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Prokaryotes “before nucleus”

- bacteria
- single circular chromosome
- no nuclear memb, nucleolus, histones
- extranuclear DNA in plasmids
- no membrane bound organelles
- respiratory enzymes found on cell memb
- ribosome size = 70S
- no cytoskeleton
- cell wall = peptidoglycan
- flagella - solid, not covered by cell memb
- no cilia
- cell division by binary fission
- asexual reproduction

Eukaryotes “true nucleus”
protista, fungi, plants, animals
multiple, linear
in chloroplast & mitochondria (maternal)
in mitochondria
80S (except in chlorplast/mitochondria)
cellulose (plants) chitin (fungi)
9x2 structure, covered by cell memb
mitosis & meiosis
asexual & sexual

Copyright © 2002 Michael H. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved

Basement Membrane – An acellular, glycoprotein "glue" that fixes epithelia to
the underlying connective tissues
Cell (Plasma) Membrane - a selectively permeable (or semipermeable)
boundary that separates the inside of a cell or organelle from the outside
- Lipid Composition: - Phospholipids (PLs) - overwhelming majority of
membrane lipids
– general structure = glycerol head + 2 fatty acids + phosphate
- Amphipathic - defined in ch 2, pg 77 - have hydrophilic end as well as
hydrophobic end
- the phospholipid heads are hydrophilic (or lipophobic), polar, water soluble
- the phospholipid tails (fatty acids) are hydrophobic (or lipophilic), non-polar
- Cholesterol - important component, makes cell membrane (cm) stiffer or
more fluid
- Glycolipids - PL + carbohydrate (will discuss glycocalyx later)
Copyright © 2002 Michael H. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved

3 .Extracellular fluid (watery environment) Polar head of phospholipid molecule Cholesterol Glycolipid Glycoprotein Carbohydrate of glycocalyx Outwardfacing layer of phospholipids Integral proteins Filament of cytoskeleton Peripheral Bimolecular Inward-facing proteins lipid layer layer of containing phospholipids Nonpolar proteins tail of phospholipid Cytoplasm molecule (watery environment) Figure 3.

CYTOLOGY .THE CELL Selectively Semipermiable Integral Protein Phospholipid Bilayer Carbohydrate portion of Glycoprotein PHOSPHOLIPIDS Glycerol Heads (Hydrophilic/Lipophobic) Fatty Acid Tails (Hydrophobic/Lipophilic) Cholesterol Peripheral Protein Copyright © 2002 Michael H. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved Glycerol Heads Cytoskeleton .


when these malfunction may allow tumor cells to spread direct cell migration.span from outside through to inside of cell membrane 2. Cell Adhesion Molecules .these grab substances and change shape to pull the substances in/out of cell 6.used to attract leukocytes to areas of infection or injury .Cell Membrane Proteins 1. Channels (voltage & ligand gated/regulated) 5. Metastasis Copyright © 2002 Michael H..Hormone binds to surface Receptor and Second Messengers carry "message" deep within cell (process called Signal Transduction) 7.see proteins 4.similar to channels except no pore . and specialization . proliferation.only on inside surface of cell membrane 3. Second messengers .anchor cell into surrounding tissues and to each other .e. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved . Enzymes – names end in “ase” – more details in notes for test 2 8. Receptors . Integral or Transmembrane . Peripheral .types of glycoproteins such as Cadherins and Integrins . Carriers .used as "arms" to move migrating cells past each other .

2 .Chromatin Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Cytosol Lysosome Centrioles Centrosome matrix Cytoskeletal elements • Microtubule • Intermediate filaments Plasma membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Secretion being released from cell by exocytosis Peroxisome Figure 3.

propel the cell through the medium .short (7-10 um long) .same 9 x 2 arrangement as seen in cilia .Cilia .sperm only in humans .Flagella .long (over 50 um long) .Axoneme = structural component of cilia that causes movement Copyright © 2002 Michael H.only 2 um (micrometers) long . Mitchell – All Rights Reserved .Microvilli .called the "Brush Border" when viewed with a microscope .9 x 2 or 2 x 9 arrangement = 9 pairs of microtubules surrounding 2 microtubules .moves substances over cells .increase surface area by 15-40 times .

26 . The outer microtubule doublets and the two central microtubules are held together by cross-linking proteins and radial spokes. The nine outer doublets of a cilium extend into a basal body where each doublet joins another microtubule to form a ring of nine triplets. Cross-linking proteins inside outer doublets Radial spoke Plasma membrane Plasma membrane A longitudinal section of a cilium shows microtubules running the length of the structure. TEM A cross section through the basal body.Outer microtubule doublet Dynein arms Central microtubule Cross-linking proteins inside outer doublets Radial spoke TEM A cross section through the Microtubules cilium shows the “9 + 2” arrangement of microtubules. Cilium Triplet Basal body TEM The doublets also have attached motor proteins. the dynein arms. Basal body (centriole) Figure 3.

Microvillus Actin filaments Terminal web Figure 3.28 .

Nuclear pores Nuclear envelope Chromatin (condensed) Nucleus Nucleolus Cisternae of rough ER (a) Figure 3.29a .

centrioles.cellular compartments with specialized functions .most are membrane-bound (surrounded by membranes) except cytoskeleton.Cytoplasm . and ribosomes .organelles "float" w/in this Organelles .everything w/in the cell excluding the nucleus Cytosol .fluid/gel component of cytoplasm .between nuclear membrane and cell membrane .

"Transport System of the Cell" a. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) .have ribosomes attached .material w/in nuclear membrane . Smooth ER .no ribosomes attached .produces ribosomes 2.stores Ca++ w/in skeletal muscle cells (not much in smooth or cardiac muscles) d.= chromatin (DNA/chromosomes) + Nucleoli a.changing proteins after translation (a part of protein synthesis) . Nucleus "Control Center of the Cell" .two phospholipid bilayers b. carbohydrate components .occurs in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Goli Complex/apparatus .contains DNA/Genes/Chromosomes . amino acids 2.1. Nucleolus .adding or deleting: 1.Nucleoplasm . Rough ER . Post-Translational Modification .for transporting proteins (review examples of proteins) c.for NON-PROTEINs such as carbohydrates & lipids b. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum . Nuclear Membrane or Envelope .

Autolysis .made of proteins and RNA these join amino acids by peptide bonds to make polypeptide chains 4. Ribosomes .Autophagy .cell uses lysosomal enzymes to get rid of worn out organelles . 1889.3.contain Hydrolytic (digestive) Enzymes .one way to reduce inflammation is to use Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (SAIDS) such as hydrocortisone which prevents lysosomes from releasing their damaging enzymes thus sparing your normal tissues. Lysosomes . Golgi Complex or Golgi Apparatus or Golgi Body (GA) .seen when uterus reduces in size after childbirth .Camillo Golge.Lysosomes in Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) are a major component of inflammation .products ? "Cell's Workbenches/protein factories" . allows the liver to release glucose from glycogen .lysosomal enzymes cause some cells to die after they finish their "jobs" ."Cell's Digestive System" . Italian "Packaging Center of the Cell" . .Post-Translational Modification – see notes on ER .also used to destroy bacteria.Organelles Made from Golgi Apparatus a.

depending on their ultimate destination. Rough ER Phagosome ER membrane Proteins in cisterna Pathway C: Lysosome containing acid hydrolase enzymes Vesicle becomes lysosome 2 Proteins are modified within the Golgi compartments.20 . Plasma membrane Golgi apparatus Pathway A: Vesicle contents destined for exocytosis Secretory vesicle Secretion by exocytosis Pathway B: Vesicle membrane to be incorporated into plasma membrane Extracellular fluid Figure 3.1 Protein- containing vesicles pinch off rough ER and migrate to fuse with membranes of Golgi apparatus. 3 Proteins are then packaged within different vesicle types.

Peroxisomes .Organelles made when cells take in food particles by wrapping them up in the cell membrane 6. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved .destroy Free Radicals which are implicated in inflammation & cancer."Cell's Detoxification System" . .also break fatty acids into acetyl groups as in Beta Oxidation (covered earlier) Copyright © 2002 Michael H.5. Phagosomes .Neutralize Superoxide Radical by using the enzyme Superoxide Dismutase to change the Superoxide Radical to Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) which is then degraded into H20 + O2 by the enzymes Catalase and Peroxidase .

membrane = two Phospholipid Bilayers .we get these only from our Mothers . they have their own DNA . not seen in Eukaryotes. not Eukaryotic 5.w/ similar proteins 7. Cristae (inward folding of inner membrane.Maternal Origin only = single circular chromosome 3. able to divide independently by binary fission as do prokaryotes. etc . Cell membrane similar to Gram Negative bacteria (prokaryotes) .EVOLUTIONARY relationship . Protein Synthesis: mechanism is Prokaryotic. they have no organelles. Matrix = space between the cristae .evolved from bacteria (prokaryotes) which became organelles in our cells 1."Powerhouse of the Cell" .7. they have prokaryotic ribosomes = 70S (eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes) 4. histones. Those eukaryotes w/out mitochondria &/or chloroplasts have symbiotic prokaryotes that assume those functions (this one totally blows me away) . 6.Structures: Outer Membrane. Inner Membrane. their size is similar to prokaryotes 2. Mitochondria .an inner and outer membrane . nuclear membrane.Cellular Respiration = production of ATP for energy .as in prokaryotes 8.

Inner Membrane Matrix Outer Membrane Cristae Copyright © 2002 Michael H. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved .

Outer mitochondrial membrane Ribosome Mitochondrial DNA (a) Inner mitochondrial membrane Cristae Matrix (c) Enzymes (b) Figure 3.17 .

coordinate movement of cilia/flagella .2 perpendicular centrioles .important for cell division .9 triplets .2 microtubules from EACH triplet elongate to make up the cilium (singular form for cilia) Copyright © 2002 Michael H.orchestrate aster & spindle movement .7. Centrioles .Centrosomes . Mitchell – All Rights Reserved .protein "cylinders" .Basal Body .centriole found at base of cilia & flagella .

8. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved . Cytoskeleton .used to help entire cells move .connect to integral proteins of cell membrane which in turn connect to anchoring proteins in extracellular matrix Copyright © 2002 Michael H. strength .give cells shape.protein filaments .used to move structures around w/in cell .

Membrane Junctions or Cell-To-Cell Connections 1. Mitchell – All Rights Reserved . Tight Junctions . Gap Junctions .these integral proteins bind two cells together .tiny holes that pass through both cells .made by protein cylinders known as connexons Copyright © 2002 Michael H.for communication between two adjacent cells . Desmosomes .allow electrical "impulses" to pass through certain neurons as well as Cardiac and Smooth muscles .do not allow fluids to pass between cells .bind two cells together to strengthen the tissue .form impermeable barrier .allows some materials to pass through 3.two of these are the proteins occludins and claudins 2.