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GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCES PREPARED BY KAYODE OLADIPUIPO BEING A RESEARCH PROJECT DIPSON KAYUS RESOURCES CENTRE, IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA 08058573347; 07063796484 JANUARY, 2016 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION One of the most important characteristics of this global environmental degradation is that it affects all mankind on a global scale without regard to any particular country, region, or race. The whole world is a stakeholder and this raises issues on who should do what to combat environmental degradation. The environment encompasses the whole of life on earth and the complex interactions that link the living world with the physical world. This covers everything contained within the air, land and water. (Cassar, 2005) As early as 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius had predicted that human activities would interfere with the way the sun interacts with the earth, resulting in a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. His prediction has become true and climate change is now disrupting global environmental stability. The last few decades have seen many treaties, conventions, and protocols for the cause of global environmental protection (Benjamin 2014). Global Environmental Issues' refers to the effect on the climate of human actions, in particular the on fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases take up infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Connected with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well implicit. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system (Harrabin 2007). 2 Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sealevel rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Few examples of environmental issues of global significance are: 1. Land degradation 2. Water pollution 3. Hazardous waste 4. Global Warming 5. Climate change 6. Hazardous waste 7. Loss of Biodiversity 8. Exploitation of natural resources 9. Ozone Layer Depletion 10. Nuclear issue 11. Acid rain 12. Over population 13. Deforestation 14. Desertification (Karanth, 2006) 3 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 What Are Global Environmental Issues? Global Environmental Issues presents a comprehensive and stimulating introduction to the key environmental issues presently threatening our global environment. Global Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment (Aja, 2005). According Alfred, (2009) global Environmental Issues can be defined as any major trend, shock, or development that has the potential for serious global impacts and thus to create humanitarian needs and change the environments in which humanitarian actors will operate in coming years (Alfred, 2009). Benjamin (2014) simply said, global environmental Issues arises when people decide so, especially that kind of environmental problems that affect not only nature but also negatively affects humans. For example it is a problem that the fishes are poisoned, because humans would like to eat them if they were not poisoned, but is it an environmental problem when the sea eagle is poisoned. 2.2 Global Environmental Major Issues One of the primary causes of environmental degradation in a country could be attributed to rapid growth of population, which adversely affects the natural resources and environment. The uprising population and the environmental deterioration face the cha3llenge of sustainable development. The existence or the absence of favorable natural resources can facilitate or retard the process of socio-economic development. The three basic demographic factors of births (natality),deaths (mortality) and human migration (migration) and immigration (population moving into a country produces higher population) produce changes in population size, composition, distribution and these changes raise a number of important questions of cause and effect. Population growth and economic development are contributing to many serious environmental calamities globally. These include heavy pressure on land, land degradation, forests, 4 habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. Changing consumption pattern has led to rising demand for energy. The final outcomes of this are air pollution, global warming, climate change, water scarcity and water pollution (Benjamin 2014). The meaning, causes and effects of these environmental issues are explain below: 2.2.1 Land Degradation Vijay (2013) claimed that Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Natural hazards are excluded as a cause; however human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as floods and bush fires. This is considered to be an important topic of the 21st century due to the implications land degradation has upon agronomic productivity, the environment, and its effects on food security. It is estimated that up to 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. Causes of Land Degradation According to Johnson and Lewis, (2007) Land degradation is a global problem largely related to agricultural use. The major causes include:  Land clearance, such as clear cutting and deforestation  Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices  Livestock including overgrazing and overdrafting  Inappropriate irrigation and overdrafting  Urban sprawl and commercial development  Soil contamination  Vehicle off-roading  Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals 5  Increase in field size due to economies of scale, reducing shelter for wildlife, as hedgerows and copses disappear  Exposure of naked soil after harvesting by heavy equipment  Monoculture, destabilizing the local ecosystem  Dumping of non-biodegradable trash, such as plastics (Johnson and Lewis, 2007) Plate 1: Land degradation due to Soil erosion in a Wheatfield near .Vijay (2013) Effects of Land Degradation According to Johnson and Lewis, (2007) overcutting of vegetation occurs when people cut forests, woodlands and shrublands—to obtain timber, fuelwood and other products—at a pace exceeding the rate of natural regrowth. This is frequent in semiarid environments, where fuelwood shortages are often severe. Overgrazing is the grazing of natural pastures at stocking intensities above the livestock carrying capacity; the resulting decrease in the vegetation cover is a leading cause of wind and water erosion. It is a significant factor in Afghanistan. The growing population pressure, during 1980-1990, has led to decreases in the already small areas 6 of agricultural land per person in six out of eight countries (14% for India and 22% for Pakistan). Population pressure also operates through other mechanisms. Improper agricultural practices, for instance, occur only under constraints such as the saturation of good lands under population pressure which leads settlers to cultivate too shallow or too steep soils, plough fallow land before it has recovered its fertility, or attempt to obtain multiple crops by irrigating unsuitable soils (Johnson and Lewis, 2007). High population density is not always related to land degradation. Rather, it is the practices of the human population that can cause a landscape to become degraded. Populations can be a benefit to the land and make it more productive than it is in its natural state. Land degradation is an important factor of internal displacement in many African and Asian countries (Johnson and Lewis, 2007) Severe land degradation affects a significant portion of the Earth's arable lands, decreasing the wealth and economic development of nations. As the land resource base becomes less productive, food security is compromised and competition for dwindling resources increases, the seeds of famine and potential conflict are sown (Vijay 2013). 2.2.2 Water Pollution According to Zulfequar (2013) water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities. 7 Plate 2: Zulfequar (2013) Causes of Water Pollution The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentrationis often the key in determining what is a natural component of water and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna (Zulfequar 2013). Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species. Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH), electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary productivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative 8 environmental effects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations (Zulfequar 2013). Effects of Water Pollution According to Benjamin (2014) water pollution has a duel effect on nature. It has negative effects on the living and also on the environment. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. Many water bodies near urban areas (cities and towns) are highly polluted. This is the result of both garbage dumped by individuals and dangerous chemicals legally or illegally dumped by manufacturing industries, health centers, schools and market places.  Death of aquatic (water) animals: The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life that depends on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and sea gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their habitat (living environment).  Disruption of food-chains: Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well. Pollutants such as lead and cadmium are eaten by tiny animals. Later, these animals are consumed by fish and shellfish, and the food chain continues to be disrupted at all higher levels(Omofonmwan, 2013)..  Diseases: Eventually, humans are affected by this process as well. People can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been poisoned. In many poor nations, there is always outbreak of cholera and diseases as a result of poor drinking water treatment from contaminated waters.  Destruction of ecosystems: Ecosystems (the interaction of living things in a place, depending on each other for life) can be severely changed or destroyed by water pollution. Many areas are now being affected by careless human pollution, and this pollution is coming back to hurt humans in many ways(Omofonmwan, 2013). 9 Plat 3: Benjamin (2014) Plate 4: Benjamin (2014) 10 Plate 5: Benjamin (2014) 2.2.3 Hazardous Waste According to Omofonmwan, (2013) hazardous waste are Solid, liquid, or gaseous by-product of industrial processes that possesses at least one of the four characteristics: (i) corrosiveness, (ii) ignitability, (iii) reactivity, (iv) toxicity; and which may have to be handled stored, transported, and disposed of in a controlled manner Waste is considered 'hazardous' under environmental legislation when it contains substances or has properties that might make it harmful to human health or the environment. This does not necessarily mean it is an immediate risk to human health, although some waste can be (Omiegbe, 2009). As population increases, human activities increase, which eventually increases the amount of waste produced. These wastes include harmful gases let out in the atmosphere, toxic waste released in water bodies, nuclear waste, e-waste, medical waste and even the waste from our homes. No matter where people put these hazardous waste materials, there is always a chance that they could find their way into 11 the ground, and eventually into our bodies. Corporations usually want to avoid the costs associated with having to limit creation of hazardous waste. Consequently, landfills are built on site and filled with waste, or sometimes pay to have waste removed. Often, hazardous materials are transported to areas that accept money to take the waste. It may prove very difficult to reduce hazardous waste in the future. Unlike many other environmental problems, waste creation is something people do not often think about. In near future, people may have to reduce not only their generation of hazardous waste, but also their consumption of many products that end up in landfills (Benjamin 2014). Plate 6: Benjamin (2014) 12 Plate 7: Benjamin (2014) 2.2.4 Global Warming Global warming a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants (Bisgrove and Hadley 2002). Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect. Cassar (2005). A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about 15 °C (27 °F) colder than the present average of 14 °C (57 °F). In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause a greenhouse effect (Epstein 2002). Harrabin (2007) claimed that before the Industrial Revolution, human activities released very few gases into the atmosphere and all climate changes happened naturally. After the Industrial Revolution, through fossil fuel combustion, changing 13 agricultural practices and deforestation, the natural composition of gases in the atmosphere are getting affected and climate and environment began to alter significantly. Over the last 100 years, it was found out that the earth is getting warmer and warmer. The key greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming is carbon dioxide. CFC's, even though they exist in very small quantities, are significant contributors to global warming. Carbon dioxide, one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has two major anthropogenic (human-caused) sources: the combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land use. Net releases of carbon dioxide from these two sources are believed to be contributing to the rapid rise in atmospheric concentrations since Industrial Revolution. Because estimates indicate that approximately 80 percent of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions currently come from fossil fuel combustion, world energy use has emerged at the center of the climate change debate. 2.2.5 Climate Change Climate change is a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels (Hulme, Jenkins, Lu, Turnpenny, Mitchell, 2002). Hulme, Jenkins, Lu, Turnpenny , Mitchell TD, (2002) posit that climate change is a long-term shift in weather conditions identified by changes in temperature, precipitation, winds, and other indicators. Climate change can involve both changes in average conditions and changes in variability, including, for example, extreme events. The earth's climate is naturally variable on all time scales. However, its long-term state and average temperature are regulated by the balance between incoming and outgoing energy, which determines the Earth’s energy balance Natural Causes The Earth’s climate can be affected by natural factors that are external to the climate system, such as changes in volcanic activity, solar output, and the Earth's 14 orbit around the Sun. Of these, the two factors relevant on timescales of contemporary climate change are changes in volcanic activity and changes in solar radiation. In terms of the Earth’s energy balance, these factors primarily influence the amount of incoming energy. Volcanic eruptions are episodic and have relatively short-term effects on climate. Changes in solar irradiance have contributed to climate trends over the past century but since the Industrial Revolution, the effect of additions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere has been about ten times that of changes in the Sun’s output (Hulme, Jenkin, Lu, Turnpenny, and Mitchell. 2002). Human Causes Climate change can also be caused by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the conversion of land for forestry and agriculture. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, these human influences on the climate system have increased substantially. In addition to other environmental impacts, these activities change the land surface and emit various substances to the atmosphere. These in turn can influence both the amount of incoming energy and the amount of outgoing energy and can have both warming and cooling effects on the climate. The dominant product of fossil fuel combustion is carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The overall effect of human activities since the Industrial Revolution has been a warming effect, driven primarily by emissions of carbon dioxide and enhanced by emissions of other greenhouse gases (Cassar, 2005). The build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to an enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect. It is this human-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect that is of concern because ongoing emissions of greenhouse gases have the potential to warm the planet to levels that have never been experienced in the history of human civilization. Such climate change could have far-reaching and/or unpredictable environmental, social, and economic consequences (Harrabin, 2007) 15 Plate 8: Harrabin, (2007) 2.2.6 Exploitation of Natural Resources The exploitation resources for economic of natural resources is growth, sometimes with the use a negative of natural connotation of accompanying environmental degradation. It started to emerge on an industrial scale in the 19th century as the extraction and processing of raw materials (such as in mining, steam power, and machinery) developed much further than it had in preindustrial eras. During the 20th century, energy consumption rapidly increased. Today, about 80% of the world’s energy consumption is sustained by the extraction of fossil fuels, which consists of oil, coal and gas. Another non-renewable resource that is exploited by humans are subsoil minerals such as precious metals that are mainly used in the production of industrial commodities. Intensive agriculture is an example of a mode of production that hinders many aspects of the natural environment, for ecosystem and water example pollution in the an degradation aquatic. 16 As of forests in the world a terrestrial population rises and economic growth occurs, the depletion of natural resources influenced by the unsustainable extraction of raw materials becomes an increasing concern. Karanth (2006) claimed that human greed for more has left them empty handed in terms of natural resources in several parts of the world. Several human activities, including the likes of mining, agriculture, fishing etc., has resulted in drastic degradation of natural resources. While mining and agriculture have triggered largescale deforestation, over fishing has only resulted in the reduction of population of marine creatures inhabiting the planet. Plate 9: Karanth (2006) 17 Plate 10: Karanth (2006) Plate 11: Karanth (2006) 2.2.7 Loss of Biodiversity 18 Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on earth, and its biological diversity. The number of species of plants, animals, microorganisms and the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all a part of a biologically diverse earth. The World Resource Institute reports that there is a link between biodiversity and climate change. Rapid global warming can affect ecosystems chances to adapt naturally. Over the past 150 years, deforestation has contributed an estimated 30 percent of the atmospheric build-up of CO2. It is also a significant driving force behind the loss of genes, species, and critical ecosystem services (Zulfequar 2013). Plate 12: Zulfequar (2013) Effect of Biodiversity  Loss of species  Loss of genetics resources  Agricultural Vulnerability  Habitat Destruction  Loss of Eco Systems  Introduction of diseases and invasive species via smuggling 19 2.2.8 Ozone Layer Depletion Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozonearound Earth's polar regions. Earth’s atmosphere is divided into three regions, namely troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere. The stratosphere extends from 10 to 50 kms from the Earth’s surface. This region is concentrated with slightly pungent smelling, light bluish ozone gas. The ozone layer, in the stratosphere acts as an efficient filter for harmful solar Ultraviolet B (UV-B) rays. Ozone is produced and destroyed naturally in the atmosphere and until recently, this resulted in a well-balanced equilibrium. Ozone is formed when oxygen molecules absorb ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths less than 240 nanometers and is destroyed when it absorbs ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths greater than 290 nanometers. Ozone is highly reactive and easily broken down by man-made chlorine and bromine compounds. These compounds are found to be most responsible for most of ozone layer depletion. The ozone depletion process begins when CFCs (used in refrigerator and air conditioners) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are emitted into the atmosphere. Winds efficiently mix and evenly distribute the ODS in the troposphere. These ODS compounds do not dissolve in rain, are extremely stable, and have a long life span. After several years, they reach the stratosphere by diffusion. Strong UV light breaks apart the ODS molecules. CFCs, HCFCs, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform release chlorine atoms, and halons and methyl bromide release bromine atoms. It is the chlorine and bromine atom that actually destroys ozone, not the intact ODS molecule. It is estimated that one chlorine atom can destroy from 10,000 to 100,000 ozone molecules before it is finally removed from the stratosphere. The major effects of ozone layer depletion are:  Effects on Human and Animal Health: - Increased penetration of solar UV-B radiation is likely to have high impact on human health with potential risks of eye diseases, skin cancer and infectious diseases. 20  Effects on Terrestrial Plants: In forests and grasslands, increased radiation is likely to change species composition thus altering the bio-diversity in different ecosystems. It could also affect the plant community indirectly resulting in changes in plant form, secondary Metabolism, etc.  Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems: High levels of radiation exposure in tropics and subtropics may affect the distribution of phytoplankton, which form the foundation of aquatic food webs. It can also cause damage to early development stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians and other animals, the most severe effects being decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development.  Effects on Air Quality: Reduction of stratospheric ozone and increased penetration of UV-B radiation result in higher photo dissociation rates of key trace gases that control the chemical reactivity of the troposphere. This can increase both production and destruction of ozone and related oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, which are known to have adverse effects on human health, terrestrial plants and outdoor material. 2.2.9 Nuclear Issue Nuclear power does have high potential, but the problems associated with it are no less. Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants is one of the major problems we are likely to face, especially if safety regulations are not followed properly. Chernobyl tragedy has set an example of how nuclear waste can lead to disaster for mankind, and no one would like to see another Chernobyl happening. It doesn't end here as the threat of some nation diverting its nuclear power to produce nuclear arsenal is always looming over the mankind. 2.2.10 Acid rain Acid rain also referred to acid deposition is caused by airborne acidic pollutants and has highly destructive results. Obajimi, (2008) claimed that discovered acid rain in 1852, when the English chemist Robert Agnus invented the term. Acid rain, one of the most important environmental problems of all, cannot be seen. The gases that 21 cause acid rain usually come from automobiles or coal-burning power plants. Acid rain moves easily, affecting locations far beyond those that let out the pollution. For years, science studied the true causes of acid rain. Some scientists concluded that human production was primarily responsible, while others cited natural causes as well. Recently, more intensive research has been done so that countries have the information they need to prevent acid rain and its dangerous effects. The levels of acid rain vary from region to region (Obajimi, 2008). 2.2.11 Over population Overpopulation is a function of the number of individuals compared to the relevant resources, such as the water and essential nutrients they need to survive. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates, an increase in immigration, or an unsustainable biome and depletion of resources (Karanth 2006). Karanth (2006) posits that another major global environmental issue is overpopulation. As the population of world continues to soar at an alarming rate, the pressure on the resources of the planet is increasing. The problems associated with overpopulation range from food and water crisis to lack of space for natural burial. Incessant population growth will not just result in depletion of natural resources, but will also put more pressure on the economy. In Nigeria the “the present high rate of our population growth is already contributing substantially to the degradation of the ecology of the country. It observes that land fragmentation, over-farming and over-grazing have led to soil erosion and desertification and that over crowding has led to the spread of shanty towns and urban blight, all of which would worsen if the present population growth continues. Omiegbe, 2009). 22 Plate 13: Omiegbe, (2009) 2.2.12 Deforestation The deforestation of forest particularly tropical rainforests is a major global problem-each year millions of hectares are lost. Deforestation rates in some countries continue to increase despite worldwide pressures. Rainforests are destroyed for wood products, and to make way for agricultural activities, mining and dams. The food and agricultural organization (FAO) estimated that Nigerians destroy about 600,000 hectares of her forest every year through careless exploitation and husbandry (Obajimi, 2008). Such careless exploitation of the forest has been implicated in a number of worsening environmental problems in the country including soil erosion and infertility, desertification and flooding. The impacts of deforestation include:  Loss of livelihood for local inhabitants  Variable environmental conditions (susceptibility to flood, aggravated droughts, soil erosion  etc.).  Loss of biodiversity and disturbance to ecosystems  Loss of carbon sink 23 Plate 14: Omiegbe, (2009) 2.2.13 Desertification Desertification means removing ground cover and degrading fertile land initiates desertification. Water washes away nutrients, the land becomes useless. The process is accelerated by expanding populations and the need to overuse fragile areas of land Plate 15: Omiegbe, (2009) 24 2.3 Effect of Environmental Issues On Nigeria Environmental pollution is a challenge in most developed societies of the world; contemporary societies of Africa and Nigeria in particular also grapple with and or/tackle this menace in recent times. Analysis of the negative impact of environmental pollution in contemporary Nigeria society would focus specifically on; i. Urbanization Urbanization is caused by high population growth rate and rural- urban migration. Urbanization in Nigeria is characterized by city slums with serious environmental consequences . The problem has been described as acute and exemplifies the inability of development measures to keep pace with the rate of population growth. The problem of the deposal of savage and refuse is quite serious because of the rapid rate of generation of non-biodegradable materials such as plastics. Inadequate storm drains, dumping of refuse in drainage lines and construction of houses close to and even on the natural water channels have been shown to be responsible in that order for the increasing cases of flood in the urban centers. Environment problems associated with the increasing growth of urban slums including overcrowding in squalid housing conditions, poor quality or unavailability of basic infrastructures and social services, such as water and sewage facilities and even lack of access routes ii. Pollution The growth and development of industries and Urbanization has contributed greatly to the excess carbon monoxide produced by combustion and other human activities. Carbon monoxide reacts with the blood vessel and prevent it from taking up oxygen and the people are suffocated. In Nigeria, several rural towns that had in the past enjoy fresh and dry air are currently experiencing air pollution problems (Obajimi, 2008). This is due to industrialization process and expansion in human activities. Aquatic or water pollution is the discharge of unwanted biological, chemical and physical materials into water bodies from man’s environment. The pollutant are 25 usually chemical, physical and biological substances that affect the natural condition of water. This incidence is responsible for the wide spread water contamination in most Nigeria cities. Also solid waste have equally flooded the water ways in these Urban centers. Land surface pollution is the occurrence of unwanted materials or waste on land. The commonest pollutant on land is the waste products that are often scattered on land area in the cities. According to Onwioduokit (2008), most environmental problems are due to the production or consumption of goods whose waste products translates easily into pollutant. Ayeni (2008) and Sada (2009) believed that the emergence of Urbanization is responsible for the rapid accumulation of solid waste. Generally, it would appear that the growth of urbanization and industrial development coupled with improper wastes management control have added a great dimension to land area pollution in Nigeria. 26 3.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 3.1 Conclusion Nigeria has a total land area of 983, 213 km2 occupied by more than 150 million people. The interaction of these millions of people with their environment has left indelible mark on the landscape. Attempts by these Nigerians to adjust their seemingly endless wants and desire for food, shelter, recreation and infrastructure facilities to mention but a few have resulted in deforestation, desertification, urbanization, over population and all kinds of pollution. Although, these land-use activities contribute to over all development of the country, they equally produce negative impacts in the environment. If appropriate techniques and technology of environmental protection and management which will be recommended below are not put in place, Nigeria may become a difficult country to live in the next 15 years. 3.2 Recommendations There are some uncertainties as to what effects a change in climate might have on the earth. However, its solution lies on the coordination of national actions within regional and international frameworks. The solution will need to involve countries world-wide because the impact in one location may be felt in a completely different location. Hence, countries should develop a plan of action to cope with these problems. Some of the significant recommendations are: Recycling is a process to convert waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle" waste hierarchy. Recycling can decrease the number of pollutants entering the atmosphere and has been linked to lessening global climate change. Decreasing the amount of raw materials an industry has to use to create new products slows the cutting down of trees and reduces gas emissions. Buying products 27 with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will help to reduce waste. The world's dependence on oil causes serious harm to the environment. Electric cars replace vehicles with highly polluting internal combustion engines. Ethanol fuel should be used to reduces gasoline consumption. Planting a Tree will help to fight against environmental issue. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime. Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbors and co-workers, and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment. Government should improve environmental education with emphasis placed on the global environmental issues and the role of forests. This will help to promote action by all citizens, including children, Furthermore, education on energy issues should be improved and offered at a variety of settings such as schools, local communities and at homes. The Government should have to develop facilities for environmental education where a broad range of generations, from children to adults, can learn about environmental problems, especially global environmental problems. At schools, students should be given practical training for environmental protection and the creation of a better environment through workshops learn and teaching materials, in addition, textbooks should be printed on recycled paper. Urban development planners and related agencies of government should continue to sponsor jingles on radio and television houses on why it is not proper to build houses on flood areas. Sanitary and bush burning laws should be reinforced to apprehend and prosecute offenders. 28 A prompt legislative framework should be put in place to make laws that would tackle headlong issues of noise pollution in Nigerian. Rural farmer education on how to apply fertilizer and other related inputs should be reemphasized to reduce health hazards involved. 29 References Aja, J. O. (2005). “Environmental Education as a panacea for a sustainable development in Nigeria: Schools environment in focus”. Pp. 114 – 127, In the African Journal of Environmental Laws and Development Studies, Vol. One, Part 1. Alfred, N. (2009). Explosive and Accessories for exports, Key Noch, Birmingham. Benjamin, .K.. (2014).Environmental Issues, Climate Changes, and Energy Security in Developing Asia. Journal of ADB Economics Working Paper Series.Pp1-10 Bisgrove, R, and Hadley P (2002). Gardening in the global greenhouse: the impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK. UKCIP, Oxford, UK. Cassar, M. (2005). 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