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Hyperbole (pronounced hi-per-boh-lee) is a figure of speech that uses extreme exaggeration. An example of
hyperbole is 'Flick won the 100 metre race by a mile'. If taken literally this sentence does not make any sense.
Figuratively this sentence means that Flick won the race by a long way. Hyperbole is used by composers to
emphasise a point. Look at the following examples and decide whether the literal or the figurative has more
Hyperbole: 'It's been ages since lunch.'
Literal: 'It's been two hours since lunch.'
Hyperbole: 'I'm so hungry I could eat a horse.'
Literal: 'I'm so hungry I could eat a lot.'
Hyperbole: 'There are millions of people at the shopping centre.'
Literal: 'There are lots of people at the shopping centre.'

Allusions and symbolism
Allusion and symbolism are very closely linked to connotation. An allusion is when a composer makes a
reference to another text or person within their own text, for example:
'Her date was due to pick her up at any moment, so Rachel rushed through her wardrobe like a white rabbit.'
Example one
This allusion compares Rachel's rushing around to the tardy (late-running) white rabbit from Lewis Carroll's
'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'. If you do not know the other text, you may not understand the allusion so
the most effective allusions are from well-known, usually classic, texts.
Symbolism, as well as being closely linked to connotation, is also closely linked to context and cultural
assumptions. In every cultural context, there are symbols that have meanings for people. In a Christian culture,
for example, a cross represents spirituality, in American culture the bald eagle represents American justice,
while the tiger might represent the courage and strength of the Wests Rugby League Club or Richmond
Australian Rules Football Club.
Symbols can also change meaning according to context. The 'golden arches' logo of McDonald's might
symbolise a quick way for a travelling family to have some food. It may symbolise corporate America or
exploitation to a group of people concerned about the nutritional value of the food.

(Pronounced si-NECK-doh-key) This term is a figure of speech whereby the naming of an attribute of a subject
is a reference to the whole.


All hands on deck!

'Hands' refers to the crew.

Check out my new wheels, bro.

'Wheels' refers to the entire car.


metonomy animation Medium of the visual arts 1. paper. 8. 6. Very essential to art. the easy blending of tones. Metonymy Explanation The pen is mightier than the sword.Metonymy is a figure of speech whereby the naming of an attribute of a subject is a reference to the whole and a concept associated with that whole. Pigments can come from different sources: minerals. Pigment may be applied in a thick and heavy manner or in washes of almost water color transparency.  Its ease of handling.  Ground by hand or machine then mixed with oil. The materials of the painter are pigments applied to wet plaster. and other chemical combinations. Painters usually depend upon those pigments which do not change through the years. MEDIUM OF THE VISUAL ARTS Prepared by: ERIC F. Surface: canvas. 5.  Disadvantages:  Dries slowly and has a tendency to rise to the surface and form a film over the picture. Oil Pigments are mixed in oil. Surface most suitable: must receive oil freely and yet not absorb it. MEDIUM Refers to the materials which are used by an artist. making it appear dull. 7. 7. A means by which he communicates his ideas.  Oil painting: popular because there are many ways of handling oil pigments.paints are opaque and are applied to the surface just as they are to look in the finished product. 6. Refer to the Practise hyperbole.  Pigments mixed with oil provide a medium that gives richness in the opacity of light and depth of shadow. Two methods of painting in oil:  Direct method. and determines its own stroke. This is a decision from Canberra. It is possible to get a wide range of separate effects. MAN 2. symbolism. 5. 4. synechdoche. canvas. and not crack the pigment on it. and the possibility of painting over and covering any mistake are some of the reasons why oil painting is a very popular technique. 4. is capable of varied treatment. more flexible  Indirect method: paint is applied in many thin layers of transparent color 8. vegetable matter. can withstand temperature changes. 3.  Has a tendency to become yellow and crack so that preservation usually becomes a problem. 3. 'Canberra' refers to the capital city of Australia and the concepts associated with it are the actions of politicians. metal Most familiar type of painting is done with oils on canvas. 2. allusions. Painting The art of creating meaningful effects on a flat surface by the use of pigments. PAZZIUAGAN. wood. coal tars. Each medium exerts a pronounced effect on the finished product. RN. Oil color is the best method for a convincing representation where reproduction of color is necessary. The 'pen' refers to acts written by pen and as such is an attribute of diplomacy and the 'sword' is an attribute of military action. . 1. wood or paper.

 It is a very flexible medium.  The process begins with preliminary sketches. and most closely resembles dry pigment. 15. Needs careful details. 20. later enlarged to full-size cartoons which are transferred to rough plaster. Fresco The most popular type of painting. 13. the painter is free to handle the material to suit himself. deep tones. These colors have uniformity of tone and no glaring contrasts. 20. 18.  Require a high degree of technical dexterity. 15.  Disadvantages:  Almost impossible to move a fresco  Painting is subject to disasters that may happen to the wall of which it has become a part. The chalk tends to rub off and the picture loses its brilliance. The colors are mixed with egg yolk. used by Egyptian. either egg. 17. 11. Pigment is bound so as to form a crayon which is applied directly to the surface. silk. Colors are mixed with water and applied to fresh plaster which absorbs the color.  A medium familiar to every school child. . Flourished during the 15th and 16th century.  It differs from the brilliant quality of translucent water color painting whose major effects are caused by the white paper.  Usually done on a wooden panel that has been smooth with a coating of plaster. it is a very exacting method. milk-like texture of oily and watery consistency. It is prepared by mixing a pigment with water or with water and lime. 17. Tempera Mixture of ground pigments and an albuminous or colloidal vehicle. the lime binds the pigment to the plaster and makes the painting part of the wall. 12. Pastel The most recent medium. 11. gives no glazed effect. 16. Paper is the most commonly used ground. 9. paper. Other ground: parchment. it lasts until the wall is destroyed. Medieval. The coloring must be ready as soon as the plaster is put on the wall. and cambric. 19. ivory. all the light comes from the ground. 16. Only earth pigments are used because of the chemical action of the plaster on the paint. Colors are laid on side by side or superimposed. 21. pasteboard or canvas is used. Watercolor Pigments are mixed with water and applied to fine white paper. 18. There is little blending or fusing of colors since paint dries rapidly. 21. Fresco means “fresh.  Advantages:  Dries readily with the evaporation of water  Great luminosity of tone  Colors are clear and beautiful. When this is applied to the wet plaster.  As far as the technique is concerned. Possesses only surfaces of light. 12. and shadows. and Renaissance painters. Good watercolor paintings are not easy to make. Not a very popular medium because no one has yet to discovered the way to preserve its original freshness. usually. There is no changing once the design is begun. “Maria Makiling” by Carlos “Botong” Francisco 10. Gouache: opaque water color  Made by grinding opaque colors with water and mixing the product with a preparation of gum and adding Chinese white to transparent watercolors. 10. Varied effects may be produced. 13. 14.9. As support for pastel painting paper. “Madonna Enthroned with Four Saints” 14. It is hard to obtain rich. Special characteristic: being an emulsion  Watery.” 19.  Since fresco must be done quickly. gum. Since the pigment has been incorporated with the plaster. or glue. In pure watercolor painting.

 Lacks the vigor of wooden statues Like wood. welded steel. Beautiful and versatile medium. Pkil in Laguna and Betis. Combine transparency and quick. 24. Pampanga. 22. burn easily. Two Major Sculpture Processes Subtractive process:  Unwanted material is cut away  Carving of stone and wood Additive process:  Example: Construction of figure by putting together bits of clay. They do not tend to crack. and other hazards  Heavy and breaks easily  Marble. 23. Relatively light and can be easily made into a variety of shapes. Substances available for sculpture are limitless. They are completely insoluble when dry and can be used almost on any surface. 28. 33. Popular in Paete.  Soft medium: will lend itself to a modelling technique that uses squeezing and shaping and continuously adding itself to it as the work goes on. readily available. or by welding together parts of metal. Hard medium: requires the process of cutting and taking away from the block. high gloss when polished 29. 26.  Metals:  Most commonly used is bronze  May be solid in small statues  Hallowed in most large statues (heavy and expensive)  Tendency to crack when cooled  Disadvantages: difficulty and intricacy in casting bronze  Rich color and texture: most beautiful media  Light and can support itself in many positions  Other metals: forged iron. 32. and duraluminum 30. 26. 33. 25.  Confined to the limits of the piece of wood or stone. Two types of Sculpture Relief: figures which are attached to the ground 27. Synthetic paints using acrylic emulsions as binder. Drawback: limited in size. and easy to cut Polishes well and has a smooth shiny surface and beautiful color. it also cracks Seldom used today. 30.  Free standing: can be seen from all sides 28. Acrylic The newest medium and one that is used widely by painters today. the most important thing to consider is the material. 32. Ivory Intrinsic value of the material.  Result is terra cotta which means “cooked earth” Moderately coarse clay product fired at comparatively low temperature. Stone and Bronze Stone:  durable. Unfired clay is a fragile material and sculpture in this medium would have a short life. SCULPTURE In choosing a subject for the sculpture.Favorite material in Greece and Italy. Lends itself to technical mastery.  Final result if putting together smaller segments of the material. 31. Other Materials Aluminum Chromium Steel Plastic  Less expensive  Less fragile  light Chemically treated clay Stone for casting in liquid form . Usually painted and coated with heavy glaze. 29. 25. the sculptor can fire the original in a kiln. Not a strong material and it cannot stand strain or weight. fire. For a more durable work in clay. 34. Different materials require different methods of handling. Breaks and chips easily. Wood Advantage: cheap.drying qualities of watercolor and are as flexible as oil. Terra Cotta Plastic clay Yields to even the slightest pressure and can be worked and re-worked until the artist has achieved what he wants to do. 23. 24.  Allows for the expansion of gesture. 27.22. and tun yellow with age. 34. resistant to the elements. discolor and decay easily 31.

 Arch  Dominant in Roman architecture  Architectural forms built from pieces of wood called voussoirs with joints between them and are arranged in semi-circle. vegetables and other natural elements. they can be seen. sag or rot. 41. Color is applied on surfaces such as canvass.  Needs a beam with tensile strength. formed by round arches or vaults rising from a round or many-sided base. Materials used and the methods of assembling them are among the factors contributing to architectural style.  Steel:  Tough alloy of iron in variable amounts  Malleable under proper conditions and greatly hardened by sudden cooling  Tensile strength  Made possible the building of the high-rise structures which are very popular this days. 40. 40. Pigment is that part of painting that provides the color. . and fire  Plywood: improved the structural possibilities of wood. relative durability. brick.  Generally used for wooden buildings. insects. primarily. 41. and high tensile and compressions strength  Disadvantages: Easily destroyed by moisture. particularly in sculpture.  Wood:  Common building material  Advantages: abundance. wood. cloth. 38. stronger than any known material. and through the sense of touch. and does not crack or break easily  Largely utilized in buildings with steel as medium  Wood is also used but is limited since it has a tendency to warp.   PAINTING The medium of painting is color. being composed in space. Types of Construction Post-and-lintel:  Consists of two vertical posts for support (post) and horizontal one (lintel).  Stone:  Material used when permanence is desired  Concrete:  made of sand and gravel mixed with cement  high compressive strength  doesn’t crumble or break down when subjected to heavy weight  Does not corrode and is fire resistant  Stronger: ferroconcrete or reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel) 38.  Used in construction of skyscrapers which depends for support upon a steel skeleton. and pigment is taken from organic sources like trees.  All materials are in compression  Typical for stone construction: can stand great pressure  Dome is an extension of the arch  Roof resembling an inverted cup or hemisphere. 39. glass. 37. 35. 36. wood. Sculpture and Related Arts) The visual arts are called such because. 36. paper and the likes to produce images and meanings.  Cantilever  Any structural part projecting horizontally and anchored at one end only.35. 39. concrete. 37. Materials: stone. Their appreciation is experienced through the eyes. Functional definition: to fulfil a need that leads to its creation. THE VISUAL ARTS (Painting. Architecture Art of designing and constructing building.

Spolarium by Juan Luna. It is slow to dry. or even erase what a painter may wish to change. thus. Common Color Medium OIL. where it garnered a gold medal. but it can be applied by any kind and size of airbrush. It is a flexible medium. Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci (oil) . Features : Color pigments are ground and mixed with linseed oil to produce a liquid-like constituency whose viscosity (thickness or fluidness) can be thinned by turpentine or any other solvent. create translucent effects in the combinations of colors. The painting was submitted by Luna to the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884. It can cover or overlay previous layers.

easily accessible and inexpensive. Watercolor Painting TEMPERA.ACRYLIC. It is characterized by the transparency of its texture which is controlled by the amount of water that the artist mixes with the paint. Features : Pigments are taken from organic pigments mixed with egg. It dries quickly. Features : This is the most common medium. . it is a difficult medium to control. It dries quickly. It is versatile as this synthetic paint may be mixed with water to tamper thickness or thinness. Features : Pigment in watercolor is mixed with water rather than with oil. It is flexible and can be applied to any space. Miss Sasha Colette (acrylic) WATERCOLOR. hence. It is usually applied on wooden panels surfaced with gesso (combination of gypsum and gelatine). It is quick to dry and does not crack or turn yellow with age.

Features : Fresco painting is produced when organic pigments are mixed with water and applied to a damp plaster wall. This is an ancient technique used to paint portraits and other images on coffins. The mixture is then applied to porous surfaces like wood. This was the process that Michelangelo used in painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. Features : Encaustic process adds colored pigments to heated beeswax. This allows water to seep into the surface and become a part of the wall and remains so until the wall falls. The Sistine Chapel Ceiling by Michelangelo (fresco) ENCAUSTIC. .Egg Tempera Painting by Niccolo Semiticolo (tempera) FRESCO.

crayons and silverpoint. . It often sets the final designs in paintings. It is the most fundamental of the skills in the visual arts and is the route artists take to acquire technique. ink.The mediums used in drawing are pencil. chalk.Encaustic Painting RELATED VISUAL ARTS DRAWING Drawings are the outlined designs of paintings. lead. charcoal. pastel. the rough draft of a proposed work.

. and other materials. These small cubic pieces glued to a surface by glue or plaster to create images are called tesserae.MOSAIC Mosaic is the art of creating a picture by assembling pieces of colored glasses. stones. Mosaic art was important in the interiors of cathedrals which depicted the life of Christ or the various events in the Bible.

. Subjects were religious personages and images complementing the teachings of the Church.STAINED GLASS Stained glass art uses assembled pieces of colored glass to create pictures. The translucent glass pieces allow light to produce various color values to affect a glorious atmosphere. These pieces are assembled with strips of lead or iron placed in positions that will hold the glass pieces.

width (called weft). palaces and cathedrals. .TAPESTRY Tapestries were the art forms of royalty. It is produced by weaving two sets of interlaced threads on a vertica loom : one set running parallel to the length (called the warp) and the other. These were hung on walls of castles. as tapestry artists were usually members of royal families who wove these from expensive silk and gold threads.

Intaglio printing (etching and engraving). The ink sits on the top surface of a plate or block that has been carved. either wooden block or metal plate that are etched or carved with designs in the reverse position. The matrix is flat. an image is printed out.  Stencil printing (silkscreen). and the printing part is treated to hold ink.  Planographic printing (lithography).The ink sits in the grooves.  PRINTMAKING This involves creating images from ink that is transferred to paper from another material. This is so when ink is applied over the surface and this mold is pressed over paper. to repel it. . the other parts. There is a hole cut in the matrix and the ink is pushed through it. Prints have been produced in 4 different ways : Relief printing (woodcut).

wood. Most of these are called statues. wood and even soap. assembled. welded. bronze. iron. ice. These are carved. molded. glass. fired. 3-dimensional images of persons or animals shaped from solid substances. snow and sand. It is easy to reproduce. steel. metal. clay. constructed. balloons. or cast and its final forms are often painted. SCULPTURE It is a 3-dimensional work of art made of material like stone. metal. A designer makes the art work using digital graphic design softwares (like Photoshop) and bring these files to shops for printing.TARPAULIN Tarpaulin (or tarp) is a durable plastic sheet that is water resistant and waterproof. . paper. chocolate. butter. marble.

Medium. jade and ivory). ceramics. Depending on objective of the sculptors. hard wood (like narra. precious materials (like gold. they use medium such as bronze and stone (like marble. molave). . silver. limestone and granite). glass. terracotta.

It is the art of recording light on a sensitive material called film made from thin . .PHOTOGRAPHY Photography (from the Greek 'phos' which means light and 'graphis' which means representation by drawing) is the process of creating pictures using light projected on a light-sensitive medium (the photographic film). transparent base coated with light sensitive chemicals.

Shutter speed.Photography uses light as its prime source and the chemical processing of light-sensitive materials. . Some of the basic concepts that a photographer needs to control: Focus. to produce its composition : the picture. The aperture (or diaphragm) is like the iris of our eyes that controls the amount of light passing through the lens. Photography requires the manipulation of a camera that captures images through the reflection of light from a subject. The shutter is the mechanical device in a camera that controls the amount of time light is allowed to expose the film. It controls the time during which the image is captured. its medium. The adjustment to place the sharpest focus where it is desired on the subject.     The art in photography does not solely reside on the camera. Aperture. Exposure. Traditionally. The inventions of photography allowed artists to faithfully "copy" images in the real world. The amount of light that reaches the film. the images are reproduced in 'negatives' (because these images are in their reversed states : dark spots are light and light spots are dark) and processed to produce these images' opposite ('positive') states on photographic paper. but on the skills and techniques of photographer in controlling the tool.

A fuzzy. out-of-focus foreground usually irritates the senses and detracts from emphasis on the subject matter. .Foreground Background Relationship The foreground contains the leading line that is the line that leads the eye into the photograph and toward the point of interest. Unsharpness and blur are effective ways for separating the subject from the background. It should also make the subject stand out and present it to best advantage. The background should be subordinate to the main subject in both tone and interest. it should be sharply focused. Whether this line is an object or series of objects or shadows.

Rules of Third in Photography The rule of thirds is an imaginary tic-tac-toe board is drawn across an image to break it into nine equal squares. some are stronger than others. . The four points where these lines intersect are strongest focal points. While any of the points/lines will add emphasis to your subject. Your subject should be placed on the opposite line of the direction your subject is looking towards. The lines themselves are the second strongest focal points. To use the rule of thirds you need to imagine the grid on all of your images as you compose them in the viewfinder.Which point or line you place your subject on does matter.