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Chapter English word

Chinese word

1

boiling

沸腾

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condensing

冷凝

1

diffusion

扩散

1

evaporation

挥发

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freezing

冻结

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lattices

晶体

1

melting

融化

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sublimation

升华

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vibrate

振动

2

atom

原子

2

atomic (proton)
number

原子序数(质子序数)

2

electron

电子

2

electronic
confirguration

电子结构

2

element

元素

2 isotopes 同位素 2 mass number 质量序数 2 neutron 中子 2 noble gases 稀有气体 2 nucleus 原子核 2 proton 质子 2 radioactive 放射性的 2 valency electrons 价电子 3 anions (negative ions) 负离子 3 boiling points 沸点 3 bonding 键 3 cations (positive ions) 正离子 3 covalent bond 3 'delocalised' electrons 自由运动的电子 3 diatomic molecule 双原子分子 3 intermolecular attractions/forces 分子间作用力/吸引力 3 ion 离子 3 ionic bond 离子键 3 metallic bond 金属键 3 molecule 分子 共价键 .

4 alloys 合金 4 compound 化合物 4 ductile property of metals 金属的延展性 4 giant structures 巨型结构 4 malleable property of 金属的延展性 metals 4 mixture 混合物 4 simple molecular substance 简单的分子物质 5 balanced equations 配平方程式 5 5 product reactant 生成物 反应物 5 word equation 文字方程式 6 activation energy 活化能 6 catalyst 催化剂 6 catalytic converters 催化转换器 6 concentration 浓度 6 decomposition 分解 .

6 enzymes 酶 6 reaction rate 反应速度 7 acid rain 酸雨 7 lime water 石灰水 7 oxide 氧化物 7 precipitate 沉淀 8 displacement reactions 置换反应 8 half equations 半反应式 8 oxidation 氧化反应 8 oxidising agent 氧化剂 8 reactivity series 反应活性顺序 8 redox reaction 氧化还原反应 8 reducing agent 还原剂 8 reduction 还原反应 9 acid 酸 9 acid-alkali indicator 酸碱指示剂 9 acidic solution 酸性溶液 9 alkali 碱 9 alkaline solution 碱性溶液 9 base 碱 .

氯化钴试纸 test for water 11 distillation 蒸馏 11 flame test 焰色反应 11 petroleum 汽油 12 alkali metals 碱性金属 12 brine 卤水 .9 litmus 石蕊 9 neutral solution 中性溶液 9 neutralisation reactions 中和反应 9 pH pH 9 pH scale pH范围 9 universal indicator solution 通用指示剂溶液 10 anhydrous 无水的 10 hydrated 水合的 10 salt 盐 10 saturated solution 饱和溶液 11 chromatograms 层析 11 chromatography 层析法 11 cobalt chloride paper.

12 halogen 12 monoatomic molecule 单原子分子 12 periodic table 元素周期表 12 transition element 过渡元素 13 anode (positive electrode) 正极 13 aqueous 水溶液的 13 cathode (negative electrode) 负极 13 electrode 电极 13 electrolysis 电解 13 solution 溶液 14 14 14 14 combustion endothermic reaction exothermic reaction thermal decomposition 燃烧 吸热反应 放热反应 热分解 15 dynamic equilibrium 动态平衡 15 equilibrium 平衡 15 forward reactions 正方向反应 15 reversible reaction 可逆反应 16 bauxite 16 Haber process 哈柏法 17 corrosion 腐蚀 卤素 铝土矿 .

17 cryolite 17 galvanising 17 mineral 矿石 17 ore 矿石 17 rusting of iron 铁的生锈 17 sacrificial protection 牺牲性保护作用 17 slag 矿渣 17 steel 钢 18 alcohols 醇 18 crude oil 原油 18 isomers 同分异构体 18 methane 甲烷 18 organic compounds 有机化合物 18 unsaturated hydrocarbon 非饱和碳氢化合物 19 addition reaction 加成反应 19 alkane 烷烃 19 alkene 烯烃 冰晶石 .

19 dehydration 脱水反应 19 fermentation 发酵 19 homologous series 同系列 19 19 incomplete combustion saturated hydrocarbon 不完全燃烧 饱和碳氢化合物 20 cracking 裂解 20 diesel 柴油 20 fraction 分馏的成分 20 fractional distillation 分馏 20 hydrocarbon 碳氢化合物 21 addition polymerisation 加成聚合 21 condensation polymerisation 缩聚合 21 monomer 单体 21 polymer 聚合物 21 polymerisation 聚合反应 21 poly(ethene) 聚乙烯 22 Avogadro constant 阿伏伽德罗常数 22 empirical formula 经验式 .

22 molar volume 摩尔体积 22 mole 摩尔 22 molecular formula 分子式 22 relative atomic mass (Ar) 相对原子质量 22 relative formula mass 相对分子质量 (RFM) 24 Faraday constant 法拉第常数 25 molar enthalpy change 摩尔焓变 26 titration 滴定 .

molecules or ions) from an area of high concentration to one of lower concentration. only happens at the boiling temperature as opposed to evaporation 一种物质由液体变成气体的过程,在变化中颗粒获得更多的能量,运动变快,颗粒间的距离 更远。只在温度达到沸点时发生。 Changing a vapour (or gas) into a liquid.1. move a lot faster and farther apart from each other and eventually escape from the liquid. for example Na 2.1. 有含有相同数量的质子的原子组成的物质。 .8.8. This change is accompanied by a giving out of energy. happens at any temperature between melting and boiling point 当液体表面的部分颗粒获得更多能量的时候,运动变得更快,颗粒间的距离变得更远,最终 离开液面,从液体变为气体;在熔点和沸点之间的任何温度均可发生。 process during which a liquid changes into a solid as its particles lose energy.explaination a process during which a liquid changes into a gas as its particles gain more energy and move a lot faster and also much farther apart from each other. ions or molecules) 以规则的3D排列的颗粒(原子、离子或分子) a process during which a solid changes into a liquid 物质从固体变成液体的过程 a process during which a solid changes directly into a gas because its particles have alot more energy. slow down and come closer together again 物质从液体变成固体的过程,在冻结过程中,颗粒的能量降低,运动速度变慢,颗粒之间的 距离变小 regular 3-dimensional arrangement of the particles (atoms. 物质从固体变成气体的过程,在升华过程中,颗粒获取了很多能量,运动速度很快,并且颗 粒间距很大。 move forwards and backwards but in the same fixed position 在固定位置来回运动。 The smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction. move around very fast and are very far apart. 一种带有负电荷的亚原子颗粒。 The way that the electrons are arranged into shells in an atom. A substance made up of atoms that all contain the same number of protons. 将蒸汽(或气体)变成液体的过程。这个过程中伴有能量的释放。 The movement of particles (atoms. 颗粒(原子,分子或离子)从浓度高的区域运动到浓度低的区域。 a process during which a liquid changes into a gas as some of its particles at the surface gain more energy. 电子在原子内的排列方式,比如钠的电子结构是2. 在化学反应中组成元素的最小单位。 The number of protons in the 原子中原子核内的质子的数量。 nucleus of an atom. A negatively charged sub-atomic particle.

which varies with pressure 在一个特定的温度,液体迅速的变为蒸汽,这个温度就被称为沸点,沸点随气压的变化而变 化。 The forces joining atoms together. independent existence. 存在于分子之间的吸引力。 An electrically charged atom or group of atoms。带有电荷的原子或原子团。 The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. 带有负电荷的离子。 A liquid turns rapidly to its vapour at a fixed temperature called the boiling point. Radiation is emitted when an unstable nucleus decays to a more stable form. 两个原子的原子核与共用电子对之间的吸引力。 electrons that can move between atoms. 在最外层的电子 A negatively charged ion. 带有正电荷的离子。 The force of attraction between the nuclei of two atoms and a pair of electrons shared between them. 化合物中带有不同电荷的离子之间的吸引力。 The force of attraction between the positive metal ions and the delocalised electrons in a metal. 质量不同的属于同一种元素的原子。它们含有相同数量的质子,但是含有不同数量的中子。 The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. 在金属内部,带有正电荷的金属离子和自由移动的电子之间的吸引力 。 The smallest particle of a substance that can have a separate. 放射性物质具有不稳定的原子核,当释放出辐射后,不稳定的原子核衰变成稳定的形式。 the electrons on the most outer shell. 将原子连接起来的力。 A positively charged ion. 在原子核中,带有正电荷的亚原子颗粒。 A radioactive substance has unstable nuclei. the nucleus is the central part of the atom consisting of neutrons and protons. they are not part of 1 atom 可以在原子间自由运动的电子,不单独属于一个特定的原子。 2 atoms only 含有两个原子的分子。 The force of attraction between individual molecules. They contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. 在原子中,原子核是指含有质子和中子的中心部分。 A positively charged sub-atomic particle found in the nucleus of atoms. 在原子核中,不带电荷的亚原子颗粒。 any element form the last group in the Periodic Table 元素周期表中最后一族的任何元素 In an atom. 在物质内部独立存在的最小颗粒。 . 在原子核中质子和中子的数量之和。 A neutral sub-atomic particle present in the nucleus of atoms.Atoms of the same element that have different masses.

化学反应中引发反应的物质。 an equation in which the names of the chemicals are used 用文字来表达化学品的方程式 The minimum energy required by colliding particles for reaction to occur. 将一种化合物分解为更简单的物质(元素或其他化合物)。 .mixture of a metal and small amounts of other metals and non-metals. made to have certain improved properties eg harder. a large network of particles 纵向延展 A combination of two or more substances (elements and/or compounds) that are not chemically joined together. 两种或两种以上彼此之间未以化学键混合在一起的物质。 substance made up of individual molecules held together by covalent bonds and has weak intermolecular forces between these molecules 由独立的分子组成的物质,分子内部以共价键将原子组合,分子间作用力比较弱。 numbers of atoms are the same on either side of the equation (any equation should be balanced as in any chemical reaction particles are only re-arranged and are not destroyed or created). 引发化学反应所需的颗粒碰撞的最低能量。 A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but which is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. 由两种或两种以上元素通过化学键连接起来的物质。 横向延展 a structure in which a very large number of atoms or ions are joined together strongly and continuously in all 3 directions. tells us how much solute is dissolved inn a solvent 每升溶液中的溶质的摩尔数;表示了在溶液中能溶解溶质的量 Breaking down a compound into simpler substances (either elements and/or other compounds). increased resistance to corrosion. 能加快化学反应速度但是在反应的最后并没有发生改变的物质。 a piece of equipment which is part of the exhaust of a car and which changes nitrogen oxides into nitrogen before they are released into the atmosphere 汽车中用来处理尾气的设备,在氧化氮被排放到空气之前,将它转化为氮气。 the number of moles of per liter of solution. also shows the ratio in which reactants react and products are produced during a chemical reaction 化学反应式的两边的原子的种类和数量应保持不变(反应式中的原子重新排列,不会增加或 减少原子的种类和数量);同时也显示了反应物和生成物之间的比例。 A substance made in a chemical reaction. stronger. increased heat or electrical resistance 金属中掺有少量其他金属或非金属的混合物,具有一些经过改进的性质,比如:硬度变强、 抗腐蚀能力更强,以及更大的电阻性和阻热性。 A substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined together. 化学反应中生成的物质。 A Substance at the start of a chemical reaction.

or the addition of oxygen. 可以还原其他物质的物质。 The addition of electrons to a substance. It turns milky when carbon dioxide passes through it.Proteins which act as biological catalysts. 一种物质中丢失电子或者得到氧的反应。 A substance that is capable of oxidising another substance. pH值低于5的雨;当酸性气体(如二氧化硫)溶于雨水时产生。 A saturated solution of calcium hydroxide. or the removal of oxygen. 可溶于水形成氢氧根离子的碱。 A solution that has a pH > 7. The greater the change the faster the reaction. pH值大于7的溶液。 A substance that neutralises an acid to form a salt. 同时发生氧化和还原反应的化学反应。 A substance that is capable of reducing another substance. It will have a different colour in each type of solution. 在溶液中反应时生成的不溶于水的固体。 A reaction in which one substance replaces another. 一种用来显示溶液是酸性还是碱性的物质,在不同的溶液中会显示不同的颜色。 A solution that has a pH< 7. 一种溶解在水中可以产生氢离子的物质。 A substance used to show if a solution is acidic or alkaline. 一种蛋白质,可以作为生物催化剂使用 A measure of change in concentration of a reactant with time. 一种物质中得到电子或者失去氧的反应。 A substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. 氢氧化钙的饱和溶液,当通入二氧化碳时会有白色沉淀产生,沉淀的成分是碳酸钙。 a compound which ends with oxygen 含有氧的化合物 An insoluble solid formed from a reaction taking place in aqueous solution. pH值小于7的溶液。 A base that dissolves in water to form hydroxide ions (OH-). 一种描述反应物浓度随时间变化的变量。数值越大,反应 速度越快。 Rain that has a pH < 5. 可以氧化其他物质的物质。 a list of metals with the most reactive metal first based on results from experiments 根据实验结果,将最活泼的金属排在顺序表的最上面 A reaction in which both reduction and oxidation are taking place. The precipitate formed is calcium carbonate. 能和酸中和形成盐的物质。 . produced when gases such as sulfur dioxide dissolve in rainwater. 在反应中一种物质取代了另一种物质。 equation showing what goes on at each electrode in electrolysis 电解反应中显示电极反应的反应式。 The removal of electrons from a substance.

. 5 and blue in solutions > 8. 水合化合物含有水 A substance formed when the hydrogen ions in an acid are replaced by either metal ions or ammonium ions.14 used to show how acid or alkaline a substance is 在1到14之间的数字范围,表示了物质的酸碱性的强弱 a mixture of indicators used to measure the pH because it goes different colours 一种指示剂的混合物,用来测量不同的pH值,因为在不同的pH值下会显示不同的颜色 Without water e. 酸和碱生成盐的反应。 a number between 1 and 14 which tells us how strong or how weak an acid or alkali is 在1到14之间的数字,表示了物质的酸碱性的强弱 a scale running from 1. 最常用的酸碱指示剂。当pH值小于5是显示红色,当大于8时显示蓝色。 A solution that has a pH of 7. from the remains of living plants and animals which died millions of years ago. contains fossil fuels 多种有机化合物形成的混合物。在高温高压下,各种植物和动物经过亿万年形成化石燃料, 汽油就是从化石燃料中提取的 any metal in group 1 of the Periodic Table. It is red in solutions with a pH <.g. as a result of high temperatures and pressures. 酸中的氢离子被金属离子或铵离子取代所生成的产物。 a solution which contains as much solute as possible 含有尽量多的溶质的溶液 the result of a chromatography 层析法的结果 a separating technique which uses the difference in solubility in a given solvent between the different parts of a mixture to separate them 一种分离方法,利用混合物中不同成分在溶剂中的不同的溶解度来达到分离的目的 氯化钴试纸,用来测试水的存在。 The process of separating a liquid from a solution of a solid in the liquid. 利用不同的金属离子在酒精灯火焰中的颜色不同来检测金属离子的方法。 a mixture of organic compounds formed.The most common acid-alkali indicator. 用来分离溶液中的溶质和溶剂的方法。 A method of identifying a metal cation by the colour it produces in a nonluminous Bunsen flame. most reactive metals 元素周期表中第一族中的金属,都是活泼金属 A concentrated solution of sodium chloride 一种氯化钠的浓溶液。 in water. anhydrous copper sulphate is copper sulphate 无水的。比如,无水硫酸铜就是CuSO4 A hydrated substance contains water. pH值等于7的溶液。 The reaction between an acid and a base to produce a salt.

those of the noble gases). 通过燃烧产生的化学反应。 A reaction that takes in heat energy. 元素周期表中第七族的元素。 A molecule that contains only one atom (e. 吸收能量的反应。 A reaction that gives out heat energy. use . 在电解中连接电解液和外部电路的一种固体导电体。 The decomposition of a substance 通过使用电流来分解一种物质的方法。 by passing an electric current through it.An element in Group 7 0f the Periodic Table. at this point the amount of reactant or product does not change 当正反应和逆反应同时进行时,反应物和生成物的浓度都不再改变的状态 the reaction which produces the products 会生成生成物的反应 A reaction that can take place in both directions. 可以往两个方向反应的化学反应。可以用可逆反应的符号表示。 The main ore of aluminium. An aqueous solution of potassium nitrate 在水中的。例如,硝酸钾溶液。 negative electrode in electrolysis 在电解中的负极 A solid electrical conductor that forms the connection between the electrolyte and the external electrical circuit in electrolysis. from which aluminium is extracted. 只含有一个原子的分子。(比如,稀有气体) A table in which the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. 提取金属铝的主要矿石。 The name of the industrial process used for making ammonia. 工业中用来制取氨气的反应名称。 A chemical reaction between a metal 金属和空气中的氧气发生的化学反应。 and oxygen in the air. a mixture made by dissolving a solute in a solvent 将溶质溶解在溶剂中形成的混合物 A chemical reaction involving burning. Elements with similar properties appear in the same groups (vertical columns).g. It is represented by the of the symbol in the equation. 将元素按照原子序数来排列的表格。具有相似性质的元素被排列在同一列中。 metal in the transition block of the Periodic Table 元素周期表中位于过渡元素板块的金属 positive electrode in electrolysis 电解中的正极 In water. 释放能量的反应。 Brcaking down by using heat. 通过使用加热来分解的反应。 The condition that exists when the rate of the forward and backward in a reversible reaction mixture are equal. 在可逆反应中正方向反应和反方向反应速率相等的状态。 reactions is reached when the forward reaction and reverse reaction are going on at the same time. E.g.

铁在空气中与氧气和水分形成铁锈(水合三氧化二铁)的反应。 method of rust protection in which blocks of more reactive metal are attached to iron.g. the more reactive metal react with the air and water instead of the iron 通过使用活泼性更强的金属,来保护铁不与空气中的氧气和水蒸气反应,从而保护铁不生锈 的方法; The waste material produced in the blast furnace during the production of iron. 在地表的岩层中的含有金属或者金属化合物的岩石。 A mineral that contains enough of a metal or a metal compound to make it worthwhile extracting the metal. the atoms are added using the double bond as one of the double bonds breaks and is used to make two new bonds. 非饱和烃,通式为CnH2n . 饱和烃,通式为CnH2n+2 An unsaturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n. 金属或金矿石属化合物含量较高使得适合用来提炼金 属的 A chemical reaction between iron and oxygen and water from the air in which rust (hydrated iron(lll) oxide) is formed. ethanol is a member of this homologous series 含有-OH的有机同系列化合物,乙醇是醇的一种 A naturally occurring mixture of many hydrocarbons. 自然生成的多种碳氢化合物的混合物。 Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different displayed formulae. 在生成铁的过程中在熔炉中产生的废渣。 an alloy of iron with other elements 铁和其他元素形成的合金 a homologous series of organic compounds which has -OH as its functional group.A mineral of aluminium used in its molten form for dissolving aluminium oxide in the electrolytic manufacture of aluminium. e. It is the major component of natural gas. 具有相同分子式但是显示式不同的化合物。 The simplest member of the alkane family with a formula CH4. 烷烃中最简单的一种,分子式是CH4,是天然气的主要成分 compounds that have the element CARBON in it 含有C的化合物 A hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon double bond. alkenes and halogens 通过给不饱和烃添加原子的反应;在加成反应中,双键中的一个键被破坏,碳原子与其他原 子反应形成两个新的键,比如烯烃和卤素的反应 A saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2. 含有碳碳双键的碳氢化合物。 a reaction in which atoms are added to an unsaturated carbon compound. 在电解法制铝的生产中,用来溶解氧化铝的一种含有铝的矿石。 the coating of steel or iron by zinc to protect it from rusting A rock found in the Earth's crust that contains a metal or a metal compound.

去除水的反应(或者去除水含有的元素-如氢和氧) The conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide. 只含有氢和碳两种元素的化合物。 the joining together of many unsaturated monomer molecules (double bonds) to form a long molecule.addition polymer 将乙烯通过加成反应聚合形成的聚合物 This is the number of particles (ion pairs. 形成聚合物的单独分子。 A long-chain molecule made up of repeating units of monomers. 只含有碳碳单键的碳氢化合物。 The process of breaking long-chain alkane molecules into short-chain alkanes and alkcnes. atoms or molecules) in one mole of the substance. 由重复的单体组成的长链分子。 a chemical reaction in which many small molecules or monomers are joined together to form a long molecule called a polymer 很多小分子或单体连接起来形成具有长链分子(聚合物)的化学反应 polymer made from polymerising ethene molecules . 在一摩尔物质中,含有的颗粒(电子对,原子或分子)的数量 The simplest whole-number ratio of atoms present in a compound. 一组有机化合物,同组的化合物直接的区别在于有一些CH2单元不一样。 burning in not enough oxygen 在氧气不足的情况下的燃烧 A hydrocarbon containing only single bonds.hydrogen and oxygen) is removed.unit. 化合物中各种原子的最简整数比 .A reaction where water (or the elements of water . 将葡萄糖转化为二氧化碳和乙醇的反应。 A group of organic compounds in which each member differs from the next member by a -CH2. 将长链烷烃分子分解为短链烷烃和烯烃的过程。 One of the fractions produced on fractional distillation of crude oil. 一种含有多种化合物成分的混合物,这些混合物具有相近的沸点。 The process of separating the liquids in a mixture of miscible liquids。 分离可互溶的液态混合物的过程。 A compound made up of only the elements hydrogen and carbon. 原油分馏的其中一种馏分 A mixture containing several compounds all of which have similar boiling points. new monomers are added to the chain at the double bonds 将很多不饱和单体分子(含有双键)连接起来形成一个长链分子;新的单体在双键的位置上 加成 the joining together of many of two different monomer molecules to form one single long molecule during which a small molecule is removed for each link between the monomers 很多不同的单体分子连接起来形成一个长链分子,在反应过程中,单体分子间的小分子被移 除 The unit molecuIe from which a polymer is made.

p. 用来测量与一种已知体积的溶液反应的另一种溶液的准确体积。 . 每一摩尔气体在标准状态下的体积--24dm3. molecules or formulae) of the substance. 某种物质中一个分子含有的各种原子的准确数量。 The weighted mean mass of an element relative to one. The amount of substance containing 6 x 1023 particles (atoms. 化学反应中每一摩尔反应所产生的能量变化。 A method to determine the exact volume of one solution that will react with a given volume of another solution. 一种物质的分子式中所有的原子的相对原子质量之和 The quantity of electric charge carried by one mole of electrons. 一摩尔电子所带有的电量。 The net heat energy change per mole in a chemical reaction.The volume of one mole of a gas. it is 24 dm3.twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon-12. 含有6*1023个微粒(原子,分子或化学式)的物质。 The exact number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of a substance.t. At r. 以一个碳-12原子质量的1/12作为标准,任何一种原子的平均原子质量跟一个碳-12原子质量 的1/12的比值 The sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in the formula of a substance.