive marker
singular

108

\P1
\b
\p
\g
\f
\P2
\b
\p
\f
\f
\P3
\b
\p
\g
\f
\P4
\b
\p
\g
\f
\P5
\b
\p
\g
\f
\1
\b
\p
\g
\f
\2
\b
\p
\g
\f
\3
\b
\p
\g
\f

AvR‡K Zvi

Rb¥w`b

ake
ta
nmodin
today
3s.poss
birthday
Today is his birthday.

Avgvi

evev

gvQ

a‡i

ama
baba
ma
1s.poss
father
fish
My father catches fish.

‡mLv‡b

doe
catches

Zviv mvivw`b

ekane
ta
aadin
there.in
3p
all.day
They work there all day long.

wKš—y

AvMvgx

KvR

K‡i

ka
work

kore
do

Kvj GUv

kintu
aami
kal
ea
but
coming
day
this
But tomorrow I will need this.

Kv‡Vi

wg¯¿x

Avgvi

ama
1s.poss

GKUv bZyb

jvM‡e

labe
will.need

Rvbvjv

ka
msti
æk
notun
wood.poss
craftsman
one
new
The wood craftsman is making a new window.

anala
window

‡`vKv‡b

cvIqv

wewfbœ

ai‡bi

wgwó

dokane
bibino
done
mii
store.at
various
type.poss
sweet
Various types of sweets can be found in stores.

Zviv wekªv‡gi

‡Zgb

weKv‡j

my‡hvM

Zv‡K dj

a
bikale
take
today
afternoon.in
3s.to
He has to buy fruit this afternoon.

l
fruit

banae
is.building

Hvq

paowa
getting

ta
bisame
tæmon
uo
3p
rest.poss
such
opportunity
They don’t get much opportunity to rest.

AvR

evbv‡”Q

cvq
paj
get

wKb‡Z

kinte
to.buy

aj
goes

bv

na
not

n‡e

hbe
will.have.to

time some rules And in life at all times one must follow some rules.at eku ae baa teke æka ili ma kine a.in any person is It doesn’t seem as if there’s anyone home.in tame stops †c‡qwQ hj becomes ch©š— poonto until GKUv Bwjk gvQ bv na not Avgiv GLv‡b ama 1p ‡m Rvb‡Zv evb‡iiv Lye e anto banoea kub 3s did.little ago market from one ilish fish having. I brought it.received nq mone mind. Ges Rxe‡b memgq wKQy wbqg ebo ibone bmoj kiu nijom and life.stay G‡bwQ enei have.109 \4 \b \p \g \f \5 \b \p \g \f \6 \b \p \g \f \7 \b \p \g \f \8 \b \p \g \f \9 \b1 Avwg Avgvi ami ama bone 1s 1s. evox‡Z ‡h GKU Av‡Q ch©š— e„wó bv Av‡M evRvi †_‡K teke from e‡j Dcnvi upoha gift g‡b bole says _v‡g †m e then pejei have.also Avcbv‡K apnake 2s.deem not If you don’t treat people well.brought nq hj becomes ev‡mb gvbylI baen deem _vKe ekane here. \p1 \g1 \p2 \g2 \f †ev‡bi manuo people.poss sister.to fvj balo well bv babe n will.poss I received a gift from my sister.followed Pj‡Z olte to-move n‡e hbe will. ‡g‡b mene having. \b2 \p \g \f †jvK †_‡K kats nearness e poonto bii na when until rain not We will stay here until the rain stops.to fvj balo well AbyKiY onukon imitation bv na not wcÖq pijo favorite wK‡b takbo will. hw` evm‡e Avcwb gvbyl‡K apni 2s manuke people. they won’t treat you well either. odi if \10 \b †Kvb KvQ baite kono lok ae home.in all.have.know monkeys very He knew monkeys really like to imitate.bought Having bought a hilsa fish at the market a little while ago.to .

also do Therefore. b`xi \p1 \g1 nodi river.poss Avgv‡`i nodi river \b2 Avgiv e¨emv \14 \b \p \g \f \15 \b1 amad 1p. ZeyI gv‡S-gv‡S we‡kl mg‡q Zviv wKQy tobuo mae-mae bie moje ta nevertheless sometimes special time.know not I didn’t know before that there is such a vegetable as patol available in the market.in hvq paowa getting Zv aj goes ta that Av‡M ae before LzeB ono for kubi very.poss \b2 †m Zvi \p2 \g2 \f koe do gv‡S-gv‡S ami antam na 1s did.on cvwi ama bæba kote pai 1p business to.110 \11 \b1 \p1 \g1 \b2 \p2 \g2 \f \12 \b1 myZivs utoa therefore AcKviI b`x nodi river Avgv‡`i amad 1p.able Rivers are very important for us because we are able to do business along river routes.emph Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq KviY pjoonijo important kaon because b`x nodi river c‡_ pte route.in 3p Nevertheless.to cUj bv‡gi †Kvb \b2 Avwg RvbZvg Bv b`x Rb¨ nam name.because Bv kiu some A‡bK Lyu‡RI nek much Avb›`-dzwZ© anondo-uti joy. \p1 \g1 \p2 \g2 \f A‡bK DcKvi cvwb pani water KzVviUv Mfxi obi deep †cj nIqvq hwaj happening.find not Although he searched a lot.delight kueo having.poss ebo and mae-mae sometimes meRx kono any sobi vegetable evRv‡i cvIqv baae market. rivers benefit us a lot and sometimes also harm us.poss axe did. K‡i koe do . he didn’t find his axe because the river was deep.do are. sometimes on special occasions they have some fun.although e ta kuaa pelo n 3s 3s. \p1 \g1 \p2 \g2 \f upoka benevolence Ges K‡i pol patol \13 \b1 nek much K‡i pokao koe harm.searched.

The participant numbers in the far left column correspond with the participant numbers given with these participants’ biodata in appendix I. For each of the twenty sentences (five practice sentences and fifteen test sentences). SRT scores The following table displays the SRT scores for all one hundred Meitei participants. the total score does not include the participant’s scores on the five practice sentences. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H 7H 8H 9H 10H 11H 12H 13H 14H 15H 16H 17H 18H 19H 20H 21H 22H 23H 24H 25H 26H 27H 28H 29H 30H 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 2 3 3 3 0 2 3 1 0 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 0 3 0 0 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 3 3 0 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 0 3 0 2 3 0 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 2 0 1 3 2 3 3 0 3 3 3 2 3 0 3 0 2 1 2 3 3 0 0 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 0 2 3 3 3 0 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 3 2 3 2 3 0 0 3 2 3 0 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 3 1 0 2 3 2 Bangla SRT sentence number 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 0 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 0 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 0 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 0 3 2 2 3 3 2 0 3 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 2 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 2 2 2 2 0 3 3 0 0 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 2 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total score 30 36 26 3 22 28 35 28 0 22 34 15 22 28 23 32 11 22 12 11 17 33 8 7 37 31 21 33 33 29 .111 G. This is based on a fourpoint scale (0–3) for each sentence. Par. no. In other words.3.6. each participant’s score is given. The total score at the far right is a summation of the participant’s scores on the fifteen test sentences.

Bangla SRT sentence number Total no.112 Par. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 score 31H 32H 33H 34H 1S 2S 3S 4S 5S 6S 7S 8S 9S 10S 11S 12S 13S 14S 15S 16S 17S 18S 19S 20S 21S 22S 23S 24S 25S 26S 27S 28S 29S 30S 31S 32S 33S 34S 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 0 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 0 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 0 2 2 1 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 3 0 1 2 1 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 2 1 0 1 0 3 2 3 3 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 0 3 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 0 3 0 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 0 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 1 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 3 0 1 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 0 3 0 0 1 0 3 1 3 2 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 3 0 3 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 3 0 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 0 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 0 2 3 0 2 1 1 3 2 1 0 3 0 2 3 1 3 3 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 3 2 0 2 3 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 3 3 1 1 3 3 2 1 0 2 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 2 3 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 0 2 2 0 2 3 0 1 2 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 2 0 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 29 41 35 34 26 32 14 4 26 23 37 24 32 36 27 12 25 37 5 21 16 20 36 31 25 25 34 21 32 31 25 32 33 24 31 27 29 23 .

113 Par. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 score 35S 36S 1K 2K 3K 4K 5K 6K 7K 8K 9K 10K 11K 12K 13K 14K 15K 16K 17K 18K 19K 20K 21K 22K 23K 24K 25K 26K 27K 28K 29K 30K 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 2 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 0 3 3 0 2 3 3 3 3 0 1 0 0 2 2 3 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 3 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 0 1 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 0 3 2 3 0 2 1 0 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 3 3 0 1 0 3 2 3 3 3 3 0 3 2 3 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 3 1 0 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 0 1 0 0 1 2 3 2 3 3 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 3 0 3 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 2 3 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 0 3 1 3 0 1 3 0 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 2 3 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 2 0 0 3 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 22 42 31 29 31 39 35 24 43 28 41 7 24 26 10 27 36 39 37 32 12 15 5 17 26 28 33 30 37 39 7 . Bangla SRT sentence number Total no.

Nearest post office: Islampur 7a. little 20b. Mother tongues: Meitei 5. Religions: Hindu (most). English. which is one hour by bus south from Upojela along the main road.114 H. and businesses 6. Water source: tubewell and large river very close by 19a. Population: 40 families. Apokpa (few) 4. adjacent to the Indian border 1a.2. and a few salaried jobs with NGOs 6. Mukabil Date: 03 April 2003 Location: a fifteen-minute walk west from Gularhaor. Mother tongues: Meitei 5. Non-government education: private school through class 2. Radio: yes 19b. Humerjan Date: 04 April 2003 Location: a five-minute walk east of Ranir Bazar. a few salaried jobs. District: Moulvibazar 2. Children who attend school: all 12. 300 people (all Meitei) 3. Number who have completed BA: 5–6 17. which is twenty minutes by bus south from Upojela along the main road 1a. District: Moulvibazar 2. Electricity: no 18.1. Languages: Bangla. Languages: Bangla and Hindi H. TNT: no 7b. Subdistrict: Kamalganj 1b. Population: 65 families. Most students complete: 10th 14. very close to village 11. 450–500 people (all Pangal) 3. Television: yes. TNT: yes . Children who finish 5th: almost all 15. Work: farming. Nearest clinic: Islampur 9. few teachers. Nearest hospital: Islampur 8b. Meitei. Government school: none 10. Girls who attend school: all 13. and Hindi 20a. Mobile: yes 8a. Children who finish 10th: most 16. Work: farming. Meitei Community Information H. Nearest post office: Kamalganj 7a. Religions: Islam 4. handicraft business. Subdistrict: Kamalganj 1b.

115

7b. Mobile: yes
8a. Nearest hospital: Gopalnagar (near Upojela)
8b. Nearest clinic: Gopalnagar (near Upojela)
9. Government school: through class 5
10. Non-government education: none
11. Children who attend school: all
12. Girls who attend school: all
13. Most students complete: 10th
14. Children who finish 5th: all
15. Children who finish 10th: 90%
16. Number who have completed BA: 5 have finished; 5 are in the process now
17. Electricity: yes
18. Water source: tubewell for drinking and cooking; ponds for bathing
19a. Radio: yes
19b. Languages: Meitei, Bangla, and Hindi
20a. Television: yes
20b. Languages: Bangla, Hindi, Meitei, and a little English

H.3. Shivganj
Date: 05 April 2003
Location: east side of Sylhet city
1a. Subdistrict: Katowali
1b. District: Sylhet
2. Population: 60 families; 1000 people
3. Religions: Apokpa
4. Mother tongues: Meitei
5. Work: business (most); salaried jobs
6. Nearest post office: Sylhet 3100
7a. TNT: yes
7b. Mobile: yes
8a. Nearest hospital: Sylhet city (several close by)
8b. Nearest clinic: Sylhet city (several close by)
9. Government school: through class 10
10. Non-government education: none
11. Children who attend school: all
12. Girls who attend school: all
13. Most students complete: 10th
14. Children who finish 5th: all
15. Children who finish 10th: most
16. Number who have completed BA: 20
17. Electricity: yes
18. Water source: tubewell and some indoor plumbing
19a. Radio: yes
19b. Languages: Bangla, Hindi, and English
20a. Television: yes
20b. Languages: Bangla

116

H.4. Shivnagar
Date: 07 April 2003
Location: a one-hour-express bus ride from Srimangal to Chunarughat; then a twenty-minute
(nine km) bus ride south from Chunarughat to Jaruliya (towards Asampara); then a ten-minute
rickshaw ride or a twenty-minute walk along a dirt path west from Jaruliya to Shivnagar
1a. Subdistrict: Chunarughat
1b. District: Habiganj
2. Population: 25 Meitei and 2–3 Bengali families; 200 Meitei people
3. Religions: Apokpa (Meitei); Muslim (Bengali)
4. Mother tongues: Meitei and Bangla
5. Work: farming, weaving, a few teachers, and few businessmen
6. Nearest post office: Gazipur (1.5 km)
7a. TNT: no
7b. Mobile: yes
8a. Nearest hospital: Jaruliya (2 km)
8b. Nearest clinic: Jaruliya (2 km)
9. Government school: none in village; through class 5 in Asampara
10. Non-government education: through class 5 (in village)
11. Children who attend school: all
12. Girls who attend school: all
13. Most students complete: 5th
14. Children who finish 5th: almost all
15. Children who finish 10th: 10
16. Number who have completed BA: 7–8
17. Electricity: yes
18. Water source: tubewell
19a. Radio: yes
19b. Languages: Bangla, Meitei, a little Hindi, and a little English
20a. Television: yes
20b. Languages: Bangla and Hindi

H.5. Choto Dhamai
Date: 08 April 2003
Location: bus from Shamshernagar to Brahmanbazar (14 Taka); bus to Kulaura (6 Taka); bus to
Juri (10 Taka); a forty-minute rickshaw ride from Juri to Dhamai (50 Taka for three people).
1a. Subdistrict: Barlekha
1b. District: Moulvibazar
2. Population: 130 families; 1200 people total in Choto Dhamai and Boro Dhamai (mostly
Meitei)
3. Religions: Apokpa and Hindu
4. Mother tongues: Meitei and Bangla
5. Work: farming, weaving, and few businessmen
6. Nearest post office: Choto Dhamai
7a. TNT: no
7b. Mobile: yes

117

8a. Nearest hospital: Noyabazar
8b. Nearest clinic: Barlekha
9. Government school: through class 10
10. Non-government education: none
11. Children who attend school: 90%
12. Girls who attend school: 90%
13. Most students complete: 10th
14. Children who finish 5th: all
15. Children who finish 10th: all
16. Number who have completed BA: 20–25
17. Electricity: yes
18. Water source: tubewells and wells
19a. Radio: yes
19b. Languages: Bangla and Meitei
20a. Television: yes
20b. Languages: Bangla and Hindi

H.6. Kunagaon
Date: 09 April 2003
Location: a forty-minute walk or a twenty-minute rickshaw ride east of Adampur, along a very
sandy, dirt path
1a. Subdistrict: Kamalganj
1b. District: Moulvibazar
2. Population: 60 Meitei and 40 Bangladeshi families; 300 Meitei people
3. Religions: Islam (most) and Hindu (some)
4. Mother tongues: Meitei and Bangla
5. Work: farming (50%) and picking betel nut leaves at a nearby Khasi village (50%)
6. Nearest post office: Adampur
7a. TNT: no
7b. Mobile: yes
8a. Nearest hospital: Kamalganj
8b. Nearest clinic: Adampur
9. Government school: through class 5
10. Non-government education: BRAC through class 2
11. Children who attend school: most
12. Girls who attend school: most
13. Most students complete: 4th
14. Children who finish 5th: few
15. Children who finish 10th: few
16. Number who have completed BA: 3
17. Electricity: yes
18. Water source: tubewell
19a. Radio: yes
19b. Languages: Bangla, Hindi, and English
20a. Television: yes
20b. Languages: Bangla and Hindi

1. Sylhet:2 Humerjan M M M none Shivganj A 28 M MS Shivganj M M M none Chandratol Shivganj A 30 F HSC a Singha Shivganj M M M none Babuton Shivnagar H 23 M BS Singha Shivnagar M M M Habiganj:4 M Chittagong:12. Syodpur:3. Dhaka:1. Biodata notes The following abbreviations are used in the following biodata tables: Column headings: Rel = Religion Educ = Education MT = Mother Tongue M’s MT = Mother’s Mother Tongue F’s MT = Father’s Mother Tongue Education: SSC = Secondary School Certificate HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate 10 = Completed class 10 but did not pass SSC exam BA = Bachelorof Arts degree MA = Master of Arts degree BS = Bachelor of Science MS = Master of Science Religion: A = Apokpa B = Buddhism H = Hinduism I = Islam Language: M = Meitei Other: ND = No Data p-t = part-time I. Jessore:6. Participant biodata I. Wordlist and CIQ participant biodata C W I L Q Date X X 3 April 03 X X 4 April 03 X 5 April 03 X 5 April 03 X 7 April 03 X 7 April 03 R A S e g e Educ l e x Current residence MT Md. Sader Mukabil I 42 M HSC Ali Mukabil M M M Dhaka:10.2.118 I. Mymensingh:3. Sylhet:3 Name Biroi Singha Longjam Saron Singha Place Humerjan A 44 M Sritikendra Shivnagar A 45 M Singha 9 10 Shivnagar M M's F's MT MT M Other residence and length (in years) .

no. HTT participant biodata Par.3.119 C W I L Q Date Name Krishna Mohon Singha Baigo Singha 7 April 03 X 9 April 03 X Shivnagar H 52 M 6 Current residence MT Shivnagar M M's F's MT MT M Other residence and length (in years) M none Choto Dhamai ND ND ND none Choto H 43 F HSC Dhamai Choto Dhamai M M M none Mohid Kunagaon I 56 M BS Choudhury Kunagaon M M M India:10 Norunnesa Kunagaon I 55 F Choudhury Kunagaon M M M Assam:10 Anatsha Singha 8 April 03 X 9 April 03 R A S e g e Educ l e x Choto N 39 M ND Dhamai D X 8 April 03 X Place 6 I. Dhaka none Sylhet:8 Chandgao:20 none . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Date Place A g e S e x Educ Current residence MT 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 15 April 03 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan 26 69 36 16 30 28 56 55 48 30 F HSC M 5 M 10 M 10 M MA M BA M 8 M SSC F none F 4 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan M M M M M M M M M M M's F's MT MT M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M Other residences and length (in years) none Sylhet:7 none none Habiganj (a few) Habiganj.

Sylhet:2 Nagaland:8. Date Place A g e R e l S e x Educ Current residence MT M's F's MT MT 1 10 Nov 03 Adampur M 30 M BA Adampur M M B 2 10 Nov 03 Adampur M 28 F BA Adampur M M M 3 4 10 Nov 03 Tetoigao 10 Nov 03 Tetoigao H 30 F H 70 M 8 none Tetoigao Tetoigao M M M M M M 5 10 Nov 03 Tetoigao H 40 M HSC Tetoigao M M M 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 Nov 03 10 Nov 03 10 Nov 03 10 Nov 03 10 Nov 03 10 Nov 03 M H H H H H BA 12 5 9 SSC 5 Jalalpur Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M Tetoigao Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan 30 23 35 41 50 45 M M F F M F Other residences RTT and length score (in yrs.5. no. Noakhali:4 none none Sylhet:5 Dhaka:10 Mouvibazar:4 Agartola:7 Kulaura:25 Longla:21 none none 100 90 90 90 80 100 90 85 90 70 80 I.) none Srimangal:12.120 I.4. Sociolinguistic questionnaire participant biodata Par. RTT participant biodata Par. Date Place R e l A g e S e x Educ Current residence MT M's F's MT MT Other residences and length (in years) M1 3 April 03 Mukabil I 42 M HSC Mukabil M M M2 3 April 03 Mukabil I 34 M 6 Mukabil M M M3 3 April 03 Mukabil I 17 M 8 Mukabil M M M Dhaka:10. no. M Manipur:3 M none M4 3 April 03 Mukabil I 16 M 9 Mukabil M M M M5 3 April 03 Mukabil I 28 F SSC Mukabil M M M M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 H1 H2 H3 H4 Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan I I I I I I I I H A H A Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Mukabil Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 3 April 03 3 April 03 3 April 03 3 April 03 3 April 03 3 April 03 3 April 03 3 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 50 28 18 45 50 40 20 20 18 29 50 44 F 0 M BA F 8 F 0 M 10 F 10 F HSC F SSC F HSC M BA M 4 M 9 none India (8 km away):15 none Srimangal:4 none none none Adampur:18 none none none Dhaka:4 none none .

Syodpur:3.121 Par. Jessore:6. Sylhet:3 M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 7 April 03 7 April 03 7 April 03 7 April 03 7 April 03 Sh7 7 April 03 Sh8 Sh9 Sh10 Sh11 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 7 April 03 7 April 03 7 April 03 7 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai 27 24 28 17 68 30 42 24 62 55 45 25 5 F F M F M F F M M M F F HSC 10 MS 11 8 HSC 8 HSC 9 8 5 HSC HSC H 27 F fail H 72 M 6 H 26 F BA H 30 F SSC H 23 M BS H 36 M MS A 45 M A H A H A A A H H A 60 72 45 25 52 24 58 43 17 62 10 Shivnagar F 5 Shivnagar M 10 Shivnagar F 5 Shivnagar F HSC Shivnagar M 5 Choto Dhamai F 5 Choto Dhamai M 9 Choto Dhamai F HSC Choto Dhamai F HSC Choto Dhamai M 5 Choto Dhamai M's F's MT MT Other residences and length (in years) Educ none none Adampur:33 none none none Dubai:18 none none Manipur:5 . Shamser Nagar:2 Chandpur:5 none none none Shillong:12 none none none Dhaka:11 none Kadimnagar:16 none Sh1 7 April 03 Shivnagar Shivnagar M M M none Sh2 Sh3 Sh4 Sh5 Sh6 Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar Shivnagar M M M M M M M M M M M none M none M none M Habiganj:4 M Dhaka:10. no. Sylhet:2 M M Chittagong:12. Dhaka:1. M Mymensingh:3. Date Place H5 4 April 03 H6 H7 H8 R e l A g e S e x Current residence MT Humerjan H 23 M HSC Humerjan M M M 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan H 26 F HSC H 43 F 5 A 56 M 8 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan M M M M M M M M M H9 4 April 03 Humerjan H 55 F Humerjan M M M H10 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 4 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 Humerjan Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj A H A A A A A H A A B A Humerjan Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M Sylhet:5(p-t). Agortola:7(p-t) none Sylhet:20 none Chandpur:35.

Sylhet:3 10 Kunagaon M M M Noakhali:3. Imphal:3 I 38 M SSC Kunagaon M M M Kunagaon Kunagaon I 52 M I 82 F 9 10 Kunagaon Kunagaon M M M M M M 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 25 F BA Kunagaon M M M K9 9 April 03 K10 9 April 03 Kunagaon Kunagaon I 55 F I 45 F 6 0 Kunagaon Kunagaon M M M M M M Many districts with army:15 Shillong:10 none Many districts for work:5 none none . Dhaka:2. Srimangal:8. Dhaka:4 BS Kunagaon M M M Noakhali:7.122 Par. Date Place R e l A g e S e x C7 C8 C9 C10 K1 8 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 8 April 03 9 April 03 Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Choto Dhamai Kunagaon A H A H I 32 22 24 62 56 F HSC Choto Dhamai M BA Choto Dhamai M HSC Choto Dhamai F 0 Choto Dhamai M BS Kunagaon K2 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 19 M HSC K3 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 22 F K4 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 25 M K5 9 April 03 Kunagaon K6 K7 9 April 03 9 April 03 K8 Educ Current residence MT M's F's MT MT Other residences and length (in years) M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M none Sylhet:3 none none India:10 Kunagaon M M M Noakhali:6. Srimangal:10. no.

Sylhet:5 Chandpur:5 Sylhet:23. Bahrain:3 Chittagong:1 none Comilla:1 none . Shamshernagar:2 Hoktelkola (close by):21. Date Place 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H 7H 8H 9H 10H 11H 12H 13H 14H 15H 16H 17H 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan R A S e g e l e x Educ Current residence MT H A A H A H H H A H H H A H H H H HSC BA BA 4 9 SSC HSC HSC 0 5 9 7 8 HSC 8 10 5 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 10 Humerjan M Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 18 29 31 50 44 20 23 26 60 43 17 35 56 25 30 30 55 F M M M M M M F F F F M M M M F F 18H 4 April 03 Humerjan H 23 F 19H 20H 21H 22H 23H 24H 25H 26H 27H 28H 29H 30H 31H 32H 33H 34H 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 4 April 03 Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan Humerjan H H H H H H H H A H A A H H H H 21 30 30 45 50 45 38 17 35 25 27 70 52 50 52 18 F 7 F 8 M 4 M 9 F 0 F 0 M 10 M 9 M 10 F SSC F HSC M HSC M SSC M SSC M BA F SSC Other residences and length (in years) none Dhaka:4 Sylhet:1 none none none Sylhet:5(p-t). Sylhet:1(p-t) none none none none Sylhet:25 none none none Chittagong:1.123 I.6. Bangla SRT participant biodata Par. Habiganj:1 Barlekha:19. Agortola:7(p-t) none Mongalpur (next village):16 Sylhet:20 Sylhet:15 none none Sylhet:20 Feniganj:5 Srimangal:22. Feniganj:5(p-t) Chandpur:35. no.

Date Place 1S 2S 3S 4S 5S 6S 7S 8S 9S 10S 11S 12S 13S 14S 15S 16S 17S 18S 19S 20S 21S 22S 23S 24S 25S 26S 27S 28S 29S 30S 31S 32S 33S 34S 35S 36S 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 5 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 6 April 03 Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj 1K 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 19 M HSC 24 28 68 52 17 30 22 17 18 18 24 42 55 62 45 25 32 52 27 23 29 59 52 25 31 64 24 18 29 63 23 46 41 44 43 41 F M M F F F F F F F F F M M F F M M M M M M M M M M M M M F F M M F M M .124 R A S e g e l e x Educ Current residence MT Other residences and length (in years) A A A A A A A A A A H A A A B A A A A H H A A A H H H H A A H H H H A H 10 MS 8 3 HSC HSC HSC 10 10 HSC HSC 8 8 9 5 HSC 5 3 11 HSC 9 9 BA 10 10 BA 10 HSC HSC 5 7 HSC HSC 10 10 SSC Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj Shivganj M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M none none Shillong:12 Adampur:16 none none none none none none none none none none Kadim Nagar:16 none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none none Naya Bazar (close by):24 Imphal. Srimangal:8. India:5 none Dhaka M Noakhali:6. no. Kunagaon:6 Pat.

Dhaka:4. Sylhet:4. Dhaka:2. India:2. India:28 11K 12K 13K 14K 15K 16K 17K 18K 19K 20K 21K 22K 23K 24K 25K 26K 27K 28K 29K 30K 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 27 28 56 25 80 38 40 37 52 27 25 23 18 30 42 40 45 42 16 21 55 26 22 78 F 3 M SSC F 10 F 5 M 9 M BA F BA M HSC F 10 F 5 M 5 F 2 M 0 F 10 M SSC F HSC F 6 F HSC M 0 M 2 Noakhali:3. Noakhali:10. Savar:2 none Banugach:10 Sukuralagao:18 none none none Mukhabil:28 none Ranir Bazar:20 none none none Kamalpur. no. Sylhet:5 Assam:11 Noakhali:3. Silchor. Assam:11 Dhaka:2. Srimangal:8. Dhaka:2 Gularhaor:17. Sylhet:3. Chittagong:1 Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M Sylhet:40.125 Par. Bogra:3 10K 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 15 F 10 Kunagaon M Feni:5. Srimangal:9 Sylhet:1 . Moulvibazar:1 Imphal. Sylhet:3 9K 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 27 F 10 Kunagaon M Banugach:7. Sunamganj:1 Sylhet:6 none none Banugach:1. Jessore:2. Rangpur:1 Rangpur:2. Date Place 2K 3K 4K 5K 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 9 April 03 Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon R A S e g e l e x Other residences and length (in years) Educ Current residence MT M M M M 10 9 BS 10 Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon Kunagaon M M M M 6K 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 42 F 10 Kunagaon M 7K 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 22 M 10 Kunagaon M 8K 9 April 03 Kunagaon I 22 F BS Kunagaon M Noakhali:7.

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