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Medicinal Plants:
Phytochemistry, Pharmacology
and Therapeutics

Singh Surjeet Singh A.iii Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry.K. Pharmacology and Therapeutics – Volume 1 – – Editor-in-Chief – V.D. Kaul 2010 DAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE Delhi .110 035 . Gupta – Editors – G.

Deva Ram Park Tri Nagar. New Delhi .com Showroom : 4760-61/23.dayabooks.110 035 Printed at : Chawla Offset Printers Delhi . Delhi . Ansari Road. Darya Ganj.com website : www. Including the right to translate or to reproduce this book or parts thereof except for brief quotations in critical reviews.110 035 Phone: 27383999 Fax: (011) 23260116 e-mail : dayabooks@vsnl.110 052 PRINTED IN INDIA . 23244987 Laser Typesetting : Classic Computer Services Delhi .110 002 Phone: 23245578.iv © 2010 EDITORS ISBN 81-7035-627-X ISBN 978-81-7035-627-1 All rights reserved. Published by : Daya Publishing House 1123/74.

Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine. Jammu) . Atal Former Director. C. Jammu (Erstwhile.v Dedicated to Prof. K. Regional Research Laboratory.

edited by Dr. Jammu) has been known. V. vasodilatory. This wide spectrum of themes may be of great value for research in natural products chemistry and biology. Jammu (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory. I do hope that this book will be followed by second volume in the next years. antisickling. Gupta. antiinflammatory. opioid. Dr. antimalaria or antiaging activities. Kaul (2009) represent enormous progress. addressing herbs with antioxidant. Singh. D. Some of the contributions are still based on Ayurvedic herbs and medicine. antilipedemic. and to medical doctors as well. Dr. I wish the book much success and a broad distribution. antidiabetic antiparasitic. G. Department Pharmacy.vii Foreword The twenty-nine chapters of the book Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. Germany . antimicrobial. Volume 1. H. Dr. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. but most are of general interest. A. I congratulate the editors and appreciate their efforts in bringing out such an excellent book which will give all round readers an exciting and serious reading material and also continuing the outstanding works for which Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR). It is a pleasure for me to recommend this volume without reservation to all researches in the field of phytomedicine. Surjeet Singh and Dr. as they cover themes currently under discussion in all of these research fields. Wagner Professor Emeritus Centre of Pharma Research. University of Munich. K.

This necessitates the use of other sources of human knowledge to provide common health benefits. herbal medicine is now regarded as important but underutilized tool against disease. and records of the use of plants are available since about 5000 years ago. Historically. our medicinal practices were largely dominated by plant-based medicines. have provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs. Thus. For example Ayurvedic medicine in India. Traditional . There is now a popular belief that allopathic drugs have serious side effects on human body. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized this fact in the early 1970s and encouraged governments to effectively utilize local knowledge of herbal medicines for disease prevention and health promotion. which are in use today. During the past few decades public interest in traditional. All around the world there is talk about ‘health for all’ but it has been realized that modern pharmaceuticals are and will remain out of reach of a large proportion of the human population for the foreseeable future. complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and use of herbal medicines has increased dramatically in industrialized countries. about two centuries ago. However. As such there is now a growing demand of herbal medicines and herbal therapeutic applications. herbal medicines work better and provide long lasting healing effect and are without any side effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Unani Medicine in the Middle East and South Asia are still used by a large majority of people. In contrast. many developing nations continued to benefit from the rich knowledge of medical herbalism. The active principles isolated. Kampo medicine in Japan. As against the same.ix Preface Plants have been used for alleviating human suffering from the very beginning of human civilization. the medicinal use of herbs went into decline in the West when more predictable synthetic drugs were made commonly available. Different civilizations developed their own indigenous system of medicines. The primary health care of 70-80 per cent of the world’s population is based on the use of medicinal plants derived from traditional systems of medicine and local health practices.

This has increased the international trade in herbal medicine enormously. action and uses of medicinal plants in combating a number of diseases and condition for which there is lesser satisfactory treatment in modern medicine. the herbal drug market is about $ one billion and the export of plant based crude drugs is around $ 80 million. 1” presents information on review/research communications received from eminent scientists from India and abroad. A recent report reveals that at least 120 distinct chemical substances from different plants have utility as lifesaving drugs. Global sales of herbal products including herbal medicine has already crossed 100 billion in the last five years and is expected to exceed one trillion in the next 20 years at the present growth rate. Singh Surjeet Singh A. Many pharmaceutical companies are showing interest in the production and marketing of herbal medicines. V. It is for their world wide and a sustained effort of scientist’s that an enormous information is being generated and there has been a series of publications on medicinal plant researches. In India. Out of 20. higher safety margins and lesser costs. Pharmacology and Therapeutics Vol. Based on this rational. herbal medicine is the only hope in India where 60 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line.x medicine has a bright future and an immense potential to extend medical relief to millions. the present book “Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. Kaul . only a very few are in use. This has been achieved through chemical and pharmacological screening of only 6 per cent of the total plant species.D. Their use is not scientifically validated much with the scientific data. who for lack of resources remain deprived of it. WHO said in 2003 that the global market for herbal medicines stood at US $ 60 billion and was growing steadily. pharmacologists. The sales for herbal medicine products have plateaued to such an extent that these products have become available to consumers as positive healthcare just like vitamins. Gupta G.000 plants recognized of medicinal value. medical personals in particular and a host of other scientists and biologists to facilitate further research on medicinal plants. When undesirable side effects of certain drugs have unnerved the patients.K. It is hoped that the present volume will attract wide acceptance of phytochemists. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological activities. Plant extracts of therapeutic relevance are of paramount importance as reservoirs of structural and chemical diversity. providing recent and present state of the art data on therapeutic properties.

Monteath. Maciel. Vasodilatory Activity Induced by Natural Products 98 Gisele Zapata-Sudo. Genotoxicity: Its Methods of Evaluation and the Significance–A Review 75 S. Sharma.A. Chemistry and Pharmacology Studies of the Medicinal Specimen Ixora coccinea Linn. G.. Silveira. Gomes.xi Contents Foreword Preface 1.K. Valdir F. Br. Solanki and Sunita M. Aurea Echevarria. Jain 131 . Veiga Jr. Ricardo H. Pharmacology and Therapeutic Uses of Wrightia tinctoria R. Rana 4. 51 Papiya Bigoniya and A. Gottumukkala V. Silvana A. R. Carlos R. that Prevents Illness and Increases Longevity– An Overview vii ix 1 Mahesh Masna. João Walter S.F. Kaiser. Koul and V. Khajuria. Fabiano E. Vanderlinde 3. Juliana Montani Raimundo and Roberto Takashi Sudo 6. A. Costa e Sousa and Frederico A. Gupta 5. 32 Maria Aparecida M. Kaul. Scope of Chicory with Special Reference to its Medicinal Value Yogendrasinh B.C.D. P. Ramani 2. Singh. Subbaraju and Modukuri V. Ethnobotany. A Review on Phytochemistry. Resveratrol: A Natural Polyphenol.S. A. Singh.

J. 297 Papiya Bigoniya. Comparative Effects of Soybean. González 10. A. Marta Regina Kerntopf. Mpiana. Natália Rocha Celedônio. Rojas and R. In vitro Antisickling Activity of Anthocyanins Extracts from Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) P. Cruz. de Souza. R. Subbaraju 8. Veiga Junior 14. Y. S. Muthusamy and B. Gao. Singh. Zhao 11. Tang and X. D’souza and S. K. Rodriguez. N.H. Elnatan B. Casacó. Mudogo. Chemistry and Pharmacology Studies of the Pepper 238 Roosevelt H.T. Leal and Valdir F. Olive and Sugar Cane Wax Oils and their Respective Fatty Acids in Cutaneous Inflammation 192 N. Mary Anne Sousa Lima.S. Cano. L. Phytochemical and Biological Explorations P. X. Multi-Targeted Approaches for Polygenic Disorders Using Medicinal Plants: A New Battle Against Old Adversaries V. O. A. S. B. Review of Plants Having Potential in the Management of Hyperlipidemia 258 T. Capote.Z.xii 7. the Yellow Colored Phenols of Turmeric. Tshibangu and E. Rodríguez. Francisco Arnaldo Viana and Nilberto Robson Falcão do Nascimento 9. Tang. Lakshmi 12. J. Sharma and V. D. Ledón. V. Mitochondrial Protection was Involved in the Effect of Limonium sinense Extract Against APAP-Induced Toxicity 202 J. Role of Curcuminoids. Victor Martins Gomes. Merino.S. Atibu 315 330 . A Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Alangium Sp. An Overview of the Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant Phyllanthus amarus for its Botanical. Gupta 17. R.H. M. in Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance 155 Somepalli Venkateswarlu and Gottumukkala V. Alok Shukla and C. Souza Leaves in Mice 178 Cláudia Ferreira Santos.A. Koul.N. V. Gonzalez. Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy. Capsicum Genus: Ethnobotany. Ancheta. Safety Assessment of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth Methanol Leaf Extract: Drug Interaction and Oral Toxicity Study in Rats 215 228 Jin Han Chin and Abas Hj Hussin 13.S.N. González.K. Ngbolua. Opioid Activity of the Ethanol Extract from Psychotria carrascoana Delprete and E. Antonia Torres Dávila Pimenta. Xu. Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos. K. E. Z.T.S. A. Sunflower. Mengi 15. Tolon. Edilberto Rocha Silveira. Adriana Sousa Barros. Singh 16.

Chikwambi and M. Araújo. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Investigation of Seed Extract of Parinari curatellifolia 363 M. Dámaso P. Nwobu. Diara 421 28.C. Investigation into the Folkloric Antimicrobial and Antiinflammatory Properties of Nauclea latifolia Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts and Fractions P.C. Olaleye. O. Pharmacognostical and Preclinical Studies on Stembark of Gmelina arborea: An Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant 397 K. A. Uzochukwu and E.C. Dongre. Okoye and C. Adegboye and A.xiii 18. Vanusia S. Maciel 26.C.O. Herbal Drug Therapy: A Promising Solution for Helminthes Parasites 430 J.A. Yogesh and A. Muchuweti 19. Galdino. Clinical Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale 406 Verônica S. Ajali. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Hyptis suaveolens 390 R.G. Lahkar 29.A. Iaperi S. Shrishailappa Badami. 20. U. Adesokan and Musbau A. Barua and D.L.C. C. Studies on the Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Carica papaya Leaves in Rats 378 B. Omopariola 22. Studies on the Phenolic Compound Profiles and Antioxidant Activity in Fruit Portions of Marx Red Bartlett and Starkrimson Pear Cultivars 338 Z. Chacon. Barua. F. Degradation Kinetics Studies of the Powdered Leaves.O. Tereza N. I. Osadebe 384 23. Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark 441 Ayoade A.V. Osadebe. Okoye 24. Owoyele. Senthilkumar Natesan and Raghu Chandrashekhar H.A.O. Chamuah. Zélia M.T.O. Effect of Emblica officinalis Diet in Streptozotocin Diabetic Mice 413 Richa Shri and Disha Arora 27. Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract of Hypericum hookerianum Stem in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Mice 354 Santoshkumar H. A. Assis.U. Veeranjaneyulu 25. Lopes..K. Soladoye and O. Akindahunsi 21. Camacho.S. Extracts and Formulations of Loranthus micranthus Parasitic on Kola acuminata I.B. Carlos L. Uzochukwu and P. Akanji Index 449 . Dantas and Maria Aparecida M.

Malaysian research project on Malaysian medicinal plant. Animal House. Jammu-India.Sc. which has already got recognition in India and abroad. Jammu-India and presently working as senior Pharmacologist in the Department of Pharmacology. She has screened 4000 plant extracts/ fractions and pure compounds on immune system by in vivo and in vitro methods. India. He has successfully completed a number of research/consultancy projects funded by various governments. Dr. 12 patents and also presented several research papers in various symposia/conferences. (2003) in the field of Inflammation from University of Jammu. (1993) in Zoology from University of Jammu. preclinical toxicology and safety and has published about 50 research papers and review articles in national and international journals. Anpurna Kaul (born 1956-). Dr. New Delhi. Jammu. working as senior Scientist in Pharmacology Division of Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR).D. (1987) and Ph. USA.475 About the Authors Dr. India. He did his M. has appointed him as Consulting Editor of The Contemporary Who’s Who. Founder fellow. pre-clinical safety pharmacology and reproductive efficacy studies of laboratory animals. . Her field of research is immuno-pharmacology. toxicology. ecology and reproductive biology of fishes. (1990) in Zoology and Ph. He is also Editor-in-chief of the book series “Perspectives in Animal Ecology and Reproduction” a Daya Publications.India. Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR). in 1996 from University of Jammu.D. Jammu. Gurdarshan Singh (born 1962-). Govt. turtles. He is the life member of Indian Pharmacological Society and honour of the member UNESCO Workshop in 1992. Gupta has to his credit more than 75 scientific publications and review articles which have appeared in internationally recognized Indian and foreign journals. He is also actively involved in Indo. Jammu. He has an experience of 28 years in the field of inflammatory pharmacology.India. Dr. Jammu-India and is serving as Deputy Director and Head. academies and associations. She has also actively participated in Indo-Malaysian Research Project as a member and visited Malaysia in 2007 to attend Women’s Health and Asian Traditional Medicine Conference. Singh has published 13 research papers. His research capabilities are substantiated by his excellent work on histopathology.Sc. working as a Scientist in Pharmacology Division of Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR). Gupta recently also appointed as Nominee for the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA. birds and mammals. Vijay Kumar Gupta (born 1953-) obtained his Masters (1975) and Doctorate (1979) from University of Jammu. Dr. Labisia pumila and generated pre-clinical safety pharmacology data. both in national and international journals of high repute and impact factor. Jammu.D. private and multinational agencies. life member and office bearer of many national societies. She has completed her Ph. Surjeet Singh (born 1958 -) did his M. Dr. Kaul has 20 research publications in national and international journals. Dr. of India). Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR). His main areas of research are toxicity and regulatory pharmacology of new chemical entities for drug development programme. Jammu. The Editor-in-chief of the American Biographical Institute. His current areas of interest are histopathology. Dr.

476 Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. roots. Pharmacology and Therapeutics About the Book Ancient civilization greatly depended on local flora and fauna for their survival and experimented with various berries. As understanding of therapeutic benefits deepens and demands for natural products increased. . At present 25 per cent of the modern medicines are developed from plants that were first used traditionally. Pharmacology and Therapeutics” contained as many as 29 review/ research articles contributed by the eminent scientists from across the world. many crude drugs were observed by the local healer to have some medical use. with its balanced approach will be a valuable. “Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. in Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance v Multi-Targeted Approaches for Polygenic Disorders Using Medicinal Plants v Safety Assessment of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth v Plants having Potential in the Management of Hyperlipidemia v Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Alangium Sp. some of which are as under: v Resveratrol: A Natural Polyphenol v Phytochemistry. leaves. v In vitro Antisickling Activity of Anthocyanins Extracts from Morinda lucida v Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Investigation of Parinari curatellifolia v Clinical Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale v Effect of Emblica officinalis Diet in Streptozotocin Diabetic Mice The present volume. Pharmacology and Therapeutic Uses of Wrightia tinctoria v Genotoxicity. that will stimulate interest and satisfy the need for further knowledge of this rapidly expanding and exciting discipline. and an important research manual. and many synthetic drugs have also been obtained from natural precursors. its Methods of Evaluation and the Significance v Vasodilatory Activity Induced by Natural Products v Scope of Chicory with Special Reference to its Medicinal Value v Role of Curcuminoids. previously serendipitous discoveries evolved into active searches for new medicines. The present volume of the book series. minerals or animal parts to find out what effects they had and as a result.

Pharmacology and Therapeutics. The Mean Survival Time for the control group was 9. . artesunate 22 and chloroquine 19. phenolics. The animals were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 mice each. chlorantha orally. Ilorin.8 days.K. Gupta. There was 100 per cent mortality in the negative control group. flavonoids and glycosides. NEW DELHI Pages 441–447 Chapter 29 Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark Ayoade A. chloroquine and 100mg/kg body weight extract group and 60 per cent mortality in the 400mg/kg extract group. There was no parasite clearance in the artesunate group.75 and 5 mg/kg body weight of artesunate and chloroquine respectively. Akanji Department of Biochemistry.0 days respectively. Twenty five (25) albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 strain). Surjeet Singh and A. There was 100 per cent parasite clearance in the 400mg/kg extract and chloroquine groups. The results showed the presence of alkaloids saponins. Groups D and E received 100 and 400 mg/kg of extract of E.D.6 per cent clearance in the group that received 100mg/kg body weight of extract. Stem bark of Enantia chlorantha was analysed for its phytochemicals. Singh. G.0 days. while the groups that received 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight of extract recorded 19. Nigeria ABSTRACT The antimalarial bioactivity of aqueous extract of stem back of Enantia chlorantha was investigated in Plasmodium berghei infected mice.Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. ———————— * Corresponding Author: E-mail: adesokan_ayoade@yahoo.6 and 17. Kaul Published by: DAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE. Group A served as the control while groups B and C were administered 1. and 98. University of Ilorin. 40 per cent mortality in the artesunate. 1 (2010) Editors: V.com. Adesokan* and Musbau A. Vol.

The need to search and develop more effective antimalarial drugs that are inexpensive and readily available to people in the developing countries like Nigeria has necessitated this study. Aqueous Extraction Stem bark of the plant was air-dried to constant weight and ground into powdered form with an electric blender (Blender/Miller III. Phytochemical Analysis A portion of the stem powder was subjected to phytochemical analysis. Enantia chlorantha. Experimental Animals Albino mice. 1990). weighing 20-25g. were obtained from the small Animal Holding Unit of the Department of Pharmacology. College of Health Sciences. 1989). Stem bark. There is widespread multi-drug resistance to common antimalarial drugs (Muregi et al. Obafemi Awolowo University. Rodent plasmodia such as Plasmodium yoeli and Plasmodium berghei are commonly used as malaria models in mice and have tremendous impact on the investigation of antimalarial activity of plant extracts. Materials and Methods Plant Materials The stem bark of Enantia chlorantha [family–Annonaceae]. Introduction Malaria remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical regions of the world with over 300 million new cases reported annually (WHO. Trease and Evans. WHO. The . Ilorin. Ile-Ife. 2005). Keywords: Antimalarial bioactivity. In Africa. Nigeria with voucher number: oliv. University of Ilorin. Nigeria.. and this has been attributed largely to increasing incidence of resistance to antimalarial drugs formerly effective against the pathogen.442 Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. model MS 223) Taiwan. WHO experts say that the number of people infected with malaria is still increasing at the rate of about 5 per cent annually. 1978. Plasmodium berghei. Pharmacology and Therapeutics The results showed that aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha possess potent antimalarial activities comparable to that of chloroquine and may be ascribed to the significant presence of alkaloids and phenolics. China. Aqueous extract was prepared as described previously (Akanji and Adesokan. 1984. where the vulnerable groups are children under 5 years and the pregnant women (WHO. IFE No 13968. more than 80 per cent of the people use traditional herbal remedies for the treatment of many ailments including malaria (Akerele. 2005). Almost 90 per cent of the deaths from malaria occur in sub-Saharan Africa. 2003. using standard chemical tests as described earlier (Odebiyi and Sofowora. and was authenticated at the Department of Botany. 1999). Wright and Phillipson. 2005). was harvested in the month of April at Ifetedo along Ife–Ondo road. Antimalarial drug resistance has become one of the greatest challenges against malaria control. Mice.

Estimation of Percentage Parasitaemia Percentage parasitaemia was estimated at the end of the observational period of 28 days using the formula: Parasitized RBC —————————————————— Parasitized RBC + Non-parasitized RBC x 100 Estimation of Percentage Mortality The number of deaths was recorded for the animals in each group for the experimental period and the percentage mortality calculated thus: Number of dead animals in a group —————————————————— Total number of animals in the group x 100 Estimation of Mean Survival Time (MST) The number of days each animal survived was recorded for the animals in each group and the mean survival time calculated using the formula: . Group B received artesunate orally at a dose of 1. Nigeria. Ibadan. Groups D and E were administered aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha through oropharyngeal canula at the doses of 100 and 400mg/kg body weight respectively. Vietnam. after confirmation of parasitaemia 72 h post-inoculation. (control) was left untreated but administered appropriate volume of distilled water. Malaria Parasite Plasmodium berghei (chloroquine sensitive NK 65 strain) was obtained from the Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training (IMRAT). College of Medicine. University of Ibadan. Nigeria. Animal Groupings The animals were randomly divided into 5 groups of 5 mice each. Drugs and Reagents Artesunate used in this study was manufactured by Mekopharm Chemical Pharmaceutical Joint Stock Company.2 ml of 1 x 107 infected erythrocytes) from a single donor mouse previously infected with Plasmodium berghei (29.8 per cent parasitaemia). Group A. Other reagents were of analytical grade. and the study conducted in accordance with the recommendations from the declaration of Helsinki on guiding principles in the care and use of animals.443 Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark animals were housed in wire mesh cages under standard conditions.75mg/kg body weight daily for 4 days and group C 5mg/kg body weight of chloroquine base for the same period. while the chloroquine was from Mayer and Baker Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Inoculation of Experimental Mice Albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum (0.

The phytochemicals that were present included Alkaloids (46.77).26 Glycosides ± 0. Percentage Parasitaemia Estimation of percentage parasitaemia at the end of 28 days showed the results in Table 29.76±0.1: Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Enantia chlorantha Phytochemical Qualitative Quantitative Mg Percentage Phenolics ++ 1.2.00 0. Saponins (26.00 18.26 per cent). Pharmacology and Therapeutics Sum of days of survival of animals/group ——————————————————— Total number of animals in the group Results Phytochemical analysis Qualitative and quantitative screening of the components of the plant stem bark yielded the phytochemicals shown in Table 29.02 46.00 ++: Strongly positive. +: Positive. chlorantha (400mg/kg) 0 Percentage Mortality At the end of the observational period. nd: Not detected. ±: Weakly positive.75mg/kg) 55 Chloroquine (5mg/kg) 0 E.02 26. Phenolics (18.02 6. Less than 2 per cent parasitaemia was found in the blood of mice that received 100mg/kg body weight of the extract. There was no parasitaemia in the blood of mice in the chloroquine group and the group that received 400mg/kg body weight of extract of Enantia chlorantha.44 Saponins ++ 1.12±0.3).01 1. 100 per cent mortality was recorded for the untreated control group (Table 29.1.82 per cent).40±0. There was high parasitaemia of 55 per cent in the artesunate group. Flavonoids (6.00 Steroids Nd 0.60±0.82 Tannins Nd 0.086±0.71 Alkaloids ++ 2. Table 29.77 Flavonoids + 0. Table 29.71 per cent) and Glycosides (1.00 Phlebotanins Nd 0. Forty percent (40 per cent) mortality was recorded for the artesunate and .444 Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry.44 per cent). chlorantha (100mg/kg) <2 E.00 0.00 0.2: Percentage Parasitaemia (Day 28) in Experimental Groups Following Administration of Standard Antimalarial Drugs and Extracts of Enantia chlorantha Treatment Groups Percentage Parasitaemia Artesunate (1.

3: Percentage Mortality (Day 28) in Experimental Groups Following Administration of Standard Antimalarial Drugs and Extracts of Enantia chlorantha Treatment Groups Percentage Mortality Control 100 Artesunate (1.445 Antimalarial Bioactivity of Enantia chlorantha Stem Bark chloroquine groups and the extract group that received 100mg/kg body weight dose.0±2. which are known to possess antiparasitic. were isolated from the Vietnamese medicinal plants.6 E..8 Artesunate (1. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one displayed higher antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Gombak A isolate. while the observed antimalarial activities were not dose dependent. raphidecurperoxin and polysyphorin. 2004). 2007).6±1. antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. when compared with chloroquine (Chan et al. 2007). potent antimalarial agents. The MST of 19. chlorantha (100mg/kg) 40 E. 2001). The stem bark of E. but 60 per cent in the group that received 400mg/kg body weight of the extract. Table 29.8 E. chlorantha consisted of preponderant alkaloids and phenolics. anticarcinogenic. both of which may be responsible for the pharmacologic activity of the extract.75mg/kg) 40 Chloroquine (5mg/kg) 40 E. The extracts of Nigella sativa (Black seed). Table 29.1 Chloroquine (5mg/kg) 19.0±0. phenolics.3 Discussion Results from this study showed that aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha possess potent antimalarial activities that were comparable to that of chloroquine. chlorantha (100mg/kg) 19. chlorantha (400mg/kg) 60 Mean Survival Time (MST) Table 29. while the group that received 400mg/kg body weight of the extract recorded 17 days. . chlorantha (400mg/kg) 17.8 and 19. Rhaphidophora decursiva (Zhang et al. The least MST of 9 days was recorded for the control group that was left untreated. The mice in the artesunate group recorded the highest MST of 22 days.4 showed the mean survival time for the animals in each group.4: Mean Survival Time (MST) of Animals in Each Experimental Group Treatment Groups MST (Days) Control 9.0±1.8±1.75mg/kg) 22. Earlier workers have shown that isolated alkaloid. In addition. contained different classes of alkaloids that were believed to block protein synthesis in Plasmodium falciparum (Abdulelah and Zainal-Abidin. may also play a significant role in the antimalarial activity of the extract (Abdulelah and Zainal-Abidin.6 days were recorded respectively for the chloroquine and the group that received 100mg/kg body weight of the extract.. In addition.

Brit.Afri. O.. Obih and Makinde. Amer. Effects of repeated administration of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark on some selected enzyme activities of rat liver. Ann. The antimalarial activity as demonstrated by the percentage parasitaemia in the groups that received the extracts compared favourably with that of chloroquine. H (2003). Further more. M. Ethnopharmacol. E. Ajaiyeoba. In Vivo antimalarial and cytotoxic properties of Annona senegalensis extract.446 Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry. WHO Chronicle. Biokemistri. J. Abdullah. Sci. A and Adesokan. L and Akinboye. A. A and Yakubu. M. 38: 76–81. Trop. Pharmacol. 1999. Toxicol. Falade. 92: 223– 227. A. . J. 17(1): 13– 18. H.. 5: 1–3.. H (2007).. M. Trad. 2006). Adesokan et al. B. including antibacterial (Agbaje and Onabanjo. Biomed. A. A. Abosi. A and Zainal-Abidin. Adesokan. R and Ismail. In vivo Antimalarial tests of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) different extracts. different extracts of Enantia chlorantha have been reported to exert antimicrobial activities. Akanji.... Akerele O (1984). 2003). Pharmacology and Therapeutics Consistent with this concept. Antioxidant components might inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages which will lead to increased degradation of tryptophan and thereby starve the parasite of an essential amino acid leading to its death (Daubener. A (2005). Biotechnol. The percentage mortality of the animals in the group that received 100mg/kg body weight of the extract was similar to those of the artesunate and chloroquine groups and better than the negative control group. Afr. 85 (6): 585–590. T (2007). Z (2004). J. K. J. Akanji. E. A. J. B. The antioxidant effect of plant alkaloids may represent another mechanism that contributed to its antimalarial activity. A. Antiplasmodial studies of Eurycoma longifolia Jack using the lactate dehydrogenase assay of Plasmodium falciparum. The effects of extracts of Enantia chlorantha in malaria. D (2006). Med. the mean survival time of 19. Survival of experimental animals beyond 12 days is regarded as significant activity (Peters.. Daubener. M. The active principles responsible for these antimalarial activities are yet to be identified but the results from this study have largely justified its use in folklore medicine for malaria treatment in Africa. 6(22): 2502–2505. 2007). and Raseroka. Ajaiyeoba et al. Parasitol. Mahmoud et al. Ogbole. O (1991).. Chan.3(1): 137–141. 1991.. O and Onabanjo A. Even MST of 17 days in the group that was administered 400mg/kg body weight of the extract has proven that the extract possess potent antimalarial activity. W (1999).. CAM. 2003. Abosi and Raseroka. Interleukin-1 inhibit gamma interferon-induced bacteriostasis in human uroepithelial cells. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark. 67: 5615–5620. Choo.. Okpako. 1985. In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina... Agbaje. Infection and Immunity. O. N.6 days in the group that received 100mg/kg body weight was similar to 19. 2 (2): 46–50..8 days for the chloroquine group and compared well with 22 days of the group that received artesunate. WHO’s traditional medicine programme: progress and perspectives. C. 1980. References Abdulelah.

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