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**DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
**

YEAR/SEM

: III/VI

NAME OF THE SUBJECT

: MEDICAL ELECTRONICS

**NAME OF THE FACULTY: Mr. T SENTHIL KUMAR
**

UNIT -I

SINGLE STAGE AMPLIFIERS

(X)** Common source stage, Source follower, Common gate stage, Cascode stage.

(Y)** Single ended and differential operation, Basic differential pair, Differential pair

with MOS loads

PART –A

Define a)Resting Potential

b) Action Potential May/June 2009, Nov/Dec 2008

**Define – Conduction VelocityApr/May 2008, Nov/Dec 2008, May/June 2007
**

Write down the Nernst equation of action potential.

What is meant by sodium pump?

State all or none law in respect of cell bio potential. Apr/May 2008

List the types of bioelectric potentials.

Define electrode and list its types.

What are perfectly polarized and perfectly non polarized electrodes?

What are the types of electrodes used in bipolar measurement? May/June- 2012

Name the electrodes used for recording EMG and ECG.

11. State the importance of biological amplifiers.

Nov/Dec-2012

Apr/May 2010

(8) (May/June 2015) .B 1. (i) Draw the circuit of a CG amplifier with active load and determine expressions for input resistance. (i) Explain in differential pair with MOS loads in detail. Nov/Dec-2011 State the importance of PCG signals. PART . (i) Write short note on single ended and differential signals. Plot the output current characteristics with respect to input differential voltage.VAN=8L(µm)volts.(8) (May/June 2014) (ii) For the amplifier discussed above. May/June 2009 Define latency as related to EMG. Apr/May 2010 What is evoked potential? What is PCG? Compare the signal characteristics of ECG and PCG. (i) For a CS amplifier. What is the effect of parameter mismatch on the gain of differential amplifier? (10) (May/June 2014) 2. output resistance and voltage gain.=kn=90µA/V2. (May/June 2014) 3. Also derive the expression for driver current as a function ofd the differential voltage. Nov/Dec 2008 Draw typical ECG waveform.W/L=100µm/1. Determine r01. (8) (May/June 2015) 4. Body effect factor X=015. VAP=12L(µm) volts. May/June 2007 What are the important bands of frequencies in EEG and state their importance What are the peak amplitude and frequency response for ECG. (8) (May/June 2015) (ii) Derive the voltage gain of CG with active load. r02. (6) (May/June 2014) (ii) Analyse the operation of a differential amplifier with active load. EEG and EMG. Av and Ri.What are the requirements for bio-amplifiers? What are the basic components of biomedical systems? List the lead systems used in ECG recording.6µm for all transistors. IRef=100µA. derive the expression for transfer function from the small signal equivalent circuit. (8) (May/June 2015) (ii) Write short notes on common gate stage.Nov/Dec 2009.

5. frequency response of common source stage. (May/June 2015) PART . noise in single stage amplifiers. (May/June 2014) 3. What is the effect of high frequency supply noise in differential amplifier? (May/June 2014) 2. Common gate stage. PART –A 1. Association of poles with nodes. Statistical characteristics of noise.II FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND NOISE ANALYSIS (X)** Miller effect. (i)Calculate the transfer function for the circuit shown in fig 1. What is Miller Effect? (May/June 2015) 4.B 1. List the statistical characteristics of noise. aa UNIT . Source followers. (Y)** Differential pair. noise in differential amplifiers. Cascode stage. (6) (May/June 2014) . Compare frequency response characteristics of CS. CD and CG amplifiers.

assuming all devices operate in saturation and circuit is symmetric. (i) Write short notes on noise in single stage amplifiers. noise in Op Amps. (May/June 2015) . Gain boosting. (Y)** One-stage Op Amps. List some op amp design parameters. calculate input referred noise voltage.(ii) For an nMOS differential amplifier with pMOS toad. (8) (May/June 2015) 5. (4) (May/June 2015) (ii) Draw a high frequency model of differential pair with active current mirror and derive its CMRR. (May/June 2015) 4. PART –A 1. (6) (May/June 2014) 3. (8) (May/June 2015) (ii) Draw a high frequency model of a cascode stage and explain in detail. (10) (May/June 2014) (ii) Define the various noise source associated with differential amplifier and give the expression for thermal noise in particular in MOSFET device. (10) (May/June 2014) 2. Define gain boosting. Input range limitations. (12) (May/June 2015) 4. (May/June 2014) 2.III OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (X)** Concept of negative feedback. aa UNIT . List some applications of feedback. What are the types of noises encountered in Op Amps? (May/June 2014) 3. operational amplifier performance parameters. Two-stage Op Amps. (i) Explain with schematic and expressions. (i) Find the maximum noise voltage that a single MOSFET can generate. slew rate. Effect of loading in feedback networks. power supply rejection. how the input referred noise voltage in CS stage is reduced if transistor functions as a current source.

(6) (May/June 2015) (ii) Draw voltage current feedback amplifier. and Other compensation techniques.IV STABILITY AND FREQUENCY COMPENSATION (X)** General Compensation. (i) Calculate input common mode voltage range and closed loop output impedance for cascode op amp. Draw the basic amplifier without feedback and derive open loop transfer gain and form this find the closed loop transfer gain. (May/June 2014) 2. Frequency (Y)** Compensation of two stage Op Amps. (i) Draw and explain implementation of a two stage op amp and write the expression of AV.B 1. (i) Explain PSRR with an example circuit. PART –A 1. (6) (May/June 2014) (ii) Compare telescopic and folded-cascode topologies of single stage opamp and discuss the effect of gain boosting in cascode devices. (8) (May/June 2015) 4.(8) (May/June 2015) (ii) Write short notes on gain boosting. considerations. (10) (May/June 2014) 3. Multipole systems.PART . State the importance of phase margin in Op Amp design. (i) Explain the effect of loading in current-voltage feedback network using z-model. Slewing in two stage Op Amps. (6) (May/June 2014) 2. (10) (May/June 2014) (ii) List the various factors that limit the slew rate of opamps and discuss any one method for improving the same. Mention any one method for improving slew rate. (10) (May/June 2015) 5. aa UNIT . Phase Margin. (May/June 2014) .

PTAT current generation. Constant. (Y)** Supply independent biasing. (i) Explain the need for frequency compensation in operational amplifiers. What are the difficulties in compensating two-stage CMOS Op Amps? Discuss the compensation technique using common gate stage. Explain compensation methods of two-stage op amps in detail. State principle of PTAT current generation.3.Gm Biasing. (12) (May/June2014) 2. (4) (May/June2014) (ii) For a telescopic operational amplifier with single-ended output. Construct the root locus for a two poles system. What is the effect of channel length modulation on the current mirror ratio? (May/June 2014) 2. identify the number of poles and discuss the effect of device capacitance on the internal nodes. Write the T(s) of a multiple system. Calculate Ae for a phase margin of 60o. cascode current mirrors. (May/June 2014) . (16) (May/June 2015) UNIT . (May/June 2015) 4. temperature independent references.V BIASING CIRCUITS (X)** Basic current mirrors. (16) (May/June2014) 3. (May/June 2015) PART . (16) (May/June 2015) 4.B 1. PART –A 1. An amplifier with a forward gain of Ae and two poles at 10 MHZ and 500 MHZ is placed in a unity gain feedback loop. voltage references. active current mirrors.

1V-1 at L=1µm. (6) (May/June 2015) 4. You are given one reference current source of 10µA. (8) (May/June 2015) 5. Show how it yields temperature independent biasing.B 1. Vth=0. VTP= -1V. λn = λp = 0.3. VDS sat for both current sinks and sources must be less than 0.5V. (i) Explain with schematic and relevant expressions of constant gm. biasing. (May/June2014) 2.01V-1. µpCox=25µA/V2. (i) Draw a cascode current source and with its equivalent circuit derive for its output resistance. (9) (May/June2014) (ii) Design DC Current sources with current value of 10µA and 20µA and DC current sinks with current values of 10µA and 40µA. What is voltage reference? (May/June 2015) PART . µnCoxW/L = 110 µA/V2 and λ=0. (May/June2014) (ii) Discuss the characteristics features of BandGap Reference Circuit. (8) (May/June 2015) (ii) Explain constant Gm biasing. µNCox=50µA/V2. How current mirrors are rationed? (May/June 2015) 4. (10) (May/June 2015) (ii) Explain PTAT voltage reference with circuit. V TN=1V. (i) For the source degenerated current mirror calculate output resistance and minimum voltage required to keep device in saturation.83V. (i) Write a short note on supply independent biasing. . (7) (May/June2014) 3. Also draw the small signal equivalent circuit.

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