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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1856, by
J. S.


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court, for the Southern District of

Copyright, 1876, by
Copyright, 1880, by


Copyright, 1882, by

Copyright, 1884, by A. C.

OCT 1$






C. Bush.



& Son.











































































sllpll^ .

as nothing more reasonable could be done. which could be compared to nothing but the roaring of Niagara. What could it be? In the name of all the devils in Rotterdam. through all the city and through The dent. that fell from large white masses of cloud profusely multitude were in no bad distributed about the blue vault of the firmament. 2 humor at being now and then with friendly showers of momentary durabesprinkled tion. by the host of sturdy burghers who stood openmouthed below. so oddly shaped. and a shout. and furiously. thousand pipes descended simultaneously from the corners of ten thousand mouths. but apparently solid substance. loudly. ten in the . in an instant afterward. origin of this hubbub soon became From behind the huge bulk of one of those sharply sufficiently evi- defined masses of cloud already mentioned. every one to a man replaced his pipe carefully in the corner of his . heterogeneous. so. what could No one knew . so whimsically put together. it no one could imagine .ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. a slight but remarkable agitation be- came apparent assembly: the clattering of ten thousand tongues succeeded and. theless. possibly portend ? no one— not even —had the burgomaster Mynheer Superbus Von Underduk the slightest clew by which to unravel the mystery . was seen slowly to emerge into an open area of blue space. Never- about noon. ten thousand faces were upturned toward the heavens. resounded long. as not to be in any manner comprehended. a queer. and never to be sufficiently admired. all the environs of Rotterdam.

— Suspended Betty Martin. under the very noses some distance above their noses was the identical thing in question. waddled about. of the precise material which no one had ever before known to be used for a similar purit pose. upon nearer inspection. the crowd saw a large tassel depending from its apex. paused. 3 mouth. or rather at . lower and ard the goodly city. Being the burghers of Rotterdam. a circle of little instruments. it arrived near of so still lower tow- much curiosity. little it was even still good sense of or nothing better than a huge fool's-cap turned upside down. But still by blue ribbons to the end of this . paused. and grunted then waddled back. And this similitude was regarded as by no means lessened when. let me ask. grunted.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. and. and significantly finally — —puffed again. puffed. around the upper rim or base of the cone. For who. ever heard of a loon . balloon manufactured entirely of dirty newspapers man Holland certainly in of the people. came the object and the cause of so much smoke. which kept up a continual tinkling to the tune of worse. It was an egregious insult to the As to the shape of the more reprehensible. it was undoubtedly a species of — appeared to be yes ! It bal- but surely no such balloon had ever been seen in Rotterdam before. and maintaining an eye steadily upon the phenomenon. No ? yet here. and composed. I have on the best authority. In the meantime. In a very few minutes enough to be accurately discerned. however. resembling sheep-bells. phenomenon.

4 fantastic machine. allowing the crowd below a sufficiently distinct view of the person of The balloon (for such no doubt it occupant. however. and declared it to be the identical hat of her good man himself. upon sight of it. uttered an exclamation of joyful surprise. mixed up with a quantity this narrative all of odd-looking rubbish. as Pfaall. It is. in a very sudden and unaccountable manner. little as it was. and that city in . but this altitude. and a hemispherical crown with a black band and a silver buckle. with a brim superlatively broad. This was in truth a very singular somebody. an by way enormous drab beaver hat. with three companions. somewhat remarkable that many Rotterdam swore to having seen the same hat repeatedly before and indeed the whole assembly seemed to regard it with eyes of familiarity.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. and up to the date of attempts at obtainTo be sure. there hung. the more to be observed. ing intelligence concerning them had failed. the sufferers were in associates. He could not have been more than two feet in height its . while the vrow citizens of . was) had now descended to within a hundred feet of the earth. Now this was a circumstance Grettel Pfaall. had actually disappeared from Rotterdam about five years before. had been lately discovered in a retired situation to the east of the and some people went so far as to imagine that this spot a foul murder had been committed. of car. would have been suf- . some bones which were thought to be human. all probability Hans Pfaall and his But to return.

This odd little gentleman was dressed in a loose surtout of sky-blue satin. the little old gentleman was suddenly seized with a fit of trepidation. to complete his equip- ment. crooked. His hands were enormously at all. to about one hun- dred feet from the surface of the earth. 5 destroy his equilibrium. brilliant. with tight breeches to match. and rigged on to the ficient to The body cords of the balloon. and acute his chin and cheeks. a blood-red silk handkerchief enveloped his throat. and. therefore. were broad. but for the intervention of a circular rim reaching as high as the breast. which he lifted with great difficulty. and double but of ears of any kind there was not a semblance to be discovered upon any portion of his head. hind. and fell down. in a fantastic bow-knot of super-eminent dimensions. fastened with silver buckles at the knees. as I said before. . although wrinkled with age. in a dainty manner. and appeared disinclined to make any nearer approach to terra firma. His vest was of some a white taffety cap was set jaunt- on one side of his head . and collected into a queue beHis nose was prodigiously long. . puffy. upon his bosom. giving to his entire His feet. . . bright yellow material ily . His hair was gray. Throwing out. and in- flammatory his eyes full. and tilt him over the edge of his tiny car. he became stationary in an instant. Having descended. a quantity of sand from a canvas bag.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. figure a rotundity highly absurd. of course. He then proceeded. man was of the little more than proportionally broad. seen not be could large.

however. and rolled him over and over no less than half a dozen times. O a hurried and agitated manner. still greatly dis- composed. It is said. on the contrary. ual in Rotterdam. then eyed it with an air of its extreme surprise. In the meantime the balloon arose like a lark. without taking the trouble to empty their contents. that during each of his half dozen circumvolutions he emitted no less than half a dozen distinct he held fast and furious whiffs from his pipe. and was evidently astonished at opened it. and. every one of them. one after another. at this and it moment to make being necessary to discharge a portion of ballast to enable him to reascend. tumbled. This he poised suspiciously in his hand. to extract from a side- in pocket in his surtout a large morocco pocket-book. His Excellency stooped to take it up. . and to the whole time with which he intends holding day fast (God willing) until the of his decease. to which all his might. most unfortunately upon the back of the burgomaster. He weight. and drawing there- at length from a huge letter sealed with red sealing-wax and tied carefully with red tape. let it fall precisely at the feet of the burgomaster. Superbus Von Underduk. suffered this impertinence man on to pass off with impunity. and having apparently no further business to detain him in Rotterdam.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. that the great the part of the It is Underduk little old in the face of every individ- not to be supposed. the half dozen bags which he threw out. began busy preparations for departure . But the aeronaut.

with three others. the descent of which. had circumgyratory movements. to have fal- most proper hands. That functionary. during his failed.behind a cloud similar to that from which emerged. had proved so fatally subversive of both person and personal dignity to his Excellency. upon inspection. in their official capaciof President and Vice-President of the Rotterdam to himself ties was accordingly opened by those dignitaries upon the spot. I. and the con- sequences attending thereupon. disappeared from Rotterdam. about five years ago. however. at 7 length drifted quietly it had so oddly . it so please your Excellencies. by name Hans Pfaall. which was seen. Presi- and Vice-President of the States' College of Astrono- mers. the writer of . and found to contain the following extraordinary. citizens of wondering eyes All attention was now directed to the letter. munication : — " To their Excellencies dent It Von Underduk and Rubadub. to bestow a thought upon the important object of securing the epistle. in the city of Rotterdam. and indeed very serious. who. " Your Excellencies may perhaps be able to remember an humble artizan. and was thus of the good lost forever to the Rotterdam. not Von Underduk. being actually addressed len into the and Professor Rubadub. however. and by occupation a mender of bellows. comCollege of Astronomy. If. away above the soaring far city. in a manner which must have been considered unaccountable.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL.

I soon grew as poor as a rat. mind My I ancestors have also resided therein time out of —they.ADVENTURE OF HANS 8 this communication. Credit was good. But. employment was never wanting. in which I resided at the time of my disappearance. money we soon began or good-will. fellow-citizens. Hans Pfaall himself. be fanned with a newspaper and as the government grew weaker. and there was no lack of either ing. durability in proportion was not a in — for. and all was say- and long that sort of thing. citizen of Rotterdam my own could an honest either desire or deserve. that the heads of all the people have been set agog with poli: no better business than tics. there Rotterdam that ever stood stitch or required the assistance of a hammer. This was a state of things not to be endured. until of late years. as well as myself. and keep up with the march of intellect and the If a fire wanted fanning. I have no doubt that leather and iron acquired . in pair of bellows in need of a all a very short time. to speak the truth. that for continued to occupy the little square brick building. had now not a moment of time to think of us at all. They had as much as they could do to read about the revoluple tions. It is well known to am the identical most of the period of forty years my PFAALL. as I to feel the effects of liberty speeches. steadily following the re- spectable and indeed lucrative profession of mending of bellows for. Peo- who were formerly the best customers in the world. at the head of the alley called Sauerkraut. and radicalism. and. having a wife and children to pro- . it could readily spirit of the age.

opened the pages of the first volume which came within my reach. and. my by blowing thought it brains out with a blunderbuss. besieged from morning There were three fellows in particular who till night. worried me beyond endurance. fair my words.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. if ever I should be so happy them within my clutches and I believe nothing as to get . I had some little tincture of infor- . I Seeing a chair close at hand. however. My house was me left literally little leisure for contemplation. for the threw myself doggedly into it. vide for. Duns. written either of Berlin or by a Frenchman of some- Encke name. and feeling more than usually dejected. and to until. I continued for a long time to wander about the most obscure streets without object. It proved to be a small pamphlet treatise Professor by what similar on Speculative Astronomy. hardly knowing why. my burdens at length became 9 intolerable. " One day. in the meantime. having given them the slip. to dissemble treat them with promises and good turn of fate. I wrath. and threatening me with the law. use of customers. by some an opportunity of vengeance should be afforded me. keeping watch continually about my door. Upon these three I vowed the bitterest revenge. until at length I a bookseller's 1 chanced to stumble against the corner of stall. best. and I spent hour after hour in reflecting upon the most convenient method of putting an end to my life. world but the pleasure of this anticipation prevented from putting my plan of suicide into immediate exe- in the me cution.

or perhaps reasonable enough. my im- The longer I meditated upon these. the force. and soon became more this nature. was vain enough. arising in ill-regulated I minds. merely served as a farther stimulus to imagination and many vague . writer. the more intense grew the interest which had been excited within me. have possess all all the appearance. The limited nature agination of my education in general.ADVENTURE OF HANS 10 mation on matters of and more absorbed PFAALL. or inducing ability to me compre- to mistrust the notions which had arisen in consequence. I mind. My not often in effect and other inherent and I went immedi- mind. By this time it began to grow dark. lately communicated to me as an important by a cousin from Nantz) had made an sion on secret. in the contents of the book —reading awoke to a recollection what was passing around me. as I sauntered along the dusky revolved carefully over in my memory the wild and sometimes unintelligible reasonings of the There are some particular passages which affected in an extraordinary manner. was too much occupied . so far me from rendering hend what I had diffident of my own read. ately to bed. of instinct or intuition. however. " It was late when I reached home. properties. and. indelible impres- my streets. to doubt whether those crude ideas which. and I directed my steps toward home. and more especially my igno- rance on subjects connected with natural philosophy. the may reality. But it actually through twice before I of the treatise (in conjunction with a discovery in pneumatics.

Having arrived at home safely with these. very a lot of the varnish of caoutchouc yards each twine . I devoted every spare moment to their perusal. had given me so much annoyance. and without giving any attention of repayment. (I am ashamed to say) to my future means no inconsiderable quantity of ready money. in small sums. they were ignorant men) I found and furni- By my little for assist- these means little difficulty in gaining them over to my purpose. With the means thus accruing proceeded to procure at in pieces of twelve cambric muslin. " Matters being thus arranged. in the purchase of some volumes of Mechanics and Practical Astronomy. (for I I told them I had in view. I repaired eagerly to the bookseller's stall.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. I . and laid out what little ready money I possessed. II to sleep. Arising early in the morning. to dispose of what property I had remaining. . and soon made such proficiency nature as I in studies of this thought sufficient for the execution of a cerwhich either the Devil or my better gen- tain design with had inspired me. intervals. fine. ceeded — partly by selling enough of In this I finally household my ture to # satisfy a moiety of their claim. I contrived. and I lay the whole night buried in meditation. . solicited their services. and to borrow. of suc- and partly by a promise of paying the balance upon completion of a project which ance in which I who made every endeavor to conciliate the three creditors by the aid wife and with the greatest secrecy and caution. under various pretences. ius In the intervals of this period.

. This . I worked up the twine into net-work of sufficient dimensions rigged with a hoop and the necessary cords and made purchase of numerous instruments and materials for experi- it . . but not venture to say here. in then took opportunities of retired situation east of conveying by Rotterdam. when belongs (as I France. so long considered irreducible. with a greenish flame instantaneously fatal to would make no it is animal life. three inches in diameter. by and is secret I pure. that odorless . Its full but that it . It is tasteless. properly shaped. and a dozen demijohns of a very common The acid. ment the upper regions of the upper atmosphere. six tin tubes. and ten feet in length a quantity of a particular metallic substance. and that its density is about 37. or semi-metal. I directed gave her method my all make up wife to as soon as possible. 12 a large and deep basket of wicker-work. whom it was conditionally communicated in to .ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. which I shall not name. and one of a larger size .4 times less than that of hydrogen. to a iron-bound casks. difficulty in disclosing. to be formed from these latter materials is gas a gas never — yet generated by any other person than myself or at I can only least never applied to any similar purpose. burns. five I night. and information as to the particular requisite In the meantime of proceeding. made to order and several other articles necessary in the construction and equipment of a balloon of extraordinary dimensions. a constituent of azote. of right have before hinted) to a citizen of Nantz. to contain about fifty gallons each.

whether found too expensive. barrels ov*?v them in their destined situation ! . The same myself. cambric muslin with a coating of it gum caoutchouc. the holes forming in this manner a circle twenty-five feet in diameter. tre of this circle. was I not equally as good. and placed the cask. I — pounds. being the station designed for the large In each of the also dug a hole of greater depth. These the keg and I connected in a proper manner with covered canisters and fifty — and having let into one of the canisters the end of about four feet of slow-match. through which substance any escape of gas was nearly an impossibility. I cask. deposited a canister containing fifty pounds. a the of con- certain animal. without aware of structing balloons 1 my from method membrane of a intentions. I covered up the hole.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. and barely visible beyond the I then filled up the remaining holes. being at all 3 individual submitted to me. leaving the other end of the match protruding about an inch. and was not sure. and trains . and I do not wish to deprive him of the honor of a very singular novel gas and material invention. I think it probable that hereafter the individual in question may attempt a balloon ascension with the because have spoken of. and in the larger one a keg holding one hundred five smaller holes. mention this circumstance. In the cenI privately dug a small hole . placed the cask over it. " On the spot which I I intended each of the smaller casks to occupy respectively during the inflation of the balloon. I however altogether upon the whole. of cannon powder.

and I purposes of silk itself. left.H ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. and there secreted. however. with one hundred and seventy-five pounds of bal. to require pheric air. with all my implements. My balloon was soon completed. tell —a — — It was a dark night when I bade her good-bye. Grimm's improve- ments upon the apparatus for condensation of the atmosI found this machine. It would contain more than forty thousand cubic feet of gas would take me up easily. with severe labor and unremitting perseverance. if I managed rightly. to return as her farewell. last into the bargain. and bade had no fear on her account. to as an idle body mere make-weight good for nothing but building and was rather glad to get rid of me. and could manage my assistance. of the being quite as strong and a good an oath of secrecy in relation to of all I had . gave her what Indeed was what people I exacted from all my call I little soon as money my wife actions from the and promiscircumstances would to the bookseller's stall part. had received three coats It found the cambric muslin to answer deal less expensive. I at length met with entire success in all my preparations. a notable matters in the world without She woman. conveyed to I the dtpot. and. I calculated. applicable. and taking . " Every thing being day ing. varnish. I first visit now ready. the truth. " Besides the articles above enumerated. castles in the air. considerable alteration before purposes to which could be adapted to the it intended making I it But. my on my permit. she always looked upon me I believe. one of M.

working with great diligence. But anxiety was concerning the balloon. in great fear of their leaving altogether. and stirring the acid in the others. them by as soon as I could . merely to take a part in such horrible incantaI began to get uneasy. as I said before. however. there We found them was was dark . me I was. to the station where the other articles were deposited. 1 5 with me. with the car and accoutrements. what I was now doing was nothing better than it my should be. by a roundabout way. the varnish with which it was defended. and ex- dissatisfaction at the terrible labor I them undergo. I contrived. therefore. the three creditors who had given me so much trouble. to pacify promises of payment of all scores in full. which. unmolested.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. might. and a drizzling rain. and worked away with all tions. there was not a star to be seen . I therefore kept my three duns . began my chief in spite of to grow rather heavy with the moisture the powder also was liable to damage. pounding down ice around the central cask. They did not cease. as aides-de-camp. however. and all to business. and that. I The proceeded immediately night. we carried the balloon. what good was They made could not perceive (so they said) iikely to result from their getting wet to the skin. rendered us very uncomfortable. importuning to what I intended to do with pressed much me all this with questions as apparatus. falling at intervals. " It the first of April. in short. for I verily believe the idiots supposed that I had entered into a compact with the Devil.

a barometer. . as a little I said before. exhausted of air. as if stooping to pick I thought it high a departure. into and pro- more. also a globe of glass. I took the opportunity. . and a large quantity of provisions. not forgetting the condensing apparatus. " In about four' hours and a half I found the balloon what became of either sufficiently inflated.. own speeches they gave. jumping into the car. . the end of which. and therefore. a stick of sealing-wax. no doubt. I immediately cut . and carefully closed with a stopper. their fancying. a copious supply of water. put all my I implements attached the in it : a telescope with some important modifications electrometer Ivatch 5 a compass . in which much nutriment tively little bulk. . and. in consid- dare say they cared very little my soul or my carcass. an a magnetic needle .. that vided I eration paid them all I interpretation at all events I should possession of vast quantities of ready owed. etc. a thermometer . Dropping lighted cigar on by accident. of course. etc. and time to take my the ground. protruded the lower rim of one of the smaller casks. some — unslacked lime. a bell . beyond This manoeuvre was totally unperceived on the part of the three duns. of igniting privately the piece of slow-match. in it up. . I contained in comparaalso secured in the car a pair of is pigeons and a cat. such as pemmican. etc. " It was now nearly daybreak. 6 To bring the present business to a termination. car.1 ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. a seconds a speaking-trumpet. I money trifle these come . and a of their services.

manner. had I attained the height of fifty yards. I felt all the of the shock enced. then first furiously expanded. I The balloon at in the line of its thought only of precollapsed. like and . burst abruptly through the night. when. to its proper cause —my situation directly greatest power. tumultuous and terrible and cane of trembling with terror. \J the single cord which held me to the earth. and seemed to rip the very firmament asunder. and blazing metal. as regarded myself. and mangled limbs. a drunken man. carrying with all ease five as pounds many of leaden ballast. " . and at the time. I left the earth. and burning wood. Indeed. I did not I shall to attribute the extreme violence fail of the explosion. the barometer stood and the centigrade thermometer at 19 Scarcely. As more. serving my But life. and was pleased to find that I shot upward with inconceivable one hundred and seventyand able to have carried up rapidity. then whirled round sickening velocity. which never forget. roaring and rumbling up after me in the most at thirty inches. and I fell down in the bottom of the car. and that the main consequences were yet to be experithan a second. hurled me and round with reeling and staggering over the rim of the car. however. and immedi- my ately thereupon. above it. blood in my body rushing to temples. that my very heart sunk within me. came so dense a hurrifire. and finally. in less Accordingly. gravel.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFa ALL. I now perceived that I had entirely overdone the business. When I afterward had time for reflection. a concussion.

shaking it repeatedly. with ward. however. by a piece of slender cord about three feet in length. Indeed. fell. one after the other. at a terrific down- my head height. until I succeeded in satisfying myself that it . my head. when I partially recovered the sense of existence. upon thus recovering. which hung accidentally through a crevice near the bottom of the wicker-work. there was much of madness in the calm survey which I began to take of my situation. me—and I fit It long I remained in this state it is impossible to must. have been no inconsiderable time. and feeling it with minute attention. I found the day breaking. drew up to my eyes each of my hands. 8 me left dangling. my left foot It is impossible any adequate idea became most providentially —utterly impossible—to form of the horror of my situation. the balloon at a prodigious height over a wilderness of ocean. — convulsively for breath a shudder resembling a ague agitated every nerve and muscle my eyes starting from their sockets in —a overwhelmed in a " for frame my gasped of the — I felt horrible nausea at length I lost all consciousness swoon. sensations. How say. however. were by no means so replete with agony as might have been anticipated. and my face outward. as I entangled. and in which. and not a trace of land to be discovered far and wide within the limits of the vast My horizon. and the horrible blackI afterward carefully examined ness of the finger-nails. and wondered what occurrence could have given I rise to the swelling of the veins.1 ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL.

for a moment. did I look upon my ultimate safety as a question susceptible of doubt. meditate upon matters of intricacy or importance. 1 9 had more than half suspected. a few minutes meditation. I felt in both breeches pockets. I compressing my remained wrapped in the profoundest have a distinct recollection of frequently my I lips. If I felt ! left ankle. being somewhat with great difficulty on their axis. and This buckle pantaloons. larger than Then. put my hands behind my back. It now occurred to suffered great uneasiness in the joint of my mind. all. and not being able to do inexpressibly chagrined. and unfastened the large iron buckle which be- longed to the waistband of had three my teeth. missing therefrom a set of tablets and a tooth-pick case. But. sufficiently collected my ideas.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. with great caution and deliberation. Having. putting my fore-finger to the side of nose. at right angles to the was glad to find them remain body of the firm in that . ever. it was a kind me felt that I my my situation began to and a dim consciousness of through so. I rusty. was not. after some buckle. strange to say astonished nor horror-stricken. I glimmer was neither any emotion at of chuckling satisfaction at the cleverness was about to display in extricating myself from this dilemma and never. For I . and. which. endeavored to account for their disappearance. at ease in their arm-chairs. and making use of other gesticulations and grimaces common to men who. as I my my balloon. as I thought. in a knowing manner. turned brought them. I now. how- trouble.

To one then made fast the buckle. in either of these supposed cases. at the very first throwing the buckle over the car. the cord by which . and . if I had fallen with my face turned toward the balloon. teeth the instrument thus was it end of the cravat other end my I around my a prodigious succeeded. I had to now proceeded to I rest several manoeuvre but . that when I fell.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. tightly I trial. instead of turned outwardly from it. which . with wrist. from the car. but it must not was therefore only forty-five degrees below the perpendicular. and entangling had anticipated. 20 Holding within position. was suspended had chanced to hang over the upper edge. I I tied. it. and the exertion of muscular force. forty-five degrees . could accomplish this at length accomplished. had forced the bottom of the car considerably outward from my position. So far from it. instead of through a crevice near the bottom of the I car. complish even as much I should have been unable to ac- as I had now accomplished. as untie the knot of times before Drawing now my body upward. It should be remembered. as it actually was or if. in the first instance. in I my cravat. — I say it may readily be conceived that. however. obtained. I still lay nearly I level with the plane of the horizon for the change of situation which I had acquired. for greater security. in the second place. was accordingly one of the most imminent peril. " at My body was now an angle of about be understood that inclined toward the side of the car. in the circular rim of the wicker- work.

with frantic cries and struggles. that such an accident was entirely out of the last . spair. my head my spirits the blood so long accumulating in the vessels of and throat. however. till I jerked my at length. merely served to deprive me of the self-possession and courage to encounter it. I had My imple- lost neither bal- nor provisions. writhed my person over it. " It was not until some time afterward that I recovered like grip I myself sufficiently to attend to the ordinary cares of the I then. fortunately. all. of no very long duration. clutching with a vise- the long-desired rim. and found it. I was still too stupid to be any thing at and hung I posterity. for. a quarter of an hour. and which had hitherto buoyed up with delirium. uninjured. without making the slightest and farther exertion. luckily for me. in had therefore every reason to be grateful. and thereunto succeeded horror. examined it with attention. Indeed. ments were to my all safe. point of fact. But this weakness was.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. may. a singularly tranquil state of this feeling did not fail to die rapidly away. and fell headlong and shuddering within the car. and a sense of utter helplessness and and In ruin. In good time came to my rescue the spirit of de- and. in that extraordinary manner. disfact. I had so well secured them in their places. balloon. and. had now begun to retire within their proper was thus added to channels. and the distinctness which my perception of the danger. idiotic in But enjoyment. the disclosures now made would have been 21 utterly lost to although. way bodily upward. perhaps. great relief.

backed my cousin of Nantz. as well as . It durance by the adventitious miseries attending In this state of mind. S. I found it six o'clock. Your Excellencies will bear in mind that distressed circumstances in Rottercellencies the object of dam had my at length driven me to the resolution of commit- was not. but the ocean and the sky. the ocean. wishing to tion. I mind. close-hauled. " It is now high time that I should explain to your Ex- voyage. of a madman than Now. rapidly ascending. yet live to leave the world. and the barometer gave a present altitude of three me diately beneath in and three-quarter Imme- miles. I will detail. shape. which had long Besides this ship. plainly discerned I ship. seemingly about the size of a oblong domino.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. however. 22 Looking question. in the sea saw nothing and the sun. W. to the moon. and in every respect bearing a great resemblance to one of those toys. to could. situa- yet wearied the bookseller. with life. lay a small black object. I — resolved. with her I arisen. yet continue to exist in short. opened my imagination. let what would ensue. to drop enigmas. head to the to be a British ninety-four-gun it and pitching heavily W. I then finally made up my by the opportune discovery a resource to stall of my of — determined to depart. I lest I force a passage. the treatise at the live. but that I was harassed beyond enting suicide. that to life itself I had any positive disgust. if I should be supposed more actually am. Bringing my telescope to bear upon in slightly it. I was still at my watch.

pated. would take me no 161 days to reach the surface of the moon. in the in its perigee. to beyond the confines of the possible. meet the moon if I could. from the 237. it There were. The moon's actual distance from the earth was the a bold " difficult.9643 equatorial radii.05484 of the major semi-axis of the ellipse itself.000. above-mentioned distance would be materially diminished. I reflected. many particulars inducing believe that my average rate of travelling me to might possibly . and be borne in of the the earth's centre being situated in any manner. it was very certain that. I to. But even more than at this velocity. at all events. very extraordinary distance.000 miles I would have to deduct the radius of the earth.080. the considerations 23 spirit.920 miles. in all 5. But. was no Travelling on the land has been repeatedly accomplished at the rate of sixty miles per hour and indeed a much greater speed may be antici. and the radius of the moon. Now. but it must moon's orbit being an ellipse of eccentricity amounting to no less than 0. or only about 237. of 231. the mean centres of the two planets or average is 59. Now this. contrive to its focus.080.000 say the mean or average interval mind that the form . leaving an actual interval to be traversed. to say nothing at present of this possibility. however. was not absolutely. and me which led able. doubt first full of to believe although without danger. under average circumstances. say 1.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. I am that an achievement of this nature. say 4. thing to be attended interval between the of the earth's miles.

comparatively speaking. one half the ponderable. and the mechanical and compression. in ascensions thirtieth of the entire 10. at the height of 1. sustained. after. mass of atmospheric air that nearly one third . But I did not fail culations are founded knowledge to perceive that these latter cal- altogether on our experimental of the properties of laws regulating dilation its air. that the most deli- means we possess of ascertaining the presence of the atmosphere would be inadequate to assure us of its existcate ence. we we by the barometer. at the same time. " The next point to be regarded was one of far greater From importance. granted that animal ble of and. and. the immediate vicinity of the earth itself . left below us about one at indications afforded find that.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. in what may be called. It is also calculated that at an altitude not exceeding the hundredth part of the earth's — that — not exceeding eighty miles the rarefaction would be so excessive that animal life could in no diameter manner be is. life is modification at and must be it is taken for essentially incapa- any given unattainable distance . as fail to make a deep impresmention them more fully here- these considerations did not sion upon my I will mind. we have ascended through is we have surmounted one at all events.600 and that which at 18. Cotopaxi. body of air incum- bent upon our globe. or. not far from the elevation of half the material. from the surface of the earth have. and.000.000 feet. moreover. 24 much exceed very that of sixty miles per hour. .

stated It to in may before). of course. This is a moderate altitude. be simply analogical. an ascension being any given mounted altitude.000 feet. literally speaking. in point of fact. seemed to me. beyond which there is the other hand. still On comparing vals of credit. even when compared with the eighty miles in question and I could not help thinking that the subject admitted room for . It must exist. we cannot. has been left But a circumstance which out of view by those who contend for such a limit. it may " On exist in a state of infinite rarefaction. all such reasoning and from such data must. after arri- giving for all the disturbances . made But. Now. The greatest height ever reached by man was that of 25. therefore is high as we may. 2$ from the surface. in a point worthy very serious investigation. ascend evident as . attained in the aeronautic expedition of Messieurs Gay- Lussac and Biot. I argued although that. although no positive refutation of their creed. doubt and great latitude " for speculation. the intervals between the successive Encke's comet at its the most exact manner.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. perihelion. the in ponderable quantity of any farther ascension is air sur- by no means proportion to the additional height ascended (as plainly seen from what be but in has been a ratio constantly decreasing. was aware that arguments have not been wanting to prove the existence of a real and definite limit to the atmosphere. arrive at a limit beyond which no atmosphere is to be found. I absolutely no air whatsoever.

that this apparent condensation of volume has its is and dilate origin in the compression of the have spoken to its of before. also called the zodiacal light. fugal. beyond the orbit of Venus at . with equal rapidity in its departure toward its aphelion. This radiance. if we suppose a resistance experienced from the comet from an extremely rare ethereal medium pervading the dent that such a regions of medium must. and the comet would be drawn nearer at every revolution. this is precisely what ought to be the case. ex- tends from the horizon obliquely upward. the sun's attraction would be constantly attaining greater power. the . was a matter worthy of attention. Was I not justifiable in supposing. force. it in a growing shorter. increase its centripetal. It appeared to me evidently in the nature of a rare atmosphere extending from the sun outward. way of accounting The real diameter of : Indeed. its orbit. there — is no But the same comet's nebulosity observed to contract rapidly as it approaches the sun. and follows generally the direction of the sun's equator. Now.26 ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. other again for the variation in question. velocity. with M. ' due to the attractions of the planets. and which cannot be mistaken for any meteoric lustre. For it is in retarding the by weakening evi- comet's its centri- In other words. vicinity to the sun same ethereal medium and which ? The is dense I in proportion lenticular-shaped phenom- enon. Valz. is slow but perfectly regular decrease. so apparent in the tropics. periods are gradually diminishing major axis of the comet's ellipse appears that the that is to say.

—Pliny lib. I purposes of respiration. view of the subject. Grimm. cant Trabes quos docos vocant. p. lies Emu . " Having adopted farther hesitation. I had indeed spent some money and great labor in adapting the apparatus to the object intended.* medium I comet's ellipse. 2. 26. and I PFAALL. first stage of their ascen- to rise with a velocity the power of elevation probably what the ancients called Trabes. It themselves. in sions from the earth. the pervading condensed into what we call atmosphere at the planets the sun. I should readily be enabled to condense it in sufficient quantity for the face of the earth. this could not suppose confined to the path of the or to immediate neighborhood of the was easy. and confidently looked forward to its successful application. This brings me back to the rate at which it would be possible to travel. This would remove the chief obstacle in a journey to the moon. on the contrary.ADVENTURE OF HANS least. of that them modified is to say. believed indefinitely farther. modi- or varied in its proportions (or absolute nature) by matters volatilized from the respective orbs. * The zodiacal light is the known Now. by means of the very ingenious apparatus of M. 2J Indeed. are comparatively moderate. I had little Granting that on my passage I should this meet with atmosphere essentially the same as at the sur- conceived that. fied. to imagine it entire regions of our planetary system. if I could manage to complete the voyage within any reasonable period. and perhaps by considerations purely at some geological . " It is true that balloons.

in ascension. the original velocity should be accelerated. I requisite was> would. On the other hand. and varnished with no better material than the ordinary varnish. that the effect of such escape was only sufficient to counterbalance the effect of the acceleration attained in the diminishing of the balloon's distance from the gravitating centre. a diminution had been proved to be apparent in the absolute rate of ascent been the case. if although such should have else. it does not appear at all reasonable that. I was not aware any recorded that. events. does not appear probable that. and consequently arrives successively in atmosit pheric strata of densities rapidly diminishing — I say. but. in this its progress upward. on account of . being what all —that occurrence much it what extreme at it air. . therefore. at than any com* . I now considered that. provided in my passage I found the medium I had imagined. continue specifically lighter it which. the gas in the subject to similar rare- as of would be to prevent explosion). as the balloon acquires altitude.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. It seemed. 28 altogether in the superior gravity of the atmospheric air compared with the gas in the balloon and. at first sight. on account of nothing the escape of gas through balloons ill-constructed. and provided that tially it should prove to be essen- what we denominate atmospheric make comparatively difference little state of rarefaction I should discover in regard to my power of ascending balloon would not only be faction (in proportion to itself the could suffer an escape of so — for could is to say.

. of Nassau-balloon notoriety. Green. locity prodigiously accelerating. ascensions to any considerable height. deny the assertions of Humboldt. however.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. balloon. and speak of a den-easing inconvenience. 2$ pound whatever of mere nitrogen and oxygen. if this with ballast my three hundred pounds.* This was a reflection of a nature somewhat startling. and other symptoms of an alarming kind. in this respect. with a ve- should at length arrive in those distant regions where the force of the earth's attraction would be superseded by that of the moon. point were even attained. has been observed. and so. often accompanied with bleeding at the nose. at no epoch of my ascent. should equal the weight of the mass of the surrounding atmosphere displaced . and growing more and more inconvenient in proportion to the altitude attained. I should reach a point where the united weights of my immense rare gas within the car. " There was another sioned me some that. pre- — cisely in accordance with the theory here urged. and other late aeronauts. great uneasiness is experienced about the head and body. in balloon little I difficulty. it. Was it not * Since the original publication of Hans Pfaall. which occaIt disquietude. in proportion to the squares of the distances. the force of gravitation would be constantly diminishing. besides the pain attending respiration. I could dispense and other weight to the amount of nearly upon which tion But. I find that Mr. Thus there was a chance in fact there was a strong probability — — that. In the meantime. and this will be readily understood as the sole condi- upward flight would be arrested. the inconceivably and its contents.

I could see no why reason. would gradually diminish hood could not be sustained even in called breathing. action purely muscular. I have detailed some. 30 probable that these symptoms would increase until terminated by death itself ? I finally thought not.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. commonly ceived that. though by no means all. not the want life for the expansion upon the iron hardi- constitution. and body should become habituated of atmospheric continued. where the atmospheric density is chemically insufficient for the due renovation of blood in a ventricle of the heart. now proceed to lay before apparently audacious in you the result of an conception. as in the case of difficulty in breathing. the cause. Unless for default of this renovation. I —that threw out from and found that I still . Their origin was to be looked for in the progressive removal of the customary atmospheric pressure upon the surface of the body. at all attempt so events. is and compression of of respiration. and. may it please your Excellencies. " of pressure. " Having attained the altitude before mentioned is to say three miles and three quarters — the car a quantity of feathers. as the effect. the considerations which I shall led me to form the project of a lunar voyage. therefore. a vacuum. sensations I con- to the of pain — and to endure them while they relied with confidence I chest. the my Thus. In a word. so utterly unparalleled in the annals of mankind. and consequent distention of the superficial blood-vessels —not in any positive disorganization of the animal system.

400 feet. breathing with great freedom. then. Now.' would express the proportion of the earth's area seen by me. in my —that to say. for the obvious reason that I could not of this. me wished to retain with 31 as I was glad much weight carry. is or the elevation of the point of sight above the surface. The cat was lying very demurely upon of the my coat. Indeed. it of spherical geometiy. the barometer 26. " off. to the whole surface of the globe. were busily picking up some grains bottom of the car. 'As eight thousand. The to the as the versed sine of the segment to the diameter of the sphere. The of being tied by employed them in in the past six o'clock. which as yet suffered I I had taken with an air of nonchalance. the thickness of the case. as I could be positive either about the gravitation or the atmospheric density moon. no bodily inconvenience. In other words. convex surface of any segment of a sphere entire surface of the sphere itself. ascended with sufficient rapidity necessity for discharging for I any there was. ballast. The sea appeared un- . is. fraction. very easily calculated how latter of rice scattered for At twenty minutes showed an elevation is and eyeing the pigeons These to prevent their escape.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. by means great an extent of the earth's area I beheld. the leg. therefore. I beheld as much as a sixteen-hundredth part of five miles. the versed sine segment beneath me —was about equal to my elevation. no . and feeling no pain whatever in the head. or five miles to a prospect seemed unbounded.

a singular rencontre. to be in a state of violent agitation. reserving still a weight of one hundred and sixty-five pounds. through- mass of ignited charcoal. to throw out two five-pound pieces of ballast. me to great trouble. at intervals. Upon so doing. no inconvenience suffer whatsover. while I image. This. that increase in my rate of ascent. cat and pigeons seemed to about the tolerable freedom. " At twenty minutes before seven. it must be remembered. my hair stood on within the yawning abysses. and caused it to kindle up. I had obtained a great In a few seconds after my leaving the cloud. a flash of vivid lightning shot from one end of it to the other. like a been exhibited by a similar phenomenon taking place amid the darkness of the night. and wetting me this was. which put by damaging to the skin . however. and perceived immediately. for I my had not believed it possible that a cloud of this nature could be sustained at so great an elevation. the balloon entered a long series of dense cloud. especially ears — The however. although. ship was no longer having visible. now began I drifted away. Hell itself might have been found a fitting end. No fancy may picture the sublimity which might have out its vast extent. . by means of the telescope. to be sure. gazed afar Even down as it was. I thought it best.ADVENTURE OF 32 ruffled as a mirror. breathing with still. was in the broad light of day. severe pain in the head. I could perceive The it JIANS PEA ALL. apparently to the eastward. condensing apparatus. I soon rose above the difficulty. to experience.

and stalk about 33 in the strange halls. carried me The accelerated rate of ascent too rapidly. and occasioned symptoms the balloon me some itself. too. began to and by seven o'clock the barometer indicated an altitude of no less than nine miles I and a having I My breath. I had indeed made vaulted a narrow escape. and ruddy gulfs. my to be blood. of Upon my ears. and even . and without sufri- . " was now rising rapidly. thus obtained. also. have been the consequence. . very imprudently. pound I pieces of ballast. at- tained too great an elevation to be any longer uneasy on this head. alarm. however. had not the — inconvenience of getting wet. which it drawing was excessively painful some time a moisture about at length discovered me find great difficulty in head. and probably would. letting imagination descend. My my and. appeared distorted to my vision. At this juncture. although little considered. felt for quite fast from the drums great uneasiness. cheeks. determined — my destruction me to discharge might. I was oozing eyes. and red ghastly chasms of the hideous and unfathomable fire. These were more than I had expected. gave passing the hand over them they seemed to have protruded from their sockets in no inconsiderable degree and all objects in the car. are perhaps the greatest which must be enthe ballast countered in balloons. Had the balloon remained a very short while longer within the cloud that is to say. half. Such perils. and threw out from the car three five- without consideration.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. I had by this time.

operated to deter me for the moment. I anticipated than death. and en- deavoured to collect my faculties. and death in a few minutes. staggered to and fro in the car as if under the I now too late discovered the great influence of poison. with her tongue hanging out of her mouth. The pigeons appeared slightly at the eyes. I lay down in the bottom of the car. — bleeding only at long intervals. and the result had nearly proved fatal to my expedition and to myself. and the possible consequences to myself. ceased. when the recollection of the trick I had played the three creditors. cient gradation. should I return. and I my senses had already clutched one of the valve ropes with the view of attempting a descent.ADVENTURE OF HANS 34 PFAALL. this. into a highly rarefied stratum of the at- mosphere. in I breath a gasping manner. mewed my could catch struggled to escape . and even distressed in while the cat piteously. and. . and ears. I was suddenly seized with a spasm which lasted for more than five minutes. The physical suffering I underwent contributed also to render nothing less me nearly incapable vation of my life. indeed. Thus I found that left. and in the while copiously at the nose and all the extreme. and even when a measure. and my agitation was excessive. of I making any exertion had. little for the preser- power of reflection my head seemed to and the violence of the pain in be greatly on the increase. In this I so far succeed- ed as to determine upon the experiment of losing blood. would shortly give way altogether. rashness of which I had been guilty in discharging the ballast.

had lost about half a moderate I and by the time I basin-full. on my This was an addition to the number of passengers part altogether unexpected but I was pleased at . or nearly so. however. was dimin- ished in a very slight degree. which. I nevertheless did not think tempt getting on up my arm my as well as ter of an hour. however. I the operation in the best 35 was constrained to perform I was able. pheric pressure at the surface of the earth was the cause. looking toward the cat. more than any I had influenced me in attempting this ascension. that she had taken the opportunity of my indisposition to bring into light a litter of three little kittens. At feet I it immediately could. menced flowing when experienced a sensible relief. It would afford me a chance of bringing to a a kind of test the truth of surmise. and I found that it would soon be positively necessary to make use of my condenser. having tied for about a quar- the end of this time I arose. I discovered to my infinite surprise. difficulty of breathing. and found myself freer from absolute pain of any kind than I last hour and a quarter of my ascen- had been during the The sion. had imagined that the habitual endurance of the atmos- thing else. the occurrence. who was again snugly stowed away upon my coat. expedient to me at- but. and finally manner succeeded in opening a vein in my left arm. I still lay . In the meantime. Having no lancet. of the pain attending animal existence at a . with the The blood had hardly comblade of my penknife. most of the worst symptoms had abandoned entirely.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL.

Of individual edifices not a trace could be discovered. at every moment. but that the progression would have been apparent in a slight degree even had I not discharged the ballast which I did. the northward. althought perfectly discernible. I must consider my theory in fault. extended the islands of Great Britain. The pains in my returned. evident that my rate of ascent Thus was not only on the increase. but a failure to do so I should look upon as a strong confirmation of my idea. I than might have been expected. with violence. "The view of the earth. and to bleed occasionally at the nose much . lay a boundless sheet of apparently unruffled ocean.ADVENTURE OF HANS 36 PFAALL. got ready for immediate use. I now unpacked the and it condensing apparatus. at this period of my ascension. which every moment gained a deeper and deeper tint of blue. utterly faded away from the face of . I breathed. Should the kittens be found to suffer uneasiness in an equal degree with their mother. the entire Atlantic coasts of France and Spain. with a small portion of the northern part of the continent of Africa. far as I could see. with more and more suffered difficulty. and the proudest cities of mankind had the earth. I head and ears still continued upon the whole. and the southward. less and each inhalation was attended with a trouble- some spasmodic action of the chest. At a vast dis- tance to the eastward. " By eight o'clock I had actually attained an elevation of seventeen miles it seemed to me above the surface of the earth. distance above the surface. however. but. was beautiful indeed. at intervals. as To the westward.

. " The pigeons about this time seeming to undergo much suffering. untied one of them. a beautiful gray-mottled pigeon.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. and the hypothenuse from the horizon to my position. and placed him upon the rim of the wicker-work. was the seeming concavity of the surface of the globe. " What mainly 37 astonished me. In other words. in my case. that the apparent parallelism of the base and hypothenuse disappears. it him seems. Hence and this impression must the impression of concavity elevation shall bear so great a proportion until the remain. horizon of the aeronaut appears always to be upon a level with the car. would have formed the perpendicular of a rightangled triangle. thoughtlessly enough. also at a great distance below him. of which the base would have extended from the right-angle to the horizon. its I had. of below the horizon. But my height was little or nothing in comparison with my prospect. He apI first peared extremely uneasy. I determined upon giving them their liberty. . in the appearance of things below. But as the point immediately beneath at a great distance course. seems. to the prospect. expected to see become evident real convexity very little reflection as I ascended . looking anxiously around him. the base and hypothenuse of the supposed have been so long. but a sufficed to explain the discrepancy. In this manner the triangle would. when compared to the perpendicular. dropped from my position perpendicularly to the earth. and is. A line. that the two former might have been regarded as nearly parallel.

and in a perfectly natural manner. and I have no doubt he reached home in safety. being able no longer to draw breath without the most intolerable pain. and was pleased to him find continue his descent. with great velocity. uttering at the same time very He at length succeeded in reshrill and piercing cries. I fluttering his wings. I threw him unfortunate. took him up at last. 38 and making a loud cooing noise. Puss. " At a quarter past eight. was to sur- . no attempt to descend as I had expected. gaining his former station on the rim. In a very short time he was out of sight. a hearty meal of the dead bird. and then went to sleep with much apparent and so lively. kittens easiness. and accomplishing a return. but had hardly done so when fell head dropped upon his breast. however. and he dead within the car. little This apparatus will require explanation. making use of his wings with ease. and threw him to about half a dozen yards from the balloon. but could not be persuaded to trust himself from the car. and your Excellencies bear in mind that my object. He made. I proceeded forthwith to adjust around the car the apparatus belonging to the condenser. The other one did not prove so his To prevent his following the example of his companion.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. but struggled with great vehemence to get back. far Her were quite evinced not the slightest sign of any unsatisfaction. in the first some will please to place. who seemed in a now made great measure recovered from her illness. downward with all my force.

car was which was of in a manner sufficient dimensions. but attached running loops or nooses. for that would have been impossible. I refastened the loops not to the hoop. and so on. Having thus inserted a portion by a series of upper part of the bag. along the outside of the ropes. leaving the car suspended by the remainder. itself. of the car. between the net-work and the hoop. to the upper rim or hoop where the net-work is attached. it was now necessary its top or mouth. strong. in other words. but to of the cloth forming the — — a series of large buttons. by condenser. the inter- . perfectly air-tight. by passing its material over the hoop of the net-work. but flexible gum-elastic bag. 39 round myself and car entirely with a barricade against the highly rarefied atmosphere in which I was existing. affixed to the cloth about three feet below the mouth of the bag . and formed a complete enclosure on all sides. and at bottom. a quantity of this same atmos- phere sufficiently condensed for the purposes of respiraWith. In this bag. with the intention of introducing within means of my this barricade. what was to sustain the car in the meantime ? Now the net-work was not permanently fastened to the hoop.this object in view I had prepared a very tion. it up (the bag) its sides. Having pulled the bag up in this way.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. I therefore undid only a few of these loops at one time. But if the net-work were to fasten up — separated from the hoop to admit this passage. That was drawn over the whole bottom is to say. since the cloth now intervened. the entire placed.

and to preserve the it at nearly its lower part of the net-work in its proper situation. In this way it was possible to insert the whole upper part of the bag be- tween the net-work and the hoop. it would seem an inadequate was by no means dependence were not only very strong . All that now remained was to fasten up the mouth of the enclosure and this was readily accomplished by gathering the folds of the material together. and the disengaged loops then connected with their proper buttons. while the whole weight of the car itself. It is evident that the hoop would now drop down within the car. tourniquet. and propped former height by means of three light poles prepared for the occasion. This was done. I should not have been at all uneasy. This done. for in themselves. and twisting them up very tightly on the inside by means of a kind of stationary .ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. to keep the bag distended at the top. the buttons but so close to- gether that a very slight portion of the whole weight was supported by any one of them. Indeed. had the car and contents been three times heavier than they were. so. with all its contents. This. " In the sides of the covering thus adjusted round the . a farther of the loops portion of the cloth introduced. I now raised up the hoop again within the covering of gum-elastic. would be held up merely by the strength of the buttons. at but first sight. of course. 40 between the buttons having been made to correspond to the intervals between the loops. a few vals more were unfastened from the rim.

had I even been able to place a window at top. three inches in diameter.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. of Through this tube a quantity the rare atmosphere circumjacent being drawn means of a vacuum created was thence discharged. at length filled the chamber with atmosphere proper for all the purposes but in so confined a space it would. mingle with the thin air in the in a body by of the machine. had been inserted three me panes of thick but circular could see without difficulty in every horizontal direction. likewise a fourth window. This enabled me to see perpendicularly down. This operation being repeated several times. in a of respiration . but having found to place any the peculiar similar contrivance overhead. of was a matter of little consequence for. and unfit for use from . the body of the machine being. About a windows was a foot below one of the side circular opening. course. of the same kind. of condensation. car. manner of closing it impossible on account of up the opening the consequent wrinkles in the cloth. This. within screw. In that portion clear glass. short time. zenith. necessarily become foul. through around which 41 I was of the cloth forming the bottom. of course. see no objects situated directly in could expect to I my and there. and corresponding with a small aperture in the floor of the car itself. the balloon itself would have prevented my making any use of it. to state already in the chamber. " . the chamber of gum-elastic. a brass rim adapted in its and fitted with inner edge to the windings of a In this rim was screwed the large tube of the condenser.

the gum-elastic. was then ejected by It a small valve at the bottom of the car. risk. 42 frequent contact with the lungs. avoid the inconvenience of making a total vacuum at any moment within the chamber. but in a gradual manner. —the valve being opened only for a few seconds. the hoop and poles became unnecessary pansion of the enclosed atmosphere powerfully distending . of putting off to the last moment a matter of so much importance. and bitterly did I repent the negligence or rather fool-hardiness. it wanted only ten During the whole period of my being thus employed. then closed again. which I did and before closing the mouth of the chamber. and suspended it outside the car to a button at the bottom. But having at length accomplished . —the dense air To readily sinking into the thinner atmosphere below.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. by reaching under the car with one of the poles before mentioned to which a hook had been atthis some at little As soon tached. through moment when necessary. " and By the time filled I had fully completed these arrangements the chamber as explained. as dense air was admitted in the cham- the exber. I endured the most terrible distress from difficulty of respiration. until one or two strokes from the pump of the con- denser had supplied the place of the atmosphere ejected. this purification was never accomplished all at once. close I could feed them at any by the valve. of which I had been guilty. For the sake of experiment I had put the cat and kittens in a small basket. minutes of nine o'clock.

43 soon began to reap the benefit of my invention. on I my part is to say. I breathed with perfect freedom and ease — Once again and indeed why should I not ? I was also agreeably sur- prised to find myself. then indicated an altitude of 132.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. or five-and-twenty miles. and that much of the pain the last two hours should have been at- tributed altogether to the effects of a deficient respiration. W. Thus it seemed evident that a greater part of the uneasiness attending the removal of atmospheric pressure had actually worn off. and the throat. relieved from the violent pains which had hitherto tormented me. up the mouth of the or ran down. was nearly which of all I had now to complain. although my view was often interrupted by the masses of cloud which still retained floated to and its fro. in mentioned before. accompanied with a sensation of fulness or distention about the wrists. . but not before I became aware that the balloon was drifto'clock I ing rapidly to the N. the mercury attained the barometer. A slight headache. N. The ocean beneath me apparent concavity.000 feet. " At twenty minutes a short time prior to before nine o'clock my I an extended construction. the ankles. I it. which. was one of closing chamber. in a great measure. as —that It its limit. and consequently surveyed at that time an extent of the amounting to no less than the three-hundred- earth's area and-twentieth part of its entire surperficies. At nine had again lost sight of land to the eastward. as I endured for had expected.

more on account of the preservation of my health. out of sight in a very few seconds. my departure now in examining the and now in regenerating busying myself various apparatus. 44 " At half past nine I tried the experiment of throwing out a handful of feathers through the valve. met with so prodigious an But it soon occurred to me that the atmosacceleration. than from so frequent a renovation being absolutely necesIn the meanwhile I could not help making anticisary. —being velocity. Fancy revelled in the wild and dreamy regions . and with the greatest dicularly. I suffered no pain or uneasiness of any kind. I know what to make of this extraordinary not phenomenon being able to believe that my rate of ascent had. as they appeared to do. the atmosphere within the chamber. phere was now far that they actually rapidity . of a sudden. I . my and By fell. with great had been surprised by the united descent and my own elevation. did not at first . ten o'clock I I found that immediate attention. This latter point I determined to attend to at regular intervals of forty minutes. and enjoyed better spirits than I had at any period since from Rotterdam state of my . and that velocities of their " too rare to sustain even the feathers I had very Affairs little to occupy went on swimmingly. like a bullet. en masse. They did not float as I had expected but dropped down perpen. believed the balloon to be going upward with a speed increasing momently although I had no longer any means of ascertaining the progression of the increase.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. pations.

roamed at will among the ever-changing wonders Now there were hoary of a shadowy and unstable land. rightly judging the real and palpable dangers of the voyage sufficient for my undivided attention. moon. I came suddenly where no wind of tudes. M. being engaged in regenerating I took that opportu- the atmosphere within the chamber. vast Then meadows into noonday soliheaven ever intruded. of the 45 Imagination. The cat herself appeared to suffer again very had no hesitation in attributing a difficulty in breathing kittens course. and time-honored and forests. and where of poppies. but much. craggy precipices. feeling herself for once un- shackled. to see them betray a sense of I had expected. P.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. "At five o'clock. Then away into another country vague lake. and still slender. . Horrors of a nature most stern and most appalling would too frequently obtrude themselves upon shake the innermost depths of position of their possibility. such as these were not the sole possessors of my brain. lily-looking flowers spread themselves out a weary distance. my Yet my mind. and soul with the bare supI would not suffer my thoughts for any length of time to dwell upon these latter speculations. of pain. again where with a boundary silent all and down journeyed all one dim and far I was it But fancies line of clouds. and I her uneasiness chiefly to my experiment with the had resulted very strangely. nity of observing the cat and kittens through the valve. and waterfalls tumbling with a loud noise into abysses without a bottom.. although in a . motionless for ever.

pared to find them. and that a person born in such a medium might. possibly. while. In passing my hand through the valve. 46 degree than their mother and this would have been sufficient to confirm my opinion concerning the habitual less . evidently en- joying a high degree of health. he might endure tortures of a similar nature to those me I had so It lately experienced. at me the loss of my little family of me of the insight into this matter this time. loosened it actually vanished into sight in a from the button. and thus.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. and evincing not the slightest sign of any uneasiness. tively. air. with a cup of water for the old puss. the sleeve of m my became entangled shirt the loop which sustained the basket. But endurance of atmospheric pressure. I could only account for this all by extending my theory. as I had taken for granted. and deprived which a continued experiment might have afforded. occasioned cats. there my Posi- could not have intervened the tenth part of a second between the disengagement of the basket and absolute disappearance with all that it contained. a matter of deep regret that an has since been to awkward accident. upon I was not pre- close examination. be unaware of any inconvenience attending its inhalation. its My . chemically insufficient for the pur- poses of life. and supposing that the highly rarefied atmosphere around might perhaps not be. in a moment. upon removal to the denser strata near the earth. breathing with the greatest ease and perfect regularity. it Had the whole could not have shot from more abrupt and instantaneous manner.

in proportion to the height ascended. until. had escaped my moment of which I am now sleep as I proposed. did not It was evifail to give me an infinite deal of pleasure. dent that. time that the rays of the setting sun ceased to illumine the balloon . obvious as attention speaking. at the . without taking into contwenty-four journal of sideration the intervals of darkness. reckoning the days from one to hours continuously. feeling sleepy. "At six o'clock. in the darkness of night. although of course fully anticipated. how could it to the very If I went to the atmosphere in the chamber be regenerated in the interim ? To breathe it for more than an hour. which. I had no hope that either cat or kittens would ever live to tell the tale of their misfortune. would I enjoy the light of the sun for a longer and a longer period. " At ten o'clock. but of course. in spite of their situation so much farther to the eastward. in the morning. I should behold the rising luminary many hours at least before the citizens of Rotterdam. I earth's visible area to perceived a great portion of the the eastward involved in thick shadow. and thus. and this cir- cumstance. I now determined to keep a my passage.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. up lie down but here a difficulty presented . which continued to advance with great rapidity. I determined to for the rest of the night itself. at five minutes before seven. the whole surface in view was enveloped however. 47 good wishes followed it to the earth. until long after this was It not. may appear. day after day.

I occasioned me no little trouble in But sure. solution. that. and into a any moment. the most ruinous consequences might ensue. I reflected that that many man the veriest slave of custom. not do without sleep but I might easily bring myself to feel no inconvenience from being awakened at intervals of an hour during the whole period of my repose. But this hesitation was only momentary. he My own case. To be — of arousing myself at the proper was a question which. even if term could be extended to an hour and a quarter. as to give up all hope of accomplishing my ultimate design. most to regenerate the atmosmanner and the only real difficulty require but five minutes at phere in the fullest was to contrive a method moment am its for so doing. should be overcome with drowsiness. willing to confess. and I had should look upon this business in so serious I a light. and finally make up my mind to the necessity of a descent. and is points in the routine of his existence are essentially important. It would . deemed which are only so at all by his having It was very certain that I could rendered them habitual. ever. held in one hand a basin ball of copper. to prevent his falling asleep over his books.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. would be a matter of impossibility . if. the din of the same metal on the served effectually to startle him whose descent of up. 4& farthest. howat left me no room for . after the dangers will undergone. . floor beside his chair. I this had heard of the student who. The considerathis dilemma gave me no tion of this it little disquietude hardly be believed. or. was very different indeed.

Upon this latter shelf. the steam-engine. and the car consequently followed with a steadiness so perfect that it would have been impossible to detect in it the slightest vacillation. and About eight inches immediately below these ropes. and exactly beneath one of the rims of the keg. 49 any similar idea for I did not wish to keep awake. plug of soft wood. I . I placed the keg. and taking two ropes. being the only similar piece of wood I had. simple may seem. This circumstance favored me greatly in the project I now determined to adopt. as an invention fully equal to that of the telescope. at the elevation now attained. " It is necessary to premise.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. but to be aroused from slumber at regular intervals of time. and fitted in a conical shape. and four feet from the bottom of the car I fastened another shelf but made — of thin plank. was hailed by me. placing them about a to form a kind of shelf. continued its course upward with an even and undeviating ascent. which. and ranged very securely around the interior of the car. that the balloon. cut in a tapering or This plug I pushed in or pulled out. upon the following expedient. I unfastened one of these. I now bored a hole in the end of the keg over the pitcher. as . My supply of water had been put kegs containing five gallons each. a small earthen pitcher was deposited. tied them tightly on board in across the rim of the wicker-work from one side to the other . or the art of printing itself. at the moment of dis- at length hit as it covery. so as upon which in a horizontal position. steadied it foot apart and parallel.

was fully eleven by the time I arrangements.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. that. oozing from the hole. aroused by I my my invention. when. of course. and to run over at the mouth. could not do otherwise than fall upon my face. the pitcher. tained. arrived at it that exact degree of tightness. after a few experiments. Punctually every trusty chronometer. and I with full confidence in the efficiency of Nor in this matter was sixty minutes was I disappointed. It was also evident. and performed the duties of the condenser. im- mediately below the mouth of the pitcher. 50 might happen. that the water thus falling from a height of more than four feet. me These regular interruptions to my even less discomfort than I had an- and when I finally arose for the day. even from the soundest slumber " It the world. having emptied the pitcher into the bung-hole of the keg. getting full. as to bring my head. until. would the latter to the brim in the period of sixty minutes. slumber caused ticipated . It was evident. in had completed these immediately betook myself to bed. the plan is floor of the car. which was somewhat lower than the rim. to waken me up instantaneously. in lying down. This. at which the water. I retired again to bed. at the expiration of an hour. it was . and fill falling into the pitcher below. the rest of obvious. and that the sure consequence would be. My bed was so contrived upon the given time. would be forced to run over. any was a matter briefly by noticing the proportion and easily ascer- of the pitcher filled in Having arranged all this.

find myself placed directly above the Pole I itself. and the earth's convexity had now become strik- Below me ingly manifest. duty. and the sun had attained above the my line of many 51 degrees horizon. perceived a thin. and might possibly. although it was for many hours afterward broad daylight all around my immediate situation. and obliged closely in an overcoat. wrap up The cold was intense. When me to darkness came betook myself to bed. white. " Nothing else of an extraordinary nature occurred during the day. in the ocean lay a cluster of black specks. day of ascent. with the exception of the periodical interruption. The water-clock was punctual in its over the earth. and I had no hesitaI tion in supposing the Polar Sea. which undoubtedly were islands. Much. however. it My to be the southern disc of the ices of curiosity was greatly excited. and I I slept until next morning soundly. I found the balloon at an immense height indeed. prevent my taking as accurate a survey as I could wish. . Over- head. on the edge of the horizon. My apparatus all continued in good order. and the stars were brilliantly visible since the first indeed they had been so constantly Far away to the northward . seven o'clock. now lamented that my great elevation would. for I had hopes of passing on much farther to the north. in this case. at some period. the sky was of a jetty black. might be ascertained. " April $d.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. and exceedingly brilliant line. and the balloon still ascended without any perceptible vacillation. or streak.

. peared of a I much darker hue than the waters of the ocean. Beheld the singular phenomenon of the sun rising while nearly the whole visible surface of the earth continued to be involved in darkness. or whether my increasing elevation had left them out of sight. Weather moderate. It had lost. ling . being now of a grayish-white. and apice to the northward. of ice to the the day in reading. and was the singular change which had taken place Arose in appearance of the sea. In time. could again distinguish a strip of land to the was evidently approaching Fancied I eastward. that the entire mass of the distant water seemed to be tumbof the ocean headlong over the abyss of the horizon. the deep tint of blue it had hitherto worn. they had passed down the horizon to the southeast. having taken care to supply myself with books. to northward was and more more Cold apparent. astonished at in the good health and spirits. and one also to the westward. "April $th.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. Nothing of importance occurred. Went early to bed. and I again saw the line of It was now very distinct. however. and of a lustre dazzling to the eye. The convexity had become so evident. it. it is impossible to say. and I found myself listening on tiptoe for the echoes of the mighty The islands were no longer visible whether cataract. by no means so growing intense. and I passed the latter opinion. 52 "April 4t/i. in a great measure. and with great rapidity. The rim I was inclined. the light spread itself over all. Nothing of any conse- quence happened during the day. however. but could not be certain.

Indeed. of the down). During the whole of the day Toward night the limits of I my continued to near the ice. and an immense field of the same material stretching away off to the horizon in the north.M. 53 Was surprised at rinding the rim of ice at "April 6th. it would soon arive above the Frozen Ocean. bed darkness at length overtook me. It was evident that if the balloon held its present course. there. in great anxiety.M. on the second of April. and twenty minutes before nine same day (at which time the barometer ran A. alas ! now ascended to so vast a distance. less. respectively. that nothing could with accuracy be discerned. length beheld what there could be no hesitation in supposing the northern Pole itself. horizon very suddenly and materially increased. at four o'clock in the reached a height of not that the balloon had morning of April the seventh. and my arriving above the flattened regions in the vicinity af the Arctic When circle. certainly. at "April Jth. a very moderate distance. than 7254 miles . and. Arose early. at different periods. and I had now little doubt of ultimately seeing the Pole. owing undoubtedly to the earth's form being that of an oblate spheroid. it might be fairly inferred now. doubt. to judge from the progression of the numbers indicating my various altitudes. between six A. to my great joy. and immediately beneath It my was feet .ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. beyond a I had but. fearing to pass much curiosity serving when I I went to over the object of so should have no opportunity of ob- it.

may be called the limit of human slight discovery one unbroken. This elevation sea. than any other spot upon the visible and occasionally deepened into the most hemisphere. : dary line of my horizon. at all times. of being foreshortened. on depressed into a plane. whose apparent diameter subtended at the balloon an angle of about sixty-five seconds. becoming terminates. In the first few degrees of in these regions. although within unexplored ever. varying in intensity. it I undoubtedly beheld the whole of the the entire northern hemisphere diameter major lay beneath me like a chart orthographically projected and the great circle of the equator itself formed the boun- events all earth's . and which. readily situated directly beneath me. immense. of ice this its farther not a progress. in a circular centre. what could be seen was and that of a nature singular exciting. sheet continues to extend. and at too great a distance from the point of sight. at the Pole itself. and whose dusky hue. were still. or nearly unbroken. its surface is very sensibly flattened. Your Excellencies may. darker . sharply defined. it finally. and therefore seen without any appearance selves. in them- comparatively too diminutive. how- imagine that the confined regions hitherto the limits of the Arctic circle. and little concave. Northwardly from huge rim before mentioned.ADVENTURE OF HANS 54 above the surface of the PFAALL. Nevertheless. with qualification. to admit of any very accurate examination. but the estimate upon which gave a result At may appear is calculated in all probability far inferior to the truth. was.

By little this.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. and in some portions had acquired a brilliancy even painful to downward was My view the eye. of course. the direction me with uneasiness . and was holding a course. besides a material alteration in The whole general color and appearance. visible its area partook in different degrees of a tint of pale yellow. now and then could only This itself. Found a sensible diminution in the earth's apparent diameter. more or also considerably im- in the vicinity of the sur- between whose mases obtain a glimpse of the earth difficulty of direct vision less for I had troubled the last forty-eight hours . but me my present enormous elevation brought closer together. for happy omen of I had hitherto it was evident . and I lost sight of it 55 entirely western limb of the ice. due south. peded by the dense atmosphere face being loaded with clouds. as it were. me the most heart- as a Indeed. Farther than absolute blackness. ascertained.M. which would soon bring This circumstance did not felt satisfaction. ultimate success. could be had twelve o'clock the circular centre materially decreased in circumference. and floating away rapidly in the direction of the equator. taken. the floating bodies of vapor. more and more palpable in proportion to my ascent. by seven P. had filled and I fail to give hailed it me to the tropics. and the inconvenience became. "April Zth. I could easily perceive that the balloon now hovered above the range of great lakes in the continent of North America. the balloon passing over the . Nevertheless.

and in a state of great anxiety and agitation. having.. had been no whose I continued possibility of orbit angle of 5° is 8' it much my would have longer. Spent a great part of the day in meditating upon an occurrence so extraordinary. "April 10th. and arrived. I examined all my apparatus. with great attention. there the arriving at moon at all.M. "April gth. I was suddenly aroused from slumber. it was only at this late period that I began to understand the great error I had committed. and could discover nothing out of order. by a loud.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. but. Strange as it may seem. while experience. in the first I instance. at nine P. five o'clock this of very brief duration. attributed the noise to the bursting of the balloon. but could find no means whatever of accounting for it. inclined to the ecliptic at only . over the northern edge of the Mexican Gulf. 5(3 that. and a considerable increase. in not taking my departure from earth at some point in the plane of the lunar ellipse. for which I could in no manner account. It is it lasted. and the color of the surface assumed hourly a deeper tint of yellow. about terrific It was morning. resem- had any previous needless to say that I became exces- bled nothing in the world of which sively alarmed. Went to bed dissatisfied. "April nth. Found a startling diminution in the apparent diameter of the earth. however. To-day the earth's diameter was greatly diminished. The balloon kept steadily on her course to the southward.the small 48'. . crackling. and sound.

in that of the first 57 moon It now which wanted only a few days of being full. to the eastward. in hours. which now subtended from the balloon an angle of very little more than twentyfive degrees. former course. time. me anticipated. able to form in any satisfactory conclusion. little continued in the plane of the progress to the eastward. a very perceptible vacillation in the car was a consequence of this change of route. keeping nearly. I still Extremely rapid decrease in the diamTo-day I became strongly impressed with the idea. The moon could not be seen at all. "April singular alteration took place in re- gard to the direction of the balloon. many much alarmed by a repe- loud crackling noise which terrified me on Thought long upon the subject. that the balloon was now actually running . eter of the earth. Was again very prevailed. A 12///.ADVENTURE OF HANS ' now observable for the PFAALL. but made April 14th. chamber sufficient atmospheric air for the sustenance of life. in the ex- What was worthy of remark. about the twentieth southern latitude. at an acute angle. but was un- tition of the the tenth. required long and excessive labor to condense within the itself. afforded in its Having reached. being nearly in ellipse. Great decrease the earth's apparent diameter. if not altogether. 11 my zenith. for a period of "April 13th. —a vacillation which a more or less degree. parallel of and although fully the most unequivocal delight. and thus proceeded through- out the day. it turned off suddenly. act plane of the lunar ellipse.

and termed meteoric stones for want of a better appellation. while. seas could About twelve o'clock I of that appalling sound fore. Not even the now be traced upon "April i$th. came with a voice of a thousand thunders. however. and gathered intensity as it continued. supposing it to be some mighty volcanic fragment ejected from that I world to which I was so rapidly approaching. and a gigantic and flaming mass of some material which I could not distinguish. I beeach could. looking upward as well as of the side windows alternately. At length. I stood in expectation of I knew not what hideous destruction. the car vibrated with excessive violence. When my fears booming by the and astonishment had in some had little difficulty in degree subsided. and. mosphere. became aware. stupified and terror-stricken. — in other words. roaring and balloon. of its it im- orbit the nearest directly overhead. holding the direct course which would bring moon in that part The moon itself was mediately to the to the earth. To-day. for the third time. which had so astonished me be- now. through held. one of that singular class of substances occasionally picked up on the earth. to my great delight. continued for some moments.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. "April 16th. and Great and long-conmy tinued labor necessary for the condensation of the at- consequently hidden from view. a very small portion of the . in all probability. It outlines of continents and the earth with distinctness. 53 up the line of apsides to the point of perigee.

became quite ill. It will be remembered that. at finding the surface beneath me so suddenly and wonderfully augmented in volume. now Indeed. as to subtend no thirty-nine degrees in apparent angular diameter No words than less ! I was can give any adequate idea of the extreme. I ion. therefore. on the. with thunderstruck ! . and allowed me scarcely any respite from ex- Sleep was a matter nearly out of the question. on huge circumference of the balloon.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. and my frame trembled with exhaust- ertion. the seventeenth. moon's disk protruding. a still more remarkable decrease was ob- and. fifteenth servable . During the brief interval of darkness a meteoric stone passed in my vicinity. must have been my amazement. on awakening from a brief and disturbed slumber. on the morning of this day. end of for I my had now little all My 59 beyond the agitation was exsides doubt of soon reaching the perilous voyage. . had increased to a most oppressive degree. as it were. "April ijth. was impossible that human nature could endure It this state of intense suffering now much longer. treme . on the thirteenth. I had noticed an angle of no more than about seven degrees and fifteen minutes. on retiring on the night of the sixteenth. again and the frequency of these phenom- ena began to occasion me much apprehension. the earth subtended an angular breadth of twenty-five On the fourteenth this had greatly diminished degrees. the labor re- quired by the condenser. the absolute horror and astonishment. What. This morning proved an epoch in my voyage.

its I finally succeeded proper point of view. PFAALL. into annihilation ' ! But and be hurled at length reflection came to my paused I considered and I began to doubt. tumultuous balloon had with the most im- To judge by petuous. and garding the phenomenon in fact. The matter was impossible. per- . me amazement must have senses. — and completely hidden by the balloon. although I was I relief. The stupor and surprise produced in extraordinary change in the posture of my mind by affairs. before I should reach the surface of the earth. the most unparalleled velocity the immense distance already so quickly passed over. at the farthest. when I in re- In fairly deprived my could not see the vast difference. it was with a speed by no means commensurate with the velocity I had This consideration served to calm the at first conceived. chattered was seized. in ap- of pearance. while the moon the moon itself in all its glory lay beneath me. Besides. These were the then. and the surface of my mother earth. I could not in any reason have so rapidly come down. . it ! could not be more than ten minutes. The latter was indeed over my head. this was. . had actually burst ! my mind ideas that hurried through positively burst — ! I was falling — first The ' : falling The ' hair started ' over- altogether knees tottered beneath My —my possessed. perturbation of my mind. between the surface below me.ADVENTURE OF HANS 60 which I whelmed. and me— my up on end. and at — my " feet. teeth balloon. evidently approaching the surface below me.

wholly directed to the contem- most striking The entire . more precisely. aware of is it to say. and one which. either my person or about my apparatus. although expected. upon coming to a due sense of my situation. my plation of the general physical appearance of the It lay to be beneath still me like a chart —and moon. and have taken place in an easy and gradual manner. For the bouleversement of explanation. I judged it although at no inconsiderable distance. with all my senses in confusion. almost needless to say that. — that by any inconvenience or disarrangement. in itself was not only natural and inevitable. To be sure I arose from a sound slumber. of pected at the moment. course.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. had I even been awake at it is the time of the occurrence. its atten- place. to the contemplation of a very startling phe- nomenon. the indentures of surface were defined to my vision with a and altogether unaccountable distinctness. after 61 that part of the adventure least susceptible all. by no means clear that. about should have been I made by any internal evidence of an inversion. but had been long actually anticipated as a circumstance to be expected whenever I should arrive at that exact point of my voyage where the attraction of the planet should be superseded by the attraction of the satellite or. haps. was not exThe revolution itself must. and emerging from the terror " It is which had absorbed every faculty of tion was. in the first my soul. where the — gravitation of the balloon toward the earth should be less powerful than its gravitation toward the moon.

as the in its geological condition. It earliest stage of my fill speculations upon the possibility of a passage to the . "April iSt/i. Yet. greater part of dent eruption. of a general disbelief in the existence of many in spite any lunar atmos- .ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. I canic mountains. theories to the contrary. or at first glance. in dense in its vicinity. and. of an atmosphere. that. in the me with alarm. conical in shape. but a Phlegraei three- map would of afford to your Excellencies a better idea of their general surface than any unworthy description The attempt. proportion to the bulk of the planet. which now rushed upward by the balloon with a frequency more and more appalling. To-day I found an enormous increase in the moon's apparent bulk and the evidently accelerated — velocity of will my descent began to be remembered. and having appearance of The artificial more the than of natural protuberances. struck me. 62 absence of ocean or sea. beheld vast level regions of a character decidedly alluvial.moon. highest among them does not exceed three and quarter miles in perpendicular elevation the volcanic districts of the Campi . and gave fury and their power. had entered this too in spite of it may be added. although by far the greater portion of the hemisphere in sight was covered with innumerable volstrange to say. largely into my calculations . and indeed of any lake or body of water whatsoever. the existence. most extraordinary feature river. me might think proper to I them were in a state of evi- fearfully to understand their by the repeated thunders of the mis- called meteoric stones.

the height of the atmosphere (which could refract light enough into its dark hemisphere to produce a twilight more luminous than the light reflected from the also. certain obser- observed the became visible. when even . I supposed the greatest height capable of refracting the solar ray. had been strengthened in my opinion by vations of Mr. semicircle. illuminated. that. each farthest extremity faintly illuminated by it in a appeared tapering exhibiting already- a half old. of Lilienthal. that. stars of the sixth and seventh magnitude were conspicuous. when the moon earth is about 32 from the new) to be 1356 Paris feet. having been about fourth which 1" stated. the whole dark limb Soon became This prolongation of the cusps beyond the thought. I computed. and con- The two cusps very sharp faint prolongation. My ideas on this topic had also received confirmation by a passage in the eighty-second volume of the Philosophical Transactions. before any part of the dark hemisphere was visible. at an occupa- the third disappeared after or 2" of time indistinct. moon when two days and after sunset.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. in the evening soon dark part was it have comet and the zodiacal urged in regard to Encke's I I 63 the solar rays. in addition to what all. in skies perfectly clear.* * Hevelius writes that he has several times found. I afterward. before the tinued to watch until its He light. in tion of Jupiter's became it is satellites. visible. in this view. to be 5376 feet. must have arisen from the refraction of the sun's rays by the moon's atmosphere. phere at But. and the indiscernible near the limb. Schroeter.

and the fixed stars. while the labor required was diminished not at all. and at at the same altitude of the moon. than being dashed into atoms against the rugged surface of the satellite. when approaching the moon to occultation. that at some times. and not at others. This morning. of course. the moon and its maculae did not appear equally lucid at all times. prove to have been mistaken. eleven. And. I tively trifling. th§ an alteration believe air. in the tube. he found no alteration of figure . consequence nothing better to expect. my safety of Should ultimate descent. in other occultations. the surface of the near. entirely depended for the I imagined. Jupiter. about moon being frightfully my my condenser apprehensions excited to the utmost. it is evident that the cause of this phenomenon is not either in our air. existing in the state of density had. I had reason to density considerably increased. it . From the circumstances of the observation. Hence at all. 64 " the resistance Upon or. had now every reason to distance from the moon was compara. more upon the sup- properly. to nine o'clock. a dense matter encompassing the moon wherein the rays of the stars are refracted. at the same elongation from the earth. after I in all. By labor was necessary at the apparatus . I had then. to have their circular figure changed into an oval one and. or in the eye of the spectator. and pump of very my great joy.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. and I by the condense* could discover no indie. indeed. port of an atmosphere. By ten. there is might be supposed. as a finale to my adventure. in the moon. its little in at length gave evident tokens of the atmosphere. but must be looked for in something (an atmosphere ?) existing about the moon. and with one and the same excellent telescope. tion whatever of a decreasing rarity in the "April igth. Cassini frequently observed Saturn. be My terrified.

As might have been expected. 65 ventured to un- I screw the tourniquet. At all events I was now and coming down with the most close upon the planet. in consideration of I behind me momently moon. can only be explained by a reference to those pos. I finally threw open the gum-elastic chamber. as they were by no means so great me in peril of my determined to endure as to put as best could. strata near the still in in impetuous life. when. however. and in an equal degree as at I the surface. still supposing this density.ADVENTURE OF HANS PEA ALL. Yet this should have been the case. even at adequate to the support of the great weight contained in the car of my balloon. with some hesitation. twelve o'clock. I my approach This in the expectation I them denser had probably not of an dense in proportion to the mass of the had been wrong the . spasms and violent headache were the immediate consequences of an experiment so precipitate and full But these and other of danger. although been deceived leaving to approach. difficulties attending respiration. in supposed That the ratio of the atmospheric was it not the case. at in all the surface of the earth. sible geological disturbances to which I have formerly alluded. and unrigged it from around the car. alarmingly certain that. was and it soon became extreme the my atmosphere satellite. I . terrible impetuosity. the actual gravity of bodies at either planet condensation. finding no inconvenience from having done so. my precipitous downfall gave testimony enough why it was not so. however.

after a series . gazing at the earth so lately left. and left perhaps for copper shield. and belted with tropical and equatorial zones. grinning in a ludicrous manner. having got rid of my As now not more a last resource. still with horrible rapidity. and the whole was clouded with variable spots. then my water-kegs. as I had barely time to observe that the eye could reach. and was fell than half a mile from the surface. and finally every But it was all to no purpose. accordingly. like a parcel of idiots. I which was of no coat. beheld in and balloon askant. " Thus. I article within the car. but stood. therefore. then my condensing apparatus and gum-elastic chamber. whole country. was thickly far as the interspersed with diminutive habitations.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. hat. cut loose from the balloon the car itself. clinging with both hands to the net-work. or gave them- selves the least trouble to render me assistance. inconsiderable weight. 66 lost first not a moment. single syllable. in throwing overboard my ballast. dull. fixed immovably in the heavens overhead. and into the middle of a vast crowd of ugly who none of them uttered a little people. and tipped on one of its edges with a crescent border of the most brilliant gold. eyeing me and my a-kimbo. about two diameter. No traces of land or water could be discovered. and. and thus. ere I tumbled headlong into the very heart of a fantastical-looking city. may it please your Excellencies. with their arms set it like a huge. ever. upward I degrees turned from them in contempt. and boots.

. at length. of its of unmitigated have much to say wonderful alternations I and burning sunshine one fortnight. But my adventures yet remain to be related. Astronomers of far which so happily concluded. in fact. manners. unheard-of dangers. . . and more than polar next . This is. of their ugliness . . of their consequent ignorance of . customs. and political institutions peculiar physical construction want of ears. undertaken. . I have much very much which it would give me the — greatest pleasure to communicate. and the most momentous. frigidity for the of a constant transfer of moisture. of great anxieties. but rendered doubly so by its its own upon peculiar intimate connec- with the world inhabited by have intelligence for the private ear of the tion. of their those useless appendages in an atmosphere so peculiarly modified .ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. And indeed your Excellencies may well imagine that. on the nineteenth day of I capes. 67 parture from Rotterdam. the case. may I more importance however wonderful. or of a conceived by any denizen of earth. in capacity of satellite. of the mere voyage States' College of than the details. man. of the climate of the planet of heat for and cold . and unparalleled had. distillation by from the point beneath the sun to of a variable zone of the point the farthest from it of the water of their people themselves running like that in vacuo. ever accomplished. after a residence of five years a planet not only deeply interesting in character. of their . arrived my es- de- in safety at the conclusion voyage undoubtedly the most extraordinary.

I am detail. through the influence of your honorable body. lives and above and desti- all. have never yet been turned. Its bearer.ADVENTURE OF HANS 68 PFAALL. and depending upon. by God's mercy. But. I —would must have I most willingly my reward. . the use and properties of speech of their substitute for speech in a singular method of inter-communication of . the incomprehensible connection between each particular individual in the moon with some particular individual on the earth —a connection analogous with. so and in the outer regions of the which. and properly instructed. is the object of the present an inhabitant of the moon. owing to the almost miraculous satellite's rotation on its own axis with accordance of the its sidereal revolution about the earth. that of the orbs of the planet and the satellite. and more — much more brief. then. This. —regions —above lie . if it of those dark all. paper. the light which many I have it in my — power to throw upon very important branches of physical and metaphysi- — I must solicit. and by means of itants of the which the and destinies of the inhab- lives one are interwoven with the nies of the inhabitants of the other please your Excellencies hideous mysteries which moon. and. All this. to be pining for a return my family and to my home and as the price of any in consideration of farther communication on my part to . whom I my have prevailed upon. to be . to the scrutiny of the telescopes of man. never shall be turned. a pardon for the crime of which I have been guilty in the death of the creditors upon my departure cal science from Rotterdam.

upon the ground and Mynheer Superbus pipe his spectacles. least swore. Professor Rubadub. Professor Rubadub. 69 messenger to the earth. if it can. of the burgomaster's dwelling. . as he and without saying began to make the best of his way home to deupon the measures to be adopted. in science. be obtained. and Von Underduk. moon would undertake a voyage to To the truth of this observation the so vast burgomaster assented. and return to me with the pardon in question. dropped his extremity of his surprise. I have the honor to be. There was no doubt about the matter— the pardon should be obtained. so finally thought the illustrious took the arm of his brother a word. etc. as to turn round three times upon his heel in the quintessence of astonishment and admiration. will await your Excellencies' pleasure. however. in " Upon finishing the perusal of this very extraordinary document. so far forgot both himself and his dignity. and the matter was therefore at an end.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. and deposited them in his pocket. in the it is said.. any manner. liberate So at with a round oath. your Excellencies' very Hans PFAALL. as no one but terdam a man — of the a distance. Having reached the door. having taken off Von Underduk wiped them. the professor ventured to suggest that as the messenger had thought proper to disappear — no doubt frightened to death by the savage appearance of the burghers of Rotthe pardon would be of little use." humble servant.

the sea. a general term for their comprehension. I as noth- of sort matters above cannot conceive upon what data they have founded such an accusation. They Gluck.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL. The letter. is. the drunken gentlemen styled his creditors. Thirdly. both of whose off ears. in a tippling house in the suburbs. have been cut little head. But hoax. having been published. with these selves ridiculous people. That the newspapers which were stuck over the little balloon were newspapers of Holland. were all seen. 70 Not however. very . for some misdemeanor. having just returned. tain especial certain antipathies wags to Rotterdam have in cer- burgomasters and certain astronomers. with money in their pockets. has been missing for several days from the neighboring city of Bruges. from a trip beyond villain. rumors and speculations. Let us see what they say : That Imprimis. I believe. and therefore could not have been were — dirty papers very would take all made — dirty and his bible oath to their in the moon. Some of the over-wise even made them- by decrying the whole business ing better than a hoax. gave rise to a variety of gossip and opinion. That Hans and the three Pfaall idle himself. so. close to his dwarf and bottle conjurer. no longer than two or three days ago. Fourthly. For my all part. the printer. That an odd Secondly. having been printed in Rotterdam.

as well as other parts of the world. object). speaks about Sir John . by the space-penetrating power of the power of 42. Shortly before. that his own jeu d esprit was published. " Hans Pfaall " thinks it necessary to say. he «^r-<0. That Lastly. in the Southern Literary Messenger. 240. L. the other of downright earnest. etc. — —moreover.y . Locke but as both have the character of hoaxes. sketchy Strictly speaking. however rich the imagination displayed in this ingenious fiction. in round numbers. lens have a 240. public were misled. the Note. nor wiser than they ought to be.000 times. makes his the magnifying or. L.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFA ALL.000 (the moon's real distance). there trifle and the celebrated '' . a lens would bring the satel- moon." and collated it with the " Moon-Hoax. perhaps.). — —not are. more Mr. have but to divide the distance by strictly. does not exist." by way of detecting the writer of the one in the writer of the other. and even detecting the color and the shape of the eyes of small birds. (although the one is in a tone of banter. that the College of Astronomers in the city of other colleges in all Rotterdam. Indeed. Mr. it may here afford some little amusement to show why no one should have been deceived to point out those particulars of the story which should have been sufficient to establish its real character. the author of y — lite (or any distant glass. nor greater. If we desire to ascertain how near. Fancying a likeness which. as both attempt to give plausibility by scientific detail. not a whit better.000 miles. — is but little similarity between the above " Moon-Story of Mr. as the apparent distance. is it 71 an opinion very generally received. mention colleges and astronomers in general. As many more persons were actually gulled by the " Moon-Hoax" than would be willing to acknowledge the fact. we.) and as both hoaxes are on the same subject. By this divide and we have five miles and five sevenths. even for an instant. of course. too. The moon's distance from the earth is. No animal at all could be seen so far much less the minute points particularized in the story. Herschel's perceiving flowers (the Papaver rheas. or which ought to be generally received. apparently. L's in the New York Sun. to all to say the least of the matter. merely proves the gross ignorance which is so generally prevalent upon subjects of an astronomical nature. about three weeks before the commencement of Mr. it wanted much of the force which might have been given it by a more That the scrupulous attention to facts and to general analogy. in self-defence. some of the New York papers copied " Hans Pfaall.

as I have said. especially to any Journal of Science for the earth. on page 21. moon no astronomical point more positively In examining the boundary between light and darkness (in the crescent or gibbous moon) where this boundary crosses any of the dark places. are in the writer appearing to be ignorant that. this prodigious glass is said to It may be observed. whereas there is ascertained than that no such bodies exist there. it might be thought. at least. 72 has himself observed that the lens would not render perceptible objects of but even this. so there can be nothing of the " extremes" mentioned. of time. too. The topography Lunar Chart. The description of the wings of the man-bat. the line of division is found to be rough and jagged but. . ing the glass by far too great power. Mr. The points of the compass. On page pamphlet 13. In the absence of 4 the sun they have a light from the earth equal to that of thirteen full un- clouded moons." The inhabitants of our side of the moon have. Mare TranquilliFcecunditatis etc. edition. the passive subject of chemical affinity " This should be observed that no astronomer would have made womb but it ! such remark. these are not in accordance with terrestrial points the east being to the left. speaking of " a hairy veil " over the eyes of a species of bison. Herschel that this was a providential contrivance to protect the eyes of the animal from the great extremes of light and darkness to which all the inhabitants of our side of the moon are periodically subjectBut this cannot be thought a very " acute " observation of the Doctor's. Mare . . even. etc. given to the dark spots by former astronomers. even grossly at variance with inextricable confusion . but forty-nine times larger than the . Hartley and Grant.ADVENTURE OF HANS PFAALL. is throughout. the hoax. by the vague tatis. H. Mare Nubium. on a lunar map. L. On page 23. were these dark places liquid.. is givless than eighteen inches in diameter . is but a literal copy of Peter Wilkins' account of the wings of his flying islanders. that at the glass-house of have been moulded Messrs. and entirely at variance with that or itself. is not only thirteen. . and G's establishment had ceased operations for many years previous to the publication of . in the sense intended. we have the following "What a prodigious influence must our thirteen times larger globe have exercised upon this satellite when an : embryo is in the very fine . has entered into details regarding oceans and other large bodies Deceived. titles. in Dumbarton but Messrs. no darkness at all. in passing. This simple fact should have induced suspicion. perhaps. the author says: "It immediately occurred to the acute mind of Dr. ed. evidently. it would evidently be of water in the . even when professing to accord with Blunt's any other lunar chart.



where, by


similar objection applies to the whole of the concluding pages,
of introduction to some discoveries in Saturn, the philosophi-


cal correspondent enters into a

minute school-boy account of that planet


this to the

Edinburgh Journal of Science /
But there is one point, in particular, which should have betrayed the ficLet us imagine the power actually possessed of seeing animals upon
what would first arrest the attention of an observer
the moon's surface

from the earth ?
culiarity, so

Certainly neither their shape,


nor any other such pe-

They would appear to be
manner of flies on a ceiling.

soon as their remarkable situation.

walking, with heels up and head down, in the
The real observer would have uttered an instant ejaculation of surprise (however prepared by previous knowledge) at the singularity of their position;
the fictitious observer has not even mentioned the subject, but speaks of seeit is demonstrable that he could

ing the entire bodies of such creatures, when
have seen only the diameter of their heads

might as well be remarked, in conclusion, that the size, and particularly
the powers of the man-bats (for example, their ability to fly in so rare an atmosphere if, indeed, the moon have any), with most of the other fancies
in regard to animal and vegetable existence, are at variance, generally, with


analogical reasoning on these themes
to conclusive demonstration.


and that analogy here

will often

perhaps, scarcely necessary to
add, that all the suggestions attributed to Brewster and Herschel, in the
" a transfusion of artificial
light through the
beginning of the article, about

belong to that species of figurative writing
which comes, most properly, under the denomination of rigmarole.
There is a real and very definite limit to optical discovery among the
a limit whose nature need only be stated to be understood.
If, indeed, the casting of large lenses were all that is required, man's ingenuity
focal object of vision," etc., etc.,

would ultimately prove equal to the task, and we might have them of any
size demanded.
But, unhappily, in proportion to the increase of size in the
lens, and consequently, of space-penetrating power, is the diminution of light
from the object, by diffusion of its rays. And for this evil there is no remedy within human ability for an object is seen by means of that light alone
which proceeds from itself, whether direct or reflected. Thus the only " artificial" light which could avail Mr. Locke, would be some artificial light
which he should be able to throw not upon the "focal object of vision,"
but upon the real object to be viewed to wit upon the moon. It has been
easily calculated that, when the light proceeding from a star becomes so
diffused as to be as weak as the natural light proceeding from the whole of

the stars, in a clear

and moonless

any practical purpose.


night, then the star


no longer

visible for



The Earl of Ross telescope, lately constructed in England, has a speculum
the Herschel telescope
with a reflecting surface of 4071 square inches
having one of only 181 1, The metal of the Earl of Ross' is 6 feet diame;



it is 5

3 tons.

1 inches


thick at the edges,

focal length





at the centre.

The weight



I have lately read a singular and somewhat ingenious little book, whose
" L*
dans la lvne, ou le Voyage Chimerique
title-page runs thus
fait au Monde de la Lvne, nouuellement decouuert par Dominique Gonzales,


Aduanturier Espagnol, autremet dit le Courier volant. Mis en notre langve
par J. B. D. A. Paris, chez Francois Piot, pres la Fontaine de Saint Benoist.
Et chez J. Goignard, au premier pilier de la grand' salle du Palais, proche

MDCXLVII." Pp. 176.
writer professes to have translated his
Mr. D' Avisson (Davidson ?) although there

les Consultations,


work from

the English of one
a terrible ambiguity in the
" 1'
statement. " I' en ai eu," says he,
original de Monsieur D' Avisson, medecin des mieux versez qui soient aujourd'huy dans la conoissance des Belles

Lettres, et sur tout de la Philosophic Naturelle.
Je lui ai cette obligation
entre les autres, de m' auoir non seulement mis en main ce Livre en anglois,
mais encore le Manuscrit du Sieur Thomas D' Anan, gentilhomme Eccossois,

recommandable pour

sa vertu, sur la version duquel

plan de la mienne."
After some irrelevant adventures,

which occupy the

first thirty


in the


advoue que




tire le

of Gil Bias,

pages, the author relates that, being




a sea voyage, the crew abandoned him, together with a negro servant, on
To increase the chances of obtaining food, the
the island of St. Helena.

This brings about a trainlive as far apart as possible.
By and
ing of birds, to serve the purpose of carrier-pigeons between them.
by these are taught to carry parcels of some weight and this weight is
gradually increased. At length the idea is entertained of uniting the force

two separate, and

of a great


of the birds, with a

A machine is contrived

view to raising the author himself.
and we have a minute description

for the purpose,

Here we perit, which is materially helped out by a steel engraving.
ceive the Signor Gonzales, with point ruffles and a huge periwig, seated
astride something which resembles very closely a broomstick, and borne



by a multitude

of wild

swans (ganzas) who had strings reaching from

their tails to the machine.

The main event detailed in the Signor's narrative depends upon a very
important fact, of which the reader is kept in ignorance until near the end
The ganzas, with whom he had become so familiar, were not
of the book.
Thence it had been their
really denizens of St. Helena, but of the moon.
custom, time out of mind, to migrate annually to some portion of the earth.




In proper season, of course, they would return home and the author, happening, one day, to require their services for a short voyage, is unexpectedly
carried straight up, and in a very brief period arrives at the satellite.

other odd things, that the people enjoy extreme happiness
no law ; that they die without pain that they are from ten
to thirty feet in height
that they live five thousand years
that they have
an emperor called Irdonozur and that they can jump sixty feet high, when,





that they have





being out of the gravitating influence, they fly about with fans.
I cannot forbear giving a specimen of the
general philosophy of the


"I must now declare to you," says the Signor Gonzales, " the nature of
the place in which I found myself.
All the clouds were beneath my feet,
As to the stars, since
or, if you please, spread between me and the earth.
was no night where I was, they always had the same appearance ; not
as usual, but pale, and very nearly like the moon of a morning.
But few of them were visible, and these ten times larger (as well as I could
The moon which
judge), than they seem to the inhabitants of the earth.
wanted two days of being full, was of a terrible bigness.
" I must not
forget here, that the stars appeared only on that side of the
globe turned toward the moon, and that the closer they were to it the
I have also to inform you that, whether it was calm
larger they seemed.
weather or stormy, I found myself always immediately between the moon and
the earth.
I was convinced of this for two reasons
because my birds
always flew in a straight line and because whenever we attempted to rest,
we were carried insensibly around the globe of the earth. For I admit the



opinion of Copernicus, who maintains that it never ceases to revolve from
the east to the west, not upon the poles of the Equinoctial, commonly called
the poles of the world, but upon those of the Zodiac, a question of which I

propose to speak more at length hereafter,

my memory


in regard to the astrology

when young, and have




have leisure to

learned at Salamanca

since forgotten."

Notwithstanding the blunders

italicized, the



not without some

claim to attention, as affording a naive specimen of the current astronomical
notions of the time.
One of these assumed, that the " gravitating power"

extended but a short distance from the earth's surface, and, accordingly,
" carried
find our voyager
insensibly around the globe," etc.



There have been other
voyages to the moon," but none of higher merit
than the one just mentioned.
That of Bergerac is utterly meaningless. In
the third volume of the American Quarterly Review will be found quite an
elaborate criticism
criticism in


upon a


is difficult



to say

of the kind in question

whether the




most exposes the



I forget
stupidity of the book, or his own absurd ignorance of astronomy.
the title of the work
but the means of the voyage are more deplorably ill

conceived than are even the ganzas of our friend the Signor Gonzales. The
adventurer, in digging the earth, happens to discover a peculiar metal for
which the moon has a strong attraction, and straightway constructs of it a
box, which,


cast loose


its terrestrial

The "Flight

fastenings, flies with him,

Thomas O'Rourke,"

is a jeu
and has been translated into German.
Thomas, the hero, was, in fact, the game-keeper of an Irish peer, whose ecThe " flight " is made on an eagle's back,
centricities gave rise to the tale.
from Hungry Hill, a lofty mountain at the end of Bantry Bay.
In these various brochures the aim is always satirical the theme being a
In none, is there
description of Lunarian customs as compared with ours.

forthwith, to the satellite.


a" esprit not altogether contemptible,


The writers
effort at plausibility in the details of the voyage itself.
seem, in each instance, to be utterly uninformed in respect to astronomy. In
Hans Pfaall" the design is original, inasmuch as regards an attempt at
verisimilitude in the application of scientific principles (so far as the whimany



nature of the subject would permit), to the actual passage between the

earth and the moon.



What ho

He hath

what ho this fellow is dancing mad
been bitten by the Tarantula.
All in the Wrong.



years ago,

contracted an intimacy with a Mr.


William Legrand.

He was of an ancient Huguenot

but a series of misfamily, and had once been wealthy
fortunes had reduced him to want. To avoid the mortifi;

cation consequent


his disasters,



New Orleans,

the city of his forefathers, and took up his residence at
Sullivan's Island, near Charleston,

This island


South Carolina.

a very singular one.

else than the sea sand, and


It consists of little

about three miles long.


breadth at no point exceeds a quarter of a mile. It is
separated from the mainland by a scarcely perceptible
creek, oozing its

way through

a wilderness of reeds and

slime, a favorite resort of the marsh-hen.


might be supposed,

trees of




scant, or at least dwarfish.

any magnitude are to be seen.


Near the wes-

tern extremity, where Fort Moultrie stands, and where

some miserable frame

buildings, tenanted, during sum77



mer, by the fugitives from Charleston dust and fever, may
be found, indeed, the bristly palmetto but the whole

with the exception of this western point, and a line
of hard, white beach on the sea-coast, is covered with a

dense undergrowth of the sweet myrtle so much prized
by the horticulturists of England. The shrub here often
attains the height of fifteen or



and forms an

almost impenetrable coppice, burthening the





In the inmost recesses of this coppice, not far from the
more remote end of the island, Legrand had

eastern or

built himself a small hut,

by mere



ripened into friendship

which he occupied when I first,
This soon
his acquaintance.

— for there was much in the recluse

to excite interest and esteem.


found him well educated,

with unusual powers of mind, but infected with misanthropy, and subject to perverse moods of alternate enthusiasm and melancholy.


but rarely employed them.

had with him many books,
His chief amusements were

sauntering along the beach and
through the myrtles, in quest of shells or entomological
specimens his collection of the latter might have been

gunning and

fishing, or

envied by a


In these excursions he was

usually accompanied by an old negro, called Jupiter, who
had been manumitted before the reverses of the family,



could be induced, neither

promises, to abandon what


threats nor b}

he considered

attendance upon the footsteps of his young


his right ol



It is


not improbable that the relatives of Legrand, conceivto be somewhat unsettled in intellect, had con-

ing him

trived to instil this obstinacy into Jupiter, with a view to

the supervision and guardianship of the wanderer.
The winters in the latitude of Sullivan's Island are

seldom very severe, and
event indeed when a

in the fall of the

fire is


it is

a rare

considered necessary. About
there occurred, however,

the middle of October, 18


a day of remarkable chilliness.
Just before sunset I
scrambled my way through the evergreens to the hut of
my friend, whom I had not visited for several weeks my

residence being, at that time, in Charleston, a distance of

nine miles from the island, while the

and re-passage were very



reaching the hut

facilities of


behind those of the present

rapped, as was

my custom,

and getting no reply, sought for the key where I knew it
was secreted, unlocked the door, and went in. A fine fire

was blazing upon the hearth.
no means an ungrateful one.


was a novelty, and by


took an arm-chair by the crackling


an overcoat,


and awaited

patiently the arrival of my hosts.
Soon after dark they arrived, and gave


a most cordial

welcome. Jupiter, grinning from ear to ear, bustled about
to prepare some marsh-hens for supper.
Legrand was in
one of his fits how else shall I term them ? of enthusi-

He had

found an unknown bivalve, forming a new
genus, and, more than this, he had hunted down and secured, with Jupiter's assistance, a scarabczus which he




believed to be totally new, but in respect to which he

wished to have

And why

my opinion

on the morrow.

asked, rubbing my hands
over the blaze, and wishing the whole tribe of scarabczi at
the devil.

not to-night



had only known you were here " said Le"
but it 's so long since I saw you and how could
I foresee that you would pay me a visit this very night of
















was coming home


met Lieutenant


and, very foolishly,



him the

be impossible for you to see it until the
Stay here to-night, and I will send Jup down




from the

at sunrise.

It is


What ?—sunrise ?





color— about the


the loveliest thing in creation




It is of


a brilliant gold

size of a large hickory-nut

— with two jet

black spots near one extremity of the back, and another,
somewhat longer, at the other. The antenna are "



aint no tin in him,

Massa Will,

you," here interrupted Jupiter


feel half so



him, inside

hebby a bug

Well, suppose


bit of








keep a



bug is a goole-bug,
sep him wing neber


Jup," replied Legrand, somewhat
seemed to me, than the case demanded
it is,


that any reason for your letting the birds burn




" de

—here he turned


to warrant Jupiter's idea.



me — is really almost enough
You never saw a more brilliant

metallic lustre than the scales emit


of this

you can-

not judge

In the meantime



you some idea


of the shape."



can give


he seated him-

a small table, on which were a pen and ink, but no
He looked for some in a drawer, but found none.
self at


Never mind," he said at length, "this will answer"
and he drew from his waistcoat pocket a scrap of what I
took to be very dirty foolscap, and made upon it a rough

While he did

drawing with the pen.

by the


for I



this, I





the design

was complete, he handed it to me without rising. As I
received it, a loud growl was heard, succeeded by a scratching at the door.

Jupiter opened


and a large Newfound-

land, belonging to Legrand, rushed


and loaded



with caresses

him much attention during previous


leaped upon
for I


had shown




gambols were over, I looked at the paper, and, to speak
the truth, found myself not a little puzzled at what my

had depicted.
I said, after contemplating it for some minWell
" this is a
strange scarabceus, I must confess new to





never saw any thing like it before unless it was a
skull, or a death's-head, which it more nearly resembles
than any thing else that has come under my observation."


A death's-head


echoed Legrand. "

Oh — yes —well,

has something of that appearance upon paper, no doubt.

The two upper black

spots look like eyes, eh

Longer one at the bottom like a
shape of the whole is oval."

mouth — and


and the

then the

" " see Well." at least I am little —have " nettled. its — tolerably should do flatter " . I presume you scarabcEiis caput hominis. you are joking then. we may it. Legrand. tional remark." said a very passable skull this is you until I see the beetle itself. . of the beetle. but. and the whole did bear a very close resemblance to the ordinary cuts of a death'shead. and I —indeed. But " where are the antenna you spoke of ? " The antennce ! " said Legrand. well. I fear are no am if I personal appearance.THE GOLD-BUG. draw I had good masters." dear fellow. not quite a blockhead. there drawing were positively no antennce visible. . I to form " any idea of " " it myself that my But. I am as distinct presume that is sufficient." said must wait artist. or will call the something of that kind bug — there similar titles in the Natural Histories. it is a very excellent skull. don't know. a I Well. I say that may I. and I — " perhaps you have still I don't handed him the paper without addi- I said." said he. who seemed to be " warm the are many upon getting unaccountably sure you must see the antennce. as for the temper but I was had taken his ill humor . tion upon get up a very thrilling bit of supersti- this hint." them " . I subject made them as they are in the original insect. 82 " Perhaps so. and I . not wishing to ruffle his much surprised at the turn affairs puzzled me — and. according to the vulgar notions about such specimens of physiology and your scarabceus must be the queerest scarabceus in the world if it resembles — Why.

as I departed. from his man. to remain. but. in tinued to scrutinize the drawing minutely where he At length he arose. Presently ing he took from his coat-pocket a wallet. seeing my host in this mood. For some minutes he con- attention. he locked. when a casual glance at the design seemed suddenly to rivet his crumple it. which . and pro- ceeded to seat himself upon a sea-chest in the farthest Here again he made an anxious excorner of the room. however. and was about to apparently to throw it in the fire. he hand with even more than It intention to pass the night had frequently done before. He now grew more composed in his de- but his original air of enthusiasm had quite disappeared. He conduct greatly astonished prudent not to exacerbate the grow- said nothing. sat. arouse him. meanor As .THE GOLD-BUG. after this (and during the interval had seen nothing of Legrand) when I received a visit. Yet he seemed not so much sulky as abstracted. I . placed the paper carefully in it. — In an instant his face grew violently red another as excessively pale. He 83 received the paper very peevishly. and deposited both in a writing-desk. at I had never seen the Charleston. Jupiter. as I had been my me I deemed it proper to take leave. It at the hut. me . did not press my was about a month He shook his usual cordiality. took a candle from the table. his yet I thought it moodiness of his temper by any comment. amination of the paper turning and it in all directions. but. away he became more and more abfrom which no sallies of mine could the evening wore sorbed in revery.

and I feared that some serious disaster had befallen my friend. Hab on de slate —de queer- Ise gittin' to be skeered." " Very sick." Not well " ! I he complain of? "Dar! dat am 5 s truly sorry to hear it! —him berry sick for all dat. 't say your master him ? what it is you are Has is sick. 'noovers." " Jupiter. does " he confined to bed "No. " your master ? " Why. I keep mighty tight eye 'pon him Todder day he gib me slip 'fore de sun up and for to . n't he " aint worf while for to git — Massa Will say noffin at all aint mad about de matter wid —but den what make him go about looking dis here head down and he soldiers up." said I.THE GOLD-BUG. 84 good old negro look so dispirited. Jupiter Is What it. dat he aint! whar de shoe pinch ! neber 'plain of notin' —why did n't —but him you say so at once? " ? —he aint 'fin'd —my mind is nowhar — dat 's got to be berry just hebby 'bout poor Massa Will. him not so berry well as mought be. Jup. to speak de troof. Jupiter " Keeps a syphon wid de est figgurs I tell you. wid " as a gose ? And den he keep a syphon all de time him — " " Keeps a what. — " " what is the matter now ? how is Well. and as white he way. ? figgurs ebber did see. massa. de matter ails massa. told " you what Why. I should like to understand You talking about.

" " How ? what do you mean " ? —dare now. Jupiter n't I ? ? all I ! it form no idea of what has occasioned this this change pened since of conduct I saw you? illness. I mean de bug "The what?" De bug I 'm berry sartain — 11 dat Massa Will bin bit somewhere 'bout de head by dat goole-bug. him go 'gin mighty to let quick. nohow." " Eh —what —ah yes — upon the whole think you had better not be too severe with the poor fellow — don't —he can't very well stand —but can you flog him. 85 was gone de whole ob de blessed day. myself. massa. I had a big stick ready cut for to gib him deuced good beating when he did de heart arter come — but Ise sich a fool dat had —he looked so berry poorly." he mouff stuff a piece . for such a supposition?" " Claws sich a enuff. in I rap him up in de paper and —dat was de way. massa. but I cotch him wid a piece ob paper dat of I it found." "And what cause have you. and mouff too. I nebber did see —he kick and he bite ebery ting what Massa Will cotch him fuss. massa. dey aint bin noffin onpleasant since den was 'fore den I 'm feared 't was de berry day you was — dare. or rather Has any thing unpleasant hap- ? " — " 't No. I tell time he must ha' got de bite. Jupiter. I you — den was de did n't like de look ob de bug mouff. so I would n't take hold ob him wid my finger.THE GOLD-BUG. but had for deuced bug cum near him." " Why.

86 "And you ten by the " I do think. by his wellmeant attentions. massa. solus. for- to attribute the honor of a visit from you to-day?" " What de matter. handed me a note which ran thus " : My Dear " Why have I not seen you for so long a time ? I have not been so foolish as to take offence at any querie of." Well. n't your master was and that the bite made him think noffin' about it — him dream 'bout de goole so much. massa? " " " Did you bring any message from Mr. Jup. had great cause for anxiety. perhaps you are right tunate circumstance am I but to what . Legrand ? " " and here Jupiter No. the other day. then. that " Since I saw I have you is brus- improbable. and spending the day. I or and poor old Jup annoys me. aint cause dem he goole-bugs bit 'fore dis. by the goole-bug ? Ise heerd 'bout I nose if 't really bit" sick ? What make it. I bring dis here pissel . have something to tell you." " " But how do you know he dreams about gold ? " How I know? why.THE GOLD-BUG. almost beyond endurance. tell it. " I hope you little have not been quite well for some days past. 'cause he talk about it in he sleep — dat's how " I nose. among the hills on . that beetle. but no. with which to chastise me for giving him the slip. mine . yet scarcely know how to whether I should tell it at all. Would you believe it ? he had prepared a — huge stick.

assure you that it " There was something gave rially in the crotchet possessed his excitable brain ? " of the highest importance could he possibly have to transact boded no good. fairly unsettled the reason of my Without a moment's friend.THE COLD-BUG. me is I ? dreaded Jupiter's account lest of him the continued pressure of misfortune had. hesitation. I of importance. the main I verily believe that land. sis buying for him in de town. all apparently new. 87 my ill looks alone saved me a flogging. prepared to accompany the negro.*' I inquired. " but what are they doing here ? de syfe and de spade what Massa Will Very true Him " . come over with Do come. What is the meaning of all this. Jup ? Him syfe. " I have made no addition my to cabinet since we met. make it convenient. Upon reaching the wharf. upon business Jupiter. massa. ? William Legrand." my 'pon lot of . in any way. I wish to see you to-night. and spade." whole style differed mateWhat could he be dreaming great uneasiness. and de debbil's own money I had to gib for 'em. at length. therefore. tone of this note which Its from that of Legrand. What new What " business of the highest im- of Ever yours. I noticed a scythe and three spades. " If you can. lying in the bottom of the I boat in which " " " " we were to embark. portance.

got it from him the next morning. in the name of all that is mysterious. He grasped my hand with a nervous empressement which alarmed me and His strengthened the suspicions already entertained." supposing this with an air of profound seriousness. Lieutenant if G . better to say. countenance was pale even to ghastliness." I now stepped into the boat." Finding that no satisfaction was to be obtained of Jupiter." I Do you know that Jupiter " it ? asked. 88 " But what." he replied. not knowing what he had yet obtained the scarabceus from respecting his health. " I Oh. and made sail. Nothing should tempt me 11 to part with that scarabceus. is your Massa Will' going to do with scythes and spades?" " Dat 's more dan /know. and I pressibly shocked. whose whole intellect seemed to be absorbed by " de bug. and his deepAfter some inquiset eyes glared with unnatural lustre. ries I asked him. with a sad foreboding at heart. and strong breeze we soon ran into the little cove to the northward of Fort Moultrie. But it 's all cum ob de bug. to be a bug of real gold. It was about Legrand had been awaiting us in eager expectation. and a walk of With a fair some two miles brought us to the hut. three in the afternoon when we arrived. and debbil take me if I don't ' b'lieve *t is more dan he know too. it He said felt inex- . is quite right about " In " In what way. coloring violently.THE GOLD-BUG. yes.

I eration. bring me that scarabceus / " What de bug. I have only it properly. " This bug is make my to a triumphant smile." said he. and. and— " in — I cried. and I shall arrive at the gold of which to use it is " the index. I could not.THE GOLD-BUG. tell. The scales were exceedingly hard and glossy. with a grave and stately air. and you get over I this. until cautions. massa ? I 'd rudder not go fer trubble dat bug you mus' git him for your own self. me the beetle from a glass case in which was a beautiful It to naturalists was enclosed. will You " you little pre- remain with are feverish . taking all things into considcould hardly blame Jupiter for his opinion respecting it but what to make of Legrand's concordance with that opinion. interrupting him." are certainly unwell. The weight of the insect was very remarkable." Hereupon Legrand arose. in a grandiloquent tone. and brought ! . with to reinstate me in my family posses- any wonder." he continued. and had better use some go to bed. Jupiter. with all the of- view. Is sions. . for the life of me. and. at that time. " when I sent might have your counsel and assistance " furthering the views of Fate and of the bug for " you that My I dear Legrand. then. " I I sent for you. and a long one near the other. " 89 fortune. that I prize it it ? Since Fortune has thought fit to bestow it upon me. appearance of burnished gold. You shall you a few days. — of course a great prize in a unknown scientific point There were two round black spots near one extremity of the back. it scarabceus. had completed my examination of the beetle.

We by shall start sunrise. at all all night." he interposed." I replied . this to Allow me fever. place go to as well as I suffer. events." " ? Jupiter and myself are going upon an expedition into the hills. and : . the excitement which you now perceive in me will be equally allayed. and. You are the only one we can trust. pulse." said he. " but do you mean to say that this infernal beetle has any " connection with your expedition into the hills? " " It has. " In the next In the first — You are mistaken. Whether we succeed or fail. we shall need the aid of some person in whom Very easily. I If excitement. confide." we can " am I anxious to oblige you in any way. " But you may be this bed. and. I can become a party to no such ab- surd proceeding. 9° f " Feel my felt I it. " I am can expect to be under the excitement which you really wish " And how " is me will relieve this you be done well." " am I sorry —very sorry— for we ourselves. upon the main land. in this expedition. found not the slightest indication of fever. to say the truth. " ill and yet have no once to prescribe for you." Then." " it II ! — have to try The man is surely mad by yourselves how long do you propose to be absent ? " Try stay shall ! Probably be back. Legrand." ! it by —but immediately.THE GOLD-BUG.

he went. upon your honor.THE GOLD-BUG. it implements within reach of cess of industry my own terns." With a heavy heart I my accompanied friend. observed this friend's aberration of from demeanor was while Legrand contented himself with the scarawhich he carried attached to the end of a bit of whip-cord as than from any ex- his master. fear. plain evidence of could scarcely refrain however. " And 91 you promise me. in inducing me to Having succeeded accompany him. to humor his fancy. for your we have lose. We started about four o'clock— Legrand. I thought it mind. my part." " Yes I . bceus. best. I " bug his lips during had charge twirling it When I were the the journey. and now let then return will as that of us be off. you home and follow my advice implicitly. he seemed unwilling . physician. In the meantime I endeavored. with the air of a conjuror. or until I could adopt some more energetic measures with a chance of success. to sound him in regard to the object of the expedition. or complaisance. sole words which escaped For of trusting either of the tears. and — myself. of a couple of dark lan- to and fro. I last. no time to promise . at least for the present. Jupiter. that when freak of yours is over. . and the bug business (good this will God !) settled to your satisfaction. the dog. Jupiter had with him the scythe and spades — the whole of which he insisted upon carrying more through seemed to me. His " and dat deuced dogged in the extreme. but all in vain.

trace of a human footstep was to be seen. tract through where no. vouchsafed no other reply than questions to hold conversation and to " we my all shall see upon any " ! We crossed the creek at the head of the island by means of a skiff. we journed for about two hours. to consult what appeared to be certain landmarks of his own contrivance upon a former . here and there. by direction of his discovered that way but for we had clambered was through which we soon it . Deep ravines. would have been impossible to force our the scythe and Jupiter. and interspersed with huge crags that appeared to lie loosely upon the soil. gave an air of still sterner solemnity to the scene. proceeded to clear for us a path to the foot of an . densely wooded from base to pinnacle. in various directions.THE GOLD-BUG. a of country excessively wild and desolate. The natural platform to which thickly overgrown with brambles. It was a species of tableland. ascending the high grounds on the shore main land. 92 topic of minor importance. and the setting when we entered a region infinitely In this manner sun was just more dreary than any yet seen. master. merely by the support of the trees against which they reclined. and in many cases were prevented from precipitating themselves into the valleys below. near the summit of an almost inaccessible hill. of the and. proceeded in a northwesterly direction. Le- grand led the way with decision pausing only for an instant. occasion.

reached this tree. with some eight or ten oaks. enormously tall tulip-tree. and for some moments made no reply. At length he approached the huge trunk. and asked him if he thought he could climb it. When he had completed his scrutiny." " Then up with you as soon as possible. " Get main the trunk and then I will tell you first. in the beauty of its and form. and examined it with minute attention." " How up." " De bug. massa. J up climb any tree he ebber see in he life. walked slowly around it. J up. why you can do take it up not you be under the necessity of — but. I shall breaking your head with this shovel. Legrand turned to Jupiter. massa? inquired Jupiter. and in the general majesty of its its appearance. " he merely said • : Yes. foliage in the wide spread of branches. —de goole-bug — " what for dismay Massa Will negro. and far surpassed them all." . 93 which stood. if with you in some way. upon the level. and all other trees which I had then ever seen. drawing back bug way up de tree? in ! ! —d — n if I do " ! cried mus the tote de " ! " If you are afraid. for be too dark to see what " we it will soon are about. up which way to go and here stop take this beetle with far mus go — — you.THE GOLD-BUG. a great big negro like you. The old When we man seemed a little staggered by the question. to take hold of a harmless carry it up by little this string dead beetle.

and. Me feered into compliance . . Massa Will ? he asked. " Which way mus go now. until no glimpse of his squat figure could be obapparently with but little trouble . after length wriggled himself into the first great fork. in the present case. over. seizing with his hands some and resting his naked toes upon others. while many short limbs make Thus the difficulty of astheir appearance on the stem. and said Legrand. maintaining the insect as far from his person as circumstances would permit. or Liriodendron Tulipiferum. The risk of the achievement was. the bark be- comes gnarled and uneven. the most magnificent of American foresters. the tulip-tree.THE GOLD-BUG. Jupiter. lay in reality. " — " ascending higher and higher. in its riper age. although the climber was some sixty or seventy now feet from the ground. Was de bug! what I keer for de bug?" Here he took cautiously hold of the extreme end of the string. as closely as possible. one or two narrow escapes from falling. with his arms and knees. and seemed to consider the whole business as virtually accomplished. at projections. and often rises to a great height with- out lateral branches . but. more Embracing the huge in semblance than cylinder. In youth. 94 "What shamed now massa?" de matter said Jup. evidently " always want for to raise fuss only funnin anyhow. Keep up the largest branch the one on this side/' The negro obeyed him promptly. in fact. has a trunk peculiarly smooth. prepared to ascend the tree. wid old nigger. cension.

By and this became I little seriously anxious about getting him home. announcing that the seventh limb was attained." cried Le- —done up for . " One. fibe — I done pass fibe big limb. down the trunk and count the limbs below you on this How many limbs have you passed ? " side." Then go one limb higher." replied the negro " can see de sky fru de top. " " I as Now. Jupiter ?" grand in a quavering voice. Jup.ob de tree. I had no alternative but to conclude him stricken with lunacy. tained through the dense foliage 95 which enveloped it. pon " tree. Presently his voice was heard in a sort of halloo. two. but attend to what Look I say. you up " Ebber so fur. massa. If you see any thing strange let me know. dis side." cried Legrand." was a dead limb. Jupiter's voice was again heard." are ? . While " I Mos feerd for to ventur dead limb putty "Did you say much it all pon dis limb berry Yes.THE GOLD-BUG. want you to work your way out upon that limb as far you can. four. " — far as de door-nail —done departed dis here life. sartin him dead 't is de way. evidently much excited. massa. " " ? for much fudder is " How How high go got " asked Legrand. was pondering upon what was best to be done. " Never mind the sky." In a few minutes the voice was heard again." time what doubt I might have entertained was of my poor friend's insanity put finally at rest.

and see if you think " few very rotten." cried he." rotten.THE GOLD-BUG. sure nuff. without heeding me in the least. Mough dat it Him 's venture out leetle way pon de limb by myself. then." now n't hollo at listen ! — if will . with your knife. " nonsense as that " ! cried Legrand. " Yes. do you hear me I ? '11 1 poor nigger dat style. seemingly in the greatest distress. need telling me such sure as you drop that beetle here." " Try the wood well. Spose drop him down fuss. you remember your promise. 'T is berry hebby bug. true. " Do " said I. besides." — " what do you mean ? By yourself Why. It 's to bed. and den de limb won't break wid " ! - I just de weight "You much ob one nigger. apparently what do you mean by ? As Look break your neck. I '11 make you a present of a silver dollar as soon as you " Well ! get down." venture out on the you limb as far as you think safe. Jupiter. Come now ! — getting late. massa. hear you ebber so plain. that 's why come home and go a fine fellow. I mean de bug. massa." replied the negro in a " but not so berry rotten as mought be. and. Massa Will. " do you hear me ? " Yes. and not let go the beetle." infernal scoundrel relieved. g6 " What name in the heaven of shall I do?" asked Le- grand. moments." " " Jupiter. glad of an opportunity to interpose a ! " word.

. I hand what " To be left ? knows dat I ! do you know your right hand " —knows all bout dat — 't is my lef chops de wood wid. what — you say very well." Well now. and your Now. then Hum ! hoo dat ! 's —find the good ! fastened to dis berry curous tree." dey ain't no eye lef at left why all. pon skull. massa. Jupiter." end ! " here fairly screamed Legrand you say you are out to the end of that limb ? " Soon be to de eend. you . massa sarcumstance. " the limb? " Sure ! — nuff." it ob a great big nail in de 's " " is him bit I tell you —do you eye of the skull." A skull. massa o-o-o-o-oh marcy what is dis here pon de tree ?" — . and de crows done gobble ebery de meat off. look. I left eye is suppose. " do " ! Lor-gol-a- ! " " Well cried ! " Legrand. what is it?" u Why taint but a skull noffin —somebody bin lef head up de tree." sure ! you are left-handed on the same side as your left hand. " what holds it on ? mus . gy Massa Will— deed replied the negro " mos out to the eend now.THE GOLD-BUG." — very promptly " I'm gwine. " Out to the I is. highly delighted. do exactly as hear?" Yes." " Curse your stupidity from your " Yes. word my fastens ob it —how —dare on to de Why "Pay " attention.

scythe. wouh Legrand immediately took feet. Driving a peg. quite clear of any branches. At length the negro asked. just beneath the insect. into the ground. three or foui yards in diameter. which he had suffered t< this colloquy could be seen descend. have for to " —look out for him dare below fallen at our faintly illumine< The scaraboeus hunj allowed to fall. 9^ left eye of the skull. at the precise spot where the beetle fell. and cleared with if still it th< a circular space. and.THE GOLD-BUG. as far as the string will reach but be careful and not let go your hold of the — string. like a visible at the end of the string. ordered Jupiter to let go the string an< come down from the tree. mighty easy ting put ! no portion of Jupiter's person but the beetle. having accomplished this. Have you found it ? eye Here was a long pause. Massa Will de bug fru During de hole . some of which the eminence upon which we stood. can find the left " eye of de skull pon de same side as de lef hand of de skull too? cause de skull aint got not a bit I got de lef eye now ob a hand at all nebber mind Is de lef — — here de lef eye ! — ! what mus do wid it ?" " Let the beetle drop through it. and. was . in the last rays of the setting sun. with great nicety. my friend now pn duced from his pocket a tape-measure. an< globe of burnished gold." " All dat done. or the place where the " has been. Fastening one end of this at that point of the trunk of the tree whicl . now glistened.

and. I felt but I much fatigued with the exercise saw no mode of escape. as a centre. perhaps. he unrolled and thence further unrolled it. under any circumstances. by Jupiter's obstinacy in maintaining it to be "a mind disposed to lunacy would bug of real gold. At the spot thus attained a second peg was driven. and about this. now to me. was nearest the peg. indeed upon Jupiter's have had no hesitation in attempting to get I would aid. for points by the distance of fifty feet Jupiter clearing away the established — brambles with the scythe. or. 99 it till it reached the peg in the direction already two of the the tree and the peg. willingly have declined it for the night was coming and on. and was my equanimity by a refusal. already taken . and that his phantasy had re- ceived confirmation by the finding of the scarabceus. a rude about four feet in diameter. To speak the truth. at that particular moment. fearful of disturbing the lunatic home by force poor . described. I made no doubt that the latter had been infected with some tions about money of the innumerable Southern supersti- buried. at . in a personal contest with his master. to hope that he would assist me." A readily be led —especially away by such suggestions if . but friend's I was too well assured of the old negro's disposition. Legrand begged us to about digging as quickly set as possible. amusement I had no especial relish for such would most any time. Taking a spade himself.THE GOLD-BUG. and giving one to Jupiter and one circle. Could I have depended.

to his task. ful of his — rather. and then returned. with a grave . I ruption which might have enabled derer home. became so obstreperous that we grew feargiving the alarm to some stragglers in the at length. IOO — with favorite preconceived ideas and then I the poor fellow's speech about the beetle's to mind called chiming being in " the index of his fortune. chief two hours. at length. —for myself. tied his suspenders. but. I concluded to make a virtue of necessity to dig with a good will. I could not help think- zeal . getting out of the hole with a the brute's mouth up with air of deliberation. as the glare fell upon our persons and implements. vicinity. chuckle. in the yelpings of the interest in our proceedings. me to get the wan- noise was. and — thus the sooner convince the visionary. we all fell to work with a worthy a more rational cause and. We dug very steadily for and our dog. at length. silenced dogged one of by The Jupiter. picturesque a group we composed. The lanterns having been lit. grand . and how and suspicious our labors must have appeared to strange any interloper who.THE GOLD-BUG. might have stumbled upon ing how our whereabouts." Upon the whole. was the apprehension of Leshould have rejoiced at any inter- this or. very effectually who. He. by ocular to demonstration. I was sadly vexed and puzzled. embarrassment lay who took exceeding Little was said . by chance. of the fallacy of the opinions he entertained.

Legrand strode up to Jupiter. and now we slightly enlarged the limit. however. and I began to Legrand. disconcerted. whom I sincerely pitied. A hope that the farce was an end.THE GOLD-BUG. of five feet. when. bitterest disappointment imprinted upon every feature. let fall the spades. ! his — speak. a depth 10 1 came manifest. I Legrand. slowly and reluctantly. seized his and fell "You his knees. Jupiter. with a loud oath. and proceeded. We had taken. In the meantime I made no remark. we found silence toward home. " said scoundrel upon ! from between bles black villain stant. at a signal This done. with the Still feet. entire circle of four feet diameter. When the time mentioned had expired. which he had thrown off at the beginning of his labor. wiped his We brow had excavated the thoughtfully and recommenced. from his master. perhaps. a dozen steps in this direction. Massa Will ! aint dis here my lef eye . The astonished negro opened eyes and mouth to the fullest extent. at much although evidently we had reached and yet no signs of any treasure begeneral pause ensued. hissing out the clenched teeth tell without prevarication ! — — —" you sylla- infernal answer me this you which which is your ! — in- left eye?" " Oh. my golly. to put on his coat. turned in pro- tools. and him by the collar. began to gather up his and the dog having been unmuzzled. at length clambered from the pit. and went to the farther depth of two nothing appeared. The gold-seeker.

much hand and holding it there with in immediate dread of his " ! vociferated Le- executing a series of to the astonishment of his who. was it dropped the beetle Jupiter's eyes. Taking. about whose madness I the peg which marked the spot where the beetle fell. massa de lef eye jis as you tell me. arising from his knees. here ! was the when we reached De face " come skull nailed to the limb with the face out- ward. " thought so I ! — I knew it ! hurrah grand. letting the negro go and curvets and caracols. now. mutely. massa. or with the face to the limb " its foot. 102 for sartain?" roared the terrified Jupiter." said the latter. the tape measure from the nearest point . or fancied that I saw. ? this " eye or that through which you Legrand touched each of —here — — "'T was dis eye. the game and he again led the way to the . " Jupiter. certain indications of method. so dat de crows could get at de eyes good." " Well. then. widout any trouble. 's tulip- tree." and here it was his right eye that the negro indicated. valet. a desperate pertinacity. looked. as if master's attempt at a gouge.THE GOLD-BUG. placing his upon his right organ of vision. was " ? out." now saw. to a spot about three inches to the westward of its former position. and then from myself to his master. from master to myself." said he. " That will do —we must try it again. his " Come we must go ! not up yet " " back. removed Here my friend.

I scarcely understanding what had occasioned the change in my thoughts. Upon now assumed a Jupiter's again attempting made furious resistance. His uneasiness. he forming two complete skeletons. and what appeared to be the dust of . removed. —some air which impressed me. had been. of the trunk to the peg. work with the spade. was somewhat larger than now described. but he bitter and serious tone. tore up the mould frantically with his claws. even excited. but the result of playfulness or caprice. and we again was dreadfully weary. leaping into the hole. but. we were my unfortunate companion. or of deliberation. evidently. and. in the first instance. with something that very much resembled expectation. and now and then caught myself actually looking. I had become most unaccountably interPerhaps there was something. intermingled with several buttons of metal. IO3 and continuing the exten- sion in a straight line to the distance of fifty feet. In a few seconds he had uncovered a mass of human bones. I dug eagerly. the vision of At a which had demented when such vagaries of thought most fully possessed me. I felt no longer any great aversion from the set to labor imposed. Around the new in the position a circle. from the point which we had been digging. amid all the extravagant demeanor of Legrand of forethought. for the fancied treasure.THE GOLD-BUG. as before. ested — nay. a spot was at indicated. former instance. period again interrupted by the violent howlings of the dog. to muzzle him. and when we had been at work perhaps an hour and a half. by several yards.

We now worked in earnest. 104 decayed woollen. and never did minutes of more intense excitement. sight of these the joy of Jupiter could scarcely be restrained. were three rings of iron by means of which a firm hold could be obtained by six — persons. Luckily. three or four loose pieces of gold and silver coin came At to light. the sole fastenings of the lid consisted of two sliding bolts. and two and a half feet deep. wore an air He urged us. We to at once saw the impossibility of removing so great a weight. however. and forming a kind of On trellis-work over the whole. but the countenance of his master of extreme disappointment. One or two strokes of a spade upturned the blade of a large Spanish knife. which. had plainly been subjected to some mineralizing val —perhaps that of the bi-chloride of mercury. I During pass ten this inter- we had fairly unearthed an oblong chest of wood. It was firmly secured by process bands of wrought open ironj riveted. —trembling and These we drew back pant- . each side of the — six in all chest. and. to continue our exertions. Our utmost united endeavors served only disturb the coffer very slightly in its bed. as we dug farther. near the the top.THE GOLD-BUG. three feet broad. and the words were hardly uttered when I stumbled and fell forward. having caught the toe my boot of a large ring of iron that lay half buried in in the loose earth. from its perfect preservation and wonderful hardness. This box was three feet and a half long.

and It we might was much time was fused were the ideas of all. that before daylight. I shall not pretend to describe the feelings with which Amazement gazed. by removing two thirds get every thing housed difficult to say what should be spent in deliberation We. let ! de putty goole- goole-bug. with a deep sigh. predominant. a treasure of incalculable ing with anxiety. there flashed from a confused heap of dazzled our eyes. done. As value lay gleaming before us. as " And bug ! if naked arms up to the as if el- enjoying the length. within the 05 In an instant. what I boosed in dat sabage Aint you shamed ob yourself. —so con- lightened the of its contents. was. for some minutes. and spoke very few words. at last.THE GOLD-BUG. He seemed Presently he fell upon his — stupefied thunderstricken. It make exertion. in gold. knees in the bows pit. and it behooved us to treasure. gold and of jewels. Jupiter's countenance wore. nigger? little kind ob style answer me dat — ! " ! became necessary. as deadly a pallor as of things. box when we were . of course. that absolutely pit. in the nature any negro's visage to assume. he ex- in a soliloquy : cum ob de goole-bug dis all de poor his them there remain. that I should arouse both master and valet to the expediency of removing the It was growing late. for it is possible. fell 1 the rays of the lanterns upward a glow and a glare. I Le- grand appeared exhausted with excitement. and burying At luxury of a bath. finally. claimed.

Worn to do more immediately. . We were now thoroughly broken down but the intense excitement of the time denied us repose. After an un. one o'clock was not it We the armed with three stout at toil. safety. we de- posited our golden burthens. make examination of our treasure. There had been nothing order or arrangement. and we spent the whole day. then hurfor home made with the chest the hut in riedly reaching . scrutiny of its contents. but after excessive ing. at which. were sacks. with trouble. upon brambles.THE GOLD-BUG. for the second time. quiet slumber of arose. to raise it from the hole. again pit. as if by some three or four hours' preconcert. in in the morn- human nature rested until two. among us. and. . We nor to open his mouth until our return. Having in a like Every thing had been heaped assorted ourselves possessed of even vaster in we found wealth than we had at all with care. strict orders from any pretence. 106 some enabled. and hills had immediately afterward. as equally as might be. leaving the holes unfilled. A little before four we arrived at the divided the remainder of the booty. promiscuously. just as the first faint streaks of the dawn gleamed from over the tree-tops in the East. with left to Jupiter neither. to we duration. supper . out as we for starting were. to stir from the spot. set out for the hut. which. The articles taken out were deposited among the and the dog guard them. upon the premises. The chest had been full to the brim. by good luck. and the greater part of the next night.

there was a vast quantity of solid gold ornaments dred massive finger. appeared to have been beaten up with hammers. —a eigh- teen rubies of remarkable brilliancy three hundred and ten emeralds. their settings and thrown loose in the chest. hundred and fifty thousand dollars we of the pieces. crucifixes . The value of the jewels before. All was could. first In coin there was rather more than four supposed. all very beautiful and twenty-one sapphires. which we picked out from among the other gold. gold of antique date and of great variety ish. worn that we could make nothing of their inscriptions. These stones had all been broken from . so we found more difficulty diamonds — some hundred and ten of in in them exceedingly all. sword-handles exquisitely embossed. with a few English guineas.and ear-rings of these. a prodigious golden punch-bowl. with an opal.THE GOLD-BUG. Besides all tlfcis. as accurately as the period. large and fine and not one of them small — . of which we had never seen specimens some There were several very large and heavy coins. toy There was not a —estimating the value by the tables of particle of silver. There was no American money. five gold . as if to prevent identification. — French. The weight of . : nearly two hun- rich chains —thirty eighty-three very large and censers of great value . Span- and German money. and counters. ornamented with richly with two chased vine-leaves and Bacchanalian figures . . The settings themselves. heavy if I remember. and many other smaller articles which I cannot recollect. There were estimating.

that became quite vexed I I handed You scarabceus. and the intense excitement of the time had. we had we had concluded our examination. 108 these valuables exceeded three hundred and avoirdupois . entered into a connected with " full detail of all the circumstances it. We estimated the entire contents of the chest. . it was found that greatly undervalued the treasure. at you for in- sisting that my drawing resembled a death's-head. and in this estimate I fifty pounds have not included one hundred and ninety-seven superb gold watches three of the number being worth each five hundred dollars. at length. " the night had made of the when you the rough»sketch I recollect also. me — for Still. subsided. that night. in some measure. at a million and a half of dollars and upon the subsequent disposal of the trinkets and jewels (a few . — worth. being retained for our own use). mark had some at I little foundation in graphic powers a good artist — and. who saw that I was dying with impatience for a solution of this most extraordinary riddle. from corrosion but all were richly jewelled and in cases of great . When you first made this assertion I thought you were jesting but afterward back of the my called to insect. them were very of Many old. When. fact. mind the peculiar spots on th( and admitted to myself that your irritated therefore. and as timekeepers valueless the works having suffered." said he.THE GOLD-BUG. You remember. Legrand. if one. more or less. I am re- the sneei considerec when you handed me the .

and that this skull.THE GOLD-BUG. as discovered I it at parchment. For a moment I was too much amazed to think with accuracy. Upon turning it over." said I. was mere surprise at the really remarkable of outline fact that. I of such coincidences. say the singularity of this coincidence abThis is the usual effect solutely stupefied me for a time. and you may imagine my astonishment when I perceived. proceeded to scrutinize the parchment more closely. but in size. you mean. there should have been a skull side of the parchment. f —at my similarity the singular coincidence involved in the unknown upon the other neath first idea. I throw it " The " No first I upon IO9 was about to crumple it up and angrily into the fire. that my design was very different in detail from though there was a I knew — this al- certain similarity in general outline. you remember. the figure of a death's-head just where. The mind struggles to establish a . just as I had made it. to me. immediately be- figure of the scarabcsus. it seemed to me. not should so closely resemble my drawing. it once to be a piece of very thin was quite dirty. it. my glance fell upon the sketch at which you had been looking." scrap of paper. I saw my own sketch upon the reverse. It I was in the very act of crumpling it up. I had made the drawing of the beetle. and at supposed it to be such. and seating myself at the other end of the room. My now. had much of the appearance of paper. in fact. Presently I took a candle. only in outline. Well. scrap of parchment. but when I came to draw .

perfectly certain of this . and when Jupiter was fast betook myself to a more methodical investiga- tion of the affair. posifar more than the coincidence. about a mile eastward of the island. tively. of course cleanest spot. in search of the ing up Had the skull been then there. manner session. to remember that there had been no drawing upon when the parchment I became I made my sketch of the scarabczus. I had gone. within the most remote and secret chambers of my intel- lect. there dawned so. suffers upon me gradually a conviction which startled me even I began distinctly. " When you asleep. first I could not have failed to notice mystery which at that early I felt it moment. and putting the parchment se- I curely away. recovered from this stupor. but. me a sharp with his Jupiter. in In the first place I considered the which the parchment had come into my posspot where we discovered the scarabczus The was on the coast of the main-land. dismissed all further reflection until I should be alone. gave . IIO connection —a unable to do But. arose at once. Upon my which caused taking hold of me to let it it. Here was indeed a impossible to explain . a glow-worm-like conception of that truth which last night's adventure brought to so magnificent a demonstration. being a species of temporary paralysis.THE GOLD-BUG. for I recollected turn- one side and then the other. when I sequence of cause and effect —and. it. it drop. bite. even there seemed to glimmer. and but a short distance above high-water mark. faintly.

to have been there for a very great while for the resemblance to boat timbers could scarcely be traced. and thought it best sure of the he is on all to — prize at once you know how enthusi- subjects connected with Natural History.THE GOLD-BUG. have deposited the parchment in my own pocket. by which to take hold of at this moment that his eyes. fell It was upon the then supposed to be paper. I searched my pockets. I Near the spot where we found it. " Well. Jupiter picked up the parchment. I found no paper where it was usually kept. Ill accustomed caution. without being conscious of it. I looked in the drawer. and on the way met Lieutenant G showed him the insect. . he thrust it forthbeetle in it. also. and he begged me to let him take it to the fort. with into his waistcoat pocket. and which I had continued to hold in dreaded make astic my hand during his inspection. hoping to . purpose of and found none there. wrapped the and gave it to me. for the making a sketch of the beetle. the sand. without the parchment in which it had been wrapped. Upon my consenting. It was lying which half buried in mine it. " he You remember that when I went to the I must table. and scrap of parchment. which had flown toward him. Soon afterward we turned I to go home. I observed the remnants of the hull of what appeared to have been a ship's The wreck seemed long-boat. Perhaps my changing my mind. a corner sticking up. At the same time. before seizing the insect. looked about him for a leaf. . or something of that nature.

by some of I fail —some it — in to observe. which it came into my fell in " No me circumstances impressed peculiar force." " But. upon the parchment " you say that the when you made skull was noi the drawing of the ." I interposed. as might have been chosen for a memorandum for a — record of something to be long remembered and carefully preserved. could be seen that the It was just such a slip. I —but with had I had put to- gether two links of a great chain. original form was oblong. " — Matters of ment . little moment since. relevancy its corners had been. it is are rarely consigned to parch- mere ordinary purposes drawing This not nearly so well adapted as paper. also. and not far from the boat was a parch- ment —not a paper—with a ' will. upon the parchment. indeed. 112 find I an old when letter. of the pirate. reflection suggested some meaning the death's-head. There was a boat lying upon a sea-coast. paper. or death's-head. The upon the connection is it. and not Parchment is durable almost imperishable.THE GOLD-BUG. did not of the parchment. You ' ? the well-known I reply emblem flag of the death's-head is hoisted in all engagements. my hand mode thus detail the precise the for possession. the form Although one of accident. destroyed. ask skull depicted where is that the skull. doubt you will me think fanciful already established a kind of connection. I have said that the scrap was parchment. for the or writing. of course.

for example. and in close proximity to the fire. this And stage it. did not design the skull. thus: was no scarabceus. it I When skull apparent When had completed the drawing I to you. hereupon turns the whole mystery . How 113 then do you trace any connection between the boat and the skull since this latter. with entire distinctness. I in solving. and as you were in ever. Wolf. was permitted to fall listlessly the act of inspecting between your knees. drew the reasoned. . holding the parchment. and did remember. must have been designed (God only knows how or by whom) at some period subsequent to " your sketching the scarabceus ? " Ah. Then nevertheless of my was not done by was done. I was heated with exercise and sat near the table. and leaped upon your shoulders. it. Just as I placed the parchment in your hand. With your left hand you caressed him and kept him off. dent and a fire had drawn a chair close to the chimney. and observed you narrowly until I upon the I gave you returned it. although the had comparatively little difficulty steps were sure. the Newfoundland. rare and happy acciwas !). there parchment. You. according to beetle. while your right. it it reflections I endeavored to remember. and could afford but a secret. every incident which occurred about the period in ques- The weather was chilly (oh. at this point. — your own admission. and no one else was present to do human "At agency. blazing upon the hearth. therefore. entered. You. howtion. My single result.THE GOLD-BUG.

dissolved in spirit of nitre. there became but. diagonal!.now scrutinized the death's-head with care. Zaffre. the corner of the slip. and have existed time out which it is possible to write so that the by means of upon either paper or vellum. before I could speak. I examination. become visible only when characters shall subjected to the action of regia. the skull which upon it. but. the figure of what I at first supposed to be . digested in and diluted with four times its aqua weight of water. at in the experiment. Its material written upon cools. but again —the edges of the vellum — were outer edges far was of the drawing nearest the more distinct edge than the others. is The regulus of cobalt. 114 was about and to caution you. and were engaged considered moment all in its these particulars. colors disappear at longer or shorter intervals after the become apparent of heat. the re-application upon " I . upon the parchment. These sometimes employed . opposite to the spot in which the death's-head was delineated. You are well aware that chemical preparations exist. you had withdrawn When for a I thought the blaze had caught it. doubted not that heat had been the agent in bringing to I saw designed light. of mind. a green tint results. gives a red. It had been imperfect immediately kindled a fire. fire. the only effect was the strengthening of the faint lines in the skull. I every portion of the parchment to a glowing heat. upon persevering visible. and subjected clear that the action of the caloric or unequal. At one moment I it.THE GOLD-BUG. At first.

" — " I presume you expected to stamp and the signature." said You may have heard of one Captain Kidd. Perhaps. — I was of the body to sorely put out by the absence of all else my imagined instrument of the text for my context. in But the same manner. they appertain to the farming interest. but not altogether. the air of a stamp." " But I have just said that the figure was not that of a goat." " Well. position upon the The vellum suggested this idea. that Jupiter's silly — words. satisfied me that goat. 11$ A closer scrutiny. it was intended for a kid. because its . I felt irresistibly impressed with a presentiment of some vast good fortune Something can scarcely say why. but do you was rather a desire than an actual belief impending. know I . know. " to be sure I have no right to too serious you — a million and a half of money laugh a matter for mirth — but you are not about to establish a not find any especial conthird link your chain —you nection between your pirates and a goat — you at is in will pirates. or seal." " find a letter between the The fact is. a kid then —pretty much the same thing. after all." " Pretty much. about the bug being of . death's-head at the cdtner diagonally opposite. have nothing to do with goats . had." " Ha ha ! " ! said I. I at once looked upon the figure of the animal as a kind of punning I say signature or hieroglyphical signature. however. it of that kind.THE GOLD-BUG. " Legrand.

" you have heard. only from the circumstance of the buried treasure still re- maining entombed. Had Kidd concealed his plunder for a time. These rumors must have had some foun- dation in And fact. the many stories current the thousand vague rumors afloat about money buried. Il6 solid gold. It me seemed to memorandum that some accident indicating the means of recovering come known its it. I should never have become aware of the death's-head. somewhere upon the Atlantic coast. the rumors would scarcely have reached us in their present unvarying form. — say the loss of a — had deprived him of locality and that to his followers. could have resulted. of course. it appeared to me. fire. not all about moneythe pirate re- covered his money. had a remarkable effect upon my fancy ? And then the series of accidents and coincidences Do you very extraordinary. and afterward reclaimed it. dent it observe —these were so how mere an acci- was that these events should have occurred upon all the year in which it has been. there the affair would have dropped. or may be the sole day of and that without the sufficiently cool for fire." " But proceed " Well — I and so never the possessor of the am all impatience. his associates. seekers. by Kidd and — . that the rumors have existed so long and so continuous. You will observe that the stories told are Had about money-finders.THE GOLD-BUG. who this accident had be- otherwise might never . treasure. or with- out the intervention of the dog at the precise moment in which he appeared.

that the parchment so strangely found involved a lost record of the place of deposit. because unguided. and then universal currency. in become thoroughly heated. sub- . \\J have heard that treasure had been concealed at all. busying themselves in vain. therefore. and who. having done this." " " But how did you proceed ?" I held the vellum again to the the heat." Here Legrand. and put In a few the pan upon a furnace of lighted charcoal. to the reports which are now so common. having re-heated the parchment. to it Again I placed to remain another minute.THE GOLD-BUG. figures arranged in lines. nearly amounting to certainty. Upon taking now. I took it for granted. had given first birth. after increasing now thought I pos- might have something to do carefully rinsed the over it it. I re- my inexpressible joy. the pan having moved the spotted. the whole was just as you see it it in the pan. attempts to regain it. Have you ever heard of any important treasure being unearthed along the coast?" " Never. I with the skull downward. sible that the coating of dirt with the failure : so I pouring warm water placed it in a tin pan. minutes. found it slip. parchment by and. with what appeared to be and. I felt will scarcely be surprised when I a hope. and suffered it off. fire." " But that Kidd's accumulations were immense. but nothing appeared. is well known. that the earth still tell held them you that and you . several places.

48o8i. Circumstances.THE GOLD-BUG." said I.88* 9 6*?. in a red tint. Il8 mitted it my to rudely traced. they convey a meaning but then from what is known of ." should be that I " And*2(s*— 4 )8f 8*540692 85).8o6*. all " I me upon my solution of this enigma. bias of mind.:i88. have led and it me to take interest in such riddles. and a certain . that this was of a simple species such.8:8ti." said Legrand.)6t8)4tt. as — any one might readily guess. I made up my mind.8)*t(.48)4t. at once.t?.46(.S*t2:*t(." And you really solved " it ? " Readily I have solved others of an abstruseness ten thousand times greater. 4 8t81-6o))85.4826)4t)4). however. " absolutely insoluble without the key. I could not suppose him capable of constructing any of the more abstruse cryptographs. were and the goat << The inspection. so difficult as am as much in the jewels of Golconda await- you might be " I the solution am is quite sure by no means led to imagine from the hasty inspection of the characters.48t8s. unable to earn them. first These characters. ing Were him the slip. 4 8. form a cipher that is to say. to the crude intellect of the — sailor. may well be doubted whether human ingenuity can human ingenuity construct an enigma of the kind which .485).i6i.ia9.:t*8t83(88) 5*t. Kidd. as would appear. 4 a?34.(8 8.4)485t5288o6*8i(t9." " But. returning the dark as ever. following characters between the death's-head : 53«t305))6*.

I constructed a table thus : .) sured. I may scarcely gave a thought to the ing their import. the genius of the particular idiom. " You observe there are no divisions Had I assumed the between the words. cryptograph to be English. depend upon.THE GOLD-BUG. had a word of a single letter occurred. especially. I should have considered the solution as But. and are varied by. as the tongues in which a secret of this kind would most naturally have been written^ by a this consideration I pirate of the Spanish main. The pun upon the word Kidd is appreBut for ciable in no other language than the English. as is most likely. ascertain frequent. " In the present case — writing the cipher the . mere —indeed difficulty of develop- in cases all of secret question regards the language of the first for the principles of solution. there eral. the cipher before us all difficulty ' ' should have begun my attempts with the Spanish and French. as well as the least Counting all. until now was removed by the signature. with probabilities) of every the solution. As it was. as more simple ciphers are concerned. there being no division. by proper application. once established connected and legible characters. {a or /. II9 In fact. so far. my first as- step was to the predominant letters. resolve. But. is In gen- no alternative but experiment (directed by tongue known to him who attempts the true one be attained. having not. for example. In such cases I should have commenced with a collation and analysis of the shorter words. there been divisions the task would have been com- paratively easy. and.

THE GOLD-BUG. 120 Of the character 8 there .

" establish a vastly important to we But. to the which the combination 148 occurs We last are enabled is to say. for example. letters the set . Thus a great step has been taken. and. we perceive that no word can be formed of which this th can be a part. Let us five. are enabled. instance but one. the last being /. point. — well confirmed. of the six characters succeeding this 'the/ we are cognizant of no less than of the cipher. 121 let us see. whether there are not repetitions of any three characters. most probably represent the word the. leaving a space for eeth.THE GOLD-BUG. these characters down. therefore. the ' is most usual . and 8 represents e the characters being 548. same order in the If we of collocation. We are . at once. of other words. so arranged. the last of them being 8.' Upon inspection. having established a single word. that several commencements and terminations Let us refer. discover repetitions of such letters. by experiment of the entire alphabet for a letter adapted to the vacancy. assume 4 represents k. thus. thus narrowed into t ee. ' the language. in — not far from the end know that the immediately ensuing is the commencement of a word. they ' will that represents . we know them unknown — t " Here we by the to represent. to discard the ' tkj as forming no portion of the word commencing with the first // since. now We may. we find no less than seven such arrangements. therefore.

letters.' as letter. for com- not very far from the beginning. the sole possible reading. going. 83(88. Looking now. if. r.88. we word arrive at the We ' thus gain another tree.46(. thus this arrangement have : the tree . d represented by f Four letters degree. 122 and. .through the alphabet. known g. } " ' beyond the word degree/ we perceive ' the combination . as before. we we read thus blank spaces. or substitute dots.' and . this arrangement. we find. in place of the thr^h the. ' words the tree ' in juxtaposition. we again see the combination 548. or egree.h the. plainly. where known. narrowly. " Looking beyond these words. it reads thus: the tree " Now. o } u. is the conclusion of the word gives us another letter. or. unknown characters. substituting the natural letters.. ?. through the cipher binations of and characters.. which. represented by with the (. leave : the tree thr. 3. for a short distance. if necessary.THE GOLD-BUG.4(P34 the. and itself new evident at once. and employ it by way of We termination to what immediately precedes. when But the word through makes this discovery gives us three represented by " ' ' \.

as far as covered.' and again furnishing us with two new characters. " Translating the unknown by the known 123 and representing read thus characters. 53ttt" we Translating as before. an arrangement * " we Referring. stand thus dis- It will : 5 represents a t 8 3 4 6 * X ( " We have. to avoid confusion.good. enough to convince you that ciphers of this nature are . to the beginning of the cryptograph. as before. now. no less than eleven of the most important letters represented.' that we arrange our key.rtee. we : th.THE GOLD-BUG. which assures us that the first two words are " It is now time ' first letter is A. immediately suggestive of the word thirteen. obtain . in a tabular form. represented by 6 and *. therefore. find the combination. dots. and that the A good. i and n. and it will be unnecessary I have said to proceed with the details of the solution.

" replied Legrand. "Something of that kind. and to give you some insight into the But be assured that the rationale of their development.' " "I confess.THE GOLD-BUG. would be nearly certain to overdo the matter. My first endeavor was to divide the sentence into the natural division intended "You mean. so as to increase the difficulty of solution. in pursuing such an object. " ' Here it is upon the parchment." to punctuate it?" reflected that it effect this ? " had been a point with the writer to run his words together without division." said I. he arrived at a break in his subject which would naturally re- . in the course of his composition. 124 readily soluble. all this left eye of the death's-head through the shot fifty feet out. a not over-acute man. : A good glass in the bishop's hostel in the degrees bee-line from the tree /'But. Now." " But how was it possible to " I by the cryptographist. "that the matter still wears a serious aspect. specimen before us appertains to the very simplest species of cryptograph. It now only remains to give you the full translation of the characters riddled. When.' "the enigma seems How dition as ever.' death's-heads. from deviV s seat forty-one and thirteen minutes northeast and by north main branch seventh limb east side shoot from the r as un- is it jargon about and 'bishop's hotels?' still in as bad a con- possible to extort a * a " meaning devil's seats. when regarded with a casual glance.

or a point." " It left me also in the dark. quite suddenly. that this some reference to an old ' Bishop's Hostel family. 1 25 quire a pause. when. of the ' might have name of Bessop. stance. " for a few days. in the present intogether. and re-instituted my inquiries among the older negroes of the island. and proceeding in a more systematic manner. one morning.' I dropped the obsolete word Gaining no infor' ' ." replied Legrand. had held possession of an ancient manor-house." said I. which. thus will easily detect the left eye seat—forty north —main of the death's- — a bee-line from the tree through the shot fifty feet out* " Even this division. in the neighborhood of Sullivan's Island. hostel. he would be exceedingly apt to run his characters. for any building which went by the name of the Bishop's Hotel for. I Acting upon crowding. ' mation on the subject. at this place. I length one of the most aged of the women said that she had heard of such a place as Bessop' s Castle place. " leaves me still in the dark. during which made I diligent inquiry. I was on the point of extending my sphere of search.. about four miles to the northward of the accordingly went over to the plantation. of course. At -. it entered into my head. time out of mind. you " l five A good glass in the bishop's hostel in the devil's and —northeast and by thirteen minutes —shoot from branch seventh limb east side " made the division : one degrees head such cases of unusual this hint. more than usually close If you will observe the MS. .THE GOLD-BUG.

but that it was not a castle. after some demur. for the word ' i is glass rarely any other sense by seamen. and a definite point in of view.' were intended as directions for the levelling of the ' . nor a tavern.THE GOLD-BUG.' and north. dismissing her. The castle consisted examine the of an irregular assemblage of latter accompany me at a loss as to clambered to its what should be next done. it. full secret of I now knew. my eyes upon a fell narrow ledge in the eastern face of the rock. This ledge projected about eighteen inches. " I offered to pay her well for her trouble. Now here. could have reference to . perhaps a yard below the summit upon which I stood. the ' ' devil's-seat to grasp the " The ' made no doubt I that here alluded to in the MS. while a niche in the cliff above just it gave it a rude resemblance to one of the hollow-backed chairs used by our ancestors. when. from Nor did I which to use hesitate to believe that the phrases. and was not more than a foot wide.. much ' ' being quite remarkable for insulated to the spot. place. ' forty-one northeast and by degrees and thirteen minutes. she consented We I found it without proceeded to to its and apex. admitting no variation. but a high rock. and then artificial felt cliffs and rocks its — one of the height as well as for I appearance. was a telescope to be used. and. " While I was busied in reflection. much difficulty. and good glass/ nothing but a telescope I was seemed the riddle. 126 and thought that she could guide me to it. I at employed once saw.

line. seventh this discovery I the enigma solved . since the horizontal was direction ' by the words. I perceived that the design was to drop a bullet from the left eye of the skull. " I let myself down upon it This fact confirmed position. I moved it cautiously up or down. for ' limb. except my in it was one particular preconceived idea. and that a bee-line. at first. I hurried home. Adjusting the focus of the telescope. the I ' forty-one ' degrees and thirteen minutes could allude to nothing but elevation above the visible horizon. glass. a straight drawn from the nearest point of the trunk through . also. impossible to retain a seat Of proceeded to use the glass. was arrested by a circular rift or opena large tree that overtopped its fellows In the centre of this rift I perceived a attention ing in the foliage of in the distance. in regard to a search for buried treasure.THE GOLD-BUG. course. northeast clearly indicated and by north. procured a telescope. while * shoot from the left eye of the admitted. pointing the glass . east side. as nearly at an angle of forty-one degrees of elevation as I could do my until by it guess. but could not.' could refer only to the position of the upon the skull death's-head ' tree. in other words. and returned to the rock. and now made " Upon out to be a it human skull. white spot. distinguish what it was. I again looked. and found that to the ledge. was so sanguine as to consider the phrase main branch. of but one interpretation. 1 27 Greatly excited by these discoveries. or.' This latter direction I at once established by means of a pocket-compass then.

" In this expedition to the Bishop's Hotel ' ' I had been attended by Jupiter. getting up very early. and took especial care not to leave me alone. But. fact (for repeated experiment has convinced me to fact) that the circular opening in question I get What seems is is the it is visible a from no other attainable point of view than that afforded by the narrow ledge upon the face of the rock. and went into the hills in search of the tree. observed." said " I. you missed the attempt at digging. With the rest you are as well acquainted as myself. through spot. 128 1 ' the shot (or the spot where the bullet extended to a distance of nite point —and beneath fifty feet." " I suppose. although All this. no doubt. turn as I ." I said. the abstraction of my demeanor.' however. still ' seat. I contrived to give him the slip. and. on the next day. for some weeks past. When you left the " Bishop's Hotel. having carefully taken the bearings of the tree* The instant that I left the devil'sI turned homeward. " " is exceedingly clear. would indicate a this point I thought it defi- at least " possible that a deposit of value lay concealed. me the chief ingenuity in this whole business. simple and explicit. and thence fell). what then ? " Why. in the first Jupiter's stupidity in letting . nor could would. valet proposed to give of the adventure I believe When I came home at night me a flogging. who had. After my much toil I found it.THE GOLD-BUG. ingenious. the circular a glimpse of it rift vanished afterward.

two inches and a ' half in the made shot ' position of the peg nearest the tree 29 left a difference of about —that . But for my deep-seated impressions that treasure was here somewhere actually buried. And why did you insist upon letting fall the — ! bug. the bug 1 through the right instead of through the fall eye of the skull. in the and had the treasure been beneath the 'shot/ the error would have been of but the shot/ together with the nearest little moment ' . and for " ? it fall its I a little bit swung the from the tree. in the beginning. by punish you quietly." your grandiloquence. were merely two points for the estab- lishment of a line of direction ever with the of course the error. What are " tons found in the hole ? j*re only one point to make of the skeleis ' . to be frank. from the skull " Why. vation this reason I let of yours about and so resolved to my own way. threw us quite how- we proceeded and by the time we had gone fifty feet off the scent. ." " Yes. increased as trivial line. For this reason sober mystification.THE GOLD-BUG. we might have " But had all our labor in vain. and your conduct in swingI was sure you ing the beetle how excessively odd were mad. and now there which puzzles me. I felt evident suspicions touching in somewhat annoyed by your my sanity. I perceive . obser- great weight suggested the latter idea." " This mistake Precisely. instead of a bullet. point of the tree. is to say. An of beetle.

have thought it suggestion would imply. he must have had this labor concluded.THE GOLD-BUG. . however. only one plausible way them and yet it is dreadful to believe yourself. expedient to remove It is all he may participants in Perhaps a couple of blows with a mattock sufficient. were — . while his coadjutors were busy in the pit " perhaps it required a dozen who shall tell ? his secret. is clear that But this treasure. in am no more I — if doubt not my Kidd indeed secreted — it assistance in the labor. 130 " That is a question — of accounting for such atrocity as clear which that Kidd I able to answer than There seems.

highway and for will become a common and convenient mankind. it will be difficult to assign a reason why she should not have accomplished it. from Land to Land ! The subjoined jeu — "Victoria. in the New. and four others. if (as some assert) the something beyond . Henson. Mr. has been subdued by science. daily newspaper. crossed in a Balloon ! The Atlantic has been actually and this too without difficulty — — without any great apparent danger with thorough control of the machine and in the inconceivably brief period — of seventy-five hours from shore to shore 131 ! By the energy . well interspersed with notes of admiration. Mr. as well as the earth and the ocean. S. C. vid Norfolk Three Days Signal Triumph of Mr. was originally published. as matter of fact. Monck Mason's Flying Machine Arrival at Sullivan's Island. in fact.] THE great problem is at length solved! The air." after a Passage of Seventy-five Hours Full Particulars of the Voyage ! with the preceding heading in magnificent capitals. — The Atlantic Crossed in [Astounding News by Express. Robert Holland. a.THE BALLOON-HOAX. "Victoria" did not absolutely accomplish the voyage recorded. Mr. of Mr. near Charleston. Mason. The rush for the " sole paper which had the news. in ! ! ! the Steering Balloon. and cT esprit therein fully subserved the purpose of creating indigestible aliment for the quidnuncs during the few hours intervening between a couple of the Charleston mails.York Sun. Harrison Ainsworth." was even the prodigious and.

. and other The only alteration made for the purpose matters of interest. author of "Jack Shepand Mr. and 2 P. The particulars fur- may be relied on as authentic and accurate with a slight exception. . to whose politeness our agent is also indebted for much verbal information respecting the balloon itself. . Harrison Ainsworth. of Lord Bentinck's a Mr. Robert Holland.M. Mr. Forsyth. Hen- son and Sir George Cayley. unsuccessful Woolwich — flying in nished below all. 132 of an agent at Charleston. public interest in the subject of aerial navigation. had much weakened the Mr. the 9th instant. Henson. we are enabled to be the to furnish the public with a detailed account of this most extraordinary voyage. as. they are every copied verbatim from the joint diaries of Mr. Monck in respect. machine—with two seamen from eight persons. Henson's scheme (which at first was considered very feasible even by men of science) was founded upon the . ceived." etc. on Tues- by Sir Everard Bringhurst Mr. which was performed between Saturday. Monck Osborne. the 6th instant. "THE BALLOON.THE BALLOON-IIOAX. Mr. its construction. nephew Mason and Mr. re- of throwing the hurried account of our agent. has been in the MS.. — —those of Mr. the well-known aero- day. S. first C. of late. the projector of the late pard. at 1 1 A. " Two very decided failures. Mason and Mr.M. nauts. Harrison Ainsworth. into a con- nected and intelligible form.

The only made with models propelling force it at the ever exhibited.THE BALLOON-HOAX. being novel. balloon. in all the experiments Adelaide Gallery. the whole fabric would necessarily descend. or in aiding project " It its ascending power. I The propelling principle. was the mere impetus acquired from the descent of the inclined plane and this impetus carried the machine farther when the vanes were . at this juncture that Mr. absence of the propelling. but actually impeded its flight. power. put in revolution. applied 33 eminence and continued by the revo- lution of impinging vanes. at rest. — than when they were in motion a fact which and in the sufficiently demonstrates their inutility. was thus a complete was The whole failure. 1 principle of an inclined plane. the idea. but were found entirely ineffectual in moving the also. only so far as regards the mode of its application He exhibited a model of his invention at the to practice. it was "found that the operation of these fans not only did not propel the machine. or vanes. voyage from Dover to Weilburg Monck Mason (whose in the balloon. or applied to interrupted surfaces. power. Polytechnic Institution. however. This consideration led Sir George Cayley to think only of adapting a propeller to some machine having of itself an independent power of support in a word. with Sir George. These vanes were four in number. or original. to a balloon — . which was also the sustaining. was here. But. started from an by an extrinsic force. ' Nassau/ . in form and number resembling the vanes of a windmill.

silk which in is cut into gores. before the gas has time to deteriorate or escape. — Its length six feet eight inches. It contained about three hundred and twenty cubic feet of gas. eighteen inches in length. and . to the interruption of surface independent vanes. These radii by two bands are connected at the outer of flattened wire manner forming the framework completed by a covering of oiled — the whole of the screw. through which. From this framework was suspended a wicker basket or car. which. 134 occasioned so much excitement in idea of employing the principle of the for the conceived the 1837) Archimedean screw purpose of propulsion through the air — rightly- attributing the failure of Mr. and rigged on to the balloon itself with a network in the customary manner. pounds about nine feet long. He made the first the public experiment Rooms. upon a semispiral inclined at fifteen degrees. but afterward removed at Willis's in his model to the Adelaide Gallery. Henson's scheme. if pure hydrogen. would support twenty-one pounds upon its first inflation. " The screw consists of an axis of hollow brass tube. pass a series of steelwire radii. George Cayley's balloon. was a frame of light wood. his own was an was thirteen feet six inches height. two either side. and of Sir 1 1 George Cayley's. extremities this and thus projecting a foot on feet long. " Like Sir ellipsoid.THE BALLOON-HOAX. The weight of the whole machine and apparatus was seventeen —leaving about four pounds to spare. Beneath the centre of the balloon.

of its axis this screw is supported by pillars At each end of hollow brass tube descending from the hoop. after gradually increasing as altogether. being capable of raising forty-five barrel of four inches diameter. one foot. 1 35 tightened so as to present a tolerably uniform surface. we have necessarily described in an imperfect manner) was put in action at the Adelaide Gallery. By means of the rud- der. The spring was of great power. In the lower ends of these tubes are holes in which the pivots of the axis revolve. pounds It weighed. thus opposite direction. eight light like was wound up. proceeds a shaft of steel. as well as to the right or left . where it accomplished a . weight was about two ounces. six ounces. made By progressive motion to the whole. compared with its dimen- sions. and thus enabled the aeronaut to transfer the resistance of the air which in an inclined position any side it must generate upon which he might determining the balloon in the in its passage. connecting the screw with the pinion of a piece of spring machinery fixed in the operation of this spring. and could be turned Its flat. " This model (which. silk. the screw is to revolve with great rapidity. It it pounds upon a the first turn. and directed upward or down- ward. and was about three feet long.THE BALLOON-HOAX. to desire to act . the machine was readily turned in any direction. a The rudder was shaped somewhat a battledoor. communicating a the car. From the end of the axis which is next the car. and at frame of cane covered with the widest. through want of time.

was Mr. was admitted to a private view of the balloon. that he determined to construct immediately. project. Mr. 136 velocity of five miles per hour it excited very little . as before. however. Osborne. accompanied by his friend Mr. in the Nassau balloon. Henson. a balloon of sufficient capacity to test the question by a voyage of —the original design being to cross the British Channel. and Mr. Mason. comparison with the pre- Henson — so resolute world to despise any thing which carries with it an simplicity. Osborne. Holland. To accomplish the great desideratum of is the air of aerial was very generally supposed that some exceedingly complicated application must be made of some navigation. strange to say. although. Ainsworth. he solicited some extent To carry out his views. on Saturday last when the two gen- — tlemen made final arrangements to be included in the . at the desire of Mr. " So well satisfied.THE BALLOON-HOAX. secret from the public —the The was kept a profound only persons entrusted with the design being those actually engaged in the construction of the machine. if possible. in Wales. and obtained the patronage of Sir Everard Bringhurst and Mr. Mason of the ultimate success of his invention. interest in vious complex machine of Mr. Mr. it unusually profound principle in dynamics. Sir Everard Bringhurst. two gentlemen well known for scientific acquirement. Osborne) at the seat of the latter gentleman near Penstruthal. which was built (under the superin- tendence of Mr. and especially for the interest they have exhibited in the progress of aerostation.

and its affinity for the surrounding atmosIn a balloon sufficiently perfect to retain its phere. The common is is not not only and managed. when fully inflated. much . in the course put our readers in possession of the minutest particulars respecting this extraordinary voyage. the supporting power of the machine. which contents of coal-gas unaltered. and the united weights of the party amounting only to about 1200. Up to was not only exTwo and even three his discovery. " The liquid balloon gum is composed caoutchouc. owing to its extreme subtlety. there was left a surplus of 1300. the process of inflation ceedingly expensive. and immediately more than about 2500 pounds. adventure. but uncertain. For its aerostation. We seamen were also included of a are not informed for we day or two. varnished with the It is of vast dimensions. an equal quantity of hydrogen could not be maintained in equal purity for six weeks. but as coal-gas more expensive and incon- venient hydrogen. days have frequently been wasted in procure a sufficiency of hydrogen to attempts to a balloon. Charles Green. of silk." less costly.000 cubic feet of gas was employed in place of the . " The supporting power being estimated at 2500 pounds. shall in 1 37 what reason the two the party —but. from futile fill it had great tendency to escape. use for purposes of are indebted to Mr. contain- ing more than 40. of which again . but is coal-gas easily procured introduction into we after inflation. in quality or amount.THE BALLOON-HOAX. for six months.

The balloon besides with a grapnel. even. cloaks. in proportion. sition of dew upon circumstances tending to create many . if it should be judged prudent to do so. considerably smaller. in explanation. A few words. barometers. augmenting or diminishing its For example. with the exception of the ballast. or the machine may descend. This ballast being discarded. including a coffee-warmer. and derfully strong. and various other indispensable matters. for so frail-looking a machine. smaller and lighter.THE BALLOON-HOAX. it is subjected to the influence of a difference in its weight ascending power. in proportion. 138 1200 was exhausted by ballast. will here be necessary for such of our readers of the as are not conversant with the details of aerostation. with their respective weights them dif- marked upon —by cordage. " As soon as the balloon quits the earth. of several hundred pounds ballast has then to be thrown out. were The car is much suspended from the hoop overhead. . and a clear sunshine evaporating the dew. larger. arranged in bags of ferent sizes. screw is won- rim is The rudder is also very much than that of the model and the about four feet deep. is Its . All these articles. carpetbags. and a guide-rope . than the one appended to the model. there may be a depothe silk. is which furnished latter is most indispensable importance. water-casks. barrels contain- ing provision for a fortnight. It is formed of a light wicker. and at the same . contrived for warming coffee by means of slack-lime. so as to dispense altogether with fire. telescopes. and a few trifles. to the extent.

1 39 time expanding the gas in the silk. there will be discharging ballast to remedy the increase of weight. by the deposit on the ground of just so much of the it is end of the rope as is necessary. If. in the loss of gas. on the other hand. To check this ascent. Thus. to prevent the balloon material degree. a proportionate general loss of is so that. there should be a de- upon the silk. the balloon can neither ascend nor descend. in an exactly just proportion. either in gas or ballast. sing over an expanse of water.THE BALLOON-HOAX. any circumstances should cause undue levity. Green's invention of the guiderope) the permission of the escape of gas from the valve is (or rather was. except within very narrow limits. If. in a comparatively brief period. remain comparatively unimpaired. for remedied. and come to the earth. and its resources. " The guide-rope remedies the difficulty in the simplest manner conceivable. but. the whole will again rapidly ascend. all This was the great obstacle to voyages of length. and consequent ascent. ascending power . or counteracted. the only resource Mr. position of moisture from changing for its level in any example. is merely a very long rope which and the effect of which is It is suffered to trail from the car. it When pas- becomes necessary to employ small kegs of copper or wood. until . filled with liquid . the best-constructed balloon must necessarily exhaust its resources. and the machine begins no necessity for to descend in consequence. this levity is immediately counteracted by the additional weight of rope upraised from the earth.

office of the direction of the balloon. and seat. the farther the balloon precedes the end of the rope. in the court- yard of Weal-Vor House. quently. that is to say. the . " The inflation was commenced very quietly at day- break. however. and alight as near Paris as possible. about a mile at seven minutes past eleven. the whole apparatus but the larger the angle. conse- free . and the converse. the angle formed by the rope with the vertical axis of the machine. and entitling the adventurers to exemption from the usual formalities of office . Osborne's from Penstruthal. rendered these passports superfluous. specifying the nature of the expedition. the is stationary . unexpected events. In the same way. on Saturday morning. while the balloon is made is : always in advance. in North Wales . indicates the When velocity. is and Another land. when any progress whatever by means of the com- a comparison. the 6th instant. the rope hangs perpendicularly. the guide-rope. every thing being ready for departure. of the relative positions of the will always indicate the course. greater the velocity "As the . Mr. the voyagers had taken the precaution to prepare themselves with passports directed to all parts of the Continent.THE BALLOON-HOAX. therefore. pass. two objects. 140 serve all the purposes of most important a mere rope on land or sea. These than water. original design was to cross the British Chan- nel. either on the latter. ballast of a lighter nature to point out rope drags. as in the case of the 'Nassau ' voyage. The is float. when there is no angle — in other words.

April the 6th. is Mr. however. The it ran out our guide-rope we but even went up unusually steady. each day. as given. " " THE JOURNAL. and rose gently but steadily. of Mr. I . balloon was . in a direction nearly south . to lose gas at so early a period of the adventure. daybreak but owing morning which encumbered the it likely to . and so concluded to ascend for the present. with a light breeze at north. folds of the silk did not get through loose. Saturday. Monck Mason and Mr. and rendered at unmanageable. and a P. we before nearly eleven o'clock. of either the screw or the rudder. no doubt. is Ainsworth. Mason. did not wish. in the handwriting of appended. The body of the journal. who has in preparation. Ainsworth. rapid. by Mr. for the first half hour. We proceed now with the journal. and clear of the earth. no use being made. our ascent became very expected cliffs. a thrillingly in- teresting account of the voyage. 141 balloon was set free. — Every preparation us having been embarrass menced the made inflation this to a thick fog. and will shortly give the public a more minute and. Forsyth from the joint MSS. then. S. Found the ascending force greater than we had and as we arose higher and so got clear of the and more in the sun's rays. in high spirits. Cut we com- overnight. rising gently but steadily. still .THE BALLOON-HOAX. which bore us in the direction of the British Channel. as transcribed by Mr. We soon when we had raised very rapidly.

with the buoys affixed. Ainsworth. mountains in the south. In about ten minutes after starting. on the and we were let off enough gas to bring our guide-rope. with the seamen. I4 2 looked beautifully. We now resolved to us. the sufficient to enable us to pass . was surprised at their apparent want of altitude when viewed from the car. minutes afterward. we view of the Bristol Channel and. piled in inextrica- much ble confusion. The numerous deep gorges presented the appearance of lakes. The weather was remarkably fine. into the This was immediately done. a gradual descent. In a few minutes we soared over them in fine style and Mr. to nearly a dead level.000 feet. tendency of great elevation in a balloon being to reduce inequalities of the surface below. At half-past obtained our fifteen proceeding nearly south. as the giant We were rapidly approaching the but our elevation was more than them in safety. and at the touch of the second soon afterward. on account of the dense vapors with which they were filled. and the pinnacles and crags to the south east. the line of breakers coast appeared immediately beneath fairly out at sea. We were water. the barometer indicated an altitude of 15. in eleven first still . resembling nothing so cities of Eastern fable. and the view of the subjacent country a most romantic one when seen from any — point —was now especially sublime. all now anxious to test the efficiency of the rudder and . we remained stationary as to elevation.THE BALLOON-HOAX. and we commenced In about twenty minutes our first buoy dipped.

to my fancy. 1 43 and we put them both into requisition forthwith. at some forty miles to our north. Ainsworth made an extraordinary but. we became axis of the screw. it. screw. (by a swaying of the car through some movement of one of the two seamen we had taken stant hung dangling out up. Upon this in the sea Hardly. and had time to think what we were about. and in a line for Paris. the purpose of altering our direction more to the eastward. toward the Atlantic. and our course was brought nearly at right angles to that of the wind when we set in motion the spring of the . desired. in which . from the in an in- pivot of the While we were endeavoring to regain our attention being completely absorbed. inclosing a slip of parchment dropped with a brief account of the principle of the invention.) and of reach. before we had secured the rod. at the car end.THE BALLOON-HOAX. so that we came up with Cape Clear. By means of the rudder for we instantly effected the necessary change of direction. a by no means unreasonable or chimerical proposition. than fifty or sixty miles an hour. screw. involved in a strong current of wind from the east. and were rejoiced to find it propel us readily as we gave nine hearty cheers. when an unforeseen accident occurred which discouraged us in no little degree. certainly. The steel rod connecting the spring with the propeller was suddenly jerked out of place. bore us. soon found ourselves driving out to sea at the rate of not less. and a bottle. which We with rapidly increasing force. had we done with our rejoicings. It was now that Mr. however.

to vessels fired signal guns loud cheers (which . seemed resolved ourselves. and in place of beating back to Paris. a vastly increased we rate flew with of a the guide-rope flying out like a streamer from a vessel. who. either for ascent or descent. as the gale freshened. passed over innumerable vessels of all less to We kinds. It is need- velocity nearly inconceivable car.THE BALLOON-HOAX. occasioned the greatest excitement on board all —an We excitement greatly relished and especially by our two men. or fear. and kept resolutely We steered due west . After slight reflec: tion I gave a willing assent to this bold proposition. and we had the balloon abundantly at command. behind the as brought . much of the rope We manoeuvre immediately. which (strange to say) met with objection from the two seamen only. As the stronger party. progress . in all we heard with Many we were of the saluted with surprising distinctness) / . H4 — he was instantly seconded by Mr. and the wind. it perceived the effect of this in and. to give all scruple. we over- ruled their fears. say that a very short time sufficed us to lose sight of the coast. that we should take advantage of the strong gale which bore us on. Holland viz. now by under the influence of a dram of Geneva. but the most of them lying to. upon our course. we first threw out fifty pounds of ballast. however. a few of which were endeavoring to beat up. make an attempt to reach the coast of North America. and then wound up materially (by means of a windlass) so quite clear of the sea. but as the trailing of the buoys impeded our progress.

Ainsworth.] The last nine hours have been unquestionably the most exciting of my life. S. We kept on in this manner throughout the day with no material incithe shades of night closed around us. we a rough estimate of the distance traversed. We suffered night. and novelty of an adventure such as grant that to my we succeed yet the feat One I is —for is May God this. I can conceive nothing more sublimating than the strange peril P. and the dampness of the atmosphere was most unpleasant but the the east all success. . knowledge and wonder ! but for the sake of human the vastness of the triumph. the gale freshened into an abso- and the ocean beneath was clearly visible on account of its phosphorescence. 145 and the waving of caps and handkerchiefs. and gave us the brightest omen of no little from cold. The wind was from lute hurricane. and. And only so evidently feasible that the sole why men have single gale such as scrupled to attempt now befriends us— it let before. and by ample means of cloaks and a few blankets we did sufficiently space in the car enabled us to lie well. ask not success for mere safety insignificant person.THE BALLOON-HOAX. and. " [by Mr. down. no doubt. such a tempest whirl forward a balloon for four or five days (these gales often last longer) and the voyager will be . It could dent. was kept in constant operation. hundred propeller and was miles. as made not have been less than probably five The much more. As the sun went down. aided our progress materially.

or nine-knot Sunday. notwithstanding its I agitation. than itself. very and now. we are our course due west. a stiff requisite. At noon. to-day. lives a whole century of ordinary life nor would I forego this rapturous delight for that of a whole century of In a night such as — ordinary existence. thirty has veered. am more struck. .000 but. ascended to an elevation of nearly 25. navigation of the air in any direction (not exactly in the teeth of a gale) as no longer problematical. The immense flaming ocean writhes and plainingly. could not have made head against the strong wind of yesterday We .] the gale. The mountainous innumerable dumb is tortured uncom- surges suggest the idea of gigantic fiends struggling in impotent — is this to me. and bears It us. in that period. just now. which answer their purposes to admiration. by ten. principally by the screw and holding I rudder. from coast to coast. the as and the regard project thoroughly successful. The with any other phenomenon presenting waters give up no voice to the heavens. however. 146 easily borne. breeze (for a vessel at sea). had subsided to an eight. easy considerably to the north . breeze. miles per hour. at sundown. we can make our way with the propeller. I feel conAgainst pretty vinced.THE BALLOON-HOAX. perhaps. if by ascending. the yth. Mason's MS. or more. " This morning [Mr. with the supreme silence which reigns in the sea beneath us. we might have got out of its influence. of such a gale the broad Atlantic In view becomes a mere lake. a man lives agony.

quite a surprising one) that. last The result. Omne ignotum at 25. and difficulty I find all this to search for a We and misapprehended. I experienced neither very intense cold. currents against me. Sir Everard. Mason. nor Mr. nor . however. tolerable headway with the propeller. except the fact (to I The [By Mr. Holland. 147 me can make very We have had no I night promises I have little fair. but found one we are now in. Ainsworth. by discharging more direct current. is attempted to account for this phenom- A line dropped quite susceptible of explanation. incidents worth recording. difficult Mem. nor headache. even should the voyage I have not the slightest fear for the has been strangely exaggerated I can choose my current. : a feat after all. Osborne complained of constriction of We have flown at a this soon wore off. to record. we must be more than We have passed over some twenty or thirty vessels of various kinds. did Mr. and half way across the Atlantic. feet. nor difficulty of breathing neither. suppose) but absolutely and most unequivocally concave* " * Note — Mr.] S. . "P. take us across this three weeks. which. at an elevation equal to that of Cotopaxi. should Did ballast.THE BALLOON-HOAX.000 feet elevation the sky appears nearly black. none so favorable as the have an abundance of gas to small pond. chest — but great rate during the day. and the stars are distinctly visible while the sea does not seem convex (as one might . Ainsworth has not enon. and all seem to be delightfully astonished. Crossing the ocean in a balloon is not so pro magnifico. I find. the Mr.

when compared with the perpendicular. . the base and hypothenuse of the supposed triangle would be so long. that the two former may be regardec as nearly parallel. at a great distance below him.THE BALLOON-HOAX. In this manner the horizon of the aeronaut would aj pear to be on a level with. be improved. which must be entirely remodelled. the base would extend from the right angle to the horizon. in comparison with the extent of the prospect.000 feet. also. In other words. and the hypothe nuse from the horizon to the balloon. at a great distance below the horizon. ous accident — I mean for fear of seri- The the steel rod. and is. we were somewhat alarmed all and concussions in at some odd noises the balloon. phenomena were occasioned by the expansion These of the gas. The wind has been blowing steadily and strongly from the northeast all day. and the consequent disruption of the minute particles of ice with which the network had become encrusted during night. accompanied with the ap- parent rapid subsidence of the whole machine. But the 25. that the apparent parallelism of tht base and hypothenuse disappears when the earth's real convexity must be- — come apparent. of whicl (or sea). and so far fortune seems bent upon favoring us. not the vanes. the St/i. as the point immediately beneatl him seems. But. the car. it seems. Endeavored to mak( from an elevation of 25. Mason's MS. perpendicularly to the surface of theeartl would form the perpendicular of a right-angled triangle. Just before latter could not day. Hence the impression of concavity and this impression must remain. until the elevation shall bear so great proportion to the extent of prospect. of course.] This morning we had again some little trouble with the rod of the propeller. through increase of heat in the atmosphere. [Mr. 148 " Monday. Threw down th< several bottles to the vessels below. — See one of them picked up by a large ship seemingh one of the New York line packets.000 feet of altitude is little or nothing.

Ainsworth. and very difficult the air so we move with have not slept since quitting Wheal-Vor.] P. Ainsworth's MS.] One. of course. but can stand it no longer. in particulars of the de- by Mr. which took firm once. and we are sea is still ' Atalanta. Tuesday. but it fort. Forsyth. The latter gentleman having acquaintances at Fort Moultrie. which was immediately It recognized by both the seamen. " night. p. out her name. was . and must take a nap. but could not be sure of made telescope now twelve at The rapid pace.. and by Mr. " We [Mr. are in full view of the low coast of South Carolina. Ainsworth to was nearly dead calm when the voyagers view of the coast. Mr.THE BALLOON-HOAX. We completely.m. the gth. S. Osborne's it. and admirably adapted for a hold at descent). however.' It is going nearly west. The great problem Atlantic — be praised hereafter The fairly ! is and Who easily crossed shall say that it a balloon any thing is God ! impossible " Journal here ceases. Mr. I cannot be far from the American coast. as well as I can judge to determine this point. at a peculiarly phosphorescent. it was immediately resolved to descend in its vicinity. out something like it 149 It is nearly calm. The balloon was brought over the beach (the tide being out and the sand hard. first We accomplished. Osborne. and of the thronged out. came in have crossed the ? Some scent were communicated. The inhabitants of the island. [By Mr. and the grapnel let go. to see the balloon .M. smooth. since now two —but it is A.

precisely and thus the whole voyage was completed in seventy-five hours. The grapnel caught at two P.THE BALLOON-HOAX. No counting from shore to shore. trouble .M. cident occurred. it would be useless now to think . the most interesting. or . ensue. the party were Their further intentions were not still at Fort Moultrie. but we can safely promise our readers additional information either on Monday some or in the course of the next day. ascertained . at furthest. and the most important undertaking ever accomplished or even attempted by man. I50 with the greatest difficulty that any one could be made to — credit the actual voyage the crossing of the Atlantic. from which this narrative is compiled was despatched from Charleston. hended. What magnifi- This is cent events may of determining. No real serious ac- danger was at any time appre- The balloon was exhausted and secured without and when the MS. rather less. unquestionably the most stupendous.


My upon pally who . it will be seen at 82. that this illustrious chemist had not only conceived the idea now in question. I need not go into details. how happens it — nearly that he took no steps. but had actually made no inconsiderable progress. Diary" is to be found at the Athenaeum Library. It is founded does not look true. Kissam actually did come upon the be. 53 and London. indebted to the for at least the first hint of his (I own undertaking. I canot refrain from append" ing two passages from the Diary. who although he makes not the slightest allusion to tatingly. and which purports to claim the invention for a Mr. and can prove without doubt it. we omit here a small portion of Mr." with one of Sir [As we have not the algebraic " and as the signs necessary. discovery he says he did.] The paragraph from the Courier and Enquirer. which is now going the rounds of the press. " Diary" it. . if about day and date and precise locaMr. is. Poe's manuscript. Kissam. pp. of Brunswick. Maine. a little apocryphal. for several although there is nothing either impossible or very improbable in the statement made. Besides. at the period designated eight — years ago. opinion of the paragraph its manner. appears to me. experimentally. IS 2 (Cottle and Munroe. if say it unhesirequired). Although a little technical. — Ed. reasons I confess. 150). are seldom so particular as Mr. princi- Persons are narrating facts. in the very identical analysis now so triumphantly brought to an issue by Von Kempelen.VON KEMPELEN AND HIS DISCOVERY. pp. Humphrey's equations. Kissam seems to tion.

we At page read. discussing Mr. Kissam's (or is it Mr. But to return to the " " Diary of Sir Humphrey Davy. in once by 13. even upon the decease of the writer. near the middle. and yet — have subsequently acted so like a baby so like an owl as Mr. I a chemist as Professor Draper. Kissam? Courier talk ? It it. diminished gradually and were succeeded by analogous to gentle half a . Kissam admits that he did. my . This pamphlet was not designed for the public eye. as any person at all conversant with authorship may satisfy himself at the slightest inspection of the style. who and Mr. if not to the world at large. in " up to make a fabrication got must be confessed that moon-hoax-y is not the whole paragraph in the and Enquirer a " upon is — has an amazingly it Very little dependence is to be placed humble opinion and if I were not well air. to reap the immense benefits 1 53 which the merest bumpkin must have known would have resulted to him individually. By-the-way. from the It discovery? seems me to quite incred- common understanding could ible that any man of have discovered what Mr. from experience. for ex- reference to his researches about the protoxide of azote " : In less than minute the respiration being continued. in so serious a tone. ample. on the instant. Kissam says he did.VON KEMPELEN AND HIS DISCOVERY. Quizzem's?) pretensions to the discovery. should be profoundly astonished at finding so eminent are mystified. aware. how very easily men of science on points out of their usual range of inquiry.

pamphlet truth of will my convince almost any thinking person of the The suggestion. A dred similar instances go to show that the MS. Sir Humphrey Davy world to comtnit himself on scientific topics. pressure on all " the muscles. Whether it escaped the flames by good fortune or by bad. [these feelings] diminished gradually. however fully he might have last in the . was about the man fact is. and were succeeded by [a sensation] hunanalogous to gentle pressure on all the muscles. it seems.154 VON KEMPELEN AND HIS DISCOVERY. to include this note-book directed " to be burnt." for that he meant . been convinced that he was on the right track in the matter now in question. but he was morbidly afraid of appearing empirical so that." The sentence. could he have suspected " that his wishes in regard to burning this " Diary (full of crude speculations) would have been unattended to as. so inconsiderately published." " were. I verily believe that his last moments would until have been rendered wretched. text. but by the use of the plural. meant only for the writer's own eye but an inspection of the ." That the respiration was not not only clear by the subsequent condiminished. was merely a rough note-book. yet remains to be seen. they were. was thus intended " : In less than half a min- the respiration being continued." ute. That the passages . he would never have spoken out. he had every thing ready for the most practical demonstration. is no doubt. Not only had he a more than ordinary dislike to quackery. I say "his wishes." I the miscellaneous papers think there can be no manner among of doubt.





quoted above, with the other similar ones referred to,
gave Von Kempelen the hint, I do not in the slightest
degree question








yet remains to be seen

momentous discovery itself {momentous under

any circumstances) will be of service or disservice to mankind at large. That Von Kempelen and his immediate
friends will reap a rich harvest,
for a



realize" in time,



would be

will scarcely

folly to


be so weak as not to

large purchases of houses



with other property of intrinsic value.
In the brief account of Von Kempelen which appeared
in the Home Journal, and has since been extensively

German original
seem to have been made by the translator, who professes
to have taken the passage from a late number of the Prescopied, several misapprehensions of the

" Viele " has
evidently been miscon-

burg Schnellpost.

ceived (as it often is), and what the translator renders by
r sorrows," is probably lieden" which, in its true version,
sufferings," would give a totally different complexion to

the whole account




but, of course,


of this



by no means

thrope," in appearance, at least, whatever he

" a misan-




My acquaintance with him was casual altogether
am scarcely warranted in saying that I know him at




but to have seen and conversed with a




Von Kempelen,


digious a notoriety as

few days,



of so pro-

he has attained, or will attain

not a small matter, as times go.





The Literary World speaks of him, confidently, as a
native of Presburg (misled, perhaps, by the account in The


Journal') but

positively, since I


born in Utica, in the




pleased in being able to state

from his own


that he was

State of New York, although both his


believe, are of Presburg descent.


connected, in some way, with Maelzel, of automaton-





are not mistaken, the


of the inventor of the chess-player

Von Kempelen,

or something like



— Ed.]


In person,

short and stout, with large, fat, blue eyes, sandy
and whiskers, a wide but pleasing mouth, fine
teeth, and I think a Roman nose. There is some defect in




one of

His address

his feet.



and acts as



ever saw.

little like

We were


whole man-

Altogether, he looks,

ner noticeable for bonhommie.



a misanthrope




fellow-sojourners for a week,

about six years ago, at Earl's Hotel, in Providence, Rhode
Island and I presume that I conversed with him, at va;

rious times, for

some three or four hours



principal topics were those of the day and nothing that
fell from him led me to suspect his scientific attainments.



the hotel before me, intending to go to

York, and thence to Bremen
his great discovery


was there that he was






Von Kempelen








the latter city that



or, rather, it

made it.
the now im-

suspected of having








have thought that even

these few details would have interest for the public.

There can be




question that most of the marvellous

about this affair are pure inventions, enabout as much credit as the story of Alladin's
and yet, in a case of this kind, as in the case of

titled to



the discoveries in California,


be stranger



so well authenticated, that

Von Kempelen had

clear that the truth

it is


following anecdote, at least,

we may receive



never been even tolerably well


during his residence at Bremen and often, it was well
known, he had been put to extreme shifts in order to raise




the great excitement occurred about

the forgery on the house of Gutsmuth
directed toward

Von Kempelen, on

& Co.,



account of his having

purchased a considerable property in Gasperitch Lane,
and his refusing, when questioned, to explain how he be-

He was at
of the purchase money.
appearing against
length arrested,
him, was in the end set at liberty. The police, however,
came possessed

kept a strict watch upon his movements, and thus discovered that he left home frequently, taking always the same

and invariably giving

his watchers the slip in the

neighborhood of that labyrinth of narrow and crooked

known by the



of the



dint of great perseverance, they traced

him to

a garret in an old house of seven stories, in an alley called


and, coming upon

him suddenly, found him,

they imagined, in the midst of his counterfeiting operaHis agitation is represented as so excessive that





the officers had not the slightest doubt of his guilt. After

handcuffing him, they searched his room, or rather rooms,
for it appears he occupied all the mansarde.


where they caught him, was a
fitted up with some chemical ap-

into the garret

closet, ten feet



paratus, of which the object has not yet been ascertained.

In one corner of the closet was a very small furnace, with
a glowing fire in it, and on the fire a kind of duplicate crucible

—two crucibles connected by a


was nearly

full of



of these

lead in a state of fusion, but

not reaching up to the aperture of the tube, which
close to the brim.



other crucible had some liquid in

which, as the officers entered, seemed to be furiously

They relate that, on finding himself
Von Kempelen seized the crucibles with both

dissipating in vapor.


hands (which were encased

in gloves that afterward


out to be asbestic), and threw the contents on the tiled
and before
It was now that they handcuffed him

proceeding to ransack the premises, they searched his per-

was found about him, excepting
coat-pocket, containing what was af-

son, but nothing unusual

a paper parcel, in his

terward ascertained to be a mixture of antimony and some
unknown substance, in nearly, but not quite, equal proportions.

All attempts at analyzing the unknown substance
far, failed, but that it will ultimately be analyzed,

have, so

not to be doubted.

Passing out of the closet with their prisoner, the officers
went through a sort of ante-chamber, in which nothing






found, to





rummaged some drawers and boxes, but
only a few papers, of no importance, and


and gold. At length, looking
under the bed, they saw a large, common hair trunk,
without hinges, hasp, or lock, and with the top lying care-

some good



bottom portion. Upon attempting to
from under the bed, they found that,
with their united strength (there were three of them, all
lessly across the


powerful men), they could not stir it one inch." Much
astonished at this, one of them crawled under the bed,

and looking into the trunk, said

No wonder we

brim of old

could n't

bits of brass





it 's full

to the


now, against the wall, so as to get a
good purchase, and pushing with all his force, while his
companions pulled with all theirs, the trunk, with much
Putting his feet,




tents examined.


out from under the bed, and

The supposed

brass with which





pieces, varying from the
of a pea to that of a dollar; but the pieces were



in small,


irregular in shape, although


or less



very much as lead looks when thrown
a molten state, and there suffered to
grow cool." Now, not one of these officers for a moment

upon the whole,

suspected this metal to be any thing but brass. The idea
of its being gold never entered their brains, of course;


could such a wild fancy have entered

it ?







may be

well conceived,

when next day


became known, all over Bremen, that the lot of brass "
which they had carted so contemptuously to the police



without putting


the trouble of



pocketing the smallest scrap, was not only gold

gold but gold

far finer

than any employed in
without the slightest

gold, in fact, absolutely pure, virgin,

appreciable alloy


need not go over the details of Von Kempelen's confession (as far as it went) and release, for these are

familiar to the public.


in effect,


That he has actually

not to the


realized, in

the old chimera of

the philosopher's stone, no sane person is at liberty to
doubt. The opinions of Arago are, of course, entitled to
the greatest consideration


but he


by no means


and what he says of bismuth, in his report to the
Academy, must be taken cum grano salts. The simple





that up to this period all analysis has failed


Von Kempelen

chooses to let us have the key
to his own published enigma, it is more than probable
that the matter will remain, for years, in statu quo. All

that yet can fairly be said to be



that "pure

gold can be made at will, and very readily from lead in
connection with certain other substances, in kind and in
proportions, unknown."

Speculation, of course,


busy as to the immediate and
a discovery which few

ultimate results of this discovery

thinking persons will hesitate in referring to an increased

interest in the

matter of gold generally, by the late devel-

in California




itably to another


this reflection brings us inev-

exceeding inopportiineness of Von
many were prevented from ad-



by the mere apprehension that
so materially diminish in value, on account of
its plentifulness in the mines there, as to render the specventuring to California,

ulation of going so far in search of

what impression


a doubtful one

be wrought now, upon the minds of
those about to emigrate, and especially upon the minds

of those actually in the mineral region,


of this astounding discovery of

by the announce-

Von Kempelen?


discovery which declares, in so many words, that beyond
its intrinsic worth for manufacturing purposes (whatever
that worth







cannot be supposed that

retain his secret), of


to speculate prospectively

that the


Von Kempelen

no greater value than

inferior value to silver.


but one thing




can long

and of


indeed, exceedingly difficult

upon the consequences of the


be positively maintained

of the discovery six

would have had material influence


or at least soon will be



in regard to the settle-

of California.

In Europe, as yet, the most noticeable results have
been a rise of two hundred per cent, in the price of lead,
and nearly twenty-five per cent, in that of silver.

doubt may

ale of



envelop the ration-

now althose who

startling facts are

most universally admitted. Of these latter,
doubt, are your mere doubters by profession

and disreputable



There can be no more


absolute waste of time than the attempt to prove, at the

by mere exercise of will, can so
to cast him into an abnormal con-

present day, that man,

impress his fellow, as
dition, in

which the phenomena resemble very closely

those of death, or at least resemble them more nearly

than they do the phenomena of any other normal condition within our cognizance that, while in this state, the

person so impressed employs only with effort, and then
feebly, the external organs of sense, yet perceives, with

keenly refined perception, and through channels supposed
unknown, matters beyond the scope of the physical or-




that, moreover, his intellectual faculties are

that his sympathies
derfully exalted and invigorated
with the person so impressing him are profound and,


finally, that his susceptibility to the impression increases




frequency, while, in the same proportion, the
peculiar phenomena elicited are more extended and more




—which are the laws of mesmerism
would be supererogation to defeatures —

say that these





nor shall

I inflict


my readers so needless

My purpose

a demonstration to-day.

is a very
teeth of
a world of prejudice, to detail, without comment, the very
remarkable substance of a colloquy occurring between a


one indeed.


at present


sleep-waker and myself.

had been long

in the habit of

in question (Mr. Vankirk),

mesmerizing the person

and the usual acute


bility and exaltation of the mesmeric perception had supervened. For many months he had been laboring under

confirmed phthisis, the more distressing effects of which
had been relieved by my manipulations and on the night

Wednesday, the


fifteenth instant, I

was summoned to

his bedside.



of the heart,


suffering with acute pain in the region

and breathed with great

the ordinary


difficulty, having
In spasms such as
from the application of

of asthma.

these he had usually found relief

mustard to the nervous centres, but to-night




had been

in vain.

entered his

room he greeted me with a

and although evidently



peared to be, mentally, quite at ease.


bodily pain, ap-



I sent for



administer to




ing certain psychal impressions which, of


not so

bodily ailment, as to satisfy





have occa-

me much

anxiety and surprise. I need not tell
you how sceptical I have hitherto been on the topic of

cannot deny that there has
in that very soul which I have been

the soul's immortality.


always existed, as if
denying, a vague half-sentiment of



reason had nothing to do.

inquiry resulted,


than before.








no time amounted to conviction.

this half-sentiment at






All attempts at


me more

had been advised to study
own works as well as in

in his

his European and American echoes.
example, was

those of


placed in

my hands.






with profound attention.
logical, but the portions which



were not merely logical were unhappily the initial arguments of the disbelieving hero of the book. In his sum-

ming up


seemed evident to me that the reasoner had

not even succeeded in convincing himself. His end had
plainly forgotten his beginning, like the government of




In short,


was not long

in perceiving that

to be intellectually convinced of his


own immortal-

never be so convinced by the mere abstractions

which have been so long the fashion of the moralists of
England, of France, and of Germany. Abstractions may

amuse and

exercise, but take

no hold on the mind.



earth, at least, philosophy, I


in vain call




to look

upon us




—the soul—the

persuaded, will




intellect, never.

and never

latterly there has

deepening of the feeling, until


qualities as things.

" I
repeat, then, that I only half felt,

lectually believed.



been a certain

has come so nearly to

resemble the acquiescence of reason, that I find it difficult
I am enabled, too,
to distinguish between the two.
plainly to trace this effect to the mesmeric influence.


cannot better explain my meaning than by the hypothesis that the mesmeric exaltation enables me to perceive
a train of ratiocination which, in my abnormal existence,
convinces, but which, in


accordance with the mes-

meric phenomena, does not extend, except through its
In sleep-waking, the
effect, into my normal condition.
reasoning and



are present together.



—the cause


its effect

natural state, the cause


the effect only, and perhaps only partially,


These considerations have led me to think that some



might ensue from a

questions propounded



series of well-directed

while mesmerized.


have often observed the profound self-cognizance evinced

by the sleep-waker— the extensive knowledge he displays
upon all points relating to the mesmeric condition itself

and from

this self-cognizance


be deduced hints


the proper conduct of a catechism."


consented of course to


this experiment.

A few

P. V. How do you think your present illness will result ? [After a long hesitation and speaking as if with effort^] P. His breathing became immediately more easy. but now no matter. The mesmeric condition is it is so near death as to content me. but it requires more effort feel able to make. The following conversation then ensued patient. Mr. P. Are you asleep ? Yes no I would rather — . and he seemed to suffer no physical uneasiness. V. myself.1 MESMERIC REVELATION. What then shall You must begin The beginning You know that ! I ask? at the beginning. P. But where is the beginning the beginning is GOD. am willing to do so. in the dialogue representing the P. fluctuating tone. Does the idea [ of death afflict No —no Very quickly. Vankirk into the mesmeric sleep. I V. I than I wish you would explain yourself. Yes. P. sleep now? Do you V. Vankirk. V. [After a few more passes. V. V. ? [ This wai said in a low. You do not question me properly. P. V. P. and : —V. and with every sign of the most profound veneration^] . 66 passes threw Mr. I must die. P.'] sleep more soundly.] you ? ! Are you pleased with the prospect ? If I were awake I should like to die.

V. beauty— P. Is not 1 it is . but impels all things things within .'] He is is he matter. Is V. thought. until we arrive at a ciple — — — matter unparticled without particles indivisible one . I see —but it {Another long pause. God is V. for the exam- impels the electric principle. No. it immaterial is —such. then. then. Is not While V. « What. and mutteringly. he ple. P. knew what you meant by I seems only a word a quality." but which is many minutes^ I cannot tell. for instance. ? no immateriality not matter. The meates all ultimate or unparticled matter not only perand thus is all things. 67 spirit ? as truth. —unless That qualities are things. while the electric prin- permeates the atmosphere." is this matter . I mean. {Hesitating for God P. material P. God. then.MESMERIC REVELATION. exists. finer. the grosser impelling the pervading the grosser. What. as you under- Nor But there are gradations of matter of which man knows nothing finer me a long pause. P. This matter attempt to embody in the word in motion. The atmosphere. itself. very much^\ ? tell. I "spirit. not at all a mere word. {After is is he spirit. " is What men God. These gradations of matter increase in rarity or fineness.~\ a thing difficult to not ? {This reply startled . and here the law of impulsion and permeation is modified. is ? was awake now God There V. for stand it.

and that the latter the is origin of the former. and now clearly see that know in But the unparticled matter. V. or consideration which restrains us our conception of its atomic constitution even. matter in one there can be no essentially distinct than that attach to a metal. Can you me no more give term the unparticled matter V. we call caloric. to class latter. but in spite of almost with is When we irresistible nihility. a piece of wood. a metal. all this. (equivalent in effect to prevalence how. not of thinking. . for example. and here. which we attach to the lumi- reach the inclination The only we . and embrace general definition two ideas more . We precise idea of what you ? man is cognizant escape the have. unity and omni- not. is thinking. the atmosphere. its volition) conselfis. P. a drop of water. and that which niferous ether. the result of I Motion see the confusion of idea. the luminiferous ether. is matter. 68 P. a gas. all these things matter. as I . The matters of which senses in gradation. The metaphysicians maintain that all action is re- ducible to motion and thinking. motion by a law or quality existing within I set in itself.1 MESMERIC REVELATION. unparticled we can the power of human the unparticled matter. ceive it) what men movement call is (as nearly as And mind. electricity. in quiescence. Now. Yes and . to seek aid from our notion of an atom. it we have we with feel an spirit. or God. now I The the action of mind. shall never know.

and we arrive rare than the metal. will be a degree of rarity at which. — experienced by the heavenly bodies in their revolutions through space a resistance now ascerslight resistance tained. it is truth is impossible to impossible to imagine that flatter ourselves we is. 1 69 in infinite minuteness. or. more is (in spite of —an unparticled For although we may admit infinite littleness in the atoms themselves. of Take. the nature of the mass inevitably glides into what conceive of spirit. a better word we might term . a step conceive a matter as beyond the luminiferous ether much more rare than the ether. if the sufficiently numerous. point —there vanish. . ether as an entity. at least. but which is. pal- something possessing Destroy the idea of the atomic constitution and we should no longer be able to regard the pability. There seems to me an insurmountable objection to the idea of absolute coalescence and that is the very P. that it is as we fully conceive spirit. When we conception. But the con- sideration of the atomic constitution being now taken away. however. since not. weight. the infinitude of littleness in the spaces between them is an absurdity. it is true. solidity. now. There will be a matter. as matter. its The matter as before. .MESMERIC REVELATION. It is clear. it what is we have formed have merely deceived our understand- ing by the consideration of infinitely rarified matter. the interspaces must atoms are and the mass absolutely coalesce. to exist in — some degree. as this ether at once the school dogmas) at a unique mass all For want it spirit.

it sidereal revolution in a very far been admitted by those astronoslur over a point which they mers who have endeavored to found it impossible to comprehend. of know proportion to their density. Your V. actually experienced is. the retarding force is momentary and complete within itself — in the other P. As is known countable than that which reconciles the retarda- tion of the comets with the idea of their passage through an ether . in this identification of there nothing of irreverence this question before prehended my meaning^ ? mere matter [/ was forced the sleep-waker fully com- . But in with God — to repeat all is this it is — endlessly accumulative. chiefly. The retardation on the other hand.1 MESMERIC RE VELA TION. is that the re- Where there An ether. so slight as to have been quite overlooked by the sagacity even sistance of bodies is. is — apparent unanswerability. answered with an ease which is objection nearly in the ratio of its regards the progress of the whether the through star. there can be no yielding. for. are no interspaces. would put an infinitely more effectual stop to the progress of a star than would an ether of ada- mant or of iron. 7° nevertheless. it can make no difference through the ether or the ether no astronomical error more unac- star passes There it. about that which might be expected from the friction of the ether in the instantaneous passage through the orb. In the one case. absolute density. however would put a stop to all briefer period than has rare this ether be supposed. in Absolute coalescence We Newton. absolutely dense.

this the universal mind. then. is " individualized. were God. Yes. matter is mind is For new God. he the particular motion of the incarnated portions of the unparticled matter as the is was neces- motion of the whole is is the thought of that of God. P. in all respects. P. with all the powers attributed to but the spirit. V. is perfection of matter. God.MESMERIC REVELATION. indi- necessary. thinking beings. create individual. in thought." V. Yes —to mean the intend P. All created is things are but the thoughts of God. V." The V. When unparticled or ultimate matter I . that is the unparticled matter. for mind." I all else. . is avoid confusion. You say. motion the universal thought of This thought creates. You motion. and is. Now merely Thus man Divested of corporate investiture. the matter of these schools at the same time." I matter. say by " mind. " in general. " " moreover. the very mind spirit the schools. In general. 171 Can you say why matter should be less reverenced ? But you forget that the matter of which I than mind " " " " or of speak is. Yes God. " " of " mind and " matter as do you now speak P. V. assert. To . man . But the metaphysicians. You were saying that " for new individualities matter necessary. universal vidualities. so far as regards its high capacities. existing unincorporate. it sary to incarnate portions of the divine mind.

Creatures are thoughts the nature of thought to be irrevocable. The matter of which our rudimental body is composed. But of the worm's metamorphosis cognizant. . are palpably — We. the we is is pro- perfected. ultimate. P. futile action. V." Man thus divested would be God —would be unindividualized. You say that man will never the body? I say that he will never be bodiless. divested he can never be thus else least God " man were God. Our present incarnation gressive. mental organs are adapted to the matter of which is formed the rudimental body but not to that of which . it is P. more distinctly. our rudiV. full design. . preparatory. certainly but not the worm. an absurdity. do not comprehend. I put off V. 1 72 You say that divested of the body man will be God ? V. temporary. And You did say notes." painful metamorphosis. of God.] this is true. corresponding and the butterfly. The ultimate Our future life is P. P. Explain. {Referring to my of corporate investiture V. [After much hesitation^ I could not have said this P. is within the ken of the organs of that body or. It is returning upon we must imagine an —a purposeless and itself Man is a creature. But never will be— divested — at action of that —the rudimental and the com- There are two bodies plete.MESMERIC RE VELA TION. . with the two conditions of the worm What we call " is but the death. immortal.

How is this ? I say that resembles the ultimate senses of my resembles death. not that . 1 73 composed. of man and to that only unorganized. inner form is itself . and I per- life ceive external things directly. is are adapted to his rudimental . being of unlimited comprehension in all but one — the nature of the volition of God —that the motion of the unparticled matter. but this inner form. shall I employ in the ultimate. to the exclusion of other classes and is forms. Yes . unorga- life. as well as the shell. his ultimate condition. The ultimate body thus escapes our rudimental senses. This it is You is will body by conceiving points to say. without organs. The organs condition. distinct idea of the ultimate entire brain. falls. . When often said that the mesmeric state very nearly resembles death. through a medium which nized P.MESMERIC REVELATION. it life rudimental for . Unorganized V. You have V. who have already acquired the ul- appreciable by those timate life. but a conception of this na- what A ture will bring you near a comprehension luminous body imparts vibration to the luminiferous ether. and we perceive only the shell the ultimate which is from the inner form in decaying. have a it to be not . The of it is. when I I am mean that it entranced the are in abeyance. P. vibrations generate similar ones within the retina . ? organs are contrivances by which the individual brought into sensible relation with particular classes and forms of matter.

unorganized life. through the idiosyncrasy of its or- in the ultimate. (which is of a substance having affinity to brain. life.MESMERIC REVELATION. similar meates it. therefore. and to this ether — in unison with it — the whole body vibrates. You into nebulae. But for the necessity of the rudimental. The nerve conveys ones to the unparticled matter which per- also. to the rud- limited. Each of these is tenanted . suns. of which This undulation. as I have said. the brain. setting in motion the unparticled matter which permeates it. nor planets. " speak of rudimental beings. and thought. planets." Are there other rudimental thinking beings than man ? V. the external world reaches the whole body. But . that we must unlimited perception of the ultimate attribute the nearly life. perception similar ones to the brain.) with no other intervention than that of an infinitely rarer ether than even the luminiferous . The multitudinous conglomeration of rare matter P. It is to the absence of idiosyncratic organs. 174 these again communicate similar ones to the optic nerve. The motion the is first of this latter the external world imental gans. there would have an infinity of been no bodies such as these. is for the sole purpose of supplying pabulum for the idosyncrasy of the organs of rudimental beings. organs are the cages necessary to confine them until fledged. suns. prior to the ultimate life. and other bodies which are neither nebulae. To rudimental beings. which the mind of the rudimental is the is mode by communicates with life world this external is.

is nothing to impede the action of Divine Volition. But again produced V. afforded .MESMERIC REVELATION. enjoying cognizant of all secrets but the one. Thus pain. and law-encumbered) were contrived. act all things and pass indwelling. practicable. necessity of the there would have been no stars. distinct In creatures. The —why this impediment have been ? result of negative happiness. 1 all. this necessity rudi- But why ? V. the violation of law is rendered. You say that mental life. every where by mere volition place tenanted. by a 75 variety of organic. these the ultimate life immortality and creatures. P. stantive vastness swallows them out as non-entities " but for the P. there one simple unique law as well as in the inorganic life. perfection law violate — right— is imper- Through the impediments by the number. need law inviolate The is result of wrong. positive pain. and substantiality of the laws of organic life and matter. complexity. the organic life and matter (complex. fection. and for the accom- — which we blindly deem space created but modation that SPACE itself that infinity of which the truly subof — — up the star-shadows blotting from the perception of the angels. to a certain extent. — : which to us seem the sole — — palpabilities. or metamorphosis. substantial. In the inorganic matter generally. thinking the organs vary with the features of the At death. rudimental. With the — the view of producing impediment. not the stars.

but as a sentiment it is V. This. in thinking beings." because you have no sufficiently " " substance itself. that to is of to say. 17& which in the inorganic life is impossible. probably. To be happy at any one point we must have suffered at the same.MESMERIC REVELATION. But to the inorganic beings the unparticled matter is —to the angels—the whole substance whole of what we term " space. which we could not be brought to appreciate as existing at all. stars. is : — the perception. of the adaptation of matter to their organization." —the substantiality. Still. in all cases. in the organic. sole basis of the bliss of the ultimate life in P. All things are either good or bad by comparison. organic But it has been shown that. Positive pleasure is a mere idea. is but the contrast of pain. . is the life. We generic conception of the term must not regard it as a quality. Never to suffer would have been never to have been blessed. P. There are many things oh the Earth. which would be nihility to the inhabitants of — Venus many things visible and tangible in Venus. through what we . is — ness of infinity. But to what good end is pain thus rendered pos- sible ? V. is possible in the organic. in- pain cannot be thus the necessity for the The pain of the primitive life of Earth. the them the truest meantime. one of your expressions which I find it comprehend "the truly substantive vast- there impossible to Heaven. is . show that sufficient analysis will A pleasure.

MESMERIC REVELATION. ordi- have appeared. Had the sleep-waker. eludes the organic. His brow was of the coldness of should it ice. I noticed that in less than a minute afterward his corpse had all the stern rigidity of stone. indeed. the sleep-waker pronounced these latter words. in a feeble tone. Thus. narily. with a bright smile irradiating all his features. than. consider As its through what we immateriality. which somewhat alarmed me. only after long pressure from Azrael's hand. 177 consider their materiality. been addressing from out the region of the shadows ? ^a^^W^^^ me . escaping the angelic sense. during the latter portion of his discourse. I observed on his countenance a singular ex- pression. No sooner had I done this. and induced me to awake him at once. just in proportion as the unparticled matter. he fell back upon his pillow and expired.

or until unpleasant misrepresentations It is would have been the circumstances. at made THE CASE OF IN I —as far give the/acts They are. very naturally. —especially under from the public. that in the . course I shall not pretend to consider it any matter for wonder. It in yet person series of : 178 — . desire of all parties concerned. experiments made hitherto. OF VALDEMAR. for the last three years. succinctly. as I necessary that comprehend them myself. quite suddenly. there had been a no very remarkable and most unaccountable omission articulo had as been mesmerized mortis. My we — investigation through our —a garbled or exaggerated account society. of a great deal of disbelief. these : had been repeat- attention. about nine months ago. edly drawn to the subject of Mesmerism and.THE FACTS M. now rendered keep the least for the present. it occurred to me. and. to had further opportunities its discussion. Valdemar has excited a miracle had Through the affair it not It endeavors to effect this way into for and became the source of many . that the extraordinary case of M.

the well-known compiler of Bibliotheca Forensica. and. Ernest Valdemar. His temperament was markedly nervous. being very generally mistaken for a wig. for the whiteness of his whiskers. but these most excited —the curiosity last in especial. VALDEMAR. On two or three occasions I had put him to was disappointed in other peculiar constitution had naturally led His will was at no period positively. or sleep with little difficulty. in consequence. I subject by whose means was brought to think of my M. in violent contrast to the blackness of his hair— the latter. and in regard to clairvoy- . Death might be arrested by the process. under my control. 1 79 whether. is (or was) particularly noticeable for the spareness of his person extreme —his lower limbs much resembling those of John Randolph . in such condition. whether. the encroachments of . " the Issachar Marx) of the " Wallenstein and " Gargantua. or for how long a period. M. who has resided principally at Harlem. N. to what extent. since the year 1839. me for some test these particulars. Valdemar. first. if any existed. but results me which his to anticipate.. also." de " plume of Polish versions of M. There were other points to be ascertained." and author (under the nom friend. and rendered him a good subject for mesmeric experiment. Y. tant character of its In looking around I might my from the immensely impor- consequences. thoroughly.THE CASE OF remained to be seen. secondly. it was impaired or increased by the condition thirdly. there existed in the patient any susceptibility to the magnetic influence .

When to me. well are agreed D and F beyond to-morrow midnight and I come now. .THE CASE OF M. his physicians had declared him in a confirmed phthisis. him frankly upon the subject and. his interest seemed vividly excited. It was his custom. from M. him nothing to be relied failure at these points to the For some months previous my becoming acquainted with him. although always yielded his person freely to my experiments. . as of a matter neither to be avoided nor regretted. now rather more than seven months since I re- ceived. and he had no relatives in America who would be likely to interfere. that I cannot hold out think they have hit the time very nearly. to speak calmly of his approaching dissolution. he had never before given me I spoke to . he had surprise for. Valdemar. I knew the steady philosophy of the man too well to apprehend any scruples from him. His disease was of that character which would admit of exact calculation in respect to the epoch of was and it for me termination in death finally his physicians as that of his decease. I could accomplish with I upon. VALDEMAR. any tokens of sympathy with what I did. 180 ance. to my surI say to my prise. always attributed my disordered state of his health." . about twenty-four hours before the period an- nounced by It is its arranged between us that he would send You may as : . the subjoined note " My Dear P " . Valdemar himself. to indeed. it the ideas to which was I have alluded first occurred of course very natural that I should think of M. Valdemar.

at one point. His face wore a leaden hue the eyes were utterly lustreless and the emaciation was so . and obtained from them a minute account of the The left lung had been for eighteen patient's condition. He spoke with in a distinctness —took some —and. also partially. After pressing Valdemar's hand. months in a semi-osseous or cartilaginous state. and was appalled by the fearful alteration which the brief interval I had wrought in him. nevertheless. . retained. He was The excessive. running one into another. very remarkable manner. of course. if not thoroughly. while the lower region was merely a mass of purulent tubercles. ossified. entirely useless for The t I right. I attendance. I had not seen him for ten days. Several extensive perforations existed . when palliative medicines without aid entered the room. and was. that the skin had been broken through by the His cheek-bones. in its all purposes of upper portion. permanent adhesion to the ribs had taken place. and. was occupied in penHe was propped up ciling memoranda in a pocket-book. The ossification had proceeded with very unusual . Doctors D and F were in in the bed by pillows. These appearances in the right lobe were of comparatively recent date. both his mental power and a certain degree of physical strength. l8l received this note within half an hour after it was minutes in fifteen more I and was in the written. dying man's chamber. was vitality. extreme. took these gentlemen aside. expectoration pulse was barely perceptible. VALDEMAR.THE CASE OF M.

Theodore from further embarrassment. of the experiment proposed.) die about midnight on the was then seven o'clock on Saturday It evening. in case of some acquaintance. the patient was suspected of aneurism of the aorta but . and urged me to commence it at once. look in upon the request. of M. It L 1. (Mr. had been discovered a month it before.) had been originally. Valdemar approaching dissolution. might prove. on the subject of more his I spoke freely with M. He as. VALDEMAR. but I relieved my me design. they agreed to patient about ten the next night. when the arrival of a medical student. was induced . and the adhesion had only been observed during the three previous days. but. Independently of the phthisis. as well particularly. cians that M. Doctors final farewell.1 THE CASE OF 82 rapidity no sign . but I did not feel in a task of this reliable witnesses than these peo- myself altogether at liberty to engage sudden accident. On quitting the invalid's bedside to hold conversation with myself. I therefore postponed operations until about eight the next night. still professed himself quite willing and even anxious to have it made. When they had gone. male A and a female nurse were in attendance character with no more . Valdemar would morrow (Sunday. at my It D F and had not been had bidden him a their intention to return . on symptoms rendered an exact was the opinion of both physi- this point the osseous It diagnosis impossible. with whom I had ple. to wait for the physicians .

and as they op- called. what I designed. taking the part. " : Yes. 183 M. when Doctors D my F them. either patient's hand. I proceeded without hesitation ex- — changing. yet quite audibly mesmerized " the experiment of then condition. saying that the patient was already in the death agony. —adding immediately afterward have deferred it I wish to be " : I fearyou too long. no further perceptible effect was induced until and some minutes after ten o'clock. I explained to few words. Valdemar. as distinctly as he whether he (M. as he was evidently sinking fast. L Mr. by my conviction that I had not a moment to lose. entirely willing that mesmerizing him He I in his should make replied feebly. in a posed no objection. I could. Valdemar) was . the lateral passes for downward ones. VALDEMAR. and directing my gaze entirely into the right eye of the sufferer. He was evidently influenced with the first lateral stroke of my hand across his forehead but. from for the condensed or copied verbatim. L begged him to state. according to appointment. and secondly.THE CASE OF M. . although I exerted all . to proceed." While he spoke thus. to Mr. however. by the urgent first. 1 was so kind he would take notes of his memoranda most It that as to accede to that occurred all what entreaties of I now have my . powers. I commenced the passes which I had already found most effectual in subduing him. desire that and is it to relate is. wanted about five minutes of eight when.

The head was very slightly elevated. and M. a natu- although a very deep sigh escaped from the bosom of the dying man. and which it is quite impossible to mistake. . After a few experiments. With a few rapid lateral passes I made the lids quiver. but con- tinued the manipulations vigorously. and the stertorious breathing ceased ral — that is to say. the requested gentlemen present to examine M. its stertoriousness was no longer apparent The the intervals were undiminished. they admitted him to be in an unusually perfect state of mesmeric and I I . and reposed on the bed at a moderate r distance from the loins. until I had completely stiffened the limbs of the slumberer. were nearly so. VALDEMAR. as in incipient sleep. this. and with a few more I closed them altogether. it was fully midnight. after placing them in a seemingly easy position. This condition was nearly unaltered for a quarter of an At hour. with satisfied. and with the fullest exertion of the will. the expiration of this period. I was not however. minutes before eleven. I perceived unequivocal The glassy roll of the eye was changed for that expression of uneasy inward examination which is never seen except in cases of sleepwaking.1 THE CASE OF 84 By this time ing was his pulse stertorious. however. was imperceptible and his breath- at invervals of half a minute. patient's extremi- of signs of the mesmeric influence. When had accomplished this. The legs were at full length the arms . ties were At five an icy coldness. Valdemar's condition.

his person. excited. and assuredly I had little thought of succeeding now but to my astonishment. " M. posi- the breathing was gentle (scarcely noticeable. As approached M. " are " you asleep ? He made no answer. had never per- succeeded before. his whole frame was agitated by a very slight shivering. all We I85 . Valdemar. he lay in the the pulse was imperceptible . M. Valdemar F took leave with a Mr. remained. and was thus induced to repeat the question. when found him same condition F in precisely the went away tion —that is approached him and I as to say." I said. I determined to hazard a few words readily. but I perceived a tremor about the lips. unless through the application of a mirror to the lips) and the limbs were as . the eyelids unclosed themselves so . while Dr. L and the nurses 1 entirely undisturbed until about three o'clock in the morning.THE CASE OF The trance. when same Dr. above I my own. although feebly. VALDEMAR. of conversation. the eyes were closed naturally rigid and as cold as marble. Dr. the general appearance was certainly not that of death. . again and again. Still. his arm very fectly . followed every direction I assigned it with mine. curiosity of both the physicians D left M. was greatly resolved at once to remain with the night. At its third repetition. Valdemar I effort to influence his right arm as I passed the latter gently to I made a kind of half into pursuit of and fro In such experiments with this patient. patient promise to return at daybreak.

" was now the opinion. sluggishly. " — ! them — still feel obeyed the direction of pain in the breast. VALDEMAR. fourth repetition of the question. At my lecting his energies to speak. I After feeling the pulse and applying a mirror he requested me to speak to the sleep-waker did so. Valdemar should be suffered to remain It undisturbed in his present apparently tranquil condition. it was generally — . or rather the wish. still : — asleep dying. almost inaudibly " Yes . of the physicians. hand. moved a barely audible in : . some minutes elapsed ere a reply was made and during the interval the dying man seemed to be col. 86 far as to display a white line of a ball and from between them. do you still sleep ? As before. Valdemar. Valdemar? " pain — I am F less audible it " dying ! advisable to disturb then. who came a little him further just until the arrival before sunrise. issued the words " Yes asleep now. whisper. and nothing more was said or done of Dr. saying : " M. and found right arm. as before. " lips. that M. my : did not think I " ! : The answer now was immediate. he said very faintly. until death should supervene and this. and ex- pressed unbounded astonishment at finding the patient alive.1 THE CASE OF M. questioned the sleep-waker again Do you let . still to the again. " No M. here I The felt I wake me the limbs. Do not the lips . but even than before me die so as rigid as ever.

Valdemar at this the appearance of moment. resembling not so much parchment as white paper and the circular . The upper lip. and disclosing in full view the swollen and blackfell ened tongue. however. there came a marked change over the countenance of the sleep-waker. into posi- however. I concluded. spoke.THE CASE OF M. leaving the mouth widely extended. It is my will be startled business. at the same time. the pupils disappearing upwardly the skin generally assumed a cadaverous hue. with an audible jerk. simply to proceed. that there was a general shrinking back from the region of the bed. but so hideous beyond conception was M. 1 87 must now take place within a few minutes. hectic spots which. went out at once. because the suddenness of their departure put in mind of nothing so much me as the extinguishment of a candle by a puff of the breath. which it had previously covered completely while the lower jaw . and agreed. we were con- . hitherto. I now feel that I have reached a point of this narrative at tive which every reader disbelief. I presume that no member of the party then present had been unaccustomed to death-bed horrors . had been strongly defined in the centre of each cheek. and concluding him to be dead. to speak to him once more. merely repeated While I my previous question. . The eyes rolled them- selves slowly open. I use this expression. writhed itself away from the teeth. Valdemar. There was no longer the faintest sign of vitality in M. VALDEMAR.

that the sound was harsh. nevertheless. that it will make myself comprehended) to of place. 88 signing him to the charge of the nurses. or In the second fear. if he said " am M. place." I to say that the sound was one of distinct of even I — mean wonderfully. He now : Yes . thrillingly — obviously demar spoke distinct — in syllabification." . able.1 THE CASE OF M. for example. it will be remembered. tempt describing. and broken and hollow but the hideous whole is indescrib. when a strong vibratory motion was observable in the tongue. I have been sleeping —and now —now—/ . . This continued for perhaps a minute. there issued from the distended and motionless jaws a voice —such as it would be madness me in to at- indeed. There were two which I thought then. for the simple reason that no similar sounds have ever jarred upon the ear of humanity. and still be stated as characteristic of the in- particulars. which might be considered as applicable to it in part I might say. Val- reply to the question I before. it impressed possible me (I its un- distance. two or three epithets There are. —no — dead. have spoken both of "sound" and of "voice. propounded to him a few minutes him. still I had had asked slept. think. might tonation fairly —as well adapted earthly peculiarity. VALDEMAR. to reach our ears some idea to convey In the first —at least mine— from a vast from some deep cavern within the earth. indeed. the voice seemed be im- as gelatinous or glutinous matters impress the sense of touch. At the expiration of this period.

To queries put to him by any other person than myself — he seemed utterly insensible although I endeavored to place each member of the company in mesmeric rapport with him. shuddering horror which these few words. the unutterable. ourselves. 1 89 No person present even affected to deny. thus uttered. silently — endeavors to revive Mr. we re- — L When 1. too. Valdemar a The only real indicainfluence. 1 Mr. in company with the two physi- . that this limb was no I endeavored in vain to make further subject to my will.THE CASE OF M. were so well calculated to convey. it follow the direction of tion. VALDEMAR. Valdemar's condition. or attempted to repress. we busied without the utterance of a word in intelligible to the reader. It remained in all respects as I have last described it. but had no longer sufficient volition. o'clock I left the cians and Mr. I believe that I have now related all that is necessary to an understanding of the sleep-waker's state at this epoch. with the exception that the mirror no longer afforded evi- dence of respiration. he came to him- addressed ourselves again to an investigation of M. L (the student) swooned. L house 1. of the tongue. self. He whenever I ad- seemed to be making an effort to reply. An attempt to draw blood from the arm failed. was now found in hand. The nurses imme- and could not be induced to diately left the chamber. of the the vibratory dressed my mesmeric movement M. question. indeed. I should mention. My own turn. impressions I would not pretend to render For nearly an hour. Other nurses were procured and at ten .

For the purpose of relieving M. was on Friday It last that we finally resolved to make the experiment of awakening. It was observed. VALDEMAR. I made use of the customary passes. so far. latter experiment which has given sion in private circles rise to so —to so much of what I much discus- cannot help thinking unwarranted popular feeling. From —an inter- make daily M. It . Valdemar's house. dis- solution. These for a time were unsuccessful. as especially remarkable. The nurses' attentions were continual. accompanied. Valdemar from the mesmeric trance. week continued to All this time the sleep- waker remained exactly as I have last described him. now and then. death (or what is usually termed death) had been arrested by the mesmeric process. or attempting to awaken and it is the (perhaps) unfortunate result of this him .THE CASE OF 190 In the afternoon we all M. called again to see the patient. Valdemar would seemed be merely to insure his instant. this period until the close of last val of nearly seven months—we calls at by medical and other friends. was evident that. It clear to us all that to awaken M. His condition remained precisely the same. or at least his speedy. The first indication of revival was afforded by a partial descent of the iris. that this lowering of the pupil was accompanied by the profuse out-flowing . We had now some discussion as to the propriety and feasibility of awakening him but we had little difficulty in agreeing that no good purpose would be served by so doing.

" did I so. — — —put me to sleep— — — — I say waken me quick you that I am quick ! ! ! ! ! to ! dead!" was thoroughly unnerved. or rather rolled violently in the mouth (although the jaws and lips remained rigid as : before). was now suggested that I should attempt to influence the patient's arm as heretofore. In should be successful and as earnestly attempt I soon saw that my this —or at success would be complete — and I I least I I steps soon fancied that am sure that all in my the room were prepared to see the patient awaken. 191 of a yellowish ichor (from beneath the lids) of a pungent and highly offensive odor. can you explain to us what feelings or wishes now ? are your " There was an instant return of the hectic cheeks me then intimated a desire to have circles on the the tongue quivered. I rapidly made the mesmeric passes. Valdemar. amid As tions of " dead ! dead " ! ejacula- absolutely bursting from the . broke forth " For God's sake quick quick I : or. I an instant remained made an endeavor to but. For what really occurred. retraced awaken him. I made the attempt and It Dr. failed. VALDEMAR.THE CASE OF M. as follows : M. and at length the same hideous voice which have already described. it is quite impossible that any human being could have been prepared. At first for I recompose the patient abeyance of the struggled to will. failing in this through total . F put a question. however. and undecided what to do.

before that whole company. or crumbled absolutely rotted away beneath less. VALDEMAR. Upon — the bed. there lay a nearly liquid mass of loathsome able putrescence. his whole frame at once within the space of a single minute. —of detest- . tongue and not from the lips of the sufferer.192 THE CASE OF M. shrunk — — my hands.

by any American if we except. if not altogether in- herazade. the author of the . lately. . . as that fate accurate." a work which (like the "Zohar " some Tellmenow Simeon of Jochaides) is scarcely known at all. refer the inquisitive reader to the 193 I blame " Isitsoornot I must " itself. to my knowledge. Sche- " depicted in the" Arabian Nights and that the denouement there given. I say. —having had occa- turn over some pages of the first-mentioned I was not a little astonished to very remarkable work. had occasion. information on this interesting topic. in the course of investigations. — " Curiosities of sion. even in Europe and which has never been quoted. discover that the literary world has hitherto been strangely in error respecting the fate of the vizier's daughter. Oriental HAVING — Old Saying. to American Literature " .THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE OF SCHEHERAZADE. is at least to in not having farther. perhaps. Truth is stranger than fiction. to consult the " Isitsoornot. as far as gone very For full much it is goes.

she deputes her father. or perish. in the meantime. not only puts her to death. and her would upon all either its idea was. that. and the next of his queen. to make an offer to the king of her hand. in accepting it now. and — had put off the matter from day to day. but his beard morning to deliver her up to the executioner. religious punctuality and method that conferred great credit upon him as a man of devout feeling and excellent sense. he gives all parties very distinctly to understand. it appears. to whose daughter. he has not the slightest design of giving . the grand vizier. that. Accordingly. Her name was Scheherazade. night the by most beautiful maiden in his dominions. of summary It will tales. there had occurred an idea. to and the each espouse prophet. This hand the king eagerly accepts (he had intended to take it at all events. after the approved fashion of heroines. Having fulfilled this vow for many years to the letter. what I I shall be pardoned for giving a there discovered. —but. that she redeem the land from the depopulating tax beauty. only through fear of the vizier). grand vizier or no grand vizier. be remembered.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. having good cause to be jealous makes a vow. and although we do not find it to be leapyear (which makes the sacrifice more meritorious). 194 but. in the usual version of the a certain monarch. he was interrupted one after- and with a noon (no doubt at his prayers) by a visit from his grand vizier. in the attempt.

wedding. and that Scheherazade. I think) which she was narrating (all in an undertone. 95 there- Scheherazade insisted upon marrying the and did actually marry him despite her do any thing of the kind cellent advice not to would and did marry him. she contrived. digestion. of course) to her sister. I am sorry to . her husband (who bore her none the worse will because he intended to wring her care to — neck on the morrow).) by the profound interest of a story (about a rat and a black cat. had a very inOn the night of the genious little plot in her mind. that this politic damsel (who had been reading Machiavelli. however. the king. (although on account of a capital conscience and an easy he slept well. she took awaken the good monarch. it so happened that this history was not altogether finished. since it was — high time for her to get up and be bowstrung a thing very little more pleasant than hanging. and. only a trifle more genteel The ! king's curiosity. it her beautiful black eyes as thoroughly open as the nature of the case It would allow. prevailing.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. to have her sister occupy a couch sufficiently near that of the royal pair to admit of easy conversation from bed to bed . 1 When. seems. When the day broke. in the nature of things could not finish it just then. beyond doubt). fair his vow or of his privileges. up one iota of fore. upon I forget what specious pretence. however. I say. she managed to awaken him. I say. will I father's ex- —when she was with nill I. a little before cock-crowing.

fell heir. Scheherazade. either forgets it by the expiration altogether this time. who. per- . as well as the events. even over his sound religious principles. (if I this history the king was even more and. the —and then again the good monarch. there was again no resource but to post- pone that ceremony as before. outright. twenty-four hours. night there happened a similar accident with a similar result next for .THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND IO/6 TALE. for the purpose and with the hope of hearing that night how it fared in the end with the black cat (a black cat. in the end. however. induced him for this once to postpone the fulfilment of his vow until say. in a violent manner. descended from Eve. by clockwork. having been unavoidably deprived of all opportunity to keep his vow during a period of no less than one thousand and one nights. having reference With indigo key. and then the next so that. next morning. found herself deep in the intricacies of a am not altogether mistaken) to a pink horse (with green wings) that went. I think it was) and the rat. or gets himself absolved of or (what head is more probable) breaks it of his father confessor. The next . The night having arrived. as the — profoundly interested than with the other day broke before its conclusion (notwithstanding all the to get through with it in time for the endeavors queen's bowstringing). the lady Scheherazade not only put the finishing stroke to the black cat and the rat (the rat was blue) but before she well knew what she was about. being lineally At all it in of the regular way. and was wound up with an narration.

tax is so happily repealed. and the tariff upon beauty was repealed." said she. snores a thing no gentleman would do) the full conclusion of Sinbad the sailor. I "Le mieux" says a French proverb. Now. is am indebted altogether " " to the Isitsoornot for the means of correcting the error. I say. in mentioning that Scheherazade had inherited the seven baskets of talk. finally triumphed. I felt sleepy on the particular night of their narration. I should have added that she put them out at compound interest until they amounted to seventy-seven. this conclusion (which is that of the story as we . which the latter lady. for which I — only trust that Allah will forgive me. This person went through numerous I — other and related . and so was seduced into cutting them short a grievous piece of misconduct. verbatim) my this little difficulty and that about the bowstring has blown over. 1 97 haps. I feel that this odious have been guilty of great indiscretion in withholding from you and the king (who. picked up from under the trees in the garden of Eden Scheherazade. to the whole seven baskets of talk. (I quote the language of the " " said dear now that all sister. we all know. have upon record) it — pleasant but alas no doubt. "est Vennemi du Men" and. I am sorry to say.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. . more interesting adventures than those which I but the truth is. excessively proper and is. point. like ! more pleasant than true a great and many pleasant things." she. on the thousand-and-second " " Isitsoornot at this night. " dear My sister. But even yet it is .

we down beneath some trees. re-entered thus. at once. I the " Isitsoornot. Sinbad himself. understand- ing these words (which are no doubt Arabic) to signify that he was all attention. " Hum " and then " Hoo " when the ! ! and finally said. engaging a porter to carry them.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. " sat Having deposited the packages upon the sands. went with him down to the sea-shore. I became once more possessed of a desire of visiting foreign countries . queen. into the history of Sinbad the sailor " At length. to await the arrival of any chance vessel that might convey me out of the kingdom into some region which I had not as yet explored. and after enjoying many years of tranquility at home. I9» — not too late to remedy my great neglect and as soon as I have given the king a pinch or two in order to wake him up so far that he may stop making that horrible will forthwith entertain you (and him if he with the sequel of this very remarkable story. and one day. having arranged these mat- ters to her satisfaction. at length ceased snoring." pleases) Hereupon the sister of Scheherazade. I packed up some bundles of such merchandise as was most precious and least bulky. and. I say. without acquaint- ing any of my family with my design. as retailed by Scheherazade) in my old age. but the king. and would do his best not to snore any more — the queen.' (these are the words of : i — l at length." expressed no very particular intensity of gratification. as I have it from noise. having been sufficiently pinched. in my old age. and looked out into the * .

so that we could have no doubt that the obwhich caused it was approaching us. and of a jetty blackness throughout all which floated above the water. after listening awhile. " * As the thing drew near that part of the sea all we saw line of fire that ex- it very distinctly. which was unlike that of ordinary fishes. and then louder. was then as the monster rose and entirely covered with metallic scales. The belly. throwing up huge waves of foam around its breast. and of it which we could get only a glimpse now and fell with the billows. with the exception of a narrow blood-red streak that completely begirdled it. Its length was equal to that of three of the loftiest trees that grow. which floated beneath the surthat portion of face. and it was as wide as the great hall of audience in O most sublime and munificent of the caliphs. The back was flat and . and illuminating through which it passed. At length I fancied that I could hear a singular buzzing or humming sound and the porter. of a color like that of the moon in misty weather. was as solid as a rock. declared that he also — could distinguish grew louder. ocean in the hope of perceiving a ship. your palace. we made it out to be great part of It its body came toward us with inconceivable swiftness. Its body. which rapidly increased a vast monster. with a long tended far off into the distance. in size until swimming with a above the surface of the sea. we it discovered a black speck. Presently the edge of the horizon. 1 99 but during several hours we saw none whatever.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. on still ject it. At length.

its tail latter. except that they wore no garments (as men do). if to make up for this deficiency. it was provided with at least four score of eyes. Two or three of these dreadful eyes were much larger than the others. length of the whole body. and were arranged all around the body in two rows. " This horrible creature had no mouth that we could * perceive but. getting a nearer look. " ' said. only. and with a shrieking. one above the other. u ' Our terror at beholding this hideous thing great. that protruded from their sockets like those of the green dragon-fly. and through which the monster puffed out its thick breath with prodigious violence. 200 nearly white. nor wings like the sea-shell which is blown along in the manner of a vessel nor yet did it writhe itself forward as do the eels. disagreeable noise. and from it there extended upwards of six the about half spines. and parallel to the blood-red streak. not were two small holes that served for far from the nostrils. and altogether much resembling them. being . which seemed to answer the purpose of an eyebrow. we perceived upon the back a vast number of animals about the size and shape of men. this beast approached us. and had the appearance of solid gold.must have been moved Although altogether by necromancy — for it had neither fins like a nor web-feet like a duck. as I have before with the greatest rapidity. but it when upon creature's was very was even surpassed by our astonishment. it .THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. as . were shaped precisely alike. Its head and fish .

On the very tips of their heads were certain square-looking boxes. and emitted from it a terrible flash of fire. but fitting so tight to the skin. that. dogs. As the smoke cleared away.) such as and Around the necks (badges of collars. through which (putting it to his mouth) he presently addressed us in loud. and I therefore concluded they were contrivances designed. no doubt. and a noise that I can compare to nothing but thunder. accompanied by a dense cloud of smoke. to keep the heads of the animals steady and safe upon their shoulders. . we saw one of the odd man-animals stand- ing near the head of the large beast with a trumpet in his hand. harsh. a good deal like cloth. but I soon discovered that they which. and put them apparently to severe pain. and disagreeable accents. it suddenly pushed out one of its eyes to a great extent.SECOND TALE. 201 supplied (by nature. at first sight. only was quite impossible it their heads in any without moving the body at the same time no much wider . I were excessively heavy and solid.) with an ugly uncomfortable covering. for direction and thus they were doomed to perpetual contemplation of their noses a view puggish and snubby in a wonderful if not positively in an awful degree. thought might have been intended to answer as turbans. we keep on our infinitely stiffer —so that these poor victims to move of the creatures servitude. by their great weight.THE THO USA ND-AND. — " ' When the monster had nearly reached the shore where we stood. were fastened black doubt. as to render the poor wretches laughably awkward.

only a little larger and more savage its . and. that the back were vermin. I in could in no manner understand what was this difficulty I turned to the porter. as well as he could for trepidation. without once even looking behind me. I ran at full speed up into the hills. of which I have no doubt he took excellent care although — this is that I a point I cannot determine. had they not come altogether through the nose. and what kind of creatures those were that so swarmed upon its back. I was at a loss how perhaps. and demanded of him his opinion as to what species of monster it was. with fire. 202 we should have mistaken for language. that he had once before heard of this sea-beast . that bowels of sulphur and blood of as the means it was a cruel demon. and that these vermin had their uses. This account determined me to take to my heels. he finally made his escape with my bundles. To this the porter replied. such as sometimes things upon infest cats and dogs.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. of inflicting misery created by evil genii upon mankind . through the torture they caused the beast by their nibblings and stingings. as said and . " Being thus evidently spoken to. as ever beheld him again. who was near swooning through affright. I do not remember . by these means. what it wanted. however evil — for. and so fulfil the vengeful and malicious designs of the wicked " ' genii. ' to reply. it was goaded into that degree of wrath which was requisite to make it roar and commit ill. although nearly in an opposite direction. while the porter ran equally fast. so that.

desire I and had of seeing the world. I had forgotten that your majesty is not conversant with the dialect of the Cock-neighs (so the man-animals were called grunt unt grumble. and who appeared to I succeeded so well exercise authority over his fellows.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. . one day I beg a thousand pardons. and exerted myself to secure the good-will of the mananimal that owned the trumpet. and so forth — that my dear Sinbad. at length. it was vain enough to denominate its language . zuhiss. " now bitterly repented my folly in quitting a comfortable home to peril my life in such adventures as this but regret being useless. which immediately swam out l again into* the middle of the sea. I made the best of my condition. I will translate. that you are really a very excellent : is to say. hey-diddle diddle. in a upon me went to the trouble of teaching me the rudiments of what so that. but after dinner — hiss.' said . fiss. " 203 For myself. and in the end even endeavor that. I presume because their language formed the connecting between that of the horse and that of the rooster). ' I am happy to find. Sinbad. ' I . I came to was enabled to converse with make it comprehend the ardent it readily. I was so hotly pursued by a swarm of the men-vermin (who had come to the shore in boats) that I was very soon overtaken. in this few days. " Washish squashish squeak. link With your permission. and conveyed to the beast. bound hand and foot. ' Washish squash- ish. ' he to me. the creature bestowed various tokens of his favor.

' swam.' —so — "That. in fact. these latter adventures of Sinbad.' " Lady Scheherazade had proceeded thus the far.' continued Sinwill. we are told. Do It is." " I " 'The beast. I think. up arrived at an island. my dear queen. doubts. so that we went " to say either up hill or down hill all the time. you know think them exceedingly entertaining and I strange?" The king having thus expressed himself." interrupted the king. until. — ' I kindness. bad. pray." said the queen. and soon found swam the beast. quite true." rejoined the king. but round like a pomegranate. " relates the Isitsoornot. hitherto.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE." replied Scheherazade. hill and down hill. as I we have related. we are now about doing circumnavigating the globe of seeing the world. Scheherazade resumed her history in the lowing words: " Sinbad went on in this manner with his narrative the fair thanked the man-animal for myself very much at its home on is. upon the back free passage When I will a thing which is called and since you are so desirous strain a point and give you a . by no means flat. at length." the king turned over from his left side " to his right. "Nevertheless. " I have my was very it is singular. 204 fellow . many hundreds of miles I . and said : very surprising. at although the sur- the world. that you omitted. "but. which a prodigious rate through the ocean face of the latter fol- in that part of . of the beast. be so good as to go on with the story.

scene A now presented to him mass of fragments of is beyond conception singular converted into stone. which has its source in the Black Hills of the rocky chain. The wood is of a dark brown hue. — Leaving this island. forest. a spectacle on the surface of the globe more remarkable. perhaps. or Chienne river. at first discredited. proceeds to the southward. strewed so closely together. 205 but which. is seen to extend and miles around him. and so hard that they shivered to pieces the finest-tempered axes with which we endeavored to cut them down. all turned to stone. as far as the eye .' "f * The coralites. either in a geological or picturesque point of view. fresh as if the tide had retired crosses a low range of sandhills. and from half a foot to when struck itself for miles can three feet in thickness. took no notice of her husband's it ' ill-mannered ejaculation) to another where the — leaving ' forests this island.' " " Hum " ! said the king. and sea shells. One ' ' f of the most remarkable natural curiosities in Texas near the head of Pasigno river. The and desolate. the pieces being from one to fifteen feet in length. covered with but yesterday.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. them — to enne. nearly at right angles to the road across the desert to Suez. There is scarcely. must be understood. now growing. gravel. This is modify the existing theory of petrifaction. all by his horse's hoof ringing like cast iron. were of we came solid stone. the tombs of the caliphs. in caterpillars. has since been corroborated by the discovery of a completely petrified forest. in the form of a decayed and prostrate forest. It consists of several Some is a petrified hundred trees. which has for some distance run parallel to his path." Kennedy. This account. but retains its form in perfection. are partly a startling fact for natural philosophers. near Cairo. having passed presented by the petrified forest. and after having travelled some ten miles up a low barren valley. in an erect position. and must cause trees. nevertheless. than that The traveller. and trees.' said Sinbad (for Scheherazade. had been built the middle of the sea by a colony of little things like " * in circumference. near the head waters of the Chey- petrified. sand. just beyond the gates of the city.

and roots in — Magazine. cases. but larger than men and in among the streets of towers and pyramids and temples. issued so vast a quantity of ashes that the sun was entirely blotted out from the heavens. and ' that contained a greater number of far more spacious and more magnificent palaces than are to be found in all Damascus and Bagdad.' " * " Hum said the king. From the roofs of these palaces hung myriads of gems. fin Iceland. 206 Hum 11 " ! ing him no said the king. summit. continued but Scheherazade. that The and rudiments of the branches are. Asiatic rotting in the sun. it might pass without remark for some enormous drained bog. were it in Scotland or Ireland. there flowed immense rivers as black there .THE TIJOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. and swarming with as ebony. payin the language of Sin- bad. on which the exhumed trees lay reach. " fish that had no eyes. like diamonds. are perfectly entire. wide and sixty miles long f while from an abyss on the . nearly perfect. down whose sides there streamed some of which were twelve miles torrents of melted metal. 1783. attention. we reached a country where there was a cave that ran to the distance of thirty or forty miles within the bowels of the earth. and all the finer readily recognizable. in many some the worm-holes eaten under the bark are The most delicate of the sap vessels. " Passing beyond this last island. The whole are so thoroughly silicified as to scratch glass and are capable of receiving the highest polish. and so natural that. and bear to be examined with the strongest magnifiers. We then swam into ! " * a region of the sea where we found a lofty mountain. and it became an Egyptian donkey can scarcely thread its way through amongst them. portions of the centre of the wood. again . . * The Mammoth Cave of Kentucky.

" — Murray. % The atmospheric air. the beast continued his voyage until we met with a land in which the nature of — we here saw a great lake. . " Hoo " said the king. and — from eighty to a hundred feet deep. under the action of a blowto an impalpable powder. at the bottom of which. During the eruption of Vesuvius. coming from a volcano in the island of St. at mid-day. p. p. Vincent. covered the whole of Barbadoes. Phil. 207 darker than the darkest midnight so that when we were even at the distance of a hundred and fifty miles from . at Caserta. or even a white handkerchief placed at the distance of six inches from the eye. edit. hardest steel ever manufactured may. more than a hundred feet beneath things seemed reversed for the surface of the water. " In the a portion of year 1790. people could only find their way by groping. just as our own does feather.' " said the king. one could not perceive the trees or other objects near him. a cloud of volcanic ashes and sand. Hum object.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. at Glaumba. ' full leaf a " f ! " ' Some hundred miles farther on brought us to a mate where the atmosphere was so dense iron or steel. 221. and the trees remained green for several months under the water. the mountain.' cli- as to sustain " \ * " During the eruption of Hecla. clouds of this kind produced such a degree of darkness that. in the Caraccas during an earthquake f the granite soil sank and left a lake eight hundred yards in diameter. On the first of May. in 1794. however " " it was impossible to see the whitest close we held it to our eyes. in the open air. " * ! ' After quitting this coast. 1812. people could only walk by the light of torches. 215. in 1766. which is more than fifty leagues from the mountain. there flourished in forest of tall and luxuriant trees. which will float readily in the be reduced pipe. It was a part of the forest of Aripao which sank. spreading over it so intense a dark- ness that." Murray. four leagues distant.

and of a transparency richer than that of amber. These hideous beasts dig themselves vast caverns in the and line the sides of soil." with the hole of the common red ant. ' this ceive myriads of monstrous animals with horns resembling scythes upon their heads. where we were astonished to perdays. one rocks. It was from three to six miles width in . after some to came another. that ritory one gorgeous garden riant land .' * " " said the Humph " king. was the Kingdom of Horror." The term "monster" is equally applicable f The Mynndeon lion-ant. when trodden upon by other animals. and to enter it " was inevitable death.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. grain of silex is also a A . ! We left kingdom in great haste. " to small abnormal things and to great. The cavern of the myrmeleon is vast in comparison " rock. thus precipitating them into the monster's dens. and its banks which arose on either side to twelve hundred feet in perpendicular height. were crowned with ever-blossoming and trees. made the whole terbut the name of this luxu- perpetual sweet-scented flowers." said the king. them with upon the other that they fall for of a funnel shape. 208 " Fiddle de dee. This river was of unspeakable depth. — of death. Through there meandered a glorious river for several it thousands of miles. where their blood is immediately sucked. and. so disposed instantly. while such epithets as "vast are merely comparative. we presently arrived at the most magnificent region in the whole world. " ' Proceeding still in the same direction." ' " f See Simmona's " Colonial Magazine. and their carcasses afterwards hurled to an * contemptuously out immense distance from "the caverns The region of the Niger.

is found growing at the foot of the Rata tree. which is tubular. — The Parasites. the % Schouw advocates a class of plants that grow upon living animals Plantce Epizoce." § In mines and natural caves we find a species of cryptogamous fungus that emtts an intense phosphorescence." f — — New Zealand. B. and confining them in horrid and " J solitary prisons until the fulfilment of appointed tasks. grows with merely the surface of its roots attached to a tree or other object. Williams. and the plant propagates out of its head . Continuing our progress. there were others that glowed all over with intense fire § . we perceived a district with vegetables that grew not upon any soil. Mass. J. I \ "The corolla of this flower (Aristolochia Clematitis). Mr. From this insect the natives make a coloring for tattooing. of a harder substance then when alive.' * The Epidendron* Flos Aeris. eats its way. from the bodies of living animals % and then again. of the family of the Orchidece. . we discovered flowers that lived and breathed and moved their limbs at will. with the following description: " ''The Hotte' a decided caterpillar. " " Pooh " ! 209 said the king. with a plant growing out of its head. This most peculiar and with an insect from most extraordinary insect travels up both the Rata and Perriri trees. . such as the wonderful Rafflesia Arnaldii. presented the "National Institute. and dies. moreover. and it entering into the top. and what was still more wonderful. perforating the trunk of the tree until reaches the root. the body remains perfect and entire. it then comes out of the root. sprang from the substance of other vegetables f others that derived their substance ' . the detestable passion of mankind for en- slaving other creatures. Of this class are the Fuci and Algce. of Salem. The orchis. scabius and valisneria. but in the * There were others that air. moved from place to place at pleasure.. from which it derives no nutriment subsisting altogether upon air. or worm.I THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. or remains dor- mant. and others that || had.

* The bees — ever since bees were—have been constructing their cells with . scends to but. it covers it with pollen sufficient for its impregnation.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND 2IO " " Pshaw " ! TALE. downwards. Quitting this land. P. that the men-mathematicians at length arrived at the identical solutions which had been given upon the " * spot by the bees and by the birds. pointing The globular part contains the pistil. the pollen aid that nature has furnished in this case. it was the spot . not being able to force its way out again. the stigma. together with the surrounding stamens. only after the most profound researches and labor. But the stamens. trying every corner. a germen and stigma. Keith — System of Physiological Botany." —Rev. till. is inflated into a globular figure The tubular part is internally beset with stiff hairs. said the king. without some additional and peculiar aid. which converge to a point like the wires of a mouse-trap. effecting an easy passage for the escape of the insect. and rummages about till it becomes quite covered with insect.' but terminating upwards in a ligulate limb. and being somewhat impatient of its confinement it brushes backwards and forwards. owing to the downward position of the hairs. in consequence of which the flower soon begins to droop. as the flower stands always upright till after And hence. the The king of the place having offered a reward for the solution of two very difficult problems. and the other by the but the king keeping their solution a secret. a small is that of the Tiputa Petmicornis which entering the tube of the corrolla in quest of honey. which consists merely of at the base. that they give daily instructions science of geometry to the wise men in of the empire. after repeatedly traversing pollen . fall down to the bottom of the flower. during a long series of years. they were solved upon birds —the one by the bees. and the writing of an infinity of big books. and the hairs to shrink to the side of the tube. being shorter than even the germen. cannot discharge the pollen so as to throw it upon the stigma. must necessarily Now. dethe bottom. we soon arrived at another in which and the birds are mathematicians of such genius bees the ' and erudition. the impregnation.

one mile at least in breadth . gives a length miles and. F. an undeniable solution was were a thousand illustrious discovered.— . and at the very angles. in just such been demonstrated rocs number. it required no less than four hours for the whole flock to pass over us in .THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. Hall.' " * " Oh fy said the king. to find the best possible position at an and at an infinity of points on the arm. <We nad scarcely lost sight of this empire when we found ourselves close upon another. it took up four hours in of 240 passing which. 211 "Oh my!" said the king. men found that the wings of a bird had given it with absolute precision ever since the first bird had traversed the air. at the rate of one mile per minute. and two hundred and forty miles long so that. and likewise from the centres of the revolution. There infinity of varied distances. in other words. which will afford the creatures the most room that is compatible with the greatest stability of structure. although they flew a mile during every minute. for it is. and infinitely larger than even the voyages . and my in of the former domes at just such inclinations. supposing three pigeons to each square yard. than we were terrified by the appearance of a fowl of another kind. futile attempts to answer the query on the part of the most mathematicians and when. No sooner had we got ! " ' rid of these birds. for it which I met was bigger than the biggest just such sides. pigeons. which there were several millions of millions of " fowl. . . at length. the question arose among mathto determine the best form that can be given to the sails of a ematicians — ' ' windmill. as it has (in a problem involving the profoundest mathematical principles) are the very sides." This is an excessively complex problem. . from whose shores there flew over our heads a flock of fowls a mile in breadth. according to their varying distances from the revolving vanes. * He observed a flock of pigeons passing betwixt Frankfort and the Indiana territory. which occasioned us great annoyance.000 " Travels in Canada and the United States" by Lieut. in the very number. During the latter part of the last century. gives 2.230.272.

had no head that we could perceive. having horns four hundred . was his passed in * in ' ' The earth number. found ourselves in a wonderful country indeed. but proved to be " " Stuff ' It with all our the hope of frightening the bird into letting go in rage and then " We shouted which awaited them. Sale's color. but which. I was informed by the man-animal. who. be- interior of yond doubt. " because read something of the kind before." said I have immediately beneath this continent. most Munificent This of Caliphs.' " * the king." il T/iat. shining and striped with various colors. rible fate I was it merely gave a snort or puff." — is upheld by a cow of a blue Koran. 212 on your seraglio. I believe. a house from which it had knocked off the roof. oh. just after this adventure that we encountered a continent of immense extent and prodigious solidity. between the legs of the cow. " ' We now. in a book. of a soft-looking substance. were in a state of frightful despair at the hormight. the monster was bearing away to his eyrie in the heavens. In its talons. after (swimming some hours. of its prey . was supported entirely upon the back of a sky-blue cow that had no fewer than four hundred horns. smooth. but was fashioned entirely of belly. which. as if of upon our heads a heavy sack which let fall filled with sand ' " ! said the king.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. and in the which we distinctly saw human beings. which was of a prodigious fat- terrible fowl ness and roundness. nevertheless. and.

whirled from Puddington to Didcot (53 miles. (to whom. who lived with worms . like that of the horse. in spite of so hard a diet. On Western Railway. 143. . between London and Exeter. a speed A train weighing 90 tons was hour has been attained. . and yet. among these people a hen without feathbut ers. the magicians.' "f " Twattle " said the king.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND own native land. + the great of 71 miles per . in them by their painful writhings most miraculous " " Nonsense ' Among " ! efforts of imagination.) in 51 minutes. of his own 213 species. — ology. water .' " said the king. she like was nearly him she related. bigger than a camel instead of flesh and bone she had iron and brick her blood. p. he had black stones for boiling water. he was his usual food . served to stimulate and wrigglings to the their brain. no doubt. "The and in fact. at a rate surpassing that of the flight of most birds.* which. were domesticated animals of very singular kinds several for example. or intestinal worms. there was a horse bones were and whose blood was whose iron huge In place of corn. also. This elevated the man-animal very much in my esteem. inhabited by things TALE. and swift that he could drag a load more the than weighty grandest temple in this city. I now began to feel ashamed of the con- temptuous familiarity with which I had treated him for I found that the man-animals in general were a nation of the most powerful magicians. 1 . so strong ! " 1 saw. and in fact.) ate nothing but was boiling wood or black Entozoa. have repeatedly been observed in and in the cerebral substance of men." See Wyatts Physi- the muscles.

after birth. ! mighty conjurors created a man and and out leather. hour and with so exquisite a precision. their residence for several weeks within the stomach of " * their mother. so that * The Eccalobeion. . intermixed with a black matter like But a still and fingers that employed with such incredible and dexterity that it would have had no trouble in speed writing out twenty thousand copies of the Koran in an pitch.f Another of these magi conput to shame so great were its structed (of like material) a creature that even the genius of him who made it .THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND 214 TALE. % Babbage's Calculating Machine. This thing was . that in all the copies there should not be found one to vary from another by the breadth of the finest hair. % more wonderful conjuror fashioned for himself a mighty thing that was neither man nor beast. they took up stones. and endowed him wood. in a second. for reasoning powers that. with such ingenuity that he would have beaten at chess. This hen brought forth very frequently. it erected or overthrew the . f Maelzel's Automaton Chess-player.' " " Fal " lal said the king. but which had brains of lead. it performed calculations of so vast an extent that they would have required the united labor of fifty thousand fleshy men for a year. Haroun Alraschid. * One of this nation of of brass all the race of mankind with the exception of the great Caliph. a hundred chickens in the day and. this of prodigious strength.

violet .000 of times in a second. vibrated 900. a hundred others. \ Another had such a delicacy of touch that he made a wire so fine as to be in- verting the visible. could make the corpses of his friends brandish their arms. vated his voice to so great an extent that he could have || made himself heard from one end of the world to the * Chaberl. % Another had such quickness he counted while it of nine " ' of perception that the separate motions of an elastic body. was springing backward and forward hundred millions of times Absurd " all " ! Another in a second. ! " * Among one who had this nation of in his veins necromancers there was also the blood of the salamanders . f The Electrotype. kick out their legs. without even looking at them during the process. only by means of the microscope. I The Voltaic pile. fight. or Another had cultieven get up and dance at his will. but its TALE. 21 5 powers were exer- " cised equally for evil and for good. It could be seen § Newton demonstrated that the retina beneath the influence of the ray of the spectrum. . and since him. of these magicians.' " Ridiculous " said the king. \ Wollaston made of platinum for the field of views in a telescope a wire one eighteen-thousandth part of an inch in thickness. by means of a fluid that nobody ever yet saw.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND mightiest empires at a breath .' at the rate " § said the king.* Another had the faculty of con- common metals into gold.000. he made no scruple of sitting down to smoke his chibouc in a red-hot oven until his dinner was thoroughlyfor roasted upon its floor.

— f The Electro Telegraph transmits intelligence instantaneously at least so far as regards any distance upon the earth. when the acid.* down — in manded the lightning to come down to him out of the it came at his call. 3^. and served him for a when it came. If two red rays from two \ Common experiments in Natural Philosophy. Analogous experiments in respect to sound produce analogous results. which falls a lump . by taking advantage of the moment before it is turned out a lump of ice from a red-hot vessel. and so rapid is its progress. &c. may be The Daguerreotype. their intensity is doubled. ray only . A few drops of water are now introduced. varying with a uniform increase from the violet to the red.0000258 of an inch. | Another took this luminary with the moon and the planets. Another constructed a deep darkness out of two brilliant lights. and ice in a red-hot furnace. || it . in fact. which. immediately coming in contact with the heated sides of the crucible. and keep it a red heat pour in some sulphuric acid. luminous points be admitted into a dark chamber so as to fall on a white surface.f other. 2l6 Another had so long an arm that he could sit Damascus and indite a letter at Bagdad or Another comindeed at any distance whatsoever. 3 J. In violet rays similar effects arise when the difference in length is 0. and having first weighed them with scrupulous accuracy. and not a drop evaporates being surrounded by an atmosphere of its own. but a multiple by 2^. . § paint his portrait.. it does not. that the caloric of the water passes off with it. So also if the difference in length be any whole-number multiple A multiple by 2 J. — of ice to the bottom allowed to re-melt. . will be found to become completely fixed in a hot crucible. Another directed the sun to and the sun did.000157 of an inch and with all other rays the results are the same the difference — . flies off in sulphurous acid vapor. touch the sides. though the most volatile of bodies at a common temperature. and differ in their length by 0. &c. gives an intensity equal to one of that fraction. probed into their * The Electro Telegraph Printing Apparatus. Another took two loud sounds plaything and out of them made a silence.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. § Place a platina crucible over a spirit lamp. gives the result of total darkness.^ Another made heavens.

Thus. that not even their nor their commonest cats and dogs have any difficulty in seeing objects that do not exist at all. which not even the miraculous powers of their husbands and fathers has.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND TALE. Some. must.000. and some speak has come the shape of a crotchet. or that infants. but for an unhappy fatality that besets them. 20 or even 1000 years would be a moderate estimate. the distance of 61 whose distance is ascertained) is so inconceivably great. without great and wise magi/ being in any manner disturbed by these frequent and most ungentlemanly interruptions on the part of her hus- band —" ' the wives and daughters of these eminent con- accomplished and refined and would be everything that is interesting and beautiful.' for " " said the king.000. twenty millions of years before the birth of the nation " * itself had been blotted out from the face of creation. indeed.' light travels in in others " 167. But the whole nation is. made visible by Lord Ross' instrument. Preposterous " The wives and daughters of ! ' these incomparably " continued Scheherazade. The elder Herschel maintains that the light of the faintest nebulae seen in reaching the irough his grea. have re- mired at least 20. and from jurers are every thing that is . hitherto. 21 7 depths and found out the solidity of the substance of which they are made.000 miles in a second. is not Cygni (the only star — — — impossible not even improbable. or 1000 years ago. that its rays would require more than ten years to reach the earth.t telescope must have taken 3. of so surprising a necromantic ability. . For stars beyond this. That many which we see daily are really extinct.000. Some fatalities this of * come which Although I —but in certain shapes. we might still see them to-day by the light which started from their surfaces 20 or 1000 years in the past time. been adequate to save.000 years earth. then. if they had been annihilated 20.

I perceive. in depriving him of many . great consolation.) from the reflection that much of the history remained still untold. and I You have already given me a dreadful headache with your lies. She derived." both grieved and astonished Scheherazade but. has put it into the heads of these accomplished ladies that the thing which we describe as personal beauty consists altogether in the protuberance of the region which lies not very below the small of the back.THE THOUSAND-AND-SECOND 2l8 A what " said the king. is beginning to How long have we been married ? break. and bolsters being cheap in that country. inconceivable adventures. ? " ' genii. (during the tightening of the bowstring. my conwon't. science is And getting to be troublesome again. crotchet. and that the petulance of her brute of a husband had reaped for him a most righteous reward. of this lump. as she knew . the king to be a man of scrupulous integrity.' " TALE. " M A said Scheherazade. she submitted to her fate with a good grace. is Perfection in the direct ratio of the extent Having been long possessed of this idea. The day. that dromedary touch — do you take me for a fool ? then Upon the whole. the days have long gone by since it was possible to distinguish a woman from a dromedary " " Stop ! said the king —" I can't stand that. as I learn from the "Isitsoornot. they say. you might as well get up and be throttled. too. and quite unlikely to forfeit his word." These words. however. far of loveliness. who are perpetually ' One upon the watch of the evil to inflict ill.

and estranged me from the other. A BOTTLE. Indeed. country and of my Quinaull family I have —Atys. even the least susceptible of such reference. I . little to say. and a contemplative turn of mind enabled me to methodise the stores which early study diligently garnered up. the great delight . but from the ease with which habits of rigid thoughts enabled me to detect their my falsi- have often been reproached with the aridity of my genius a deficiency of imagination has been imputed to me as a crime and the Pyrrhonism of my opinions has at ties. IN Qui n'a plus qu'un moment a N 'a plus OF my vivre rien a dissimuler. I fear. a strong relish my mind with for physical philosophy has. . 219 Upon the . Ill usage and length of years have driven me from the one. to the principles of that science.FOUND MS. all times rendered me notorious. tinctured a very common error of this age — I mean the habit of referring occurrences. Be- yond me all works of the German moralists gave not from my ill-advised admiration of things. their eloquent madness. Hereditary wealth afforded me an education of no common order.

observed a very was remarkable. as being the first we had seen N. stowage was clumsily done. We had also on board oil. Islands. We got many under way with a mere breath of wind. and for days stood along the eastern coast of Java. and the vessel consequently crank. I —having went as passenger ment than a kind me no other induce- of nervous restlessness which haunted as a fiend. from coir. and a few cases of opium. to the well from its color as from its taffrail. Our tons. was a beautiful ship of about four hundred copper-fastened. evening. and built at Bombay of Malabar vessel She was teak. years spent in foreign travel. I sailed in the from the port of Batavia. freighted with cotton-wool and the Lachadive Islands. I W. without any other incident to beguile the monotony of our course than the occasional meeting with some of the small grabs of the Archipelago to One which we were bound. leaning over the singular isolated cloud. no person could be less liable than myself to be led away from the severe precincts of truth by the ignes fatui of superstition. than the positive experience of a mind to which the revhave been a dead eries of fancy After many — letter and a nullity.220 MS. ghee. lest the incredible tale I have to tell should be considered rather the raving of a crude imagination. whole. I have thought proper to premise thus much. cocoanuts. It . on a voyage to the Archipelago year 18 . jag- The geree. in the rich and populous island of Java. FOUND IN A BOTTLE.

hung without the possibility of detecting a vibration. Although I could latter bottom. me apprehending a fears but he paid no me in . However. and as we were he ordered the No watch was sails to set. since our departure when until sunset. every The flame of a candle burned is impossible to conceive. yet. principally of Malays. and the water seemed more than usually transparent. it spread all I watched 221 it attentively once to the eastward and at westward. and about midnight I me went upon deck. The was undergoing a rapid change. My and my left uneasiness. and the crew. upon the poop without the least perceptible motion. from Batavia. I found fifteen fathoms. consisting let go. strip of va- My notice was soon afterward attracted by the dusky-red appearance of the moon. and was loaded with spiral exhalations similar As night came on. and a long hair. In- — deed. . stretched themselves deliberately upon deck. girting in the horizon with a narrow por.FOUND IN A BOTTLE. The air now became intoler- distinctly see the the ship in ably hot. prevented from sleeping. heaving the lead. held between the finger and thumb. I said. every appearance warranted Simoon. and the anchor furled. of and a more entire calm it breath wind died away. MS. without deigning to however. I went below not without a full presentiment of evil. to those arising from heated iron. and the peculiar character of the sea. I told attention to the captain of what give a reply. be drifting in bodily to shore. and looking like a long line of low beach. as the captain said he could perceive no indication of danger.

and before upon the upper step of the com- startled by a loud. We soon discovered that survivors of the accident. with the excep- had been swept overboard . gering awhile beneath the immense pressure of the tempest. Stunned by the shock of the water. upon recovery. Although completely had as her masts gone by the board. and. rushing over us fore and stem to aft. and looking With dizzily idea of our being great difficulty around. she rose. the captain . and. shipped with us at the moment of leaving port.222 As FOUND IN A BOTTLE. MS. beyond the was the whirlpool of mountainous and foaming ocean within which we were engulfed. I placed my panion-ladder. I found In the next instant a could ascertain I its the ship quivering to its centre. water-logged. humming by the rapid revolution noise. heavily from the sea. and presently he came reeling aft. After a while I heard the voice of an old Swede. yet. it is impossible to say. finally righted. who had among . at first struck with the breakers so terrific. of a mill- meaning. we were the sole All on deck. wildest imagination. By what miracle I escaped destruction. The extreme fury of the blast proved. I found myself. in a great meas- the salvation of the ship. wilderness of foam hurled us upon our beam-ends. was I regained my feet. swept the entire decks from stern. after a minute. stagure. foot was I like that occasioned wheel. I hal looed to him with all my strength. tion of ourselves. jammed in between the stern-post and rudder.

Our course for the first four days was. and we .MS. E. were still more terrific than any tempest I had before encountered. S. sea. and that we had made no great shifting of our ballast. without equalling the first violence of the Simoon. means and this very just apprehension seemed by no likely to be soon verified. and we must have run down . and our exertions were at first paralyzed by the momentary Our expectation of going down. procured with great difficulty from the forecastle — the hulk flew at a rate defying com- putation. which. for the cabins were deluged with water. we should inevitably perish in the tremendous swell which would en- But sue. first we should have been We scudded with and the water made cable had. of course. 223 and mates must have perished while they slept. parted like pack-thread. apprehended little danger from the violence of the wind but we looked forward to its total cessation with dismay well believing. breath of the hurriover- instantaneously frightful velocity before the clear breaches over us. we had received considerable injury but to our extreme joy we found the pumps unchoked. at the cane. and by S. with trifling variations. before rapidly succeeding flaws of wind. or whelmed. — nights during For five entire days which our only subsistence was a small quantity of jaggeree. Without assistance we could expect to do little for the security of the ship. . work of our stern was shattered The frame- excessively. The main fury of the blast had already blown over. in almost every respect. and. . . that in our shattered condition. FOUND IN A BOTTLE.

noon. as it rushed down the unfathomable ocean. denly went out. There — emitting were no clouds.apparent.FOUND IN A BOTTLE. and blew with a fitful and unsteady fury. as nearly as we could guess. and thick gloom. the coast of Holland. sickly yellow lustre. It was a dim. We observed. unrelieved by the phosphoric we had been accustomed sea-brilliancy in the tropics. Thenceforward we were enshrouded darkness. alone. but a dull and sullen glow without reflection. there was no longer to be discovered the usual appearance of surf. silver-like rim. which had hitherto attended us. All around were horror. although the tempest continued to rage with unabated violence. Just before sinking within the turgid sea. as if all its rays were polarized. so that we twenty paces from the envelope to which r us. It gave out no properly so called. too. although the wind had hauled round a The sun arose with a point more to the northward. our attention was again arrested by the appearance of the sun. that. above the horizon fifth and clambered a very few degrees no decisive light. yet the wind was upon the inAbout crease. or foam. all in pitchy could not have seen an object at Eternal night continued to ship. 224 New On the day the cold became extreme. Superstitious terror crept by degrees into the spirit of the . as if hurriedly extinguished by some unaccountable power. MS. — We waited in vain for the arrival of the sixth day that day to me has not yet arrived to the Swede never — did arrive. its central fires sud- light. and a black sweltering desert of ebony.

when a quick scream from my companion broke fearfully upon " cried he. We and neglected my own soul was wrapt 225 in silent wonder. and felt great amazement at not meeting with the usual impediments of ice. old Swede. and prepared I thought nothing with every knot of way the ship made. and that we were not instantly buried is a miracle. farther to the southward than any previous navigators. well aware of having made however. where the grew stagnant. At times we gasped for could defer beyond an hour. We we form any had no means of calculating time. We were at the bottom of one of these abysses. the swelling of the black stupendous seas became more dismally appalling. and reminded me of the excellent qualities of our ship feeling the utter hopelessness of . nor could We were. " See see ! ! " Almighty God see see ! ! " ! As he spoke I became aware .FOUND IN A BOTTLE. guess of our situation. all and securing ourselves as well as possible. looked out bitterly into the world of ocean. care of the ship. to the stump of the mizen-mast. but hope death which myself gloomily for that I could not help itself. My companion spoke of the lightness of our cargo. In the meantime every moment threatened to be our last every — mountainous billow hurried to overwhelm us. and no sound air disturbed the slumbers of the kraken. MS. shrieking in my ears. — breath at an elevation beyond the albatross at times became dizzy with the velocity of our descent into some watery hell. as. as worse than useless. the night. The swell surpassed anything I had imagined possible.

and . At a terrific height directly above us. At this instant. self-possession Staggering as far aft as I could. But what mainly inspired us with horror and astonishment. brass cannon protruded from her open ports. I awaited fearlessly the ruin that was to overwhelm. first discovered her. as she rose slowly from the dim and horrible gulf beyond her. FOUND IN A BOTTLE. own vessel was at length ceasing Our from her struggles. I verge of the precipitous descent. I came over my know not what sudden spirit. and upon the very ful brilliancy upon our deck.226 MS. her bows were alone to be seen. and dashed from the polished surfaces the fires of innumerable battleof the lanterns which swung to and fro about her rigging. and tottered. then trembled. down and threw a fit- Casting my eyes upwards. Although upreared upon the summit of a wave more than a hundred times her own exceeded that of any Her or East Indianman in existence. unrelieved by any A single row of customary carvings of a ship. For a moment of intense terror she paused upon the giddy pinnacle as if in contemplation of her own sublimity. beheld a spectacle which froze the current of my blood. hovered a gigantic ship. was that she bore up under a press of sail in the very teeth of that supernatural sea. her apparent size ship of the line hull huge was still of a deep dingy black. and — came down. altitude. of a dull sullen glare of red light which streamed the sides of the vast chasm where we lay. of perhaps four thousand tons. and of that ungovernable When we hurricane.

when a footstep the hold forced me to make use of it. which was partially open. was perhaps the I was unwilling to trust principle of my concealment. upon the rigging of the stranger. Why I did so I can hardly tell.• MS. in such a manner as to afford me a convenient retreat be- tween the huge timbers of the ship. I had scarcely completed my work. it an His knees tottered beneath a load of years. and soon found an opportunity of secreting myself in the hold. so many points of vague cursory glance I therefore thought novelty. inite sense of myself with a race of people who had offered. with irresistible violence. in A man passed by my place of concealment with a feeble and unsteady gait. This I did by removing a small portion of the shifting-boards. 227 The shock of the de- scending mass struck her. As I fell. notice of the crew. FOUND IN A BOTTLE. With little difficulty I made my way. An indef- awe. unperceived. and went about and to the confusion ensuing I attributed my escape from the . and the inevitable result was to hurl me. sinking with her head to the sea. I proper to contrive a hiding-place in the hold. and his entire frame quivered . to the main hatchway. consequently in that portion of her frame which was nearly under water. There was about evidence of great age and infirmity. and apprehension. I could not see his face. to the had taken. but had an opportunity of observing his general appearance. which at first sight of the navigators of the ship had taken hold of my mind. the ship hove in stays. doubt.

228 MS. in a low broken tone. latter considera- that I shall never with regard to the nature of my conceptions. and ago that I . —a I first my new is entity added to my trod the deck of this terrible ship. they pass unnoticed. It is but just now that I passed it was no long while directly before the eyes of the mate . muttered to himself. ysis. Concealment is utter folly on my me by part. Incomprehensible men ! I think. for the people will not see. some words of a language which I could not understand. ventured into the captain's own private cabin. His manner was a wild mixture of the peevishness of lar-looking instruments. gathering to a Wrapped up in medita- tions of a kind which I cannot divine. * A my To which * I to which the lessons of by-gone time are inadequate. length went on deck. I shall my own. and the solemn dignity of a God. novel. He second childhood. has taken possessoul— a sensation which will admit of no anal- feeling. and * have no name. He under the burthen. for sion of * * at for which I fear futurity itself will a mind constituted like an tion is Yet it is —be evil. not wonderful that these conceptions are indefsince they have their origin in sources so utterly satisfied inite. ***** A new sense long since and the rays of It is focus. and groped in a corner among a pile of singu- and decayed charts of navigation. and took thence the materials with which I write. FOUND IN A BOTTLE. destiny are. and I saw him no more. the — never I know offer me no key. soul.

While musing upon the singularity of tingly daubed with a tar-brush the edges studding-sail ding-sail is which lay near now bent upon me on my fate. may not find an opportunity of to the world. The stud- the ship. quated stern. and there is my mind always mixed up with such indistinct shadows of recollection. transmitting it in a bottle. I it is. and the thoughtless touches of the brush are spread out into the word DIS- COVERY. it last moment within the sea. * •* enclose the I will MS. build. I have made my observations lately upon the structure Although well armed.MS. war. of the vessel. ^ * # me new room Are such things the operation of ungovI had ventured upon deck and thrown incident has occurred which has given for meditation. among a pile of ratlin-stuff and old sails. she is not. I unwit- of a neatly-folded a barrel. I fear it is impossible all I t . a ship of negative a supposition of this kind. and the cast * An FOUND IN A BOTTLE. and general equipment. I 229 from time to time continue shall this It is true that I journal. there will occasionally flash across a sensation of familiar things. but I will not fail to make At the endeavor. without attracting any notice. an unac- . her severely simple bow and anti- to say. in the bottom of the yawl. can easily perceive what she is. know not how but in scrutinizing her strange model and singular cast of spars. erned chance? myself down. What she is not. her huge size and overgrown suits of canvass. ve written. Her rigging. I think.

unfit for the it I mean pendently of the its wood which strikes purpose to which me as has been it extreme porousness. and. entertained of his veracity. them the marks of a hoary old age. She is built of a material to which I am a stranger. considered inde- worm-eaten condition which quence of navigation in these seas. if Spanish oak In reading the above sentence." he was wont to say. Like the tion. I a group of the crew. and broken . their shoulders were bent double with decrepitude their shrivelled skins rattled in the wind . There is a § I peculiar character about the rendering applied. tremulous. memory of old foreign chronicles 230 countable # * ago. rottenness attendant is a conse- and apart from the It will upon age. but this would have every characteristic of Spanish oak. their eyes . when any doubt was is as sure. and ages long * have been looking at the timbers of the ship. were distended by any unnatural means. one I had they all bore about Their knees trembled at first seen in the hold.MS." as there is About an hour ago. " as sure a sea where the ship itself will grow in bulk * * * like the living body of the seaman. FOUND IN A BOTTLE. their voices were low. with infirmity. appear perhaps an observation somewhat over-curious. seemed utterly unconscious of my presence. made bold to trust myself me no manner among of atten- They paid although I stood in the very midst of them all. . a curious apothegm of an old weather-beaten Dutch navigator comes full upon my " It recollection.

and in his own ibin but. and rolling every moment every rag of canvas packed her lower studding-sail her top-gallant yard-arms into the most appalling hell of water which it can enter into the mind of man to imagine. have seen the captain face to face. with upon her. we glide away with the facility of the arrowy sea-gull and the colossal waters into . From billows a thousand times more stupendous than any I have ever seen. and forbidden to led to attribute these frequent escapes to the only natural cause which can account for such effect. is not swallowed up at once to hover continually We are surely doomed upon the brink of eternity. I must suppose the ship to be within the influence of * * * some strong current. lay scattered mathematical instruments of * * * and obsolete construction. where I find it impossible to maintain a footing. although the crew seem to experience It appears to me a miracle of miralittle inconvenience. rear their like heads above us demons confined destroy.MS. I — . from her truck to booms. I am like demons of the deep. I have just left the deck. without taking a final plunge the abyss. being thrown dead off sail. some time ago. he paid me no attention. has continued her terrific course due south. the ship. glistened with the FOUND IN A BOTTLE. rheum 23 1 and their gray hairs streamed terribly in the tempest. I the wind. on every part of the deck. Around them. as I expected. quaint mentioned. the most of years . cles that and our enormous bulk forever. the bending of a studdingFrom that period. but to simple threats. or impetuous under-tow.

—as did the himself first seaman —some low peevish syllables of whom I saw in a foreign tongue the hol< . seems to bear upon it th< head. nothing which might bespeak him more or less than man. and obsolete His head was bowed down upoi long-forgotten charts. so extreme. his hands. face — it is my of a well-knit the intense.MS. and the wild glare . and his grayer eyes are sybils of the future. But it of body. neither robust is the singularity of the expression which reigns upon th< feet eight inches. and which. The crew glide to and fro like the ghosts of buried centuries . 232 FOUND IN A BOTTLE. when their eyes have an eager and uneasy meaning their fingers fall athwart my path in . His fon wrinkled. and he pored. iron-claspe< folios. the thrilling dence of old age so in is spirit evi- utter. The ship and all in it are imbued with the spirit of Eld. Th( little cabin floor was thickly strewn with strange. the wonderful. with a fiery. bore the signature of a monarch. and mouldering instruments of science. his voice seemed * * * to reach my ears from the distance of a mile. and al- though the speaker was close at my elbow. although stamp of a myriad of years. to a casual observer. over paper which I took to be a commission. a feeling of irrepressible reverence and awe mingled with the sensation of wonder with which I regarded him. In stature. unquiet eye. about five and compact frame nor remarkable otherwise. His gray hairs are records oi the past. still. Although in his appearance there is. at all He murmured t< events. which excites with- a sense —a sentiment ineffable. that is. he is nearly He my own height .

As * * — imagined. I have been feel as I 233 have never felt before. If I trembled at the blast which has hitherto attended us. the ship proves to be in a current if that appellation can properly be given to a tide which. towering away into the desolate sky. indistinctly and stupendous ramparts of ice. some secret. MS. to convey any idea of which. * universe. about a . eternal night. It is exciting me most hideous aspect evident that we are hurrying onward to will reconcile knowledge whose attainment to the —some is never-to-be-imparted destruction. and Persepolis. thunders on to I the southward with a velocity like the headlong dashing * * * of a cataract. I feel a dealer in antiquities. of the battle-lanterns. and of death. the words trivial and ineffective? All in tornado and simoon are the immediate vicinity of the ship. shall I not stand aghast at a warring of wind and ocean. utterly impossible yet a curiosity to penetrate the mysteries of these awful regions. and Tadmor. either side of us. and looking like the walls of the at intervals. is the blackness of and a chaos of foamless water league on. howling and shrieking by the white ice. be seen. I When I all life look around me. Perhaps this . despair. predominates even over my .FOUND IN A BOTTLE. ashamed of my former apprehension. although my and have imbibed the shadows of fallen columns at Balbec. may but. until my very soul has be* * * come a ruin. To conceive the horror of my sensations is. I presume.

— and we circles. in right. more * its favor. by four mouths into the (northern) Polar Gulf. in which the ocean is represented as rushing. 234 current leads us to the southern pole itself. and thundering of ocean is quivering oh God and going — and tempest. the ship is at times lifted the Oh. by a black rock. towering to . as we carry a crowd of canvas." was originally published in years afterward that I became acquainted with the maps of Mercator. round and round the borders of a gigantic amphitheatre. until many the Pole itself being represented a prodigious height. to be absorbed into the bowels 1 83 1. the summit of whose walls is lost in the darkness and the But distance. It must be confessed that a supposition apparently so wild has every probability in The crew pace step . it of the earth was not . the ship down to ponder grow small plunging madly within the grasp of amid a me ! ! —The and "MS. my destiny! little time The circles will be left rapidly roaring. Found in a Bottle. upon —we are the whirlpool— and and bellowing. In the meantime the wind our poop.FOUND IN A BOTTLE. MS. and to the immense concentric left. and. horror upon horror bodily from out the sea is still in ! ! ice opens suddenly to the are whirling dizzily. Note. but there is * * the deck with unquiet and tremulous upon their countenance of the eagerness of and expression hope than of the apathy of despair.

and shadow. The ways of God in Nature. my me — an event such as never happened before to mortal man or at least such as no man ever survived to tell of and — the sixjiours of deadly terror which broken old man me up body and but I am not. are not as our ways nor we frame in any way commensurate to the vastness. — Joseph Glanville. which have a in them . and greater than the well T T 7E VV depth of Democritus. much exhausted to speak. to weaken my limbs. It I then endured have You suppose me took less a very than a single day to change these hairs from a jetty black to white. so that I tremble at the least exertion. are the models that profundity. "and I could have guided you on this route as well as the youngest of sons but. as in Providence. "Not long ago.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. had now reached the summit of the loftiest For some minutes the old man seemed crag. little cliff Do you know I am frightened at a can scarcely look over this without getting giddy? 235 " . — soul. about three years past. and to unstring my nerves." said he at too length. there happened to . unsearchableness of His works.

are in the sixty-eighth in the great province district of now close degree of in the of Nordland — and The mountain upon whose Helseggen. some fifteen or sixteen hundred from the world of crags beneath us. my position of companion." upon whose edge he had so carelessly thrown himself down to rest that the weightier portion of he was only kept from falling over while it. in that particularizing manner which distinguished him-" we upon the Norwegian coast latitude — dreary top we up a Lofoden. that I excited by the perilous I fell at full length upon the ground. 236 The " little cliff. the Cloudy. and dared nol even glance upward at the sky while I struggled in vain — to divest myself of the idea that the very foundations of the mountain were in danger from the fury of the wind* It was long before I could reason myself into sufficient courage to sit up and look out into the distance." said the guide. a sheer unobstructed preci- his — pice of black shining rock. "You must " for I get over these fancies. Now raise yourself higher hold on to the grass if you feel giddy sit is little — — . clung to the shrubs around me. have brought you here that you might have the best possible view of the scene of that event —and to tell I mentioned you the whole story with the spot just under your eye." " We are now. Nothing would have tempted me to be within half a dozen yards of its feet In truth so deeply was brink.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM." he continued. body hung by the tenure of his elbow on its extreme and slippery edge this "little cliff" arose.

bleak-looking island wilderness of . the Nubian geographer's account of the my mind Tenebrarum. position was discernible through the surge in which it was enveloped. . howling and shrieking for ever. in the space distant island between the and the shore. The appearance more of the ocean. A panorama Mare more deplorably desolate no imagination can conceive. there lay outstretched. angry cross dashing of water in every direction —as well . About more properly. To the right and left. but only a short. whose character of gloom was but the more forcibly which reared high up against it its white and ghastly crest. so strong a gale was blowing landward that a brig in the remote offing lay to under a double-reefed trysail. sea. like human ramparts of the world. at the time. 237 —so— and look out. hideously craggy and barren. still there was here a regular swell. and encompassed at various intervals by a cluster of dark rocks. plunged her whole hull out of nothing like sight. whose waters wore so inky a hue as to bring at once to I looked dizzily. or.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. lines of horridly black and beetling cliff." and beheld a wide expanse of ocean. quick. Just opposite the promontory upon whose apex we were illustrated placed. arose another of smaller size. as far as the eye could reach. beyond the belt of vapor beneath us. and constantly unusual about it. its two miles nearer the land. into the sea.had something very Although. by the and surf at a distance of some five or six miles out at there was visible a small.

238 in the teeth of the Of foam there was except in the immediate vicinity of the rocks. island in the distance. Buckholm. I became aware of a loud and gradually in- of a vast herd of buf- like the moaning upon an American prairie and at the same moment I perceived that what seamen term the chopping creasing sound. character of the ocean beneath us. Flimen. These are the true names of the places but why it has been are Islesen. " little " wind as otherwise. was In five minutes the whole sea. seamed and scarred into . was rapidly changing into a current which set to the eastward. Yonder Hotholm. Here the vast bed of the waters.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. and Stockholm. faloes . as lashed into ungovernable fury . Moskoe. so that we had caught no glimpse of the sea unhad burst upon us from the summit." resumed the old man. As the old til it man spoke. moment added to its — speed to its Each headlong impetuosity. The called is by the Norwegians Vurrgh. Sandflesen. Suarven. Do you hear any thing? Do you see any change in the water?" We had now been about ten minutes upon the top Helseggen. to which we had ascended from the interior of of Lofoden. and off between Moskoe and Vurrgh are Otterholm. Keildhelm. far as Vurrgh. The one midway is That a mile to the northward is Ambaaren. — Further — — thought necessary to name them at all. but it was between Mos- koe and the coast that the main uproar held its sway. this current acquired a monstrous velocity. Even while I gazed. is more than either you or I can understand.

I . and seemed to form the germ — denly of another this circle of assumed a more vast. diswhat more smooth. a thousand conflicting phrensied convulsion in gigantic channels. apparent where none had been seen before. whose interior. such as not even the mighty cataract of Niagara ever lifts up in its agony to Heaven. The edge of the was represented by a broad belt of gleaming spray but no particle of this slipped into the mouth of the whirl terrific fathom . and sending five winds an appalling voice. one by one. shining. while prodigious streaks of foam became other radical alteration. funnel. inclined to the horizon at an angle of some of forty- with a degrees. half shriek. speeding dizzily round and round to the forth swaying and sweltering motion. except in precipitous descents. took unto themselves the gyra- tory motion of the subsided vortices. These streaks. there came over the scene an- The general surface grew someand the whirlpools. suddenly into hissing and 239 all —gyrating whirling and plunging on to the eastward with a rapidity which water never elsewhere assumes. half roar. at length. The mountain trembled to its very base. burst —heaving. spreading out to a great distance.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. and the rock threw myself upon my face. in a in diameter. In a few minutes more. and innumerable vortices. boiling. the eye could and jet-black wall water. distinct more than a mile and —very Suddenly sud- definite existence. and clung to the scant herbage in an excess of nervous agitation. it. rocked. and entering into combination. appeared. as far as was a smooth.

" he says." said I at length. " We Norwethe Moskoe-strom. cannot impart the faintest conception either of th^aia^mficence. to the old man — u this can be nothing else than the great whirlpool of the Maelstrom. 24O " This. which happens even in the calmest weather. When it a vessel." said he. side. the noise ." The ordinary account of this vortex had by no means prepared me for what I saw. nevertheless. not sure from what I am point of view the writer in question surveyed it. toward Ver (Vurrgh) this depth decreases so as not to afford a convenient passage for without the risk of splitting on the rocks. nor at what time but it could neither have been from the summit of Helseggen. flood. although their effect is exceedingly feeble in conveying an im- pression of the spectacle. There are some passages of his description." " So it gians call in the is it sometimes termed. by the loudest and most dreadful cataracts . the stream runs up the country between Lofoden and Moskoe with a boisterous rapidity but the roar of its impetuous ebb to the sea is scarce equalled is . perhaps the most circumstantial of any.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. or of the horror of the scene or of the wild bewildering which is — sense of the novel which confounds the beholder. . nor during a storm. " of Between Lofoden and Moskoe. from the island of Moskoe midway. which may be quoted for their details. "the depth the water is between thirty-six and forty fathoms but on the other . That of Jonas Ramus.

after of craggy rocks. and when the water relaxes. attempting Moskoe. and turn of the ebb last but a quarter When violence gradually returning. most boisterous. that if a ship comes within its attraction. it is inevitably absorbed and car- down ried and there beat to pieces to the bottom. In the year 1645. yachts. and the vortices or pits are of such an extent and depth. and its fury heightened the by a dangerous to come within a Norway mile Boats. that storm. strug- A bear once. and ships have been carried away by not guarding against it before they were carried within its reach. whales come too near the stream. This stream sea — among which they is regulated are whirled to and by the flux and reflux of the it being constantly high and low water mornevery six hours.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. fro. tervals of tranquility are only at and and flood. This plainly shows the "bottom to consist trees. was caught by the gles to disengage themselves. against the rocks. their howlings and bellowings swim from Lofoden to their fruitless stream and borne down. rise again broken and torn to such a degree as if bristles grew upon them. so as firs and pine being absorbed by the current. early in the . stream is its in the calm weather. to in Large stocks of terribly. while he roared to be heard on shore. of an hour. 24 1 being heard several leagues off. and are overpowered by its violence and then it is impossible to describe . It likewise happens frequently. of it is it. the But these infragments thereof are thrown up again.

phenomenon —some of remember. 242 ing of Sexagesima Sunday. among no other cause than the falling. The idea generally received as three smaller vortices that this. The depth in the shore either of the centre of the Moskoe-strom must be unmeasurably greater and no better proof of this fact is necessary than . at flux and reflux. line it appeared to me. the anec- dotes of the whales and the bears. for in fact. that the largest ships of the coming within the influence of that in existence. Looking down from this pinnacle upon the howling Phlegethon below. collision is of waves rising and against a ridge of rocks and . The " forty fathoms " must have reference only to portions of the channel close upon Moskoe or Lofoden. can be obtained from even the sidelong glance into the abyss of the whirl which may be had from the highest crag of Helseggen. deadly attraction. could resist it as little as a feather the hurricane." fell In regard to the depth of the water. seemed to me sufficiently plausible in wore a very different and unsatisfactory — perusal now aspect. I could not see how this could have been ascertained at all in the immediate vicinity of the vortex. as a matter difficult of belief. and must disappear bodily and The attempts which I to account for the at once. as well " the Ferroe have Islands.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTKOM. a self-evident thing. I could not help smiling at the simplicity with which the honest Jonas Ramus records. it raged with such noise and impetuosity that the very stones of the houses on the coast to the ground.

known by lesser experiments. as I gazed. altion . the prodigious suction of which is self like a cataract sufficiently . which confines the water so that it 243 precipitates it- and thus the higher the flood rises. and he proceeded. and even absurd. and here I agreed with him — for. it becomes altogether unintelligible. amid the thunder of the abyss. to it As to the former notion he confessed his inability comprehend it . This opinion. and the natural result of all is a deeper whirlpool or vortex. " You have had old man. I will tell and if you a story that will convince you I ought to know somen thing of the Moskoe-strom. Kircher and others imagine that in the centre of the channel of the an abyss penetrating the globe. was the view almost universally entertained of the subject by the Norwegians." words of the Encyclopaedia —These are the Britannica. mentioning it to the guide. shelves. and issuing some very remote part the Gulf of Bothnia being Maelstrom in is — somewhat decidedly named in one instance. with which we were in the habit of fishing among the islands beyond . my imagin most readily assented and. was the one to which. how- ever conclusive on paper. the the fall must be.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. I was rather surprised to hear him say that. idle in itself. so as to and deaden the roar of the water. get in " its lee." said the you will creep round this crag. it nevertheless was not his though own." I " placed myself as desired. a good look at the whirl now. Myself and my two brothers once owned a schooner- rigged smack of about seventy tons burthen.

how- ever. 244 Moskoe. if one has only the courage to attempt it but among the whole of the Lofoden coastmen. far above the pool. We never set out upon this expedition without a steady side wind for going and com- —one that we sure would not us before — return and we seldom made a mis-calculation upon ing point. and then drop down upon anchorage somewhere near Otterholm.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. as The you. We we made it a matter of desperate specula- risk of life standing instead of labor. weather. what the . made tell a regular business of going out to the islands. in fine up the coast than this . during six years. main until nearly time for slack-water again. kept the smack in a cove about five miles higher and it was our practice. tion—the fact. felt Twice. There way I lower down can be got at all hours. The choice spots fish over here among the rocks. to take advantage of the fifteen minutes' slack to push across the main channel of the Moskoe-strom. usual grounds are a great to the southward. but in far greater abundance so that we often got in a single day. where the edHere we used to redies are not so violent as elsewhere. not only yield the finest variety. there is good In all violent eddies at sea fishing. without ferred. and therefore these places are pre- much risk. when we weighed and made for home. fail we were forced our this to stay all . or Sandflesen. answering " of the craft could not scrape together in a and courage for capital. more timid In week. nearly to Vurrgh. at proper opportunities. we three were the only ones who .

although at times my heart has been in my mouth when we happened to be a minute or so behind or before the slack. eighteen j^ears old. Upon this to sea in spite of every thing. and made the channel too boisterous to be thought occasion we should have been driven out of. and These would have been in using the I had two stout boys of sweeps as well as afterward the truth. you the twentieth part of the difficulwe encountered on the ground '—it is a bad spot to I in. and then we made rather less way than we could wish. that. not young ones get into the and done. . risk ourselves. in fishing —but. we brought could not drifted into one of to-day and gone to- lee of Flimen. it was a horrible danger. we had somehow. at length. while the current rendered the My eldest brother had a son smack unmanageable.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. if it we fouled our anchor and had not been that we dragged it) the innumerable cross currents —here —which drove us under the morrow by good " ties be luck. up. (for the whirlpools threw us round and round so violently. The wind sometimes was not as strong as we thought it at starting. although we ran the after all said my of great assistance at such times. where. starving to death. which thing indeed just about here . a rare is and once we had to remain on the grounds nearly a week. 245 night at anchor on account of a dead calm. — danger for. and that the heart to let the is own. tell ' —but we even in good weather make shift always to run the gauntlet of the Moskoe-strom itself without accident . owing to a gale which blew up shortly after our arrival.

taken aback by a breeze from over Helsegen.. and indeed until late in the after- noon. without ex- We put the boat on the wind. which we knew would be at eight. when we weighed and started for home. there was a gentle and steady breeze from the southwest. which. . quarter. — will yet all the morning. 18 world And . but actly knowing why.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM 246 u It I am is now within a few days of three years since what you occurred. " We set out with a fresh wind on our starboard and for some time spanked along at a great rate. and I was upon the point of proposing to return to the anchorage. were more plenty that day than we had ever known them. so that the oldest seaman among us could not have foreseen what was to follow. we all remarked. for indeed we saw not the All at once we were slightest reason to apprehend it. It was on the tenth of going to tell — a day which the people of this part of the never forget for it was one in which blew the most terrible hurricane that ever came out of the heavens. by my watch. It was just seven. This was most unusual something that had never happened to us — before — and I began to feel a little uneasy. M. and soon nearly loaded the smack with fine fish. could make no headway at all for the eddies. July. " The three of us —my two brothers and myself crossed over to the islands about two o'clock —had P. never dreaming of danger. so as to make the worst of the Strom at slack water. while the sun shone brightly.

In than a minute the storm was upon us in less than every direction. I threw myself for I . last less — two the sky was entirely overcast —and what with this the driving spray. looking astern. at the . and this hatch it had always sat upon water. as soon as I had let the foresail run. drifting about in This state of things. V Such a hurricane as then blew describing. did not long enough to give us time to think about it. and attempt never experi- sails go by the both first puff. elder brother escaped destruction I cannot say.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. with only a small hatch near the bow. our masts went by the board as if they had been sawed off the mainmast taking with it my youngest brother. we should have foundered at for this circumstance — for How my we lay entirely buried for some moments. We had let our run before it cleverly took us but. it became suddenly so dark that could not see each other in the smack. " Our boat was the lightest feather of a thing that ever had a complete flush deck. It been our custom to batten down when about to cross the Strom. we saw the whole horizon covered with a singular copper-colored cloud that rose with the most amazing velocity. never had an opportunity of ascertaining. For my part. 247 when. however. by But once way of precaution against the chopping seas. — who had lashed himself to it for safety. The oldest seaman in it is we folly to Norway enced any thing like it. " In the meantime the breeze that had headed us off fell away and we were dead becalmed.

when I felt somebody grasp was my elder brother. It for joy. and my heart leaped my arm. for I —but the next horror— for he put had made sure that he was overboard moment his 1 all mouth this joy close to Moskoe-strom " No I my ear. just as a water. " For some moments we were completely deluged. was turned into will know what my feelings shook from head to foot as if I were at that had had the I knew what he meant by fit of the ague. in some measure. and thus rid was now trying to get the better of the stupor that had come over me. as I say. and . me I was mere instinct that prompted was undoubtedly the very "best could have done for I was too much flurried to to do thing It this —which — think. and clung to the When I could stand it no longer I raised myself upon my knees. herself a shake. dog does in coming out of the herself. of the seas. 248 on deck. With the wind that now drove us most violent — that one on. and thus got my head clear. and to collect my senses so as to see what I was to be done. and screamed out the word ' ! one ever moment.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. word well enough I knew what he wished to make me understand. still keeping hold with my hands. and with my hands grasping a ring-bolt near the flat foot of the foremast. with my feet against the narrow gunwale of the bow. we were bound nothing could save us for ! the whirl of the Strom. and all this time I held my breath. Presently our little boat gave bolt.

She up every thing about us with the greatest distinctness —but. a circular rift of clear sky blue —as clear as —and through with a lustre that lit I it I ever saw —and of a deep bright there blazed forth the full moon never before knew her to wear. although voice in his ear. A singular too. I I up ! to speak to could not screamed my could not under- make him at the top of my Presently he shook his head. the din had so increased that hear a single word. had come over the heavens. all at once.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. all events the seas. knew very this time the we were well that doomed. which at had been kept down by the wind. change. looking as .' I —there itself. we always went a long way up above the whirl. as we first or perhaps we scudded before it. and then had to wait and watch care- —but now we were fully for the slack the pool sure. had we been ten times a ninety-gun By ship. what a scene it was to light u I now made one or two attempts brother but in some manner which I — stand. fury of the tempest had spent did not feel it so much. oh God. Around in every direction it was still as black as pitch. and ' thought. and lay first frothing. " 249 You perceive that in crossing the Strom channel. next cursed myself for being so great a fool as to dream of hope at " To be ! flat and now got up into absolute mountains. is moment I some in we driving right upon such a hurricane as this shall get there just little in that hope ' about the slack —but in the I all. but nearly overhead there burst out. even in the calmest weather. but at itself.

250 pale as death. the waves in a strong gale. I glanced at its face by the moonlight. if I was glance around — and that one glance was all-sufficient. I dragged my watch from its fob. I should not as . seem always to slip from beneath her appears strange to a landsman and this is what is called — riding. and tlie well built. " Well. and not deep laden. and then burst into tears as I flung it far away into the ocean. I an instant. as a dream. when she is — going which large. and held up one of his fingers. and bore us with it as it rose up up — — — as if into the sky. If I had not known where we were. wave could a sweep. It was not going.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. I would not have believed that any And then down we came with rise so high. as ' listen ! "At if to say ' could not first I make out what he meant —but soon a hideous thought flashed upon me. is like a mill-race. and what we had to expect. a dizzy. — you now see it. properly trimmed. in sea phrase. The Moskoe-strom saw our exact position in whirlpool was about a quarter of a mile dead ahead but no more like the every-day Moskoe-strom than the whirl. // had run down We were behind the time of the whirl of the Strom was in full fury / o'clock / " When a boat is at seven slack. and a plunge that made me feel sick and falling from some lofty mountain-top in But while we were up I had thrown a quick slide. but presently a gigantic sea happened to take us right under the counter. so far we had ridden the swells very cleverly .

and then shot off in its new direction like a thunderbolt. account of the amazing velocity with which we were borne along. been more than two minutes could not we suddenly felt the waves subside. stood like a huge writhing wall between us and the horizon. but now. the water was completely drowned in a kind of shriek —such a sound as their steam off all you might imagine given out by many thousand the water-pipes of shrill together. steam-vessels letting We were now in surf that always surrounds the whirl . we were in the more composed than when Having made up my mind a great deal of that terror I supposed it was despair . it. 25 I eyes in horror. and were The boat made a sharp half turn to enveloped larboard. The boat did not seem to sink into the course. and on the larboard arose the world of ocean we had It left. but to skim Her face of the surge. when very jaws of the gulf. and I the belt of thought. that another water at all. of moment would plunge us into the we down could only see indistinctly on which abyss. I felt we were only approaching hope no more. At the same moment the roaring noise of wards until in foam.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. As it was. " It may appear strange. rid of at first. I involunThe lids clenched them- selves together as if in a spasm. like an air-bubble upon the sur- starboard side was next the whirl. which unmanned to that strung my I got me nerves. " have after- have recognized the place at tarily closed It my all.

A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. mounyou have never been at sea in a heavy us. and how foolish it was in me to think of so paltry a consideration as my own individual life. If a high. There was another circumstance which tended to restore my self-possession . and take away all power of action or reflection. positively at the sacrifice grief was that panions on I felt blushed with shame I mind. rid of these But we were now. which could not reach us in our present situation — for. the belt of the surf is considerably lower than the general bed of the ocean. as you saw for yourself. little curiosity while its was going to make and should never be able to tell . deafen. even my my principal old com- should see. black. my this idea crossed After a possessed with the keenest I itself. — that the revolutions of the boat around the pool might have rendered " me a little light-headed. — annoyances just as in a great meas- death-condemned . shore when became about the whirl a wish to explore I I about the mysteries I depths. gale. and this latter now towered above tainous ridge. ure. were singular fancies to occupy a man's mind in such extremity and I have often thought since. you can form no idea of the confusion of mind occasioned by the wind and spray together. 252 " may It truth — I to die in look like boasting —but what I tell you is began to reflect how magnificent a thing it was such a manner. and strangle you. They blind. no doubt. in view of so wonderful a manifestation of God's do believe that I power. These. and this was the cessation of the wind.

we approached upon this. My brother on to a small empty water-cask which had been securely lashed under the coop of the counter. prayer to God. from which. and went astern to the cask. flying rather than floating. swaying to and of the whirl. as it was not large enough to afford us both a secure grasp. and thought all was I muttered a hurried over. and was the only thing on deck that had not been swept overboard when the gale first took As us. — with the immense sweeps and swelters Scarcely had I secured myself in my new fro when we gave a wild lurch to starboard. forbidden them while " How their often doom is yet uncertain. getting gradually more and more into the middle of the surge. I never felt deeper grief than when I saw him attempt —although knew he was a madman when he did —a raving maniac through sheer did not this act it I I fright. however. . and then nearer and nearer to had never this time was at the stern.into the abyss. position. in the agony of his terror. I knew care. . he endeavored to force my hands. 253 felons in prison are allowed petty indulgences. and upon an even keel only . the belt it is careered round and round for perhaps an hour. we made the circuit of We impossible to say. the brink of the pit he let go his hold and made for the ring.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. holding I let its horrible inner edge. it could make no difference whether either of us held on at all so I let him have the bolt. This there was no great difficulty in doing for the smack flew round steadily enough. to contest the point with him. and rushed headlong . All go of the ring-bolt.

as the £ays the of full clouds which moon. from that circular rift amid the have already described. with the of I along. while in the belt exception that she now lay more took courage and looked once again upon the foam. that I The beheld. and wondered that was not already in my death-struggles with the water. however. stinctively tightened my had in- hold upon the barrel. while I my I I But moment after moment sense of falling had ceased seemed much as it . anc admiration with which I gazed about me. scene. In this direction I was able to obtain an unobstructed view. gaze fell When I recovered myself a instinctively downward. I still elapsed. " At my I was too much confused to observe any thing general burst of terrific grandeur was all first I accurately. 254 " As I felt the sickening sweep of the descent. peared to be hanging. and whose perfectly have been mistaken The boat circumference. " Never shall I forget the sensation of awe. and for the gleaming and ghastly radiance they shot forth. expected instant destruction. The lived. for ebony. as if a] by magic. little. horror. upoi the interior surface of a funnel vast in digious in depth. from the manner j | . streamed in a flood of golden glory along the black walls. and far away down into the inmost recesses of the abyss. and closed I dared not open them — For some seconds eyes.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. midway down. pre s mooth sides mig ht but for the bewildering rapidity with which they spun around. and the motion of the vessel had been before.

— Round and round we swept not with any uniform movement but in dizzying swings and jerks. had carried us to a great distance down the but our farther descent was by no means proslope of . this. " The tom rays of the moon seemed of the profound gulf . and over which there hung a magnificent rainbow. was tween Time and Eternity. her deck lay in a plane parallel with that of the water in — — but this latter sloped at an angle of more than forty-five degrees. or spray. but to search the very botI still could make out nothing distinctly on account of a thick mist in which every thing there was enveloped. from the belt foam above. no doubt occasioned by the clashing of the great walls of the yell mist " I all dare not attempt to describe. as they first slide into the abyss - itself. that portionate.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. sent us — —sometimes sometimes only a few hundred yards nearly the complete circuit of the whirl. level and . Our progress . Our — met together at the bottom but that went up to the Heavens from out of that the funnel. I scarcely could not help observing. like that narrow and tottering bridge which Mussulmen say is the only pathway beThis mist. maintaining than if had hold and foot- my we had been upon suppose. that more difficulty in ing in this situation. so that we seemed to be lying upon our beamends. 255 which the smack hung on the inclined surface of the She was quite upon an even keel that is to say. pool. nevertheless. was owing I I a dead to the speed at which we revolved.

was slow.' I — pointed to find that the wreck of a Dutch merchant ship overtook it and went down before. At length.' and then I was disapThis fir-tree. ceptible. I perceived that our boat was not the only object in the embrace of the whirl.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. large masses of building-timber and trunks of trees. and partly from present observation. and my heart beat heavily once more. I . for I ' foam below. " Looking about me upon the wide waste of liquid ebony on which we were thus borne. to watch. such as pieces of house furn- iture. 'will certainly be the awful plunge and disappears. after making several guesses of this nature. but very per. with many smaller articles. broken boxes. each revolution. I have already described the unnatural curiosity which had taken the place of my me drew nearer and nearer to as I now began original terrors. Both above and below us were visible fragments of ves- sels. It appeared to grow upon my dreadful doom. but the dawn of a more exciting hope. " It was not a new terror that thus affected me. I I numerous must have been even sought amusement in speculating upon the relative velocities of their several descents toward the delirious. This hope arose partly from memory. 256 at downward. found myself at one time the next thing that takes saying. with a strange interest. the things that floated in our company. barrels and staves. and being deceived in all — set this fact me upon —the fact of my invariable miscalculation. a train of reflection that made my limbs again tremble.

had several conversations on with an old school-master of the district . without undergoing the fate of those which had been drawn in more early or absorbed more rapidly. I conceived it possible. and the other of any other shape. between two iX masses of equal extent. greater number extraordinary of the articles way were shattered —so chafed and the appearance of being stuck I all. mind the great variety 257 buoyant matter that strewed the coast of Lofoden. I important observations. I have was absorbed the more slowly. also. the one cylindrical. from some reason. that they might thus be whirled up again to the level of the ocean. Since this sub- and it was . between two masses ofV" equal size. that. IX that as a general rule. the made. had descended so slowly after entering. that they did not reach the bottom before the turn of the flood came.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. as the case might be. three more rapid their descent —the second. or. that. the superiority in speed of descent was — with the sphere the third. or of the ebb. in Now far the the most roughened as to have full of splinters distinctly recollected that there were not disfigured at By —but then were some of them which I could not account for except by supposing that the roughened were the only ones which had been completely fragments absorbed that the others had entered the whirl at so late this difference — a period of the tide. the cylinder my let escape. the one spherical. in either instance. and the other of any other shape. The first was. the larger the bodies were. having been absorbed and called to of then thrown forth by the Moskoe-strom.

258 from him that and ' sphere. " by the De ring-bolt. or else the yard or the mast of a vessel. I in happened that a more resistance to with greater difficulty than an equally bulky body. into the water. he shook his head despairingly. and to throw myself with myself securely to the water-cask to cut it it signs. every revolution. 2. offered and was drawn suction. were high up above us. I and did everything in my power to make him understand what I was about to do. " I no longer hesitated what to do. and seemed to have moved but from their original station. I now little resolved to lash upon which I now held. its —and me how showed swimming it in a vortex.* " There was one startling circumstance which went a and rendering anxious to turn them to account. while many of these things. in gotten fact. attracted my brother's attention by pointed to the floating barrels that came near us. . the natural consequence of the forms of the floating the explanation fragments cylinder. and this was that. whether this was the case or not. I thought at length that he — comprehended my design but. my which had been on our level when I first opened eyes upon the wonders of the whirlpool. at great me way in enforcing these observations. of any form whatever.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. loose from the counter. and refused to move from * his station See Archimedes." — lib.' I learned the use of the words He explained to — how me — although what ' cylinder' I have for- observed was. It was impossible Incidentibus in Eluido. we passed something like a barrel.

The barrel to which I was attached sunk very little farther than half the ing it. without another moment's hesitation. it made having three or four wild gyrations in rapid succession.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. . The less violent. after my quitting the smack. became momently less and less gyrations of the whirl grew. bear- loved brother with my plunged headlong. when. at once and forever. before a great change took place in the character of the whirlpool. descended to a vast distance beneath me. ened myself to the cask by means of the lashings which secured it to the counter. and the bottom of the gulf seemed slowly to The sky was clear. gradually. into the chaos of foam below. and above the spot where the pool . when I found myself on the surface of the ocean. the froth and the rainbow disap- peared. and precipitated myself with it to reach . I resigned him to his fate. into the sea. the full moon was setting radiantly in the west. It — I will might have been an hour. distance between the bottom of the gulf and the spot at leaped overboard. or thereabout. and. fastso. " The result was precisely what I had hoped it might be. and must that I have farther to say story quickly to conclusion. and uprise. 259 him the emergency admitted of no delay and with a bitter struggle. less and By degrees. the winds had gone down. in full view of the shores of Lofoden. The slope of the which I sides of the vast funnel steep. As it that the I — myself who now tell you this tale as you see did escape and as you are already in possession of is — mode in which therefore anticipate bring my this escape all was effected.

" I told tell it faith in them —and story can scarcely expect than did the merry fishermen to you it —they did not my I . into the channel of the Strom. They say too that the whole expression of my counte- nance had changed. daily hair. — in a ' ' grounds of the fisherexhausted from fatigue coast into the A boat was borne violently few minutes. which had been raven black the day before. hurried down the was the hour been. believe it. I now you to put more of Lofoden. was I and of the mountainous waves — picked me up and (now that the danger was removed) speechless from men. the of its horror. 260 Moskoe-strom had of the slack —but from the the sea still It heaved in effects of the hurricane.A DESCENT INTO THE MAELSTROM. memory were my knew me old mates and Those who drew me on board — companions but they no more than they would have known a traveller from the My spirit-land. was as white as you see it now.

'9Bt .

an oversight is committed. for the other. is mistaken (a not unusual error) for what is this latter. is greatly misunderstood. If play. It upon mental character. to calculate is not in itself if par excellence. what is only complex. in its effects chess-player. does the one. it is here called powerfully into an instant. it is sights are multiplied resulting in injury or defeat. unjustly. I am not now writing a treatise. but involute. I will. on the contrary. take occasion to higher powers at ran- assert that the of the reflective intellect are more - edly and more usefully tasked by the unostentatious of draughts than by all decid- game the elaborate frivolty of chess. what ad- vantages are obtained by either party are obtained by . and especially by that highest branch of it which. as Yet analysis. therefore. but simply prefacing a somewhat peculiar narrative by observations very much dom . and the mere tention being left at- comparatively unemployed. without effort at follows that the game of chess. A example. In where the pieces have different and bizarre motions. moves In draughts. with various and variable values. the chances of such overand in nine cases out of ten. attention flag for The possible moves being not only manifold. 262 The faculty of* re-solution is possibly much invigorated by mathematical study. . the prob- inadvertence are diminished. where the are unique and have but abilities of little variation. \o analyze. and merely on account of its retrograde operations. has been called. the more concentrative rather than the more acute player who conquers. The profound.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE.

It is obvious that here the victory can be decided (the of draughts players being at all by some equal) only recherche" ment. let us 263 suppose a where the pieces are reduced to four game of and course. and not unfrequently sees thus. no oversight is to be expected. be less abstract. the result of some strong exertion of the move- intellect. Beyond nothing of a similar nain ture so greatly tasking the faculty of analysis. pacity for success in all these more important undertak- ings where mind struggles with mind. is Whist has long been known for its influence upon what termed the calculating power and men of the highest . but multiform. The best Christendom may be little more than the best player of chess but proficiency in whist implies cachess-player in . and lie frequently among re- cesses of thought altogether inaccessible to the ordinary understanding. at a glance. These are not only manifold. To superior acumen. Deprived of ordinary resources. identifies himself therewith. where. the methods (sometimes indeed absurdly simple ones) by which he may seduce into error or hurry into miscalsole culation. the analyst throws himself into the spirit of his opponent. ficiency. order of intellect have been known to take an apparently while unaccountable delight it. kings.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. eschewing chess as there is doubt frivolous. I mean that perfection in the When I say pro- game which in- cludes a comprehension of all the sources whence legitimate advantage may be derived. To observe attentively is to remember .

each hand in He . comparing opponents.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. in and inferences. that of si- The Our player confines himself not at all nor. because the game is the object. the extent of in much not so in the validity of the inference as in the quality of the observation. so . at whist . or chagrin. umph. gathering a fund of thought from the differences in the expression of certainty. Thus to have selves based sufficiently a retentive points ing. memory. does he reject deductions from things exter. do very well far. can make an- trick he judges whether the person taking other in the suit. nal to the game. the concentrative chess-player will while the rules of Hoyle (them- upon the mer« mechanism of the game) are and generally comprehensible. of surprise. evinced. makes. He lies So. He recognizes what is played through feint. a host of observations do sum regarded as the " companions . and the difference the information obtained. through the glances bestowed by their holders He notes every variation of face as the play upon progresses. . perhaps. partner. necessary knowledge is what to observe. of trieach. 264 distinctly and. by the manner with which it is thrown upon the the accidental droptable. A casual or inadvertent word . and proceed by commonly But that the it skill is in his the book total of good " are play- matters beyond the limits of mere rule of the analyst is lence. From the manner of gathering up a it. and honor by honor. He examines the countenance of his it carefully with that of each of his considers the often counting mode of assorting the cards trump by trump.

that the ingenious are always fanciful. The power should not be confounded with analytical simple ingenuity for while the analyst is necessarily ingenious. has been whose intellect bordered other- wise upon idiocy. than that between the fancy and the imagination. hesitation. with the order of their arrangement rassment. the ingenious man is often remarkably incapable . in fact. The narrative which follows will appear to the reader somewhat in the light of a tions just advanced. of analysis. 265 ping or turning of a card. with the accompanying anxiety or carelessness in regard to its concealment the counting . indications of the true state of affairs.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. The first two or three rounds hav- ing been played. or trepidation — . supposing so frequently seen in those it assigned a a primitive faculty. all embarafford. is by usually manifested. The which ingenuity phrenologists (I constructive or combining power. he is in full possession of the contents of each hand. but of a character very strictly analogous. as to have attracted general observation among writers on morals. indeed. of the tricks. and the truly imaginative never otherwise than analytic. and thenceforward puts down his cards with as absolute a precision of purpose as if the rest of the party had turned outward the faces of their own. It will be found. eagerness. Between ingenuity and the analytic ability there exists a difference far greater. commentary upon the proposi- . to his apparently intuitive perception. and to which the believe erroneously) have separate organ.

and luxuries. 266 in Paris Residing summer of 18 — . by a variety of untoward events. I felt Seeking to him. bestir himself in the world. where the accident of our both being in Our first search of the same very rare and very remarkable volume. had been reduced to such succumbed be- poverty that the energy of his character neath and he ceased to it. I during the spring and part of the there became acquainted with a This young gentleman Monsieur C. all. indeed of an illustrious family. at the vast extent of his reading in me by . I was astonished. and then sought. was of an excellent. about patrimony . and the vivid freshness of his imagination. or to care for the retrieval of his fortunes. in Paris these are easily obtained. his creditors. its superfluities. above beyond It was price . Auguste Dupin. brought us into closer communion. too. there remnant of from remained still this. to procure the necessaries of self By without troubling himBooks. indeed. family history which he detailed to me with that all candor which a Frenchman indulges whenever mere self is the theme. courtesy of in his possession a small upon the income arising he managed. his and. man would be me to a this feeling I frankly confided at length arranged that we should live . meeting was at an obscure library in the Rue Montmartre. were his sole life. by means of a rigorous economy. enkindled with- in Paris the objects I that the society of such a treasure my soul the wild fervor.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. We saw each other I was deeply interested in the little again and again. but. I felt and.

writing. a time-eaten and grotesque deserted mansion. at this place was perfect. St. and into this bizarrerie. as seclusion its been known to as madmen of a harmless nature. was permitted to be at the expense of renting. — Our Indeed the locality of our retirement had been carefully kept a from secret many my own years since in Paris. I quietly giving myself up The to his wild fell . or conversing. we old building . long through superstitions into which gloom we did not inquire. 267 my stay in the city and as my worldly circumstances were somewhat less embarrassed than his together during . Faubourg life Germain.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. We admitted no visitors. and it had been Dupin had ceased to know or be known existed within ourselves alone. as into all his others. would not herself dwell with us always could counterfeit her presence. strongly perfumed. We former associates . By the aid of these we then busied our souls in dreams — reading. lighted a couple of tapers which. was a freak of fancy in my friend (for what else shall call it ?) to be enamored of the night for her own sake It I . warned by Then we . until the clock of the advent of the true Darkness. madmen a retired in fall we should have been regarded although. and furnishing in a style which suited the rather fantastic I own. perhaps. of our common temper. and tottering to and desolate portion of the Had the routine of our the world. whims with a perfect abandon. At the first dawn of the morning we closed all the massy shutters of our but sable divinity . threw out only the ghastliest and feeblest of rays.

too. . and was wont to follow up such assertions by direct and very startling proofs of his intimate knowledge of my own. in respect to himself. continuing the roaming far and wide until a late sallied forth into the streets. with a low chuckling laugh. that most men. At such times I could not help remarking and admiring (although from his rich ideality I had been prepared to He expect it) a peculiar analytic ability in Dupin. topics of the day. amid the wild lights and shadows of the populous city. from what —the creative have just said. He boasted to me. Let not be supposed. . or hour. rose into expression a treble which would have sounded petulantly but for the . that infinity of mental excitement which quiet observation can afford. that I am detailing any mystery. or perhaps of a diseased. What I have described in the Frenchman was merely the it result of I an excited. seemed. intelligence. or penning any romance. his remarks at the periods in But of the character of question an example will best convey the idea. deliberateness and entire distinctness of the enunciation. I often dwelt meditatively upon the old philosophy of the Bi-Part Soul. Observing him in these moods.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. seeking. and amused myself with the fancy of a double Dupin and the resolvent. usually a rich tenor. His manner at these wore windows in their moments was his eyes were vacant in frigid and abstract while his voice. bosoms. 268 arm and arm. to take an eager delight in its exercise if — — not exactly in its display and did not hesitate to confess the pleasure thus derived.

I do not hesitate to say that I am amazed.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE." This was precisely what had formed the subject of. much had been absorbed I reflection) the extraordinary manner in which the speaker had chimed in with my meditations. notoriously Pasquinaded for his pains. We 269 one night down a long dirty street. "the . gravely. who. and been reflections. for Heaven's sake." said I. Being both." and not at first observing (so I true. and my astonish- ment was profound. neither of us had spoken a syllable for fifteen minutes at least. becoming stage-mad. In an inin stant afterward I recollected myself. this is beyond my comprehension. You were remarking figure unfitted him to "why do you pause? yourself that his diminutive for tragedy. occupied with thought. " " Dupin. should know I was thinking of to ascertain whom I beyond a doubt whether he really knew of thought. How was it possible you ?" Here I paused." I exclaimed. unwittingly. attempted the role of Xerxes. All at once Dupin were strolling in the vicinity of broke forth with these words "He : a very little fellow. that better for the Thd&tre VariMs" " is 's There can be no doubt of that." said he. and would do replied. and can scarcely credit my senses. my Rue Chantilly was a quondam cobbler of the had St. " of Chantilly. Denis. "Tell me. the Palais Royal. in Crebillon's tragedy so called. apparently.

I would have been willing to express." There are few persons who have not. as we passed from the Rue C into the thoroughfare where we stood but what this had . " I will explain." startled than I fact. to do with Chantilly I could not possibly understand. . The occupation is often full of interest their lives. had nearly thrown me down. at some pe'riod of amused themselves in retracing the steps by which particular conclusions of their own minds have been attained. There was not a particle of charlatdnerie about Dupin." —you astonish me— I know no fruiterer whomsoever." " The man who street — I ran up against you as we entered the it may have been fifteen minutes ago. the street stones." now remembered that. . Dr." all clearly. we he " said. and that you may comprehend will first retrace the course of from the moment in which I your medita- spoke to you until that of the rencontre with the fruiterer in question. larger links of the chain run Nichols. carrying upon his head a large basket of apples. tions. " you It was the fruiterer." replied to the conclusion that the sufficient height for "The fruiterer! Xerxes et my friend. 270 method — if method there enabled to fathom was even more my is —by which you have been In soul in this matter. in fact. mender "who brought of soles was not of id genus omne. a fruiterer. Stereotomy. the fruiterer. by accident. Epicurus. Orion.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. The thus— Chantilly.

You — kept your eyes upon the ground glancing. stepped upon one of the loose fragments. brushing quickly past us. and when I could not help acknowledging that he had spoken the truth. when I heard the Frenchman speak what he had just spoken. the last street. Here your countenance brightened up. (so that I saw stones. but observation has become late. continued: " We had been talking of horses. we subject discussed. and then proceeded in silence. which has been paved. and. your ankle. You repair. a with a large basket upon his head. sulky. He aright.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. with the overlapping and riveted blocks. What. thrust you upon a pile of paving-stones collected at a spot where the causeway is undergoing fruiterer. with a petulant expression. if I remember Rue C This was As we crossed into this just before leaving the . of " . at the holes and ruts in the pave- ment. and he who attempts it for the first time is 2? I astonished by the apparently illimitable distance and incoherence be- tween the starting-point and the goal. then. slightly strained what you did attentive to with me. a species of necessity. turned to look at the pile. must have been my amazement. perceiving your lips move. appeared vexed or muttered a few words.) until we reached you were the little still thinking of the alley called Lamartine. I was not particularly slipped. by way of experiment.' a term very affectedly applied to this species of pavement. I could not doubt that you murmured the word stereotomy. ' .

but I now lips. that you would not fail to combine the two ideas of Orion and Chantilly. with this explanation. I your steps. At reflected upon this point I inter- . had told you that this was in reference to Orion. 272 I knew that you could not say to yourself ' ' stereotomy without being brought to think of atomies. disgraceful allusions to the cobbler's change of name upon assuming the about which we have often buskin. . I mentioned to you how singularly. which appeared some that was now assured that But ing I felt in I had correctly followed that bitter tirade ' in yesterday's upon Chantilly. ing in your gait saw by the character I far. That you did combine them I smile which passed over your your full height. and thus of the theories of Epicurus and since. I was aware that you could not have forgotten it. It was clear. I mean the line line Perdidit antiquum litera prima sonum.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. formerly written Urion and. from certain pungencies connected I . and I certainly expected that you would do so. when we discussed . yet with how little notice. this subject not very long ago. you had been stoopsaw you draw yourself up to was then sure that you the diminutive figure of Chantilly. You thought of the of the So poor cobbler's immolation. the vague guesses of that noble Greek had met with confirmation in the late you could not avoid casting your eyes upward to the great nebula in Orion. You did look nebular cosmogony.' the satirist. quoted a Latin conversed. mak- Muse'e. up and . therefore.

After some delay. As the second landing was reached. by but. the inhabitants of the Quartier St. Mademoi- selle by Camille L' Espanaye. By as the party rushed this time the up the first cries had ceased flight of stairs. . and seemed to proceed from the upper part of the house. " Extraordinary Murders. Roch were roused from sleep by a succession of terrific shrieks.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. in angry contention. were distinguished. the gateway was broken in with a crowbar. when the fol- lowing paragraphs arrested our attention.—This morning. Upon arriving at a large back chamber in the fourth story. The party spread themselves. also.) a spectacle presented itself which struck every one present not than with astonishment. being found locked. from the fourth story of a house in the one Rue Morgue. (the door of which. apparently. issuing. and her daughter. occasioned a fruitless attempt to procure admission in the usual manner. accompanied two gendarmes. known to be in the sole occupancy of Madame L' Espanaye. was forced open. he was a very little fellow that Chantilly he would do bet- — ter at the Theatre des Not long edition of Var•ie'te'sT after this. had ceased. 2J$ rupted your meditations to remark that as. and eight or ten of the neighbors entered. about three o'clock. two or more rough voices. less with horror . with the key inside. in fact. and hurried from room to room. and every thing remained perfectly quiet. these sounds. the — we were Gazette des looking over an evening Tribunaux.

three large silver spoons. and two bags. apparently. upon the throat. chair lay a razor. " Of Madame L' Espanaye no traces were here seen . were open. and thrown into the middle of the floor. was dragged therefrom having been thus forced up the narrow aperture for a considerable distance. Upon the face were many severe scratches. and (horrible to relate !) the corpse of the daughter. as .THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. The drawers of a bureau. fur- There was only one bedstead and from this the bed had been removed. 2/4 " — the The apartment was in the wildest disorder niture broken and thrown about in all directions. dark bruises. nails. also dabbled with blood. rifled. three smaller of me't al d' Alger. besmeared with blood. Upon examining it. although many iron safe articles still re- was discovered under the bed (not under the bedstead). no doubt occasioned by the violence with which it had been thrust up and disengaged. and seeming to have been pulled out by the roots. head downward. it was quite warm. and had been. and other papers of little consequence. but an unusual quantity of soot being observed in the fire-place. with the key still in the door. mained A small in them. It had no contents beyond a few old letters. It was open. The body . On a . and deep indentations of finger :r the deceased had been throttled to death. On the hearth were two or three long and thick tresses of gray human hair. a search was made in the chimney. Upon the floor were found four Napoleons. and. an ear-ring of topaz. which stood in one corner. many excoriations were perceived. containing nearly four thousand francs in gold.

upon the material testimony elicited. that levity of import which " it conveys with us] but nothing whatever has transpired to throw light it.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. the party made its way into a small paved yard in the rear of the building. in France. We give below all " Pauline Dubourg. having washed The old lady and her for them during that period. have money put by. with her throat so entirely cut that." [the word 'affaire' has not yet. upon an attempt to raise her." day's paper had these additional particulars The Tragedy in the Rue Morgue. There ap- peared to be no furniture in any part of the building except in the fourth story. Could not speak in regard to their mode or means of living. we be- the slightest clew. told fortunes for a living. — daughter seemed on good terms very affectionate toward each other. Never met any person in the house when she called for the clothes or took them home. the head fell off. the former so of much was fearfully mutilated so as scarcely to retain — any semblance humanity. where lay the corpse of the old lady. laundress. Many individuals have been examined in relation to this most extraordinary The next : — " and frightful affair. " To lieve. to Was sure that they had no servant in employ. The body. as well as the head. 275 " After a thorough investigation of every portion of the house without farther discovery. They were excellent pay. Believed Was reputed that Madame L. deposes that she has known both the deceased for three years. . this horrible mystery there is not as yet.

fourth story. six times during the six years. gave evidence to the No one was spoken of as frequenting the house. windows were seldom opened. and moved into them was The old lady any portion. a porter once or twice. She became dissatisfied with the abuse of the premises by her tenant. Had money. Witness had seen the daughter some five or herself. It was not known whether there were any living connections of Madame L.' in the was formerly occupied by a jeweller. refusing to let childish. Madame Had L. gendarme. Was born The neighborhood. tobacconist. and a physician times. deceased and her daughter had occupied the house in which the corpses were found. The shuteffect. and her daughter. with the exception of the The house was a good large back room. The house was the propIt erty of Madame L. Those in the rear were always closed. ters of the front house — not very old. for more than six years. ingly retired heard it fortunes said life —were among The two the neighbors that — did not believe lived an exceed- reputed to have it. neighbors. " Isidore Muse/. 276 " Pierre Morean. " Many same some eight or ten other persons. told never seen any person enter the door except the old lady and her daughter.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. deposes that he has been in the habit of selling small quantities of to Madame j tobacco and snuff L' Espanaye for nearly four years. and has always resided there. deposes that he was called to . who under-let the upper rooms to various persons.

which collected very fast. The . Could distinguish the words sacre 1 ' ' and diable' ' The shrill voice was that of a foreigner. shrieks were continued until the gate was forced and it — then suddenly ceased. way up stairs. some person of They seemed (or persons) in great to be screams agony—were loud and drawn Witness led the out. and found some twenty or thirty persons at the gateway. heard two voices in loud and angry contention the one a gruff — voice. but state of the room and of the bodies was described by this witness as we described them yesterday. not short and quick.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. it was the voice of a Could not make out what was believed the language to be Spanish. Could not be sure whether or of a woman. they re- closed the door. much the other shriller —a very strange voice. with but little difficulty Had open. Upon reaching the first landing. at length. in getting it open. " Henri Duval. first of entered Muset in as they forced an entrance. and by trade a deposes that he was one of the party who the house. The folding gate. 277 the house about three o'clock in the morning. which was that of a Frenchman. general. The man said. on account of its being a double or and bolted neither at bottom nor top. Could distinguish some words of the former. a neighbor. Corroborates As soon the testimony silver-smith. notwithstanding the lateness of the hour. to keep out the crowd. a bayonet — not with a crowbar. endeavor- Forced ing to gain admittance. Was positive that it was not a woman's voice.



witness thinks, was that of an Italian.

shrill voice, this





was not French.

was a man's



Could not be sure that

might have been a woman's.


not acquainted with the Italian language. Could not
distinguish the words, but was convinced by the intona-

tion that the speaker


and her daughter.

Was sure

was an


Knew Madame


conversed with both frequently.

that the shrill voice was not that of either of the


Odenheimer, restaurateur.


witness volun-

Not speaking French, was examined through an interpreter. Is a native of Amsterdam.

teered his testimony.


passing the house at the time of the shrieks.


for several



They were


long and loud very awful and distressing. Was one of
those who entered the building. Corroborated the previ-

ous evidence in every respect but one. Was sure that the
of a Frenchman.
shrill voice was that of a man

not distinguish the words uttered.

They were loud and

quick unequal spoken apparently in fear

anger. The voice was harsh not so much

as well as in
shrill as

Could not

call it


shrill voice.


peatedly, sacr^ diable' and once
Jules Mignaud, banker, of the







gruff voice said re-

mon Dieu?



the elder Mignaud.



L' Espanaye had some property. Had opened an account
with his banking house in the spring of the year
(eight years previously).


frequent deposits in small

Had checked


for nothing until the third


day be-

when she took out in person the sum of
This sum was paid in gold, and a clerk sent

fore her death,

4000 francs.
home with the money.

Adolphe Le Bon, clerk to Mignaud et Fils, deposes
that on the day in question, about noon, he accompanied
Madame L' Espanaye to her residence with the 4060
put up in two bags. Upon the door being opened,
Mademoiselle L. appeared and took from his hands one of

the bags, while the old lady relieved


of the other.


then bowed and departed. Did not see any person in the
It is a by-street
very lonely.

street at the time.

William Bird,



lived in Paris




was that

of a

words, but cannot








Could make out several


There was a sound

of several persons

scuffling sound.


in contention.

now remember

and mon Dieu!

ment as

deposes that he was one of the
Is an Englishman.
Was one of the first to ascend

Heard the voices




entered the house.

struggling a


at the


scraping and

voice was very loud


than the gruff one. Is sure that it was not the voice of
an Englishman. Appeared to be that of a German.

Might have been a woman's



Does not understand

above-named witnesses, being recalled,
deposed that the door of the chamber in which was found
the body of Mademoiselle L. was locked on the inside
of the



when the party reached

— no groans

Every thing was perfectly


or noises of any kind.



The windows, both of the
and firmly fastened from

the door no person was seen.

back and front


door between the two rooms was closed but

The door

not locked.

leading from the front


the passage was locked, with the key on the inside.



in the front of the house,



on the fourth story,

head of the passage, was open, the door being ajar.
This room was crowded with old beds, boxes, and so forth.
at the

These were carefully removed and searched. There wa9
not an inch of any portion of the house which was not

Sweeps were sent up and down the
The house was a four-story one, with garrets

carefully searched.




trap-door on the roof was nailed


very securely did


not appear to have been opened for
time elapsing between the hearing of the

Some made

voices in contention and the breaking open of the

door was variously stated by the witnesses.
it as short as three minutes
some as long as

door was opened with





Alfonzo Garcio, undertaker, deposes that he resides
the Rue Morgue. Is a native of Spain, Was one of


the party




entered the house.

Did not proceed up

nervous, and was apprehensive of the conse-

of agitation.

Heard the voices

in contention.

gruff voice was that of a Frenchman.


what was




Could not

voice was that of

an Englishman


sure of this.

28 1

Does not understand the

English language, but judges by the intonation..
" Alberto
Montani, confectioner, deposes that he was




in question.

Heard the

to ascend the stairs.



gruff voice was that of a Frenchman.

Distinguished several words. The speaker appeared "to
be expostulating. Could not make out the words of the
shrill voice.

Spoke quick and unevenly.




Corroborates the general testimony.
Never conversed with a native x)f Russia.

voice of a Russian.



Several witnesses, recalled, here
of all the


that the

rooms on the fourth story were too

narrow to admit the passage of a human being. By
sweeps were meant cylindrical sweeping-brushes, such


as are

employed by those who clean chimneys.

brushes were passed up and



down every


flue in the house.

no back passage by which any one could have

descended while the party proceeded up stairs. The body
of Mademoiselle L' Espanaye was so firmly wedged in the
could not be got down until four or
of the party united their strength.

chimney that




Paul Dumas, physician, deposes that he was. called to
view the bodies about daybreak. They were both then
lying on the sacking of the bedstead in the chamber where
Mademoiselle L. was found.
lady was



corpse of the young
bruised and excoriated. The fact that it

had been thrust up the chimney would sufficiently account
The throat was greatly chafed.
for these appearances.



There were


deep scratches just below the

chin, to-

gether wjth a series of livid spots which were evidently
the impression of fingers. The face was fearfully discolored,

and the eyeballs protruded.

partially bitten through.


The tongue had been

large bruise

was discovered

upon the pit of the stomach, produced, apparently, by the
In the opinion of M. Dumas, Madpressure of a knee.
L' Espanaye had been throttled to death by
some person or persons unknown. The corpse of the

mother was horribly mutilated. All the bones of the
leg and arm were more or less shattered. The left


much splintered, as well as all the ribs of the left side.
Whole body dreadfully bruised and discolored. It was
not possible to say how the injuries had been inflicted.

A heavy club


wood, or a broad bar of iron a chair
heavy, and obtuse weapon would have produced

wielded by the hands of a very powerful
woman could have inflicted the blows with any






weapon. The head of the deceased, when seen by witness, was entirely separated from the body, and was also
greatly shattered. The throat had evidently been cut


with some very sharp instrument probably with a razor.
" Alexandre
Etienne, surgeon, was called with M. Dumas
to view the bodies.

Corroborated the testimony, and the

opinions of M. Dumas.

Nothing further

of importance


several other persons were examined.
terious, and so perplexing in

all its



A murder


so mys-

was never

before committed in Paris





unusual occurrence in



indeed a murder has been

police are entirely at fault


affairs of this nature.

— an



however, the shadow of a clew apparent."
The evening edition of the paper stated that the greatest
excitement still continued in the Quartier St. Roch that

the premises in question had been carefully re-searched,
and fresh examinations of witnesses instituted, but all to

no purpose.



Adolphe Le Bon had been

however v mentioned
arrested and



although nothing appeared to criminatejiim beyond the
facts already detailed.

Dupin seemed
this affair

— at

singularly interested in the progress of

least so


judged from


manner, for he

made no comments. It was only after the announcement
that Le Bon had been imprisoned, that he asked me my
opinion respecting the murders.
I could merely agree with all Paris in considering them

an insoluble mystery. I saw no means by which
be possible to trace the murderer.


must not judge

this shell of


an examination.






Parisian police, so

extolled for acumen, are cunning, but no



of the means," said Dupin,

no method in
method of the moment.



their proceedings,

They make a


beyond the

vast parade of

but, not unfrequently, these are so ill-adapted

to the objects proposed, as to put us in

Jourdain's calling for his




robe-de-chambre—pour mieux en-



tendre la musiqae.


by them are not

results attained

unfrequently surprising, but, for the


part, are

qualities are unavailing, their schemes



about by simple diligence and activity.


Vidocq, for

example, was a good guesser, and a persevering man.
But, without educated thought, he erred continually by
the very intensity at his investigations. He impaired his

by holding the object too close. He might see,
perhaps, one or two points with unusual clearness, but in


so doing he, necessarily, lost sight of the matter as a






not always

such a thing as being too profound.
In fact, as regards the

in a well.

more important knowledge,

do believe that she


The depth

variably superficial.

lies in



the valleys where


seek her, and not upon the mourwtain-tops where she
found. The modes and sources of this kind of error are

well typified in the contemplation of the heavenly bodies.


look at a star by glances

by turning toward


—to view


in a side-long way,

the exterior portions of the retina

(more susceptible of feeble impressions of
interior), is to behold the star distinctly

best appreciation of


just in proportion as.






than the

to have the

which grows dim

turn our vision fully upon


A greater number of rays actually fall

upon the eye in the
latter case, but in the former, there is the more refined

By undue

capacity for comprehension.



perplex and enfeeble thought and it is possible to
even Venus herself vanish from the firmament by a scrutiny too sustained, too concentrated, or too direct.



for these murders, let us enter into

tions for ourselves, before

some examina-

we make up an

opinion respectinquiry will afford us amusement," [I


ing them.


thought this an odd term, so applied, but said nothing]
and besides, Le Bon once rendered me a service for




not ungrateful.
premises with our own eyes.

of Police,



have no


know G


go and see the

the Prefect y(

difficulty in obtaining the

necessary permission."


permission was

once to to the

we proceeded at
one of those miserable

obtained, and

Rue Morgue. This


thoroughfares which intervene between the Rue Richelieu
It was late in the afternoon
and the Rue St. Roch.

when we reached
from that



as this quarter

which we resided.

found; for there were
closed shutters,


at a great distance

The house was


persons gazing up at the
objectless curiosity, from the opstill


was an ordinary Parisian house,
with a gateway, on one side of which was a glazed watchbox, with a sliding panel in the window, indicating a loge
de concierge.
Before going in we walked up the street,
posite side of the way.


down an

the rear of the



and then, again turning, passed

building Dupin,


meanwhile, examining

the whole neighborhood, as well as the house, with a minuteness of attention for which I could see no possible object.

Retracing our steps

we came

dwelling, rang, and, having

again to the front of the

shown our





admitted by the agents in charge.


went up


chamber where the body of Mademoiselle L' Eshad
been found, and where both the deceased
still lay.
The disorders of the room had, as usual, been
into the

suffered to exist.


saw nothing beyond what had been

stated in the Gazette des Tribunaux.


thing not



excepting the bodies of the victims.


then went into the other rooms, and into the yard
a gendarme accompanying us throughout. The examina;

tion occupied us until dark,




when we took our

way home my companion stepped



in for a

one of the daily papers.
have said that the whims of my friend were manifold,
at the office of

and that Je




for this phrase there



English equivalent. It was his humor, now, to decline all
conversation on the subject of the murder, until about


then asked me, suddenly, if I had
observed any thing peculiar at the scene of the atrocity.

noon the next day.

There was something in his manner of emphasizing
the word " peculiar," which caused me to shudder, without knowing why.
No, nothing peculiar" I said
nothing more, at



The Gazette" he



has not entered,

into the unusual horror of the thing.
idle opinions of this print.






But dismiss the

appears to


that this

considered insoluble, for the very reason which

should cause


to be regarded as easy of solution



for the outri character of its features.



police are

confounded by the seeming absence of motive not for
the murder itself but for the atrocity of the murder.


are puzzled, too,

by the seeming

impossibility of rec-

onciling the voices heard in contention, with the


that no one was discovered upstairs but the assassinated

Mademoiselle L' Espanaye, and that there were no means
of egress without the



the party ascending.



wild disorder of the


the corpse thrust, with

the head downward, up the chimney the frightful mutilation of the body of the old lady these considerations,
with those just mentioned, and others which I need not


mention, have sufficed to paralyze the powers, by putting
completely at fault the boasted acumen, of the government

They have



into the gross but


error of confounding the unusual with the abstruse.



that reason feels






In investigations such as

should not be so



in its search for the


much asked 'what


the facility with which

at the solution of this


shall arrive, or





has occurred,' as

what has occurred that has never occurred



these deviations from the plane of the ordinary,



have arrived,

in the direct ratio of its

the eyes of the police."
I stared at the speaker in mute astonishment.
insolubility in



am now

awaiting," continued he, looking toward the

door of our apartment





I am now awaiting a person
not the perpetrator of these



must have been





some measure implicated

Of the worst portion

in their perpetration.

probable that he




right in this supposition




of the crimes

it I






expectation of reading the entire riddle. I look for the
man here in this room every moment. It is true that
he may not arrive but the probability is that he will.


Should he come, it will be necessary to detain him. Here
are pistols and we both know how to use them when oc;



took the




their use."

pistols, scarcely

knowing what

I did,

heard, while Dupin went on, very

a soliloquy.

or be-



have already spoken of his abstract
His discourse was addressed to



at such times.


but his voice, although by no means loud, had


that intonation which

some one


commonly employed

at a great distance.



His eyes, vacant

in ex-

pression, regarded only the wall.
" That the voices heard in
contention," he said, by the
party upon the stairs, were not the voices of the women

themselves, was fully proved by the evidence. This relieves
us of


doubt upon the question whether the old lady
first destroyed the daughter, and afterward have

could have



sake of method



speak of this point chiefly for the

for the strength of


L' Espanaye

would have been utterly unequal to the task of thrusting
her daughter's corpse up the chimney as it was found and

the nature of the

wounds upon her own person


itself. the voice of a Spaniard. 289 Murder. a Hollander. but ' ." said you remark. a Frenchman attempted Spaniard. there was much disagreement in regard to the individual termed it. But in regard witnesses. been committed by some third party and the voices of this third party were those heard in contention.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. — not Italian. an that they dis- Englishman. it was not the voice of one of his own sure that countrymen. but it was not the peculiarity of the evidence. the harsh voice. You have ob- Yet there was something to served nothing distinctive. or. The be observed. individual of versant — but Each likens it — not to the voice of an any nation with whose language he the converse. agreed about they were here unanimous. Let me . as to the shrill voice. has precludes the idea of self-destruction. and a describe is to each one spoke of it as that of a foreigner. * Dupin. — not to the whole testimony respecting these — voices but to what was peculiar that testimony. and is con- The Frenchman supposes it ' might have distinguished some words had he been acquainted with the Spanish" The Dutchman maintains it to have been that of a Frenchman we find it stated that not understanding French this witness was examined through an interpreter' The Eng. Did now advert in " you observe any thing peculiar about it ? I remarked that. while all the witnesses agreed in supposing the gruff voice to be that of a Frenchman. " That was the evidence one as shrill. while an Each is it. the peculiarity — agreed but that. then. the gruff voice .

it the voice of a Russian. I will call ' ' quick and unequal' No words — no sounds resembling words—were by any witness mentioned as distinguishable." continued Dupin. was it judges by the intonation A second conversed with a native of Russia. about which such testimony as this in whose tones.' differs. " what impression I so far. than shrill/ It is represented by two others to have been inference.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. like the Spaniard. without denying the your attention to three The voice is termed by one witness harsh rather points. even. but . upon your own understanding do not hesitate to say that legitimate deductions even from this portion of the testimony the portion re- may have made.* ! — of the five great divisions Europe could recognize say that it might have been of You will nothing familiar the voice of an Asiatic of an African. i convinced by the in- Now. Neither Asiatics but. sure ' does not that as he has no knowledge of the English' Italian believes that tongue is ' is. and understand German' The Spaniard ' that of an Englishman. not being cognizant of . I — specting the gruff and shrill voices —are in themselves sufficient to engender a suspicion which should give tion to farther progress in the investigation of the all direc- . but ' altogether. 29O lishman thinks it the voice of a German. denizens could have been elicited tonation. ' and is ' ' The has never Frenchman positive that the but. but moreover. " I know not. with the first. voice was that of an Italian '. how strangely unusual must that voice have really been. ! — nor Africans abound in Paris now merely .

only from these assassins were in two apartments that w e have to seek r have the walls. escaped their vigilance. it you was sufficiently forcible to give a definite form a certain I will I — — tendency to my inquiries in the chamber. own. There were. to this chamber. I issues. It is.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. The doers of the deed were material and escaped materially. when the party ascended the stairs. in every direction. wish bear in to mind merely that. Then how ? Fortunately there is but one mode of reasoning upon the point. The police and the masonry of secret issues could have laid bare the floors. " Let us now transport ourselves. each by each. then. . the possible means of egress. with myself. not say just yet. however. in fancy. Let us examine. or at least in the room adjoining. with the keys inside. picion arises inevitably from What Iing them the suspicion as the single result. ' 29 1 ' but my meanmystery. examined with my No But. I designed to imply that the deductions are the sole proper ones. and that mode must lead us to a definite decision. then. It is not too much to say that neither of us believe in preternatural events. the ceiling. It is clear that the the room where Mademoiselle L' Espanaye was found. and that the sus. What shall we first seek here ? The means of egress employed by the murderers. I said legitimate deductions is not thus fully expressed. Madame and Mademoiselle L' Espanaye were not destroyed by spirits. not trusting to their eyes. Let us issues. no secret Both doors leading from the rooms into the passage were securely locked. is.

we are reduced to the windows. and a very stout fitted therein. to reject bilities. These. therefore. in these directions. a similar nail who been pierced was found nail Upon examining was seen en- similarly fitted in the it . frame to the the utmost force of those A large gimlet-hole had left. The murderers must have passed. brought to this conclusion in so unequivocal a manner as reasoners. will not admit.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. The police were now entirely satisfied that egress had not been was thought a matter of supererogation to withdraw the nails and open the windows. the body of a large cat. nearly to the head. The lower portion of the other is hidden from view by the is head of the unwieldy bedstead which is thrust close up against it. not such. The impossibility of egress. in reality. and is wholly visible. One of them unobstructed by furniture. It resisted deavored to in its raise it. 1 It is only it we are. And. " There are two windows in the chamber. Now. The former was found securely fastened from within. it is not our part. being thus absolute. through those of the back room. then. throughout their extent. although of ordinary width for some eight or ten feet above the hearths. and a vigorous attempt to raise this sash failed also. as on account of apparent impossi- left for us to prove that these apparent ' impossibilities are. Through those of the front room no one could have escaped without notice from the crowd in the street. by means already stated. 2Q2 turn to the chimneys. other window. it .

" I now replaced the nail and regarded A person my premises. as they were found fastened . then. as I had anticipated. withdrew the nail with some I and attempted to raise the sash. "I proceeded to think thus a posteriori. and my this corroboration of appeared the circumstances careful search soon brought to still I pressed it. they the consideration inside. my must. forbore to upraise the sash. exist me that idea convinced rect. The murit I was. This being have not re-fastened could the sashes from the so. however mysterious attending the nails. and again narrowed in the nail tions. of the police in this quarter. They — must. were cor- it attentively. It resisted all A concealed spring efforts.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. have the power of fastening themselves. stepped to the unobstructed casement. and. . difficulty. The conclusion was field of my investigaplain. passing out through this window might have reclosed it. The window. There was no escape from this conclusion. the springs upon each sash to . through its obviousness. to the scrutiny Yet the sashes were fastened. and the spring would have caught but the — could not have been replaced. " My own 293 examination was somewhat more particular. I now knew. and was so for the reason I have just given because here — knew. — derers did escape from one of these windows. assassins must have escaped through the other Supposing. then. at least. satisfied with the discovery. A light the hidden spring. which put a stop. that all apparent impossibilities must be proved to be not such in reality.

' I said.' I touched it . if you think so.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. 294 be the same. had traced that result was the say.' scent There was no flaw the secret to nail.' terminated the clew. the fellow in the other window lute nullity (conclusive as it . in the top of the bottom . I readily discovered I had supposed. as identical in character with its neighbor. or at least between the modes Getting upon the sacking of the bedstead. and apparently It was as stout as the other. Passing my hand down behind the board. ' about the nail. at this point. "You will say that I was puzzled but. I looked over the head-board minutely at the second casement. same manner in the fitted —driven in nearly up to the head. which had partially imbedded. there must be found a difference between the nails. of their fixture. ultimate result. came off in my The rest of the shank was in the gimlet-hole. appearance of but this fact was an abso- might seem to be) when com- pared with the consideration that here. which was. — and I lost. at the nail. where one it had been broken (for its off. There must be something wrong. as was probable. To use a sporting phrase. have of the inducmust misunderstood the nature you tions. I had not been once at . with about a quarter of an inch of the shank. I now looked and pressed the spring. its It its had. was an old and had ap- parently been accomplished by the blow of a hammer. and the head. The fracture edges were incrusted with rust). in every respect. I had never in any for an instant been link of the chain. fingers. ' The fault.

to say nothing of entering it. I closed the window. and the resemblance to a perfect nail was comsash. so far. was now unriddled. and it was the retention of this spring which had been mistaken by the police for that of the nail. but frequently seen upon very old mansions at Bourdeaux. I now carefully replaced this head portion in the indentation whence I had taken it. cellent hold for the hands. — In the present instance these . had escaped through the window which looked upon the bed. satisfied in About five walk with you and a half from my feet the casement in question there runs a lightning-rod. " This The assassin riddle. and the semblance of the whole nail was again perfect. farther in. 295 head portion of the nail. Upon this point I had been around the building. that the shutters of the fourth story were of the peculiar kind called by Parisian carpenters ferrades — a kind rarely employed at the present day. remaining firm in its bed. except that the lower half is thus affording an exlatticed or worked in open trellis (a single. the plete —the fissure was Pressing the spring.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. it. invisible. gently raised the sash for a few inches with I the head went up . — quiry being thus considered unnecessary. " The next question is that of the mode of descent. Dropping of its it own accord upon his exit (or perhaps had become fastened by the spring purposely closed). however. I observed. From this rod it would have been impossible for any one to reach the window itself. They Lyons and are in the form of an ordinary door not a folding door).

reach to within two feet at the wall. might even have swung himself into the room. an entrance into the window. it. that the shutter belonging to the if swung window back to the fully of the lightning-rod. boldly from close it. they would naturally bestow here a very cursory examination. however. by exer- and courage. his hold upon the rod. examined the back of the tenement but. It is my . so. . they stood off at right from the wall. It was clear to me. saw them from the rear of the house. they were both about hall if in — open that is to say. having once it satisfied themselves that no egress could have been made in this quarter. or. 296 When we shutters are fully three feet and a half broad. In fact. at all events. It head of the bed. " I wish you to bear especially in mind that I have spoken of a very unusual degree of activity as requisite to success in so hazardous and so difficult a feat.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. they did not perceive this great breadth itself. would. might have been tion of a very unusual degree of activity thus effected. By reaching to the distance of two feet and a half (we now suppose the shutter open to its whole extent) a robber might have taken a firm grasp upon the Letting go. if and springing he might have swung the shutter so we imagine the window open as to at the time. placing his feet securely against the wall. then. trellis-work. It is probable that the police. from the rod. as angles well as myself. was also evident that. breadth looking at these ferrades in the line of (as their they must have done). failed to take into due consideration. and.

shrill (or harsh) and unequal voice. " You My will see." tion from the my friend he mode went on with " said.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. at times. about whose nationality no two persons could be found to agree. ances here.' I may be not the usage of reason. traordinary " You will say." At these words a vague and half-formed conception of the meaning of Dupin flitted over my mind. The drawers Let us survey the appearit is said. that I have shifted the ques- of egress to that of ingress. than insist to no doubt. the practice in law. using the language make out my that ' upon a in this matter. estimation of the activity required case. with that very peculiar . had of the bureau. find themselves upon the — brink of remembrance. It was design to convey the idea that both were effected in Let us now revert the same manner. without being able. his discourse. without power to comprehend as men. that the thing might possibly have been accomplished but. secondly and chiefly. full This of the law. that very unusual activity of which I have truth. but My ultimate object is it is only the My immediate purpose is to lead you to place in juxtaposition. I seemed to be upon the verge of comprehension. to the interior of the room. design to show you 297 first. to remember. should rather undervalue. . at the same point. in the end. and in whose utterance no syllabification could be detected. just spoken. I wish to impress upon your exunderstanding the : — very —the almost preternatural character of that agility which could have accomplished it.

in general. are great stumbling-blocks in the class of thinkers who have been educated of the theory of probabilities —that to way of that know nothing theory to which the most glorious objects of human research are indebted for the most glorious of illustration. . happen to all of us every hour of our lives. upon the floor. It is a mere rifled. Coincidences ten times as remarkable as this (the delivery of the money. in bags. take the best company —seldom went of habiliment. engendered in the brains of the police by that portion of the evidence which speaks of money delivered at the door of the house. without attracting even momentary notice. 298 been although many articles of apparel still remained within them. sum mentioned by Monsieur Mignaud. In the present instance. out —had use little Those found were good quality as any likely to be possessed by If a thief had taken any. Coincidences. all ? why did he abandon four thousand francs in gold to encumber ? The gold was abandoned. and murder committed within three days upon the party receiving it). himself with a bundle of linen Nearly the whole the banker. I wish you therefore. was discovered. The conclusion here is absurd.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. why did he not —why did he not take In a word. to discard from your thoughts the blundering idea of motive. guess know —a very — and How are we to that the articles found in the drawers were not all silly one no more. U these drawers had originally contained ? Madame Esand her lived an retired panaye daughter exceedingly life — saw no for numerous changes at least of as these ladies.

Keeping now steadily in mind the points to which as to " — I have drawn your attention that peculiar voice. if we are to suppose gold the motive of this outrage. and thrust up a chimney head downemploy no such mode of ward. that unusual agility. Here is a woman strangled to death by manual strength. now. how must have been that strength which could have body up such an aperture so forcibly that the united vigor of several persons was found barely sufficient thrust the to drag " it down ! Turn. you sively outre common will admit that there was something excesirreconcilable with our — something altogether notions of human action. 299 had the gold been gone. to other indications of the employment of On the hearth were thick a vigor most marvellous. Ordinary assassins Least of all. we must also imagine the perpetrator so vacillating an idiot have abandoned his gold and his motive together. and that startling absence of motive in a — murder so singularly atrocious as this let us glance at the butchery itself. the fact of its delivery three days before would have formed something more than a coincidence. under the real circumstances of the case. even when we suppose the actors the most depraved of men. . It would have been corroborative of this idea of But. too. These You are aware of the gray roots. In the manner of thrusting the corpse up the murder as this.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. motive. great Think. chimney. tresses — very thick tresses —of had been torn out by the human hair. do they thus dispose of the murdered.

have pronounced that they were inflicted by some obtuse instrument The . we odd the upon have gone so far as to combine the ideas of an agility astounding. " If now. the head absolutely severed from the body ment was a mere razor. I : the instru- wish you also to loo'k at the Of the bruises upon the brutal ferocity of these deeds. a ferocity brutal. escaped the police for the same reason that the breadth of the shutters escaped them because. you have propdisorder of the chamber. obtuse instrument was clearly the stone pavement in the yard. a strength superhuman. however simple it may now seem. their perceptions had been hermetically sealed against the possibility of windows having ever been opened at — the all. Their roots (a hideous sight !) — were clotted with fragments of the flesh of the scalp sure token of the prodigious power which had been exerted in uprooting perhaps half a million of hairs at a The throat of the old lady was not merely cut. You saw the locks in question as well as myself. and his worthy coadjutor Monsieur Etienne. by the affair of the nails. and a voice foreign in tone to .THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. upon which the victim had fallen from the window which looked in upon the bed. Monsieur Dumas. a erly reflected butchery without motive. body of Madame L' Espanaye I do not speak. in addition to all these things. This idea. a grotesquerie in horror absolutely alien from humanity. 300 great force necessary in tearing thus from the head even twenty or thirty hairs together. and so far these gentlemen are very correct. but time.

ensued What ? and devoid What tinct or intelligible syllabification." he replied. escaped from a neighboring Maison de SaiiteT " In vant. I drawing of what has been described in one portion of the testimony as dark bruises and deep indentations simile ' of finger nails ' upon the throat naye. impression have I 301 of all dis- result. evidently the impression of fingers. madman. and in another (by Messrs. Madmen are of some nation. even in their wildest paroxysms. some respects." I "has done said. the hair of a madman is not such as I now hold in my hand. "but. this me the deed — some raving maniac. sketch it " . are never found to tally with that peculiar voice heard upon the stairs. — this is no human "I have not asserted that we I this hair is hair. before wish you to glance at the little have here traced upon this paper." is.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. I disentangled this gers of of Madame tuft little from the rigidly clutched L' Espanaye. " your idea is not irreleBut the voices of madmen. has made upon your " fancy? I felt a creeping of the flesh as Dupin asked "A question. Besides. in its words. and however incoherent their language." " " Dupin most unusual ! completely unnerved I said. It is a fac- decide this point. men the ears of of many nations." said he. has always the coherence of syllabification. then. * of Mademoiselle L' Espa- Duma sand Etienne) as a series of livid spots. Tell me what you can fin- make it.' .

than before. " The paper is spread out upon a plane surface ." " Read now. now. the circumference of which is about that of the the drawing around it." replied Dupin. to place itself. but the "This. Each finger has retained until the death of the victim — the fearful it imbedded originally sions as you I made " We grasp by which Attempt. There is no will perceive. " that this drawing gives the idea of a firm and fixed hold. in the respective impres- fingers. and the imitative propensities of known to murder at once. strength and activity. all the same time." did so I . ment Wrap again. 302 "You continued my friend." he said. as I made an . " The all. spreading out the paper upon the table before us. human but the throat is Here cylindrical." slipping apparent. is a billet of wood. was even more obvious "is the mark of no human hand. are possibly not giving this matter a fair trial. the prodigious Indian Islands. the wild ferocity." difficulty I said." It was a minute anatomical and generally descriptive account of the large fulvous Ourang-Outang of the East The gigantic stature. and try the experi- throat. at your —possibly see them." the attempt in vain. these I mammalia understood the are full description of the digits. " this passage from Cuvier." said sufficiently well horrors of the I.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE.

It is still at — not pursue these guesses for I have no them more since the shades of reflection — upon which they by my own intellect. by the evidence. too. but. I see that no animal but an Ourang-Outang. He may have traced it to the chamber. have mainly built my hopes of a full solution of the riddle. he could never have recaptured large. cannot possibly comprehend the par- I ticulars of this frightful two voices heard This tuft of tawny with that of the beast mystery. Frenchman was cognizant of the mur- therefore. to this voice. in contention. of the species here mentioned. I A der. under the circum- — ' ' been justly characterized by one of the witnesses (Montani.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. It is possible —indeed that he was innocent of it is all far more than probable — participation in the bloody transactions which took place. the expression. Besides. Upon these two words. and you remember an expression will attrib- uted almost unanimously." " True . " is in exact accordance with this drawing. 303 end of the reading. The Ourang-Outang may have escaped from him. and since I could make them intelligible to the understand- to be appreciable not pretend to are based are scarcely of sufficient depth . there were and one of them was un- questionably the voice of a Frenchman. has remonstrance or expostulation. mon Dien ! This. the confectioner) as an expression of stances. I will right to call it. under the agitating circumstances which ensued. could have impressed the indentations as you have traced them. is identical in character But of Cuvier. hair.

as will as such. and is peculiar to the Maltese. of the murder). however." said Dupin. them call If the guesses. upon our return home. will our residence. its form. tawny Ourang-Outang of the Bornese {who is ascertained to be a sailor. and belonging to a Maltese " do not know Here. this knot is one which few besides sailors can tie. The owner species. belonging to a Maltese vessel) may have the animal again.i possible. bring him to sailors). Rue Call at No. and paying a few charges arising from its capture and keeping. " Germain How know the vessel ? " I —au troisieme. Faubourg St. at the office of Le Monde (a paper devoted to the shipping and much sought by interest. upon identifying it satisfactorily. Moreover. (the morning in the morning a very large. I It picked the ribbon up at the foot of the lightning-rod. innocent of this atrocity. inst. " that you should to be a sailor." I asked. and from its greasy appearance. this adver- I tisement. Now ." He handed me " a paper. them speak of indeed. " I am not sure of a small piece of ribbon.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. was man it . is it. Frenchman and in question is suppose. has evidently been used in tying the hair in one of those long queues of which sailors are so fond. 304 We ing of another. then. which from it. and I read thus: —In the Bois de Boulogne early CAUGHT of the '. could not have belonged to either of the deceased. which I left last night. .

I the advertisement. I will render the animal at least. He will my Ourang-Outang —to one in my circumstances great value —why should lose through self will the advertisement to replying Cognizant although Frenchman demanding the Ourang-Outang. which it I avoid claiming a property of is known that I possess. the ' belonging to a Maltese merely have been misled by some circumstance which he will not take the trouble to inquire. Should they even trace the animal. get the Ourang- . if. as the possessor of not sure to what limit his knowledge Should extend. within my grasp. I will answer the advertisement. a great point is gained. But if suppose that I my can have done no harm in saying what vessel.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. How can it ever be suspected that a of — brute beast should have done the deed The ? — they police are have failed to procure the slightest clew. sailor into am If I am right. or to implicate advertiser designates I am so great value. It was found in the Bois de Boulogne at a vast distance from the scene of that butchery. me Above on account of that cognizance. may cognizant of the murder. my all. about hesitate did I will am innocent . liable to suspicion. still I in in Frenchman was a that the 305 : is of a fortune of it- idle it apprehensions danger? Here it is. I he in error. I innocent of the murder. it would be impossible at fault to prove in guilt known. The the beast. me me I am It is not policy to attract attention either to myself or to the beast. I am poor I naturally —about reason thus — . induction from this ribbon. after am wrong all.

left open. 3°6 Outang. although somewhat Neufchatelish." Dupin. " Sit down.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. a tall. " A Come man stout." said Dupin. have called about the Ourang-Outang. a remarkably 1 ." said entered. and the and advanced several Now. coming up. he seemed to hesitate. He did not turn back a second time. word. when we again heard him steps upon the staircase. a sailor. Dupin was moving quickly to the door." in origin. Dupin. evidently. — and muscular-looking person. and bade us " good evenhalf hidden French accents. but stepped up with decision. in He was a cheerful and hearty tone. which. in. greatly sunburnt. His altogether unpre- was more than face. pistols. by whisker and mustachio. with a certain dare- devil expression of countenance. but appeared to be otherwise unarmed. He bowed awkwardly. were still sufficiently indicative of a "Parisian ing." The visitor front door of the house had entered. He had with him a huge oaken cudgel. them nor show them said neither use upon the with your stairs. however. Presently we heard him descending. and keep over/ At " it close until this matter has blown this moment we heard a step " Be ready. without had been ringing. not possessing. until at a signal but from myself. my friend. I i " " I suppose you Upon my almost envy you the possession of him . and rapped at the door of our chamber.

—but he He " be more than can't " ? at a livery stable in the " ? I shall be sorry to part with him. you suppose him to be?" The sailor drew a long breath. Let me think me replied. without the least a pistol from his flurry." replied my be sure. with the air relieved of some intolerable burden. in . and put the key in his pocket. sailor's face flushed up as if he were struggling with . is prepared to identify the property " To be sure I am. no here." Dupin said the last words in a Just as quietly." said I don't nothing." friend. fine." " man we had no conveniences for keeping him Rue Dubourg. and then an assured tone " telling by. ! —what "that should reward shall be all is this. very low tone. The upon the table. How and no doubt a very valuable animal. Of course you are Oh. I very have ? You to fair. " old do : have no way of I 2>°7 it. locked " Dupin. just You can get him in the morning.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. He then drew bosom and placed it." said very willing to — that you should be at the man. he quietly. will tell you. all this pay a reward for the finding of the animal to say. mean sir. Oh ! I shall give the information in your power about these murders Rue Morgue. too. sir. all in the Could n't trouble for expect it. and very walked toward the door. Am any thing My in reason. of a Have you got him here four or five years old. is that "Well.

origi- " I will . He spoke not a word." The sailor had recovered his presence of mind. and with the countenance of death itself. 11 So help me God " ! . you culpable. but his said he. On the other hand. you must know have had means of information about this matter ever. My friend. mean you no harm whatever. when you might have robbed with impunity. I pledge you the honor of a gentleman. the atrocities in the Rue Morgue. that I From what — which you could never have dreamed. I pitied him from the bottom of my " heart. to them. and of a Frenchman. in a kind tone. not do. while Dupin uttered these words nal boldness of bearing was all gone. You have no reason for concealment. how- It will deny that you are in some measure implicated in I have already said." said Dupin.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. cudgel started but the next . you are honor to confess all bound by every you know. that we intend you no I perfectly well know that you are innocent of injury. which renders means of — You were not even guilty of robbery. " you are — We alarming yourself unnecessarily you are indeed. An innocent principle of man is now imprisoned. charged with that crime of which y6*u can point out the perpetrator. in a great measure. to his feet moment he fell and grasped his back into his seat. certainly. after a brief pause. You have done nothing which you could have avoided nothing. trembling violently. Now the thing stands thus. You have nothing to conceal. 308 He suffocation.

should recover from a from a splinter on board mate design was to wound ship. of the murder. lately party. of which he formed one. Himself and a companion had captured the Ourang-Outang. the animal fell into his own exclusive posAfter great trouble. received it it carefully secluded. occasioned by the intractasession. in His the ulti- sell it. where it thought. landed at Borneo. I am I this affair — say I innocent. if I all I know about to believe one half Still.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. he at lodging it safely at his own residence length succeeded in Paris. A a voyage to the Indian Archipelago. and so well . —but do not expect I would be a I will 309 fool indeed if make a clean breast die for it. attempting the operation of shaving. into which it had had been. tell you I you did. this. This com- panion dying. and passed into the interior on an excursion of pleasure. not to attract toward himself the unpleasin ant curiosity of his neighbors. ble ferocity of his captive during the home voyage. lathered. it was sitting before a looking-glass. he found the beast occupying his own bedroom. as was Razor in hand. in its it had no doubt pre- master through the key-hole of the Terrified at the sight of so dangerous a weapon the possession of an animal so ferocious. securely confined. and fully broken from a closet adjoining. where. Returning home from some sailors' frolic on the night. or rather in the morning." What he made He had stated was. and . he kept until such time as foot. in which viously watched closet. in substance.

and to this he Ourang-Outang been accustomed. grasped the shutter. The whole feat did not occupy a minute. into the street. in the fourth story of the building. in plexed.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. was both rejoiced and per- had strong hopes of now recapturing the could scarcely escape from the trap into which had ventured. the man. what to do. Upon sight of it. by the use of a fiercest stairs. sprang at once chamber. The sailor. which was thrown fully back against the wall. It foundly quiet. occasionally stopping to look back late at his pursuer. was at a loss He had the creature. it her house. The shutter was kicked open again by the Ourang-Outang as the room. the through the door of the and thence. by its means. Rushing to perceived the lightning-rod. for some moments. except by the rod. as In passing ing. The streets were pro- with it. The Frenchman in followed in despair . even in whip. to quiet its now resorted. 310 able to use it. clambered up with inconceivable agility. as it it it entered the meantime. unfortunately open. where it might be in- . it was nearly three o'clock down an in the morn- alley in the rear of the Rue Morgue. however. In this manner the chase continued for a long time. until the latter still and gesticu- had nearly come up then again made off. swung itself directly upon the headboard of the bed. the fugitive's attention was arrested by a light gleaming from the open window of Madame L' Espanaye's chamber. He brute. and. razor hand. through a window. the ape. down the moods.

which had been wheeled into the middle of the room. cause for anxiety as to house. his career was stopped the most that he could accomplish was to reach over so as to obtain a glimpse of the interior of the room. it perceived. daughter lay prostrate and motionless she had swooned. . At this glimpse Now cess of horror. as she and was flourishing the razor about The imitation of the motions of a barber. which lay far to his left. and its contents lay The victims must have been sit- It ting with their backs toward the window and. lightning-rod is ascended without difficulty. in it). there was what it might do in the This latter reflection urged the man still to follow the fugitive. had apparently been occupied in arranging some papers in the iron chest already mentioned. 31 1 other hand. as the . arose he nearly it from his hold through exwas that those hideous shrieks fell upon the night. A especially by a sailor .:r face. beside it on the floor. but. habited in their night clothes. As the sailor looked in. from the time elapsing between the ingress of the beast and the . was open. the gigantic animal had seized Madame L' Espanaye by the hair (which was loose. Madame L/ Espanaye and her daughter. had been combing h. when he had arrived as high window. -creams. tercepted as much it On the came down. The screams and struggles of the old lady (during which the hair was torn from her head) had the effect of chang.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. which had startled from slumber the inmates of the Rue Morgue. was not immediately the shutter would naturally seems probable that The flapping-to of it have been attributed to the wind.

and imbedded Gnashing its of its teeth. and skipped about the chamber in an agony of nervous agitation throwing down and breaking the . in her throat. commingled with the fiendish jabberings . from its eyes. The fury of the beast. in his terror. ' 2 ing the probably pacific purposes of the Ourang-Outang With one determined sweep into those of wrath. hurried at once home — dreading the consequences of the butchery. The words heard by the party upon the staircase were the Frenchman's exclamations of horror and affright. retaining its grasp its fearful talons until she expired. all solicitude about the fate of the Ourang-Outang. of the brute. muscular arm The sight of nearly severed her head from her body. served punishment. hurled through the As first the corpse of the up the chimney. was just discernible.3 J THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. which it immediately the daughter. who no doubt bore still in mind the dreaded whip. it flew and flashing fire upon the body of the girl. as it was then that of the old lady. stead. Its wandering and wild glances fell at this moment upon the head of the bed. the sailor shrank aghast to the rod. Conscious of having de- seemed desirous it of concealing its bloody deeds. and gladly abandoning. it . furniture as it moved. and thrust found seized it window headlong. and dragging the bed from the bed- In conclusion. was instantly converted into fear. over which the face of its master. the ape approached the casement with its mutilated burden. rigid with horror. it blood inflamed its anger into phrensy. rather gliding than clambering down it. and.

est. am wisdom who had him discourse . his dis- In his like the — pictures of the Goddess Laverna or. is it with having defeated him in Nevertheless. satisfied tion of this mystery. could not altogether conceal his cha- had taken. " Let necessary to reply. et d'expli- . just before the breaking of the door. by the rod. all head and shoulders. head and no body. not thought it will ease his is by no means that matter it . quer ce mean ' his reputation for inge- the way he has de nier ce qui "* nest pas . who It was subsequently obtained for it a very the Jardin des Plantes. at best. cant. at Le Bon was in- stantly released. But he is a good creature I like him especially for one master-stroke of after all. Prefect business.' qui I * Rousseau —Nouvelle Heloise. for. for no stamen. posed to my friend. like a codfish. The Ourang-Outang must have escaped from the chamber. that he failed in the solu- der which he supposes is Dupin. in truth. however well Prefect of Police. and was fain to a sarcasm or two about the propriety of every grin at the turn indulge in which person minding his " Let him conscience. upon our narration of the circumstances (with some comments from Dupin) at the bureau of the This functionary. sum large it. I 3 3 have scarcely any thing to add. It is all won- our friend the somewhat too cunning to be profound." said I castle. own affairs own talk.THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. by which he has attained nuity. It must have closed the I ) 'window as it passed through caught by the owner himself.

314 . die der Wirklichkeit parallel Menschen und zufalle modificiren Selten fallen sie zusammen. the intellect has been unable to re- ceive them. as mere coincidences. und ihre Folgen gleichfalls unvollkommen sind. so that Lutheranism. * Upon Such sentiments — for the half-credences of "Marie Roget. \ The nom de plume of Von Hardenburg. They . Es giebt eine Reihe idealischer Begebenheiten. of events. . even THERE among the calmest who have not occasionally been startled thinkers. ormation statt des Protestantismus kam das Lutherthum hervor." the original publication of the foot-notes now appended were considered unnecessary but the lapse of several years since the tragedy upon which the tale is based. are few persons. and also to say a few words in explanation of the general design. lauft. it — Novalis. was murdered in the vicinity . into a vague yet thrilling half-credence in the supernatural. by coincidences of so seemingly marvellous a character that. perfect.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET* A SEQUEL TO " THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE. Mary Cecilia Rogers. so dass sie unvollkommen ersSo bei der Refcheint. There are ideal series of events which run parallel with the real ones.f . Men and circumstances generally modify the ideal train seems imperfect. and its consequences are equally imThus with the Reformation instead of Protestantism came rarely coincide. renders it expedient to give them. Moral Ansichten. A young of New York and girl. gewohulich die idealische Begenbenheit.

that the confessions of two Madame Deluc of the narrative). essence. the essential. Herein. to depict some remarkable features in the mental character of my very Morgue. in an " article entitled The Murders in the Rue I endeavored. or. the primary branch of a series of scarcely intelli- whose secondary or concluding branch will be recognized by all readers in the late murder of Mary Cecilia Rogers.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. . When. will be found to form. this Calculus is. facts of the real murder of Mary Rogers. and with no other means of investigation than the newspapers afforded. to The extraordinary details which I am now called upon make public. It not be improper to record. 1842). plicable to the truth The "Mystery of Marie Roget " was composed at a distance from the : scene of the atrocity. at different the periods. about a year ago. made. 315 — speak have never the full force of thought such sentiments are seldom thoroughly stifled unless by reference to the doctrine of chance. as it is technically termed. confirmed. which I Now the Calculus of Probabilities. under pretence of relating the fate of a Parisian grisette the author has followed." although her death occasioned an intense and long-enduring excitement. long subsequent to the publication. Thus all argument founded upon the fiction is ap- and the investigation of the truth was the object. Thus much escaped the writer of which he could have availed himself may had he been upon the spot and visited the localities. in minute y detail. not only general conclusion. in its and thus we have the rigidly exact in science applied to spirituality of the most intangible in speculation. at New York. the it had remained unsolved at the period when the present mysteiy attending paper was written and published (November. gible coincidences. but absolutely all the chief hypothetical details by which persons (one of them the that conclusion was attained. nevertheless. in full. purely mathematical most of the anomaly the shadow and . as regards sequence of time. while merely paralleling the inessential.

I I in their surprising develop- ment. have startled me into some further details. it did not occur to should ever resume the subject. winds. adduced other examples. weaving the dull world around us into dreams. but more. the Chevalier C. Hear- will carry ing what I have lately heard. we gave the Future to the . the Chevalier dismissed the affair at once from his attention. its emissaries.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROCET 3l6 friend. and this design was the wild train of circumstances might have should have proven no brought to instance Dupin's idiosyncrasy. and slumbered tranquilly in the Present. had by my not failed impression upon the fancies of the Parisian police. But these dreams were not altogether uninterrupted. it would be indeed strange should I remain silent in regard to what I both heard and saw so long ago. It may readily be supposed that the part played friend. however. I moody readily Prone. which with them the air of extorted confession. the household word. humor to his old habits of abstraction. revery. in the of its With drama Rue Morgue. tions at the The name of Dupin had grown into a simple character of those induc- by which he had disentangled the mystery never . fell in with his and continuing to occupy our chambers in the Faubourg Saint Germain. This depicting I of character constituted thoroughly fulfilled in my design . Late events. deaths of and relapsed into at all times. the winding up of the tragedy involved in the Upon Madame L' Espanaye and her daughter. me that Auguste Dupin.

the shops in the basement of the Palais Royal. . until within eighteen months before the assassi- nation which forms the subject of our narrative. Affairs went on thus until the latter had attained her twenty-second year. the mother and daughter had dwelt together in the Rue Pavee Saint Andree* Madame there keeping a pension. It thus hap- pened that he found himself the cynosure of the policial eyes . and from the period of his death. abilities humor forbade interest to himself all ." was the only to daughter of the widow Estelle Roget. 317 having been explained even to the Prefect. but further agitation of a topic had long ceased. acquired for His frankness would have to disabuse every inquirer of such prejudice his indolent whose than miraculous. assisted by Marie. One of the most remarkable instances was that of the murder of a young girl named Marie Roget. whose Christian and family in the name will at once arrest attention from their resemblance those of the unfortunate " cigar-girl. This event occurred about two years after the atrocity Rue Morgue. . The father had died during the child's infancy. of course it is not surprising that the affair was regarded as little less or that the Chevalier's analytical him the led him credit of intuition. Marie. when her great beauty who occupied one of attracted the notice of a perfumer. made and the cases were not few in which attempt was to engage his services at the Prefecture. and whose * Nassau Street. or to any other individual than myself.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET.

liberal The his anticipations of the shopkeeper were realized. and rooms soon became notorious through the charms of the sprightly grisette. as before. immediately hushed. proposals although with somewhat more of hesitation by Madame. and Rue . except that of a private character. and Madame terror. Marie. Thus the affair questions. relieve herself soon bade a final . and was generally forgotten ostensibly to curiosity. in good health. up police papers immediately were upon the point of making serious investigations. Monsieur Le Blanc pro- fessed total ignorance. made her re-appearance at her usual counter in the perfumery. desperate Monsieur Le adventurers Blanc * was not unaware of the advantages to be derived from the and his fair Marie in his perfumery the were accepted eagerly by girl. from the impertinence of adieu to the perfumer.' girl. but with a somewhat saddened air. The pubtook the and the theme. was of course. * Anderson. 3l8 custom lay chiefly the among infesting that neighborhood. She had been in his employ about a year. when her admirers were thrown into confusion by her sudden disappearance from the shop. attendance of the .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. Monsieur Le Blanc was unable to account for her absence. with Madame. Roget was distracted with anxiety and lic when. for the sought the shelter of her mother's residence in the Pavee Saint Andr6e. after the lapse of a week. week had been spent the country. one morning. that the last house of a relation in died away. fine All inquiry. replied to at the all Marie.

THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. of . In the if not . Upon the first discovery of the corpse. I can call to rence producing so general and so intense an several weeks. and at a point not very far distant from the secluded neighborhood of the Barriere du Roule. and even then francs. that her friends were alarmed by her sudden disappearance for the second time. the youth and beauty the victim. and nothing was heard of her. On the fourth her corpse was found floating is opposite the Quar- the Seine. and. of this one absorbing political topics of the day The Prefect made unusual exertions were forgotten. vigor. It was about five months after this return 319 home. Weehawken. above all.f The atrocity of this murder (for it was at once evident murder had been committed). tasked to the utmost extent. it was not supposed that the murderer a very brief set on foot. Three days elapsed. and the powers of the whole Parisian police were. in the discussion theme. would be able to elude.* near the shore which in tier of the Rue Saint Andree. meantime the investigation proceeded with * f more than period. con- that of spired to produce intense excitement in the minds of the mind no similar occur- sensitive Parisians. the inquisition which was immediately It was not until the expiration of a week that The Hudson. even the momentous For effect. her previous notoriety. course. for was deemed necessary to offer a reward this reward was limited to a thousand it .

But although. The entire reward thus stood at than thirty thousand francs. 320 always with judgment. wherever it appeared. atrocities amount proposed by francs. week having elapsed without and. At the end of the tenth day it was thought advisable to double the sum originally proposed absence of all . a having given vent to several serious tmeutes." or.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. arrests were made which promised elucidation." full upon it " of twenty thousand francs for the conviction of the assassin. which extraordinary sum when we will no less be regarded as an consider the humble condition and the great frequency. one or two instances. the second leading to any discoveries. the popular excitement greatly increased. of such No one doubted now that the mystery of this murder would be immediately brought to light. clew to the mystery. to the whole was appended. at length. and the prejudice which always exists in Paris against the police itself in himself to offer the sum to have been implicated. yet nothing was elicited which could implicate in the parties suspected . and numerous individuals were examined to no purpose while. ward. the private placard of a committee of citizens. as the one described. in addition to the in large cities. of the girl. offering ten thousand the Prefecture. and they were discharged forth- . " if more than one should prove for the conviction of any one of In the proclamation setting forth this the assassins. owing to the continual . the Prefect took re- pardon was promised to any accomplice who in evidence against his fellow and should come forward .

feel upon the proper subject The compliment my of my narrative. Engaged searches which had absorbed our whole attention. but the proposition he accepted at once. and made him a direct and certainly a the precise nature of which I do not myself at liberty to disclose. The eyes of the public were upon him and there was really no sacrifice which he would not be willing to make for the development of He concluded a somewhat droll speech the mystery. This point being settled. in reit had been nearly a month since either of us had gone abroad. although its advantages were altogether provisional. His reputation — — so he said with a peculiarly Parisian air was at stake.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET 32 1 Strange as it may appear. before even a rumor which had so agitated the public mind of the events reached the ears of Dupin and myself. 18 in the night. his — He had endeavors to ferret . but which has no bearing liberal proposition. . friend rebutted as best he could. or more than glanced at the leading political articles in one of the daily papers. The in- first in telligence of the murder was brought us by G in us the called afternoon of He the early upon person. . thirteenth of July. and passed without any with. with a compliment upon what he was pleased to term the tact of Dupin. Even his honor was concerned. or received a visitor. and remained with us until late been piqued by the failure of all out the assassins. the third week from the discovery of the body had passed. light being thrown upon the subject. the Prefect broke forth at once into explanations .

was the embodiment of respectHe wore spectacles. about nine o'clock in the morning — In going out. hazarded an occasional suggestion as the night wore drowsily away. published any decisive information regard to this sad affair. and an occasional glance beneath their green me that he slept not the less glasses sufficed to convince soundly. in the Rue Pav£e St. Dupin. a report of all the evidence elicited. from had been last. during the whole in- his ful attention. Payne. because silently. beyond doubt. 322 of his own views. * and to him only. . terview . in the most river. Andree. 18 she gave notice to a Monsieur Jacques St. of which latter . at a copy of every paper in which. of * who Dromes resided in the is Rue des Dromes. interspersing upon the evidence He possession. and at a distance direct course possible. of her intention to spend the day with of Sunday. des fare. this mass of information stood thus : Marie Roget left the residence of her mother. Eustache. throughout the seven or eight leaden-footed hours which immediately preceded the de- parture of the Prefect. an aunt. discoursed I them with long comments we were not yet in much and. June the twenty-second. In the morning. to first in full the various tively disproved. and. I procured. miles. Freed from all that was posi- newspaper offices. The Rue a short and narrow but populous thorough- not far from the banks of the some two . learnedly while . sitting steadily in accustomed arm-chair.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. at the Prefecture.

. had been making inquiries for Marie near the Barriere du of June) a fifth Roule.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. as well He was to have gone the accepted suitor of Marie.* who. with a friend. " seventy years of age) was heard to express a fear that she should never see Marie again attracted little On Monday " but this observation . Upon seeing the body. it came on to rain heavily . however. supposing that she would remain all night at her aunt's (as she had done under similar circumstances before). after some fumery-girl. he did not think it necessary to keep his promise. as took for his betrothed at dusk. Beauvais. at the pension. Madame Roget (who was an infirm old lady. the twentyrespecting her. In and. Monsieur Beauvais. from the pension of Madame Eustache was St. it as that of the per- hesitation. attention at the time. 323 and lodged. identified His friend recognized it more promptly. who had found floating in the river. until the fourth day from the period of her disappearance that any thing satisfactory was ascertained On this day (Wednesday. it was ascertained that the been to the Rue des Dromes . * Crommelin. on the shore of the Seine which is opposite the Rue Pavee just it St. however. Andree. It was not. a tardy search several points in the city and its environs. his meals. Roget. As night drew on. the afternoon. and to have escorted her home. was informed that a corpse had been towed ashore by some fishermen. girl had not and when the day elapsed was instituted at without tidings of her.

tied so tightly A piece of lace was found around the neck as to be hidden from was completely buried in the flesh. the left wrist were two circular excoriations. it said. of the merely drowned. apparently the effect of ropes. and was fastened by a knot which lay just under the left ear. left partially On open. a slip. but none of the excoriations had been effected by this. some of which No foam was seen. There was no discoloration in About the throat were bruises and impressions of fingers. the cellular tissue. had been torn upward from the bottom hem to the waist. recognition The dress In the outer garment. .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. A part of the right wrist. that there could have been no difficulty in by friends. when its found. about a foot wide. but not . or bruises which appeared the effect of blows. The flesh of the neck was much swollen. was much torn and otherwise disordered. sight it . 324 The face was suffused with dark blood. also. as in the case issued from the mouth. The arms were bent over on the The right hand was clenched the chest. and were rigid. bringing the body to the shore the fishermen had attached to it a rope. The medical testimony spoke confidently of the virtuous char- She had been subjected. as well as the back throughout its In extent. The corpse was in such condition acter of the deceased. was much chafed. This alone would have sufficed to produce death. or of a rope more than one in volution. There were no cuts apparent. but more especially at the shoulder-blades. to brutal violence.

now submitted and to the mother and fully identified as those friends of the deceased. and he failed. fell * especially under suspicion The New York Mercury. Meantime. Over this muslin slip and the slip of bonnet were attached. the corpse was disinterred. and secured by a sort of hitch in the back. as far as possible . the matter was industriously hushed up. worn by the girl upon leav- ing home. but hastily interred not far from the spot at which it was brought ashore. It 325 was wound three times around the waist. .* however. the excitement increased hourly. at length took up A the theme . fitting loosely. from this a slip eighteen inches wide had been torn —torn very evenly and with great care. After the recognition of the corpse. the bonnet The knot by which the strings of the lace the strings of a being appended. weekly paper. at first. Eustache individuals were arrested and discharged. Through the exertions of Beauvais. to . it was not. It was found around her neck. and a re-examina- tion instituted . but nothing was elicited beyond what The clothes. bonnet were fastened was not a lady's. however. but a slip or sailor's knot. were has been already noted.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. Several St. as usual. taken to the Morgue (this formality being superfluous). and several days had elapsed before any public emotion resulted. torn off. and secured entirely out with a hard knot. The dress immediately beneath the frock was of fine muslin and .

Among these. Esq. a thousand contradictory rumors were circulated. . with the ostensible in From des Dromes. the one which attracted the most notice. There is that hour. was the idea that Marie Roget still lived —that the corpse found some other unfortunate. even if we presume that Marie Roget was * The New York Brother Jonathan. account- hour of the day in question. and journalists busied ing satisfactorily for every themselves in suggestions. There has no person. at twelve. she was alive. whatever. or the Rue * * * . come forward. As time passed and no discovery ensued. This was. L Etoile* a paper conducted. 18 purpose of going to see her aunt. — some other connection. It will in the Seine was that of be proper that I submit some passages which embody the suggestion These passages are literal translations from to the reader alluded to. June the twenty-second. after she left her mother's who saw her door. left Subsequently. " Mademoiselle Roget left her mother's house on Sunday morning. have seen her. 326 give an intelligible account of his whereabouts during the Sunday on which Marie ever. Hastings Weld. nobody is proved to no trace or tidings of her at all. a female body was discovered afloat on the shore of the Barriere du Roule. with much ability. we have proof On Wednesday that.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. how- home. though we have no evidence that Marie in the land of the living after nine o'clock day. edited by H. affidavits. on that day. up on Sunto that noon. in general. at all. June the twenty-second. * * * Roget was Now. so far. he submitted to Monsieur G . hour.

when such a precaution could have so easily been taken. it could only have been in the water two and a half days. what was cause a departure from the ordinary * * * on shore mangled be found on shore also. it it rises sinks again. there in this case to course of nature state ? is fired before at least five or six days' im- if let alone. over a corpse." because it was so far decom- . thrown into the river within three hours 327 after she left her mother's house.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. five times three days. But it is folly to left her suppose that murder was committed on her body. All experience has shown that drowned bodies. even were it in after having been dead two days. or three at the outside. to if Those who throw the body into the river before midnight. Now. and body had been kept in its Tuesday night. but." editor here proceeds to argue that the body must have been in the water " not three days merely. was that of Marie Roget. only three days from the time she home — three days to an hour. furthermore. require from six to ten days for sufficient decomposition to take place to bring them mersion. we ask. at The least. could have been consummated soon enough to have enabled her murderers the murder. would have thrown in without weight to sink it. It is a doubtful point. whether the body would be so soon afloat. or bodies thrown into the water immediately after death by violence. thrown it is exceedingly improbable that any villains mitted such a murder as the body is who had com- here supposed. some trace would If the until of the murderers. are guilty of such horrid crimes choose darkness rather than * * * Thus we see that if the body found in the river light. Even where a cannon to the top of the water. And.

as can readily be imagined as finding an arm in the that night. Eustache. however. are the facts on which M. St. occupants of the same building. that an investigation was ress respecting her daughter. get. 328 posed that Beauvais had great difficulty in recognizing it. Beauvais did not return sleeve. BeauFor an item vais came into his chamber and told him of it. deposes that he did not hear of the discovery of the body of his intended until the next morning. He — — rubbed the arm and found hair upon it something as indefias little conclusive nite. Nobody went the matter in if they thought the body was that of Marie. then. . who boarded in her mother's house. at seven o'clock. In this sion of it way the strikes us it was very coolly received." journal endeavored to create the impres- an apathy on the part of the relatives of Marie. Andree. I continue the translation : " What. M. The of the identity. of news like this. those marks to have consisted of public generally supposed some description of scars. from her age and grief. but sent word M.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. Beauvais says that he has no doubt the body was that of Marie Roget ? He ripped up the satisfied him gown and says he found marks which sleeve. was fully disproved. on Wednesday evening. If we allow that still in prog- Madame Ro- could not go over (which is allow- ing a great deal). we think. that reached even the over. This latter point. when M. Madame to Roget. the lover and intended husband of Marie. There was nothing said or heard about the Rue Pavee St. there certainly must have been someone who would have thought it worth while to go over and attend the investigation.

so far Beauvais prevailed upon a friend and relative to take charge of him. that M. while a Madame B Now. and prevent his attending the examination at the disinterment. from receiving the news coolly. somewhat resembling that of the girl. " The editor says : change comes over the matter. We are told was at Madame on one occasion. tinctly isted . tracted with grief. was disEustache. this was asserted by sepulture family. an attempt was made to throw suspicion upon Beau- the impression vais himself. that St. such as was imagined. L Etoile was again over-hasty. had availed themselves of the op- portunity to impress the public with the belief of her But death. a . that the corpse was pense. with the connivance of her friends. this Its insinuations amount to that Marie. although L Etoile. and bore himself so frantically. it then. that. the discovery of a corpse in the Seine. and that no mem- ber of the family attended the ceremonial all was stated by it re-interred at the public ex- L Etoile . and so that the old lady agitated as to be unable to attend to any duty . that an advantageous offer of was absolutely declined by the private say. It was dis- proved that no apathy. 329 inconsistent with the supposition that these relatives believed the corpse to be hers. exwas exceedingly feeble. I in furtherance of — designed to convey yet all this was In a subsequent number of the satisfactorily disproved. had : absented herself from the city for reasons involving a charge against her chastity and that these friends upon .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. —although. Moreover. paper.

been very much averse to permitting the seems to have relatives to see the body. but let the matter be for him. For some reason he determined that nobody shall have any fairs. told her that a gendarme was expected there. and that she. in a very singular manner. and the upon a slate which The glean name Marie " inscribed hung near at hand." fact. according to their He representations. upon Beauvais. for. and he has bowed el- the male relatives out of the way. so far as it " we were enabled to from the newspapers. seemed to be. to thing to do with the proceedings but himself. maltreated. had observed a rose in the By the following A key-hole of the door. Le Commerciel* however.. 330 Roget's house. some color was given to the susthus thrown visitor at his office. must not say any thing to the gendarme until he returned.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. and murdered. go which way you will. a sive influence. Beauvais appears have the whole matter locked up A single step cannot be taken without M. picion a few days prior to the girl's disappearance. M. who was going out. idea. and during the absence of its occupant. " * We I was earnest in print of exten- combating this popular its columns quote a passage or two from : are persuaded that pursuit has hitherto been on a false New York Journal of Commerce. . * * * vais. * * * In the present posture of af- M. Madame B. that Marie — had been the victim of a gang of desperadoes that by these she had been borne across the river. you run against him. general impression. Beauvais. Beauin his head.

which seemed to overthrow. impossible that a person so well known to thousands as I It this young woman was. * * * A piece of one of the unfortunate girl's petticoats. two feet long and one foot wide. bound round her. sons of a Madame Deluc. for she interested all who knew her. The fact that the body was found floating near the Barriere. forming a . Her gown was torn. so far as is it 33 has been directed to the Barriere du Roule. It . when she went out. was torn out and tied under her chin around the back of her head. ex- cept the testimony concerning her expressed intentions. scent. while roaming among the woods near the Barriere du Roule. If the murder had been committed at the Barriere du Roule. important information reached the police. that she did go out at all. * * * It is impossible that she could have gone to the Barriere du Roule. Two small boys. within which were three or four large stones. probably to prevent screams. is no proof as to where it was thrown into the water. without being recognized by a dozen persons yet no one has come forward who saw . would have been no necessity for any such arrangement.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. at least. was when the streets were full of people. howsome ever. chanced to penetrate a close thicket. or to the Rue des Dromes. and and by that the body was carried as a bundle. there tied ." A day or two before the Prefect called upon us. the chief portion of Le CommercieVs argument. her outside her mother's door. This was done by fellows who had no pocket-handkerchief. and there is no evidence. should have passed three blocks without some one having seen her and any one who saw her would have remembered it.

the upper silk scarf. other piece was part of the like strips torn off. Between the thicket and the river. 33 2 On kind of seat with a back and footstool. I. and the ground bore evidence of some heavy burthen having been dragged along it. but the threads of it were run together the action of the rain. A gloves. * all * part. and a pocket-handkerchief were also here The handkerchief bore the name " Marie Roget.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. a . and tore on its pieces of her frock torn out being by the bushes were about three inches wide and six inches long. The The silk on grass had grown around and over some of them. on the second. was opened. the bushes were broken. found. folded. edited by C. A weekly paper." * Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post. Esq. and it had been mended . not the hem. and there was every evidence of a struggle. They looked and were on the thorn bush. were discovered on the brambles earth was trampled. that skirt. there- * the spot of this appalling outrage has been dis- covered. all : there at least three mildewed down hard with and stuck together from mildew. the parasol was strong. One the part was the hem of the frock. The upper within. Le Soleil* had the following comments upon this discovery comments which merely — echoed the sentiment of the whole Parisian press " The had things or four weeks all evidently been they were . Peterson." Fragments of dress The around. . about a foot * * There can be no doubt. where mildewed and * The it had been doubled and rotten. stone lay a white petticoat parasol. the fences were found taken down. fore. from the ground.

a young girl arrived accompanied by a young man of dark com- The two remained their departure. in the in question. but the which was discovered upon the corpse. was found in recognized the thicket. man and girl. the usual who cross the river in boats. and re-crossed the river as fol- returned to if in great haste. that Deluc.* now also testified that he saw Marie dress Roget cross a ferry on the Seine. On they took the road to some thick woods Madame Duluc's attention was called to worn by the girl. A scarf was particunoticed. ate and drank without lowed in the route of the young appearance. — Sunday About from the city. in opposite the Barriere du secluded particularly so. 333 Consequent upon this discovery. in ques- . The neighborhood Roule. as well as her eldest son.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROCET. It was soon Madame after dark. plexion. tlie The Madame D. An omnibus driver. upon this same evening. behaved making payment. the inn about dusk. Soon after the departure of the couple. Valence. screams were violent but not only the scarf which brief. here for some time. Madame Deluc testified that she keeps a roadside inn not far from the bank of the river. new evidence appeared. on the Sunday * Adam. resort of blackguards It is Sunday is the vicinity. a the dress to one larly of gang miscreants made their boisterously. on account of its resemblance worn by a deceased relative. three o'clock. heard screams of a female in the vicinity of the inn. afternoon of the at the inn.

Eustache. items of evidence and information thus collected by myself. was found in the vicinity of what all labelled now supposed " A phial the scene of the outrage. at the suggestion of Dupin. His breath gave evidence of the poison. was found near him. first. It appears that. He died withhis out speaking. the lifeless or nearly lifeless of body St. He. from which it differs This is an ordinary. for this iarly outre about it. were able a reward. . at it once to comprehend how and why such an of': to : at ( atrocity. an atrocious. with his design of self-de- struction. " I need scarcely the perusal of my you. although in one important respect." said Dupin. knew Marie.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. the after of the clothes as above discovery immediately described. Upon person was found a letter. instance of crime. tell case than that of the Rue Morgue . offer it should have been considered difficult. tion. in fully identified The by the relatives of Marie." and emptied. Marie's betrothed. Valence. when. laudanum. The myrmidons of G solution. the mystery has been considered easy. 334 company with a young man of dark complexion. There is nothing peculYou will observe that. briefly stating his love for Marie. and could not be mistaken The articles found in the thicket were in her identity. was thought unnecessary Thus. reason. from the newspapers. for this reason.. as he finished " that this is a far more intricate notes. embraced only one more point but this was — a point of seemingly vast consequence.

they have taken it for granted that one of them must. They could picture to their a mode modes. too. at if all. that . and the very plausibility which each assumed.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. this in despair at the met the eye and yet told while of in the case nothing but easy triumph to the functionaries of the Prefecture. it been the actual one. even at the beginning of our investigation. I have therefore observed that by prominences above the plane reason feels her way. not so much ' at the house of Madame is of the ordinary." Here. should have been understood as indicative fancies rather of the difficulties than of the facilities which attend elucidation. and a motive many imaginations — and because was not impossible that these numerous modes and motives could have many motives either of — . " In the case of Madame L' Espanaye and her daughter.* the agents of G were discouraged and confounded by that very unusualness which. in what has occurred? that has never occurred before it her search for the true. would have afforded the surest (3men of success same intellect might have been plunged ordinary character of of the all perfumery-girl. there was. at . that cases such as this. no doubt that murder had been committed. in and that the proper question must ' ? ' as ' is what has occurred In the investigations L' Espanaye. 335 might have been committed. The idea of suicide was excluded * See " Murders in the at once. to a properly regulated intellect. Rue Morgue. But the ease with which these variable were entertained. we are freed.

We should bear in mind that. or assassins. from The body found at the supposition of self-murder. With the public the arguments of L Etoile have had and that the journal itself is convinced of their importance would appear from the manner in which it weight . 33 6 the commencement.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. it is the object of our newspapers rather to create a sensation —to make a . commences one of the of its morning papers conclusive article in essays of the Monday's upon the subject day/ it Etoile. and then tracing a murderer. It will not do to trust dating our inquiries from the body found. we yet discover this body if. to be that of individual than Marie . this article appears conclusive of little beyond the zeal of its inditer. or we find her. in general. — ' Several speak of the To me. our agreement has been arranged with the Prefect. solely. not for the purpose of justice. and respecting whom. it is indispensable that our first step should be the determination of the identity of the corpse with the Marie Roget who " purpose. all Barriere du Roule was found under such circumstances as to leave us no room barrassment upon this important point. far. yet find her we lose our labor since it with whom we have to deal.' ' says. We both know this gentleman him too well. the reward is offered. suggested that the corpse discovered But for em- has been it not that of the is Marie Roget for the conviction of whose assassin. If. therefore. unassassinated is some other Monsieur own — in either case G . For our starting from the living Marie. is if missing.

" What I mean to say and melodrame of the is. The possible dimension. that it is In both. an object with In the rash pursuit of this object. not less the epigram which is the most im- mediately and the most universally appreciated. The latter end when it seems coincident with the former. and secured it a favorable recepsuggested it to Let us examine the heads of this tion with the public.' We demand at once. than in literature. pose.' into ' on her body. the reasoner. that this corpse cannot be of the interval that of Marie. it is of the lowest order of merit. pursued only The print which merely falls in with ordinary opinion point is (however well founded this opinion may be) earns for itself no credit with the mob. which have L Etoi/e.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. if murder was committed that the he murder. 337 —than to further the cause of truth. argument. the mingled epigram idea. says. that Marie rather than any true plausibility in this Roget still lives. he rushes ' It is folly to supmere assumption at the outset. endeavoring to avoid the incoherence with which it is originally set forth. reduction of this interval to becomes its smallest thus. journal's " The first aim of the writer is to show. and very . could have been consummated soon enough to have enabled her murderers to throw the body into the river before midnight. The mass of the people him who suggests pungent contra- regard as profound only dictions of the general idea. from the brevity between Marie's disappearance and the finding of the floating corpse. idea. at once. it is In ratiocination.

could have been committed soon enough to have enabled her murderers t*o throw the body into the river it is folly. however ' its inditer ' : It is folly to murder was committed on the body." continued Dupin. but with the . had the murder taken place at nine o'clock in the morning of before midnight. suppose that the murder. but not so utterly preposterous as the one printed. amounts precisely to this that the murder was not committed on Sunday at all and. any moment between Sunday and a quarter have been time enough to throw the body into the river before midnight. 33^ naturally. The paragraph beginning erties whatever. printed in we may permit U Etoile. may etc. It is not..' This still — — assumption. that the body was not thrown in until after mid- before midnight ' night —a .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. with L Etoile that it where we have it is. how- to do. there would * at all hours. I might safely leave ever. to suppose all this. and to suppose at the same time. " Were it my purpose. sentence sufficiently inconsequential in itself. we say. " merely to make out a case against this passage of Etoile 's argu- L ment. (as we are resolved to suppose).' if it any lib- It is folly to it appears as be imagined to have existed actually thus in the brain of suppose that the murder. if we allow L Etoile to assume this. Why why? is it folly to murder was committed within five suppose that the mi?iutes after the girl's Why is it folly to suppose quitting her mother's house ? that the murder was committed at any given period of the day? There have been assassinations But. then.

the journal goes " calling ex-parte character at the outset. has no reference I to the facts of the case. it 339 The stands sentence in question has but one meaning. or on the river itself . . against the whole tone of your attention to its I wish merely to caution you L Etoile's suggestion. really. having assumed body of Marie. it was improbable that the assaswould have ventured to bear the corpse to the river sins before midnight. that the bearing Now. or as coincident with my own opinion. as and this meaning I have fairly stated but it is . assassination might have taken place upon the river's brink. re- . All experience has on to say shown that thrown into the water immediately : drowned bodies. assumed that the murder was complain. My design. as the most obvious and most immediate mode of disposal. committed at such a position. the to the river it became necessary. thus. by " Having prescribed thus a limit ceived notions.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. and. the throwing the corpse in the water might have been resorted to at any period of the day or night. and under such circumIt is I stances. so far. or bodies after death by violence. at whatever period of the day or night of Sunday this It murder was committed. You will understand that suggest nothing here as probable. its if own this precon- were the' could have been in the water but a very brief time. for an idea which these words have obviously intended. of which And herein the assumption lies. it ' to suit that. and failed to was the design of the journalists to say that convey. truth. material that we go behind the mere words.

34° quire from six to ten days for sufficient decomposition to take place to bring them to the top of the water. edited by Col. .) the argument of rule. ' * citing some five or six instances in known individuals after the L Etoile. it been possible to adduce Had instead of five examples fifty end of two or three days. * The New York Commercial Advertiser. for this argument does not pretend to involve more than a question of the probability of the body having risen to the surface in less than and this probability will be in favor of three days . to L rebut the general assertion of Etoile. " it it sinks again Even when rises before at least if let alone. by a citation of particular instances militating against that assertion. examples could still have been properly re- of bodies found floating at the these fifty L Etoile 's garded only as exceptions to time as the rule itself should be confuted. until such Admitting the (and this Le Moniteur does not deny. and er six days' immersion.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. by in Paris.' fi a ve- These assertions have been tacitly received by every with the paper exception of Le Moniteur* This latter print endeavors to combat that portion of the paragraph which has reference to drowned bodies only. sophical in to be drowned were found lapse of less time But there which the bodies of than is insisted floating upon by is something excessively unphilothe attempt. insisting mereEtoile is ly upon its exceptions. rule. on the part of Le Moniteur. L suffered to remain in full force . cannon is fired over a corpse. Stone.

It evident. and immersed the mouth and nostrils alone remaining of the walker . and of women generally. about equal to the bulk of fresh water which it The bodies of fat and fleshy persons. are lighter than those of the lean and large-boned. own is The proper the upright position on land. in- But. Now human body. mersed. shall find without difficulty and without exertion. in its natural conthis the . it may be said that very bodies will sink at all. with as position for one if he little suffer his whole person to be im- exception as possible. who cannot swim. the specific gravity of the human body. we we float . " You once that will see at should be urged. is small bones. and the somewhat fluenced by the presence of the tide from the sea. of leaving this tide human few their will own accord.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. out of question. in general. however. suffer the specific gravity of the water fairly to be adduced in comparison with his — that is to say. be enabled to Almost any float. and of specific gravity of the water of a river men is . if he one. that the gravities of the body. above the surface. even in fresh water. at if all. L Etoile's duced shall 341 position until the instances so childishly adbe sufficient in number to establish an antag- onistical rule. falling into a river. with displaces. dition. all argument upon against the rule itself this . with the head thrown fully back. and of that is Thus circumstanced. is neither much lighter nor much heavier than the water of the Seine that is to say. head and for end we must examine the rationale of the rule.

uplifted from the water. being supposed at the will there remain until. This differ- ence rule is . or otherwise. is also received into the stomach. is an additional weight sufficient to imthat a trifle will merse the whole head. sufficient to cause the but is body to sink. "The float even after drowning. and giving the puffed appearance which is so horrible.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. gravity again becomes less than that of the bulk of water which it displaces. result is the immersion of and the inception. This effect is sition. made to keep the head in its usual nostrils. bottom of the by some means. When this distension has so far progressed that . of water into the Much lungs. swimming. 34 2 the bulk of water displaced. as a general with insufficient in the cases of individuals small bones and an abnormal quantity of flaccid or fatty Such individuals matter. and cause either to preponderate. and thus deprived of its support. during efforts to breathe while beneath the surface. corpse. The perpendicular position. the to while an attempt is Now. An arm. distending the cellular tissues and all the cavities. and that of the fluid which now fills them. The brought about by decompo- result of decomposition is the generation of gas. are very nicely balanced. for instance. and the whole body becomes heavier by the difference between the weight of the air originally distending these cavities. while the accidental aid of the smallest piece of timber will enable us to elevate the head so as to look about. its specific river. the mouth and in the struggles of one unused arms are invariably thrown upward.

by can assign no period. frame can be preserved forever from corruption the bi. thus permitting it to rise when or other agencies have already prepared it for so doing which it is . apart from decomposi- may be. and it forthwith makes its appearance at the But decomposition is modified by innumerable face. at which the corpse shall rise through decomposition. by the temperament of the body. But. Thus it is evident that we depth or shallowness. chloride of mercury is one. the bulk of the corpse becomes gravity materially increased without a is corresponding increase less 343 of mass or weight. there causes). by the heat or cold of the season. it may overcome the tenacity of some putrescent por- . by its by agencies . Under certain conditions this result would be brought about within an hour .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. for its currency or stagnation. mineral the impregnation or purity of the water. a generation of gas within the stomach. cumstances — hastened is or retarded by dis- surcir- innumerable example. by its infection or freedom from disease before death. from the acetous fermentation of vegetable matter (or within other cavities from other tion. effect imbedded. its than water that of the specific placed. This may either loosen the corpse from the soft mud or ooze in the body to the surface. under others it might not take place at There are chemical infusions by which the animal all. and very usually is. sufficient to induce a distension The which will bring produced by the firing of a cannon is that of simple vibration. with any thing like accuracy.

he yet includes them all in the body its same category. ex- .' must now appear a of this paragraph of inconsequence not to the fired top of the water. permit call your attention to the distinction which is made beit alone. and after suffi- and incoherence. If. and that he would not sink at all.' and ' bodies thrown into the water immediately after death by violence. of a I have shown how drowning man becomes it is that the specifically heavier than bulk of water.' Although the writer admits the distinction.' until tween * drowned bodies. 344 tions of the cellular tissue. will not ' sink again if let has so far decomposition progressed as to the of the But I wish to escape generated gas. a body has risen to the sur- face through firing of cannon. and necessarily must be. " Having thus before us the whole philosophy of this Etoile. subject. indeterminate. " it over a rises before at least five or six days' immer- sinks again it The whole if is let alone. allowing the cavities to dis- tend under the influence of the gas. we can easily test by it the assertions of L 'All experience shows. 'that drowned thrown into the water immediately death by violence. or bodies them cient decomposition to take place to bring Even when a cannon sion. them to the surface. corpse.' says this paper. ' show that drowned bodies ' tissue All experience does require from six to ten days for sufficient decomposition to take place to bring Both science and experience show that the period of their rising is.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. require from six to ten days for bodies. moreover.

: shore two days.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. might have re-appeared or. all When decomposition had proceeded to a very great extent when the flesh had in a great measure left the bones then. to anticipate objection to his theory — what he imagines would be an that the body was kept on viz. and his gasps for breath while beneath the —gasps which supply by water the place of the the lungs. suffering rapid decomposition — more rapid . she might having sunk. . some trace would be found on shore of the murderers. V ' ' mangled state on shore until Tuesday night. drowned. by which he cept for the struggle 345 elevates his arms above the surface. " And now what are we to make of the argument. as V a fact of which Etoile is rule. should till we — — — lose sight of the corpse.' Here it its is at first difficult He means to perceive the intention of the reasoner. But these struggles and these gasps would not occur in the body thrown into the water immediately after death by violence. being a woman. this body was found floating? If never have sunk But no one supposes her and. indeed. bethe body cause. dying before being thrown she might have been found floating at any in twenty-four to have been into the river. but not then.' says Etoile. that found could not be that of Marie Roget. . the body. hours or drowned less. period afterward whatever. " if the body had been kept in But. in the latter surface original air in ' a general instance.' Thus. would not sink at evidently ignorant. three days only having elapsed.

for.not thrown if any thing not even approached. We are ' . the such a murder as in — No one not even laughable confusion of thought Etoile disputes the murder committed on the body found. and thinks that only under such circumHe is accordingly in stances it could have so appeared. casting failed to attach a weight. by murderers. if so. Here weight attached. supposes that. The marks of violence are too obvious. when such a precaution body could have so easily been taken. And furthermore tinues our journal. of the murderers.' You at the sequitur. L Etoile what is a corpse without it in. This is has been at great pains merely to gainsay now has admitted only a moment before. ' it is exceedingly improbable/ con- who had committed that any villains is here supposed.' Observe. Yet is Murderers. It is our ! — L show that reasoner's object merely to He Marie's. cannot be the mere duration of the corpse on the shore could operate to multiply traces of the assassins. been the case. The this Marie wishes to prove that is all question of identity which is is body not it not assassi- his observation it would not have was. nated —not that the corpse was not. 34-6 than immersed if He in water. had this might have appeared at the surface on the Wednesday. Therefore in is. it haste to show that * some I trace it to see not kept on shore would be found on shore presume you smile made was how . would have thrown the without weight to sink it. proves only the latter point. here. and proved.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. Nor can " ' I.

THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. M. is to rehimself. much duce. say on Monday. not being an of the idiot. that Marie of the living after nine o'clock We Roget was on Sunday. he should. as as possible. vais. and. perfectly convinced/ it ' says. L Etoile perversion of the witness' phraseology. even in this division of his subject. where our reasoner unwittingly reasons against His evident object. ' ' have no evidence. at least. Yet we find him urging the point that no person saw the girl from the moment of her leaving her mother's house. June the twenty-second. L been obviously disingenuous. amusing to observe insists its upon its point in the full belief of general argument. that its L Etoile furthering " diminished of the corpse being that It is. the probability much of the grisette. I have already said. nevertheless. No arm gefierality of the expression of is without hair. Beauvais. simply hair upon The its arm. the interval in question would have been much reduced. the interval between Marie's disappearance and the rinding of the corpse. could never have urged in identification corpse. Re-peruse now that portion of this argument which has reference to the identification of the corpse by BeauEtoile has In regard to the hair upon the arm. that the 2>47 body found was that of a murdered female. or on Tuesday. of sight .' he in the land ' says. have left this matter out for had any one been known to see Marie. He is a mere must have . by his own ratiocination.' " Nor is this the sole instance.' As his argument is obviously an ex-parte one.

'was small garter is is — for shoes and garters are sold same may be said of the flowers upon which M. the feet of Marie being small. It must have been a peculiarity of color.' sands of her shoe Her feet. of length. If. those of the corpse were also small. insists is. in addition to the point of general size and contour. —so are thouno proof whatever— nor says the journal. " ' Her foot. of the hairy mark. discovered a corpse corresponding and appearance to the missing girl. it This proper to to the size of the limbs they are to encircle. take a pair of garters home and fit them it in. but in one highly . The One thing in her hat. or of situation. 34^ spoken of some peculiarity in this hair. of quantity. the ratio of the peculiarity. rather than to try them in the store where they purchase. it is difficult to suppose Beauvais.' for the body Here Had M. the reasoner in earnest.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. his opinion strengthened have been in . the increase of probability that the body was that of Marie would not be an increase in a ratio merely arithmetical. or unusualness. he had found upon the arm a peculiar hairy appearance which he had observed upon the might have been justly and the increase of positiveness might well living Marie. in his search of Marie. If. he would have been warranted (without reference to the in general size question of habiliment at his search had been all) in forming an opinion that successful. Beauvais strongly in packages. that the clasp on the garter found had been set back to take amounts to nothing for most women find .

in just such a ened by Marie shortly previous to her leaving home. But these be tightened. proof most becomes through corroborative position. flowers in the hat corre- Give sure. or accumulative. although these shoes may be sold in packages. but multiplied by hundreds or thousands. of itself. shows nothing beyond its own pertinacity in error. upon the deceased. is now madness or hypocrisy to doubt. What I is made to adjust itself. or evidence — proof more for noth? Each not added to Let us proof. as she Add to all this had been known to wear upon the day 349 shoes such of her dis- appearance. two or girl. They alone would have amply established her identity. . garters such as the living used. What It L Etoile says in respect to this abbreviation of the garters being an unusual occurrence. its sponding to those worn by the missing for nothing further. What. —what ing further successive one is If only then if multiple ojte flower. and we seek we seek three. and it is garters are found to almost folly to proceed. then. foreign adjustment but rarely. geometrical. But it is not that the corpse was found to have the garters of the missing girl.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET.' you so far augment the probability as to verge upon the certain. accident. us. and. would be no evidence ' of identity. in its strictest must It of necessity require must have been by an sense. The elastic nature of the clasp-garter is self-demonstration of the unusualness of the abbreviation. by the setting back of manner as her own had been tight- a clasp. that these garters of Marie needed the tightening described. now discover.

there would be no need. will be seen by observing how often the legislature has been obliged to come forward to restore and a system. . 350 or found to have her shoes. — is — averse from swerv- this steadfast adherence to principle. you will be willing to dismiss them in a breath. will prevent its being unfolded according to its objects and he who arranges topics in reference to their causes. guided itself by the general principles of evidence the recognized and booked principles ing at particular instances.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. it the equity scheme had its lost." —Landor. He a commission de lunatico inqitirendo. L Etoile really that the editor of mark upon the it that the be proved entertained a doubt. or her general size and appearance corpse had each. when law becomes a science ceases to be justice. You * " theory based on the qualities of an object. jurisprudence of every nation will show that. or a peculiar arm. in practice. much of what is rejected as evidence the best of evidence to the is court. but it is not engenders vast individual error. most for the part. And by a For the intellect. in his has sagacious to echo the small talk of the lawyers. is the less certain that maximum of of time. in mass. serve that very court. or her feet. The of attaining the any long sequence therefore philosophical it . or the flowers of her bonnet. Thus the A . it thought who. The errors into which a blind devotion to principles of classification has led the common law. content themselves with echoing I would here ob- the rectangular precepts of the courts. attainable mode truth. with rigorous disregard of the conflicting ex- a sure is ception. of case. or her bonnet. will cease to value them according to their results. under the circumstances.* " In respect to the insinuations levelled at Beauvais. and — it is Could all collectively.

Beauvais (as it appears acute. as to render himself liable to suspicion on the part of the overM. He is a busybody. in addition to those which believe. The Etoile had no right to be offended at M. without the ability to advance a single reason for the belief of a second party. or the ill-disposed. in a case of man may this kind. be found to tally much better with my hypothesis of ro- mantic busy-body'ism. and offended him by venturing an U opinion that the corpse. Nothing is more vague than impressions of individual identity. ' in asserting the corpse to be that of Marie. yet there are few instances in one is give a reason for his recognition.' says the paper. " The will suspicious circumstances which invest him. was. 35 1 have already fathomed the true character of this good gentleman. prepared editor of L which any to Beauvais' .' could never have been adduced.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. Once adopting the more charitable interpreta- . notwithstanding the theory of the editor. one so constituted will readily so conduct himself. than with the reasoner's suggestion of guilt. that of Marie. but cannot give a circumstance. from your notes) had some personal interviews with the editor of Etoile.unreasoning belief. with much of romance and little Any of wit.' we have commented Now. upon occasion of real excitement. Each man recognizes his neighbor. in sober fact. to make others without re-adverting to the fact that stronger evidence ' to make others believe. it may be remarked that a very well be understood to believe. He per* sists. upon.

and. we shall find in the key-hole . no the comprehending the rose difficulty in ' Marie ' upon the ing the male relatives out of the permitting them to see the Madame B that she . least. slate ' way ' the . at founded in imperfect observation. but the premises. 35 2 tion. and that he was ambitious . in acute ." " And " do you think of the what. are Le Commerciel wishes was seized by some gang from her mother's door. and. L Etoile. that a person so well known i of low It is impossible. the . touching the matter of apathy on the part of the mother and other relatives an apathy inconsistent with the supx position of their believing the corpse to be that of the per- — —we shall now proceed as if the question of identity were settled to our perfect satisfaction.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. fidence. lastly. ' ' elbow- aversion to the caution given to body must hold no conversation with .' to thousands as . his apparent determination 'that nobody should have any thing to do with the proceedings except himself. spirit." I here demanded. to intimate that Marie ruffians not far it ' urges. in two instances. I shall and con- say nothing more upon this point the evidence fully rebuts the assertion of as . The deductions from the premises are philosophical and That. of being thought to enjoy her fullest intimacy. the gendarme until his (Beauvais') return .' It seems to me unquestionable that that she coquetted with Beauvais was a suitor of Marie's him . fumery girl opinions of Le CoiJimerciel ? " " they are far more worthy of attention than any which have been promulgated upon the subject.

two indi- In this case. lar instance. He passes regular intervals. In this particuwill be understood as most probable. without being recognized and accosted. it she proceeded upon a route of more than average diversity from her accustomed ones. knowing the extent of his personal acquaintance with others. dom passes so far as a dozen blocks from his own bureau. finds no great difference between them. that in general. within a confined periph- abounding in individuals who are led to observa- tion of his person through interest in the kindred nature of his occupation with their own. the chances would be also equal that an equal number of personal rencontres . and reaches at once the conclusion that she. and of others with him. he compares his notoriety with that of the perfumery-girl. 353 this young woman was. And. fro. at own.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. should have passed three blocks without some one having seen her. may. methodical character. But the walks of Marie be supposed discursive.' This is the idea of a man long resident in Paris a public man and one whose — — walks to and fro in the city have been mostly limited to He is aware that he selthe vicinity of the public offices. granting the personal acquaintances to be equal. would be equally liable to recognition in her with himself This could only be the case were her walks of the same unvarying. walks. same to species of limited region as are his and ery. The parallel which we imagine to have existed would only be in the mind of Le Commerciel sustained in the event of the viduals traversing the whole city. and within the in his.

without meeting a single individual whom she knew. at any given period. 354 would be made. that as far Marie might have proceeded. by any one of the many routes between her own residence and that of her aunt. ' ' not so.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. and proper light. but part.' But people/ says girl went abroad. and the entire population of Paris " force there But whatever suggestion of Le when we take may itself. it is true. from about eight until ten on the morning of every Sabbath. or by this question in its full steadily in whom she was known. No observing person can have failed to notice the peculiarly deserted air of the town. with the exception of Sunday. the streets of the city are. piece/ it says. will into consideration the hour at which the It was when the streets were full of Le Commerciel. of one of the unfortunate girl's petticoats. At nine on Sunday. In viewing we must mind the great disproportion between the hold per- sonal acquaintances of even the most noted individual in Paris. ' ' . Between ten and eleven the streets are thronged. appear to be in the be much diminished still Commerciel. " There is another point at which there seems a deficien- A cy of observation on the part of Le Commerciel. should hold I it more than probable. thronged with people. but not at so early a period as that designated. Now at nine o'clock of every morning in the week. It was at nine o'clock in the morning. For my own not only as possible. that she went out. the populace are chiefly within doors preparing for church.

are very far indeed from removing my own doubts upon this subject. 'at least three or four weeks. with a laudable industry. to the thorough blackguard. from this paper and from that. no pocket-handkerchiefs. 1 fellows . He its inditer has merely repeated the individual items of the already published opinion . You must have had occasion to observe how absolutely indis- pensable.' the editor tends the lowest class of ruffians." " And what are we to think. You cannot fail to have remarked the ex- . and around the back of her head.' Whether this idea is or is not we will endeavor to see hereafter but by well founded. Le Soldi?" " in " of the article in — was not born a parrot which case he would have been the most illustrious That it is a vast pity parrot of his race. probably two feet long. and there can be no doubt that the spot of this appalling outrage has been discovered. however.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. and we will examine them more particularly hereafter in connection with another division of the theme.' he says. 'The things had all evidently been there. 355 and one foot wide. has become the pocket-handkerchief.' The facts here re-stated by Le Soleil. of late years. who have no pocket-handkerchiefs." I asked. are the very description of people who will always be found to have handkerchiefs even when destitute of shirts. in- These. " At present we must occupy ourselves with other investigations. collecting them. was torn out and tied under her chin. This was done by fellows who had to prevent screams.

were there found to be deceit in without such deceit.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. " In that which I now propose. corroborative of suspicion. but let I The have no suspicion of us proceed methodically. yond a doubt the satisfy case of St. had she any when found ? These are important questions utterly untouched by the evidence and there are others of equal moment. Should there be nothing wrong here. we will discard the interior points of this tragedy. tention upon its investigations such as and concentrate our Not the outskirts. this is at- least usual error in the limiting of inquiry to the immediate. we will dismiss St. in no respect an unaccountable circumstance. be- validity of the affidavits in regard to his whereabouts on the Sunday. or but there were other points to be should have been . which . or one which need cause us the affidavits. however. is. to confine It is evidence and the malpractice of the courts discussion to the bounds of . Affidavits of this character are readily made matter of mystification. Eustache from our investigations. must be re-examined. the question of identity was readily determined. His suicide. We must endeavor to have met with no attention. ourselves by personal inquiry. be sure. 35 6 To tremc laxity of the examination of the corpse. however. with total disregard of the collateral or circumstantial events. Eustache We this person will ascertain . to deflect from the line of ordinary analysis. Had ascertained. Had the body been in any respect despoiled? the deceased any articles of jewelry about her person upon leaving home ? if so.

"I repeat that it is no more than fact that the larger and it all truth has sprung from the collateral but in accordance with the spirit of the principle in- portion of is . The so uninterruptedly shown that or accidental events But perhaps you do not history of we science has resolved human knowledge has to collateral. I will examine more generally than you have as yet done. We Accident We is subject the unlooked for and unimagined to the mathe- matical formula of the schools. that modern to calculate upon the unforeseen. and a always show. but the largest. perhaps the of truth arises from the seemingly irreleportion larger. make chance a matter of absolute calculation. admitted as a portion of the substructure. It isthe vant. that a vast. through spirit of this principle. 357 Yet experience has shown. the newspapers validity of the affidavits. if not pretrue philosophy cisely through will its letter. or incidental. I would divert inquiry. that it nume- has at length become necessary. we . apparent relevancy. It is no longer philosophical to base upon what has been a vision of what is to be. So far. to make not only large. allowances for inventions that shall arise by chance. comprehend me. are indebted for the most rous and most valuable discoveries. and quite out of the range of ordinary expectation. in prospective view of improvement. volved in this fact that present case.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. in the from the trodden and hitherto unfruitful ground of the event itself to the cotemporary circumWhile you ascertain the stances which surround it.

she her customary comptoir. ." as I In pursuance of Dupin's suggestion. of the public prints will not afford us some minute points which shall establish a direction for inquiry. with the exception of a slight paleness not altogether usual. perhaps. if a comprehensive survey. absence tion of a week or. a disturbance very similar to the present was caused by the disappearance of this same Marie Roget from the parfumerie of Monsieur Le Blanc. The result was a firm conviction quent innocence of of their validity. indeed." —Evening Paper. It was given out by Monsieur Le Blanc and her mother that she had merely been on a affair visit to some friend in the country We was speedily hushed up. * It is well known during the week of her absence from Le Blanc's par- New York Express. At the end of a week he placed before me the following extracts "About : and a half ago.* "An evening journal of yesterday refers to a former myste- rious disappearance of Mademoiselle Roget. Eustache. . with and of the conse- In the meantime my what seemed to me a min- uteness altogether objectless. and that. propose. such .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. June 23. re-appeared at At the end of a week. of a month. presume is a freak of the same nature. 358 have only reconnoitred the field of investigation but it will be strange. and the that the present we at the expira- shall have her among us again. friend occupied himself. that. however. I made scrupulous examination of the affair of the affidavits. in a scrutiny of the various newspaper files. St. as well as ever. three years in the Palais Royal. Monday.

have the name of at present stationed in Paris. who were of six idly rowing a boat to near the banks of the Seine. the object of which is to fasten the crime of the late atrocity upon Menbut as this gentleman has been fully exonerated by a legal inquiry. engaged. and finally taken boat. f We have received one or two communications. the Lothario in question." —Le Mer- * Tuesday Morning. with his wife and daughter." —Morning Paper. advisable to * make them public. who 359 young naval quarrel. June 28. Courier and Inquirer. we do not think nais I it . parties originally suspected total lack of evidence. but the police are upon their trail. carried She parasol. We it is officer supposed.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. The villains have escaped for the time. but . to convey Upon out. gagged. A gentleman. about dusk. outrage of the most atrocious character was perpetrated near this city the day before yesterday. is but for obvious reasons forbear to make it public. discharged through § New York Courier and Inquirer. and some of them " will soon be taken. June 25. she was in the much noted of a company A for his debaucheries. § Herald. June 24. and as the arguments of our several correspondents appear to be more zealous than profound." \ New York New York \ Mennais was one of the —Morning Paper. to the shore at a point not far from that at which she had originally entered the boat with her parents. reaching the opposite shore the three passengers stepped and had proceeded so far as to be beyond the view of the when the daughter discovered that she had left in it her returned for it. "An young men. and him across the fro river. fumerie. providentially led to her return home. the services curie. was seized by the gang. and arrested. brutally treated. the into out stream.

but I extracts. The next morning it was taken from thence without the knowledge of any of the offiThe rudder is now at the barge office. The bargeman towed it under the barge office. one of the bargemen connected with the revenue service saw an empty boat floating down the Seine. decidedly in favor of this supposition. " the It is first " present design. they not only could perceive no mode which any one of them could be brought to bear in upon the matter in hand. with an examination of the naval officer alluded to. can understand from the Prefect. Our own We shall endeavor to make room for some of these arguments hereafter. I have copied them not chiefly to who. f reading these various Upon seemed to me irrelevant. New York Standard. 360 "We have received several forcibly written communications. cers. have not troubled themselves. Yet it is mere folly to * \ New York Evening Post.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. . apparently from various sources. June 26. to dwell upon and second of these extracts." he said. as my show you the extreme remissness far as I of the police. June 31." Le Diligence." " —Evening Paper—Tuesday. — Thursday. Sails were lying in the bottom of the boat. I waited for some explanation from Dupin.* On Monday. in any respect. and which go far to render it a matter of certainty that the unfortunate Marie Roget has of one of the become a victim which numerous bands of blackguards infest the vicinity of the city is opinion upon Sunday.

that he who had once The chances eloped with Marie would again propose an elopement. rather than as the result — new proposals by a second individual we are prepared to regard it as a making up of the old amour. and perhaps no recognized. rather than that she to whom proposals of elopement had been made by one individual. and the return home of the betrayed. however. should And have them made to her by another. Eustache. Had the lover been interrupted in his first villany by the necessity of departure to sea. Let us admit elopement to have resulted in a quarrel between the lovers. We are the first now prepared to view a second elopement (if we knozv that an elopement has again taken place) as indicating a renewal of the betrayer's advances. — there was no elopement as imagined. me call your attention to the fact. and had he seized the first moment of his return to renew the base designs not yet altogether — accomplished or him " ? Of You all will not yet altogether accomplished by these things we know nothing. that the the first ascertained and the secbetween time elapsing ond supposed elopement is a few months more than the here let general period of the cruises of our men-of-war. say. are ten to one. that.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. we find Beyond St. rather of ' ' than as the commencement of a new one. 36 1 say that between the first and second disappearance of Marie there is no sapposable connection. no honorable . in the second instance. no open. Certainly not but are we prepared to say that there was not the frustrated design? Beauvais.

THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. Eustache. when. this suggestion . fact strongly militates against reflect. that she hesitates not to remain with him until the shades of the evening descend. I ask. 362 Of none other suitors of Marie. may we not at least suppose this design of design entertained by the gave aunt it girl ? to be understood that she in the quested to Rue quitting home. Who. and St. calling for her. my re- at first glance. (for whatever purpose known 1) she must have thought of her expressed intention when leaving home. upon the morning of Sunday. then. is consenting so to accompany this indito her mother known or un- — vidual. Upon Now. an hour as three o'clock But in in the afternoon. . nothing. and proceed river. Eustache was call for her at dark. of whom. most of the relatives know ? And what means the singular prophecy of Madame Roget on the morning of Marie's departure ?— nothing * I fear " that But if I shall never see Marie again. he should find that she had not been there.' we cannot imagine Madame Roget privy to the elopement. and who is so deeply in her confidence. in the Rue des Dromes. of least most of them) know there any thing said. reaching the Barriere du Roule with him across the at so late known. amid the solitary groves of the Barriere du Roule? Who is that secret lover. at least. and of the surprise and suspicion aroused in the bosom of her affianced suitor. St. at the hour appointed. is is whom the relatives (at but whom Marie meets the secret lover. — but let us That she did meet some companion. she was about to visit her des Dromes.

363 and when. moreover. and my absence will the sooner for escape will that I design to return at had in contemplation merely a stroll with the individual in question it would not be my policy to bid excite anxiety. upon returning to the pension with alarming intelligence. not have thought of returning to brave this suspicion but the suspicion becomes a point of trivial importance to her. have played him false —a be sure to ascertain fact of which I might . and I shall not to gain call for until more time than Eustache before . my absence from home for the longest possible period. without causing suspicion or anxiety. Eustache that I call . if it were my he will I — St. me call for but if I in in this any other manner. since it will be expected return the earlier.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. " We may imagine her thinking thus— ' I am to meet a certain person for the purpose of elopement. be sure not to him call. if we suppose her not intending to return. Eustache. say. will be accounted for. at dark. he should become aware of her this continued absence from home. he will wholly neglect to bid If I bid St. for. calling. my call time be diminished. Eustache my sufficient — me — dark way. or for certain other purposes known only to myself. all— if Now. She must have thought She must have foreseen the chagrin of St. . It is necessary —there must — pursuit give no chance of interruption that there be be time given us to elude I will it to I that shall visit understood and the be spend day with I the Rue des Dromes will aunt at tell St. of these I things. the suspicion of She could all.

my intention. important that The palpable traces of suggestion. it is ously the public s own . and was from cealments are the first. conditions. has been superinduced event which we would opinion must be ingly difficult to perceive and to maintain. by returning before dark. that the most general opinion in relation to this sad affair is. it appears to and the distinction me is find is no rigor- often exceed- In the present that this* public opinion. that the girl blackguards. abide by its But decision. But. in which it is supposed that the about girl was . This corpse is found. it is now made known that. and floating in the river. or the very period. When arising of manifesting itself in a strictly spontaneous should look upon it as analogous with that intuition which is the idiosyncrasy of the individual man itself In ninety-nine cases from the hundred of genius. a girl and notorious. at the very period. 364 keep him forever him notifying of by leaving home without in ignorance. under certain not to be disregarded. bearing marks of violence. the popular opinion. and by then stating that I had been to visit my aunt in the Rue des Dromes. I detailed in the third of by the my collateral extracts. in your notes. beautiful.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. All by the discovered corpse of Marie. instance. But Paris is excited young.' in respect to a gang. is —when manner—we had been the victim of a gang of Now.' point " You have observed. as it is my design never to return —or not for some weeks —or effected — the not until certain con- gaining of time is the only I need about which give myself any concern.

at a given locality. although dense. in the thicket at the Barriere du Roule. Within were three or four large . at precisely the same period Yet in what. is. committed at a time nearly coincident. in a similar locality.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. let us consider the supposed scene of the assassination. if any thing. an outrage similar in nature to that endured by the deceased. the one atrocity. It would have been a miracle indeed. 365 assassinated. Is less in extent. under the same circumstances. in the same city. was not so committed. upon the person of a second wonderful that the one known atro- ruffians. known outrage seemed so opportunely to afford the other and the it Marie. and upon this known outrage committed. too. known to be so committed. if. evidence that the other. But. although by a gang young of young female. a most unheard-of wrong. The contwo events had about it so much of the this nection of the wonder would have been a failure the populace to appreciate and to seize it. that the true of fact. there should have been another similar gang. in palpable. was found in the river ! very river was . does the accidentally suggested opinion of the populace call upon us to believe ? " Before proceeding further. was perpetrated. if not in this marvellous train of of time ! coincidence. with the same means and appliances. it city should influence the popular judgment in regard to unknown ? This judgment awaited direction. engaged in a wrong of precisely the same aspect. was in the close vicinity of a public road. while a gang of ruffians were perpetrating. This thicket.

supresident in Paris.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. A The handkerchief were also here found. There is no real evidence. that the articles discovered had been more than a very few days in the thicket much . a silk scarf. might have been naturally entertained. while there is . in certain would have arisen. in the neighborhood of the Andree. posing them not believe —but there was Had the true scene been.' seen on the branches around. That it was the scene. and the unanimity with which it was supposed to indicate the precise scene of the outrage. parasol. it must be admitted that there was some very good reason for doubt. stones. at once. gloves. the perpetrators of the crime. the idea of placing the articles where they were found. ' Fragments The of dress were earth was trampled. forming a kind of seat with a the upper stone was discovered a white petticoat on the second. and a pocket- On . would naturally have still been stricken with terror at the public attention thus acutely directed into the proper channel of the necessity of tion. and there was every evidence of a violent struggle. although Le Soleil so supposes. and. I may or I may excellent reason for doubt. the thicket of the Barriere du Roule having been already suspected. And . the bushes were broken. there thus. 366 back and a footstool. a sense some exertion to redivert this atten- classes of minds. Rue Pavee St. " Notwithstanding the acclamation with which the discovery of this thicket was received by the press. as Le Commerciel suggested. handkerchief bore the name Marie Roget.

around and over some of them. be entirely concealed from sight by the mildew upon which upspringing grass. of which the most ordinary within twentyupspringing and decadence . and tore on being opened. where it had been doubled and folded. of two small boys . and thus from the recolfor these boys removed the lections. week. but the threads of it were run together within. 'with the action of the rain The grass had grown The silk of the parasol and stuck together from mildew. especially in by a third party. They were ' all mildewed down Le hard. that he the word no less than three times in the brief the editor of Le employs of the nature paragraph just quoted. as day. adopting the opinions of its predecessors.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. all mildewed and rotten. without attracting attention. And touching that in a single Soleil so petinaciously insists. might. during the twenty- days elapsing between the fatal Sunday and the afternoon upon which they were found by the boys. warm and damp weather (such as was that of the period articles of the murder). is he really unaware Is he to be told that it is one of the of this mildew ? many feature classes is its four hours? of fungus. and took them home before they had been seen But the grass will grow. 367 circumstantial proof that they could not have remained there.' In respect to the grass having grown around and over some of them/ it is obvious that the fact could only have was ' been ascertained from the words. much as two or three inches in a single A parasol lying upon a newly turfed ground. was strong.' says Soleil. The upper part.

all in vain. amid its woods or groves. Such a thing as an unexplored or even an unfrequently visited recess.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. he will find the by the voice and personal growing charm some intrusion of ruffian or party of carousing blackguards. of Paris. is — ing the week-days. unless at a great distance from its suburbs. He will seek privacy amid the densest foliage. at ' thicket. to slake his thirst for solitude amid the scenes of natural loveliness which immediately surround us. even durthis great metropolis of nature. But if the vicinity of the city ing days of the week. to believe that these it is any evidence exceedingly of difficult could have remained in articles the thicket specified for a longer period than a single week for a longer period than from one Sunday to — Those who know any thing the next. null as regards the other hand. is most absurdly On that fact. is so beset during the work- how much more so on the Sabbath ! . moment to be a lover heart at yet chained by duty to the dust and heat of let any such one attempt. With sickness of the heart the wanderer will flee back to the polluted Paris as to a less odious because less incongruous sink of pollution. that what has been most triumphantly adduced in support of the idea that the articles had been for at least three or four weeks' in the "Thus we see. Here are the very nooks where the unwashed most abound here — are the temples most desecrate. 368 a glance. being imagined. is not for a Let any one who. know of the vicinity the extreme difficulty of finding seclusion. At every second dispelled step.

or deprived of the customary opportunities of crime. These apparently from various sources. the discovery followed. the urgent paper. let me direct the discovery of the articles. is to " But there are not wanting other grounds for the suspicion that the articles were placed in the thicket with the view of diverting attention from the And. which in his heart he despises. when I hilarity I say nothing to every dispassionate repeat that the circumstance of the question having remained undiscovered. all to the same the directing of attention to a gang as the . released 369 from the claims of labor. rage. and convention- desires less the fresh air than the utter and the the country. at the road-side inn. in all the mad excess of a counterfeit — the joint offspring of liberty and of rum. Here. in in articles any thicket in the immediate neighborhood of be looked upon as little less than miraculous. he license of indulges unchecked by any eye except those of his boon companions. almost imme- communications sent to the evening communications. first. for a longer period than from one Sunday to another. of the fifth extract You will find that real scene of the out- your notice to the date of Collate this with the date made by myself from the newspapers.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET It is now especially that. Paris. and diately. tended point — viz. the town blackguard seeks the precincts of the town. but by way of escape from the restraints He alities of society. not through love of the rural. green trees.. although various. more than what must be obvious observer. or beneath the foliage of the woods.

the articles were found by the boys but the suspicion might and may well have been. so full of a few rods. and enthroned upon its natural throne ? Those who would hesitate at such a wager. — it is exceedingly hard to comprehend how I repeat the articles could have remained in this thicket undiscovered. or of the public attention by them directed. there only at so late a period as at the date. and that thus there .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. had not before been for the reason that the articles in the thicket having been deposited . that the articles were not . of course. forming a seat with a back and a was footstool. here. immediate And this thicket. — " This thicket one. and to the neighborhood of the Barriere du Roule as the situation is its scene. of the dwelling of Madame Deluc. within Would search of the bark of the sassafras. for a longer period than one or two days . or shortly prior to the date of the communications. Now. 370 perpetrators of the outrage. not that. in the vicinity. or have forgotten the boyish nature. before found by the boys. Within its naturally walled enclosure were three extraordinary stones. It was a singular an exceedingly singular was unusually dense. in consequence of these com- munications. it be a rash wager— a wager of one thousand to one — that a day never passed over the heads of these boys without finding at least one of them ensconced in the umbrageous hall. have either never been boys themselves. whose boys were in the habit of closely examining the shrubberies about them in art. by the guilty authors of these communications themselves.

now. than any which I have as yet urged. do but purposely and by . On the upper stone lay a white petticoat on the second. were a parasol. name . a silk scarf scattered around. But it is by no means a really natural arrangement. limits of that bower. when subjected to the brushing to and fro of many struggling persons. gloves. One part was the hem of the frock and it had been mended. ' The pieces the bushes were about three inches wide and six inches long. it would have been scarcely possible that the petticoat and scarf should have retained a position upon the stones. in spite of the dogmatic ignorance of Le Soleil. ' Marie Roget. at a is comparatively late date. deposited " But there are where found. And. the bushes were broken. ' dence/ it is said.' Here is just such an arrangement as would naturally be made by a not-overbearing the acute person wishing to dispose the articles naturally. let me beg your notice to the highly arrangement of the articles. and a pocket-handkerchief artificial . indeed look like strips torn ' The pieces. as described. ' off .' scarf are found deposited as of the frock torn out by if . of a struggle pled. 'There was evi- and the earth was tram- — but the petticoat and the upon shelves. Le Soldi has employed an ex- ceedingly suspicious phrase. They looked like strips torn off: Here. still other and stronger reasons for believ-i ing them so deposited. inadvertently. 37 1 good ground for suspicion. that they were. I should rather have looked to see the things all lying on In the narrow the ground and trampled under foot.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET.

' ' too. was the hem of the frock 'part of the skirt. and the other in one. by the agency of a thorn. But. even where an edge is presented. the one in two distinct directions. not the hern] ' / —that is Another piece was was torn com- to say. — be two edges to the fabric if. could only be a miracle through the agency of thorns. two distinct forces. ample. presenting but one edge. and no one thorn could accomplish it. where no edge effected by is is of tear a piece from presented. ' torn off/ I never so knew it. operating.' from any garment such as is now in question. From the very nature of such 1 torn fabrics. We thus see the numerous and great obstacles in the way of the matter If i is ' through the simple agency of thorns yet we are required to believe not only that one but that And one part. and it is desired to tear If there from it a then. and meeting at an apex where the thorn enters but it is scarcely possible — to conceive the piece To tear did you. in almost every case. two thorns will be necessary. hemmed. tears them rectangularly — divides them into two longitudinal rents. But the purpose.' many have been so torn. one of the rarest of accidents that a piece It is is off. will be. piece pieces being torn off ' 1 . will the one force serve slip. a thorn or nail becoming tangled in them. in different directions. and then only. at right angles with each other. for exrequired. nearly out of the question. . And this in the supposition that the edge is unhemmed. the interior. in the present case the question To a dress. nor a piece offivom such fabric. it be a pocket-handkerchief. 37 2 hand.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET.

But. an accident at Madame as the scene of the outrage. only necessary to say that his published inferences. who had enough precaution to think of removing the corpse. first. Not that the matter might not have been as inferred. You will not have apprehended me rightly. has been with the view. less of reasonable ground than the one startling circumstance of the articles having been left in this thicket at all. whether this assassination has. or has not. they form. this but to is the What of the murder. to bring you. produce perpetrators fWe have adduced. notwithstanding the minuteness with which I have adduced it. are things which edged interior of the dress one may well be pardoned for disbelieving yet. taken ! . collectedly. by all the reputable anatomists of Paris. through the agency of thorns. from the un- These. but that there was no ground for the inference : —was there not much for another? .THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. by the most natural route. to I show the folly of the positive and headlong assertions of Le but secondly and chiefly. to a further contemplation of the doubt Soleil. if you suppose it my design to deny this thicket There might have been a more possibly. are not engaged in an attempt to discover the scene. a point of minor importance. have been prop- in regard to the erly ridiculed as unjust and totally baseless. Deluc's. "We will resume this question revolting details of the surgeon It is by mere examined allusion to the at the inquest. been the work of a gang. in fact. I say. perhaps. or. wrong here. by any for suspicion. 373 pletely out. number of the ruffians. murderers however.

the struggle of so violent and so obstinate a nature as to have "And the ' traces by the of guilt apparent. to be excited left in the thicket where dis- seems almost impossible that these evidences should have been accidentally left where found. If we imagine but one violator. 374 " Let us reflect now upon the traces of a struggle and me ask what these traces have been supposed to demon' ' . we can conceive. at their ments urged against the thicket as the scene. presence of mind (it is supposed) to and yet a more positive evidence itself (whose features might have been quickly obliterated by decay). was not the accident of a gang. If this We was ac- can im- . and thus only conceive. place have —what struggle so violent and so enduring as to left its ' ' traces in all directions —between a weak girl and the gang of ruffians imagined ? grasp of a few rough arms and all would have and defenceless The silent The victim must have been absolutely passive You will here bear in mind that the arguwill. are ble. is allowed to lie conspicuously in the scene of the outrage I allude to the hand- — kerchief with the cident.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. But do they not rather demonstrate the' absence of a gang? What struggle could have taken strate. fact that the articles in question were suffered to remain at all covered. ' have already mentioned the suspicion I again. been over. applica- as the scene of an out- it only against rage committed by more than a single individual. It There was sufficient remove the corpse than the corpse . it name of the deceased. in chief part. let A gang.

He is appalled by what The fury of his passion is lies motionless before him. and flees as from the wrath to . for what But is left. world hold lights from the Yet. to the thicket and its blood-chilling recollections? not. and it will be easy to return . if not impossible to carry all the burthen at once. journey to the water The sounds the step of an observer. and there awe natural abundant room is of the deed. His is in his heart for the none of that confidence numbers inevitably inspires. he reaches the of encom- A dozen times he hears or fancies he hears pass his path. over. let the consequences be what they may. is alone with the dead. to the river. 375 Let us He is see. An individual has committed the murder. alone with the ghost of the departed.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. return if cape. he would. and leaves behind him the other Yet there bears it is He evi- dences of his guilt for it is difficult. in his toilsome his fears redouble within him. in time. Even the very medium his ghastly of a boat. the presence of a necessity for disposing of the corpse. disposes of life river's — charge perhaps But now what brink. He His sole thought is He returns He could not immediate es- turns his back forever upon those dreadful come. He which He trembles and is bewildered. and through the treasure does the —what threat of vengeance could it hold out — which would have power to urge the return of that lonely murderer over that toilsome and perilous path. agine it only the accident of an individual. shrubberies. city bewilder him. and by long and frequent pauses of deep agony.

Their number. or three. enabled them to carry all at once. But would any number resorting to such an expedient of the corpse . constituted. men have dreamed and The device is rails sufficient. " Consider now There would have the circumstance that. individual ? of ' between of the fences were found taken down. that of a single this brings us to the fact that the thicket and the river the of To three or four. confidence is ever wanting in the breast of the arrant blackguard and of arrant blackguards alone are the supposed gangs ever . been no need of return. 37 6 "But how with a gang? Their number would have inspired them with confidence. They would have left for their number would have nothing behind them . the limbs would have afforded not only a but the best possible. and the ground bore evident traces of some heavy burden having been dragged along it But would a number of men have put themselves to the super' ! fluous trouble of taking down a fence. for the purpose of . or two. if.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET.' obvious design of affording a handle by which to carry the body. indeed. had been torn upward from the bottom hem to the waist. in the outer when found. this oversight would have been remedied by a fourth. would have prevented the bewildering and unreasoning terror which I have imagined to paralyze the single man. Could we suppose an oversight in one. and secured by ' of the corpse This was done with the a sort of hitch in the back. wound three times round the waist. a slip. about a foot garment wide. I say. hold.

' have before suggested that a genuine blackguard is never without a pocket-handkerchief. commented. would form a strong band rumpled was discovered. The . although of when ' These words are from those of Le was eighteen inches wide.THE MYSTERY OE MARIE ROGET.' sufficiently vague. That it was not through want of a handkerchief for the purpose imagined by Le Commerciel. is rendered apparent by the handkerchief left in the thicket . and secured with a hard knot. dragging through 377 a corpse which they might have lifted ? Would a number of men it over any fence in an instant have so dragged a corpse at traces of the dragging? M here we And must all as to have left evident refer to an observation of Le Com- merciel. ' and that the object was not to prevent screams appears. the strip in question as loosely. an observation upon which I have already. But it is not to I this fact that I now especially advert. fitting purpose. of one of the unfortunate girl's petticoats was torn out ' ' and under her chin. and around the back of her head. A piece/ says this journal. longitudinally. also. in some measure. but The Commerciel. from the bandage having been employed in preference to what would so much better have answered the ' But the language of the evidence speaks of found around the neck. folded rumpled it or differ materially slip therefore. and muslin. probably to prevent screams. This was done by fellows tied who had no " pocket-handkerchiefs. My inference is And thus this. that this bandage was employed.

He tore it. of the used but for been ' from the garment. And now the murderer bethought him. It was easier to tear a from the petticoat. This . too much for his He resolved to drag the burthen the evidence strength. found solitary the weight. made it fast slip about the neck. — goes to show that it view. unquestion- bandage about the loins. It could be best attached about the neck. which embarrassed it. and so dragged his victim to the brink of ' torn off new the river. it With was dragged. 378 murderer. demon- — strates that the necessity for its employment sprang from circumstances arising at a period was no longer have imagined. having borne the corpse for some distance (whether from the thicket or elsewhere) by means of the bandage hitched around its middle. and the reflection that it had not ably. He would have its volution about the corpse. at or about the Madame Deluc gang m (!) the vicinity epoch of the murder. as after quitting the thicket (if we the thicket was). the hitch this. That this ' bandage/ only attainable with trouble and delay.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. where the head would prevent its slipping off. became necessary this object in to attach something like a rope to one of the extremities. it attainable — that is when the handkerchief to say. in this mode of procedure. you will say. " But the evidence. and but imperfectly answering its purpose that this bandage was employed at all. arising. and on the road between the thicket and the river. of points especially to the presence of a of the thicket.

say approaches .' " Now haste in ' ' very possibly seemed greater the eyes of Madame Deluc. in and about the vicinity of the Barriere du Roule at or about the period of this tra- But the gang which has drawn upon itself the pointed animadversion. should she make a point of the haste ? It is no cause for wonder. such as Madame Deluc. the only is represented by that honest and scrupulous old lady as having eaten her cakes and swallowed her is brandy. I doubt described by if 379 there were not a dozen gangs. since she dwelt this great haste and lamentingly upon her violated cakes and cakes and ale for which she might still have enter- lingeringly ale. for the night had not yet It was only about dusk that the indecent haste of these . although the somewhat tardy and gedy. that even a since it gang of blackguards should make haste to get home when a wide river is to be crossed in small boats. Et hinc illce irce ? " But what is Madame Deluc? the precise evidence of A gang of miscreants made their appearance. " I arrived. of gang which Madame Deluc. when storm impends. very suspicious evidence. without putting themselves to the trouble of making her payment. Why. I grant. the young man and and re-crossed the the returned girl. fol' lowed in the route of to the inn about dusk. ate and drank without making payment. was about dusk.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. behaved boisterously. surely. and when night approaches. — tained a faint hope of compensation. otherwise. river as if in great haste.

and full pardon to any king's evidence. that some member of a gang of low ruffians. 3 SO 1 miscreants ' offended the sober eyes of But we are told that Madame it was upon Madame Deluc. Each his accomplices. as well as her eldest son. been taken by any of the public journals. He betrays eagerly and early that he That the may not himself be betrayed. but this one has. and Thus it ' But about dusk ' soon after dark ' ' is. no notice whatever of the gross discrepancy has. it is not to be imagined. " I shall add but one to the arguments against a gang . one of a gang. to my own understanding at least. the relative expressions in question are and invariably employed just as distinctly I have em- ployed them in this conversation with yourself. for a moment. in all the many reports of the evidence.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. of large reward offered. screams of a female Deluc.' in what words does Madame Deluc designate the period of the evening at which these screams were heard ? It was ' soon after dark. as fearful of betrayal. least. or by any of the myrmidons of police. dark . or anxious for escape. so placed. a Under the circumstances weight altogether irresistible.' she says. as yet. this very evening that in the vicinity of the ' heard the And inn. is Barriere abundantly clear that the gang quitted the du Roule prior to the screams overheard (?) by Madame Deluc. secret has not been divulged is the very best of . is And although. at as certainly daylight. or of would not long ago have betrayed any body of men. is not so much greedy of reward.

point to a seaman. The in fact. sailor's knot with which the bonnet-ribbon and the age. to have led the unfortunate comes the consideration of the continued absence of him of the dark complexion. But why he murdered by the gang ? there only traces of the assassinated girl ? is this man ab- If so. The circumstance mentioned by Le Mercurie. both as regards Valence and sent ? Was Madame Deluc. Let man me is pause to observe that the complexion of this dark and swarthy it was no common swarthiness which . proof that it is. living human beings. deceased a gay but not an abject young girl designates — him — as above the grade of the common sailor. associate of the deceased. tends to blend the idea of this seaman with that of the naval of the first elopement. the hitch in the bandcomplexion. or two. as ' ' officer who first is into crime. constituted the sole point of remembrance. why are The scene of . ' ' ' ' His companionship with the is tied. or of a in the thicket at the Barriere du a lover.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. by This associate is of swarthy This complexion. Here the well-written and urgent communications to the journals are much in the way of corroboration. 38 1 horrors of this dark one. Madame Deluc. " Let us sum up now the meagre yet certain fruits of our long analysis. deed are known only to and to God. a secret. " And here. most known fitly. or at least by an intimate and secret Roule. We have attained the idea either of a accident under the roof of fatal murder perpetrated.

ment " We shall denounce- his are ours of attaining the truth ? means multiplying and gathering we proceed.' with his present circumstances. and is deterred from making himself known. both innocent himself and incognizant of an outrage committed. This policy would have suggested.THE MYSTERY OF MARIE ROGET. but it would have had no force at the period of the deed. on the night of the fatal Sunday. He had been seen with the girl. The first impulse of an innocent man would have been to announce the outrage. But it may be said that this man lives. through dread with the murder. The denouncing of the assassins would have appeared. the surest and sole means of relieving himself from suspicion. We cannot suppose him. He had crossed the river with her in an open ferry-boat. affair of history of and in the of the assassins. Let us know the full the officer. Let us sift to the bottom find these elopement. even to an idiot. and to aid in identifying the ruffians. This consideration might be supposed upon him now to operate of being charged — at this late period — since it has been given in evidence that he was seen with Marie. 382 the two outrages will And where his is naturally be supposed identical. And what means distinctness as this possible to imag- ' the first whereabouts at the precise period of the murder. Yet only under such circumstances is it ine that he would have failed. if alive. corpse ? The assassins would most probably have disposed of both in the same way. Let us carefully compare with each other the various .



communications sent to the evening paper, in which the
object was to inculpate a gang. This done, let us compare these

communications, both as regards style and
sent to the morning paper, at a





so vehemently

upon the



done, let us again compare these
communications with the known MSS. of the
Let us endeavor to ascertain, by repeated quesall this

Madame Deluc and

tionings of

her boys, as well as of the

omnibus-driver, Valence, something more of the personal
appearance and bearing of the man of dark complexion/



skilfully directed, will



of these parties, information









this particular point

which the parties them-

may not even be aware of possessing. And let us
trace the boat picked up by the bargeman on the



morning of Monday the twenty-third of June, and which
was removed from the barge-office, without the cognizance
of the

officer in attendance,

some period

and without the rudder,

prior to the discovery of the corpse.

proper caution and perseverance
this boat



for not only can the



but the rudder


With a

shall infallibly trace

bargeman who picked


at hand.


The rudder

of a sail boat -would not have been abandoned, without

by one altogether

at ease in heart.


here let


pause to insinuate a question. There was no advertisement of the picking up of this boat. It was silently
taken to the barge-office, and as silently removed.




owner or employer

period as



happened he, at so early a
be informed, without the

agency of advertisement, of the locality of the boat taken
up on Monday, unless we imagine some connection with
the navy


to cognizance


personal permanent connection leading
of its




petty local


" In
speaking of the lonely assassin dragging his burden

to the shore, I have already suggested the probability of
his availing himself of a boat.
Now we are to understand

Roget was precipitated from a boat. This
would naturally have been the case. The corpse could
not have been trusted to the shallow waters of the shore.
that Marie





marks on the back and shoulders of the

of the


ribs of

That the body

a boat.

was found without weight is also corroborative of the idea.
If thrown from the shore a weight would have been at-


can only account for its absence by supposthe
to have neglected the precaution of
supplying himself with it before pushing off. In the act

would unquesbut then no remedy
risk would have been

of consigning the corpse to the water, he

tionably have noticed his oversight

would have been

at hand.



preferred to a return to that accursed shore.

himself of his ghastly charge,

hastened to the


Having rid
the murderer would have

There, at some obscure wharf, he

would have leaped on land. But the boat would he have
secured it ? He would have been in too great haste for



such things as securing a boat. Moreover, in
fastening it
to the wharf, he would have felt as if securing evidence

His natural thought would have been to
cast from him, as far as possible, all that had held connecHe would not only have fled from
tion with his crime.
against himself.

the wharf, but he would not have permitted the boat to

Assuredly he would have cast it adrift. Let us
pursue our fancies. In the morning, the wretch is stricken
with unutterable horror at finding that the boat has

been picked up and detained
the daily habit




frequenting at

duty compels him to

without daring



at a locality


which he





a locality, perhaps,

The next

ask for the rudder, he removes

that rudderless boat






be one of our


purposes to discover. With the first glimpse we obtain
This boat shall
of it, the dawn of our success shall begin.


selves, to




with a rapidity which will surprise even ourhim who employed it in the midnight of the
Corroboration will

and the murderer


[For reasons which we


upon corrobora-

be traced."

not specify, but which to
many readers will appear obvious, we have taken the liberty of here omitting, from the MSS. placed in our hands,

such portion as details the following up of the apparently
We feel it advisable only
slight clew obtained by Dupin.
to state, in brief, that the result desired was brought to



and that the Prefect

fulfilled punctually,


with reluctance, the terms of his compact with the Chev-




words. —
It will

no more.

Poe's article concludes with the



speak of coincidences and
have said above upon this topic must

be understood that



my own

heart there dwells no faith in praeter-




That Nature and

thinks will deny.



That the


are two, no


can, at will, control or modify it,
" at will "
for the question
I say



man who

creating the former,
also unquestionable.

of will,


and not, as

the insanity of logic has assumed, of power. It is not that
the Deity cannot modify his laws, but that we insult him

imagining a possible necessity for modification. In
their origin these laws were fashioned to embrace all conin

tingencies which could

lie in

the Future.

With God

all is


repeat, then, that I speak of these things only as of



further: in

seen that between the


fate of the

Rogers, so far as that fate




unhappy Mary

known, and the

Marie Roget up to a certain epoch






fate of


her history, there

has existed a parallel in the contemplation of whose wonI say
derful exactitude the reason becomes embarrassed.
But let it not for a moment be supall this will be seen.

posed that, in proceeding with the sad narrative of Marie
from the epoch just mentioned, and in tracing to its denouement the mystery which enshrouded her, it is my
covert design to hint at an extension of the parallel, or
* Of the
Magazine in which the article was originally published.



even to suggest that the measures adopted in Paris for
the discovery of the assassin of a grisette, or measures




similar ratiocination,

would produce any

similar result.

For, in respect to the latter branch of the supposition,

should be considered that the most

the facts of the two cases might give

trifling variation in
rise to

the most im-

portant miscalculations, by diverting thoroughly the two
courses of events very much as, in arithmetic, an error

which, in its


duces, at length,


by dint

may be

inappreciable, pro-

of multiplication at


points of

the process, a result enormously at variance with truth.
And, in regard to the former branch, we must not fail to





view that the very Calculus of Probabilities to
have referred, forbids all idea of the extension of

— forbids

with a positiveness strong and
decided just in proportion as this parallel has already been
long-drawn and exact. This is one of those anomalous
the parallel,


altopropositions which, seemingly appealing to thought
gether apart from the mathematical,

only the mathematician can fully entertain. Nothing,
example, is more difficult than to convince

been thrown
general reader that the fact of sixes having
twice in succession by a player at dice, is sufficient cause
for betting the largest

odds that sixes

in the third


be thrown

suggestion to this effect

at once.
ally rejected by the intellect

that the

will not




does not appear

two throws which have been completed, and






absolutely in the Past, can have influence

exists only in the Future.
chance for throwing sixes seems to be precisely as it was
at any ordinary time
that is to say, subject only to the
influence of the various other throws which may be made

upon the throw which

And this is a reflection which appears so exobvious
that attempts to controvert it are receedingly
ceived more frequently with a derisive smile than with

by the


any thing


like respectful attention.


error here in-

gross error redolent of mischief


cannot pre-

tend to expose within the limits assigned me at present
and with the philosophical it needs no exposure. It may


sufficient here to say that


forms one of an


mistakes which arise in the path of Reason
through her propensity for seeking truth in detail.
series of



Nil sapientise odiosius acumine nimio.

— Seneca,

dark one gusty evening in the
was enjoying the twofold luxury
of meditation and a meerschaum, in company with my


Paris, just after


of 18



Auguste Dupin, in his little back library, or bookau troisieme. No. 33 Rue Dunot Faubourg St. Ger-

friend, C.


For one hour


at least

we had

maintained a pro-

while each, to any casual observer, might
have seemed intently and exclusively occupied with the

found silence


curling eddies of

the chamber.
cussing certain

smoke that oppressed the atmosphere


For myself, however, I was mentally distopics which had formed matter for con-

versation between us at an earlier period of the evening


the affair of the

Rue Morgue, and


the mystery

attending the murder of Marie Roget. I looked upon it,
therefore, as something of a coincidence, when the door
of our apartment

was thrown open and admitted our

acquaintance, Monsieur




the Prefect of the Parisian



gave him a hearty welcome


for there

was nearly




half as

of the entertaining as of the contemptible

about the man, and we had not seen him for several years.
We had been sitting in the dark, and Dupin now arose for
the purpose of lighting a lamp, but sat


out doing

he had called to



G.'s saying that

consult us, or rather to ask the opinion of

about some


again, with-



business which had occasioned a great

deal of trouble.


any point requiring reflection," observed
we shall
Dupin, as he forebore to enkindle the wick,
examine it to better purpose in the dark."




another of your odd notions," said the Pre"
fect, who had the fashion of calling every thing
that was beyond his comprehension, and thus lived amid

an absolute legion of " oddities."
"Very true," said Dupin, as he supplied his visitor with
a pipe, and rolled toward him a comfortable chair.

And what



the difficulty

the assassination

Oh, no











very simple indeed, and I

The fact is, the
make no doubt that

sufficiently well ourselves

thought Dupin would
it is



nothing of that nature.

we can manage


now ?

like to -hear


but then

the details of




so excessively odd."

Simple and odd," said Dupin.


Why, yes and not
we have all been a good

exactly that either.



deal puzzled because the affair

so simple, and yet baffles us altogether."







39 1

the very simplicity of the
thing which

puts you at fault," said my friend.
" What nonsense
you do talk
replied the Prefect,

laughing heartily.
Perhaps the mystery




Oh, good heavens


A little too self-evident."






ha !—ha






little too plain/'

said Dupin.

ever heard of such an idea

ha !—ho

visitor, profoundly amused,
the death of me yet






oh, Dupin,








what, after




matter on





I will tell

you," replied the Prefect, as he gave

a long, steady, and contemplative puff, and settled him" I will tell
self in his chair.
you in a few words but, be;

fore I begin, let


caution you that this

demanding the greatest


probably lose the position I

and that

now hold, were





should most



confided it to any one."
Proceed," said I.



Well, then

not," said Dupin.


have received personal information, from

a very high quarter, that a certain document of the last
importance has been purloined from the royal apartments.
The individual who purloined it is known this beyond a
doubt he was seen to take it. It is known, also, that it


remains in his possession."
" How is this known ? " asked



" It

clearly inferred," replied the Prefect,


from the

nature of the document, and from the non-appearance of
certain results which would at once arise from its passing
out of the robber's possession


Be a



venture so far as to say that the paper
holder a certain power in a certain quarter where


such power is immensely valuable."
of the cant of diplomacy.

to say, from his


must design in the end to employ
more explicit," I said.

as he








was fond

do not quite understand," said Dupin.
Well the disclosure of the document to a third

Still I

No ?



be nameless, would bring in question
the honor of a personage of most exalted station and




this fact gives the holder of the document an ascendancy

over the illustrious personage whose honor and peace are
so jeopardized."

''But this ascendancy,"



upon the robber's knowledge of the
Who would dare "



the robber.

"would depend

thief," said G.,



the Minister


knowledge of


who dares

things, those unbecoming as well as those becoming a
man. The method of the theft was not less ingenious

than bold.

The document

frank— had been

question a letter, to be
received by the personage robbed while

alone in the royal boudoir.




perusal she was

suddenly interrupted by the entrance of the other exalted
personage from whom especially it was her wish to con-




After a hurried and vain endeavor to thrust

a drawer, she was


a table.

forced to place

address, however,



it, open as it was, upon
was uppermost, and, the

contents thus unexposed, the letter escaped notice, At
this juncture enters the Minister D
His lynx eye
immediately perceives the paper, recognizes the hand.

writing of the address, observes the confusion of the per-

sonage addressed, and fathoms her

After some


business transactions, hurried through in his ordinary

manner, he produces a
in question,





similar to the


it, and then places
Again he converses,

pretends to read

in close juxtaposition to the other.

minutes, upon the public affairs. At
length, in taking leave, he takes also from the table the


letter to


which he had no claim.

Its rightful

owner saw,

but, of course, dared not call attention to the act, in the

presence of the third personage




no importance



stood at her elbow.

leaving his



—one of

—upon the table."


Here, then," said Dupin to me, "you have precisely
what you demand to make the ascendancy complete the

robber's knowledge of the loser's knowledge of the robber."
" and the
power thus atYes," replied the Prefect

tained has, for

some months

cal purposes, to a




been wielded,

very dangerous extent.

for politi-

The personage

more thoroughly convinced, every

day, of the

But this, of course,
necessity of reclaiming her letter.
to despair, she has
cannot be done openly.

committed the matter to me."

THE PURLOINED LETTER. and police have done this thing often for this reason I did not despair. be " but it is posme. a great advantage. with which I the greater part of which I have not been engaged. They sleep at a distance from their master's apartment. said Dupin. amid a perfect whirlwind I suppose." " My " True." said I. too.. The Parisian before. per- . flatter ." " But." replied the Prefect that some such opinion may have been entertained. are readily Paris. The habits of the minister gave me. made drunk. " sible " still ". 394 " Than whom. danger hotel sult " . during know. since and not any employment of the session. Beyond all of I have been warned the which would rethings." said G. first care was to make thorough search of the minister's and here embarrassment lay in the necessity of searching without his knowledge." desired." of smoke. and upon this conviction I proceeded. "as you observe. you are quite au fait in these investiga- tions. It is clear." You . I have keys. or even imagined." " Oh. bestows the power. as you can open any chamber or cabinet in For three months a night has not passed. With the it is letter is this pos- letter. no more sagacious agent could. and." said I. His ser- vants are by no means numerous. He is frequently absent from home all night. that the in the possession of the minister . being chiefly Neapolitans. my chief from giving him reason to suspect our design. yes . which employment the power departs.

" said Dupin. D would render the instant it " barely possible. at court. susceptibility " That is to say. as it suggested. in ransacking the 395 My honor is mention a great secret. as a matter of course.THE PURLOINED LETTER. You might have Dupin. As for its being is clearly then upon the person upon of the minister." " But is it not possible. in possession of own premises? than upon his "This be I is availability of the document — produced at a moment's notice —a point of nearly equal importance with its possession. as under " my own his person rigidly searched inspection. we may consider that as out of the question." " Its of being produced?" said I. those intrigues in which susceptibility of being elsewhere "The present and especially of known to be involved. of being destroyed" said Dupin." said spared yourself this trouble. peculiar condition of affairs its " that although the minister. is not altogether a fool." said the Prefect. "the paper the premises. and. if if by footpads. D sonally." presume. I must have anticipated these waylayings. to So enormous. the reward is did not abandon the search until I had Hotel. and. become I fully satisfied that the thief a more astute is man than myself." " has been twice wayEntirely. "True. "He laid." . I fancy that I have investigated every nook and corner of the premises in which it is possible that the paper can be concealed. " D ." I observed. and not. interested." the letter may unquestionably is he may have concealed is.

drawer . The cushions we probed with the fine long needles you have seen me employ." tops of bedposts are employed .THE PURLOINED LETTER. took the entire building. the article deposited within the cavity. I is. the I . — —to be accounted for in every cabinet. Any man is a dolt who permits a secret ' ' drawer to escape him in a search of this kind. The thing There is a certain amount of bulk of space is so plain. room by room devoting the nights of a whole week to each. " certain doggrel myself. in the The bottoms and same way. We examined. The fiftieth After the cabinets Then we have part of a line could not escape we took the chairs. the fact everywhere." " " Why so ? " Sometimes the top a table. 396 " Not " altogether a fool. is similarly removed by the person wishing to conceal an article then the leg is excavated. us. From the tables we removed the tops. which I take to be only one remove from a fool. have been guilty of the particulars of your we took our time." " Suppose you detail. to ' * trained police-agent. We furniture of each apartment." " Why. but then he is a poet. I although " I.. and the top re. after a long and thoughtful whiff from his meerschaum. placed. first. or other of arranged piece of furniture. such a thing as a secret drawer is impossible. accurate rules. and I opened every possible presume you know a properly that." said search. and have had long experience we searched in these affairs." said G." " True." said Dupin.

in means." " it single grain of gimlet-dust. for example. indeed.THE PURLOINED LETTER." " That of course and when we had absolutely com." " But you could not have removed you could not have taken to pieces all articles of furniture in which it would have been possible to make. " no By " if. then divided its entire surface examined the house itself. when the article is deposited. — A -oil. between the boards and the plates. Besides. We . as well as the curtains and carpets. and in this form it the rung of a chair. we pleted every particle of the furrjiture in this way. for example. apple. Had by the aid of a most there been any traces of powerful microscope. A would have been as obvious as an in the gluing — any unusual gaping have sufficed to insure detection. may be compressed into a thin spiral much in shape or bulk from a large letter not differing :nitting-needle. we did better —we examined the rungs of every chair in the hotel. " I 397 But could not the cavity . Any disorder —would in the joints presume you looked to the mirrors. mention. detected by sounding ? asked. cient wadding we were obliged to proceed without noise. recent disturbance we should not have failed to detect instantly. a deposit in the manner you our case. a suffiof cotton be placed around it. and you probed the beds and the I bedclothes. might be inserted into You did not take to " pieces all the chairs ? " Certainly not but . the jointings of every description of furniture.

They gave us We examined the moss betrouble." 's papers. shake. Some five or six volumes. paved with brick. including the two houses immediately adjoining. as before. We some of our police offi- measured the thickness of every bookwith the most accurate admeasurement." We had You ! but the reward offered . so then we scrutinized each into compartments. not contenting ourselves with a men ." include the grounds about the houses " ? " All the grounds are comparatively tween the " little bricks. of course." " " The two houses adjoining have had " " I exclaimed "you must . is prodigious. it would have been utterly impossible that the fact should have escaped observation. just from the hands of the binder. and examined the boards with the microscope." " explored the floors beneath the carpets ? " Beyond doubt. longitu- with the needles. but we turned over evei leaf in each volume. Had any of the bindings been recently meddled with. square inch throughout the premises. We removed every carpet. which that none might be missed individual .THE PURLOINED LETTER. a great deal of trouble. . 398 we numbered. " You we carefully probed. according to the fashion of cers. and found You looked among D the books of the library it undisturbed. and applied also to each the most jealous scrutiny of the microscope. and into " ? " Certainly we opened every package and parcel we not only opened every book." . with the microscope. dinally. cover.

" " I fear "And you are right there." said Dupin. "You have. and especially of the external. of course. now. he took depressed in spirits than after finishing the perusal of his I departure. but G I said . some ordinary conversa- : what of the purloined letter ? I pre- . appearance of Soon the missing document. this description. yes ! —And here the Prefect." said the Prefect. more entirely had ever known the good gentleman before.THE PURLOINED LETTER. producing a memo- randum-book. " And the paper on the walls 399 " ? "Yes. and found us occupied very nearly as before. Dupin. not at the hotel. an accurate description of the I letter?" " " Oh. as you sup- Then." " You looked "We into the cellars " ? did." " I am absolutely needless." " have no better advice to give you. He took a pipe and a chair and entered into tion. In about a month afterward he paid us another visit." replied G sure that I breathe than I am that the letter is is . proceeded to read aloud a minute account of the internal." " "you have been making a miscalculaletter is not upon the premises. what would you advise me to do?" " To make " That not more a thorough research of the premises. " At length Well. and the said. pose." I tion.

however. than is re-examina- was it offered. for this purpose. made the Dupin would be. what way puff. ? tell No hang Abernethy sure think. "Why. say tion. . 400 sume you have at last made up your mind such thing as overreaching the Minister? " Confound him. of Do you re- " Abernethy ? " ! hang him and welcome. If it were trebled. however. drawlingly. I really think. " reward have done. you have not — — yourself to might — do a " How?— "Why— little in counsel in the member more. But. did —a very thousand francs to any one letter. individual check for fifty who is . once upon a time. as knew lost. it . Getting up. a certain rich miser conceived the design of spunging upon this Abernethy for a medical opinion. puff. eh — . of his all you say?" could obtain portance every day doubled. as I it "How much I —yes say how much. puff. between the whiffs " meerschaum. that there " —employ puff puff. I no but one thing I will say. a very great deal like to . my liberal " — I don't me that more and more imbecoming and the reward has been lately I could do no more yes.THE PURLOINED LETTER. " ? ! You " ? —you might— matter." was the reward that I would n't I — suggested but asked Dupin." exerted " labor of Why. puff. precisely mind giving The fact is. eh I puff the story they To be G the utmost in this matter. an ordinary conversation in a private ." said Dupin.

a little discomposed. " will suppose." said the Prefect. opening a drawer. . doctor. I would thousand francs to any one who would aid really give fifty perfectly willing to take advice.' " him ' ' ? ' said Abernethy. ' We and such are such directed " ' Take sure.' said the miser. it in his took thence a This functionary joy. thunder-stricken. me in the matter. then apparently recovering himself in some less measure. for the I will I When you have signed amount mentioned. as that of an imaginary individual. he seized a pen. " / am and to pay for it. and after several pauses and vacant stares. to be " But. . you may as well fill me up a check it. opened it with Prefect." " In that case. looking incredulously at my friend with open mouth. ! ' that his symptoms what would you have now.THE PURLOINED LETTER. he insinuated his case to the physician." The Prefect appeared absolutely For some minutes he remained speech- and motionless. letter. and " producing a check-book. company. it it to the and deposited escritoire. finally filled up and signed a check for fifty thousand francs. to take 40 1 why. unlocking an pocket-book letter and gave . take advice." replied Dupin. of grasped it in a perfect agony a trembling hand. and eyes that seemed starting from their sockets. hand you the was astounded. it across the table to Dupin. and handed The latter examined carefully then. cast a rapid glance at its contents.

have found it. then. rushed at length unceremoniously from the room and from the house. cunning. shallow for the matter in hand and many a school-boy is . in the knowledge which Thus." I merely laughed that he said. kind. ingenious. . these fellows would. " The Parisian their way." said Dupin. to which he forcibly adapts his de- But he perpetually errs by being too deep or too signs. 402 and then. and thoroughly versed seem my far as his labors far as his labors Yes. made . without having uttered a syllable since Dupin had requested him to fill up the check. extended. a sort of Procrustean bed. beyond a question." They chiefly to he friend entered into " said." he continued. but carried out to absolute Had the letter been deposited within the perfection." extended ?" said " D a satisfactory I. A certain set of highly ingenious resources are. scrambling and struggling to the door. " —but he seemed quite serious The measures. and well executed . mode I felt entire confidence in his having " So G their duties detailed to of searching the premises at the Hotel investigation —so ex- are exceedingly able in us his " some are persevering. The measures adopted were not only the best of their kind. police. " were good in all in their their defect lay in their being inapplicable to the case and to the man. When he had gone. planations. range of their search. with the Prefect.THE PURLOINED LETTER. when demand.

to odd. he would have reasoned thus This fellow finds that in the first instance fore guess . the guesser wins one eight years If the guess is wrong. as did the I will Now first therefore guess even this fellows mode termed . upon the first impulse. . holding up his closed hand. hand a number of these whether that number is toys. with a simpleton a degree above the first. —he guesses even. and his amount of cunning is just sufficient to ' f . of ' even This game is player holds in and demands of another even or odd. and finally he will decide upon putting it even as before. whose success and odd simple. of age. For example. a better reasoner than he. Now. ' : guessed odd. ' —what. The boy to whom I allude won all the marbles of the school. he will propose to himself. lucky. for he then The simpleton had them even upon the says to himself first trial. in the second. an arrant simpleton lay in is his opponent. Odd. and. a simple variation from even I but then a second simpleton thought will suggest that this is too simple a variation. I will there- odd. and wins.' whom in its last analysis. and is One played with marbles. and wins. asks. ' . Of course he had some principle of guessing and this if . and. his ' 403 knew one about I at guessing in the game attracted universal admiration. of reasoning in the school-boy. ' Are they even or odd ? Our school-boy replies. ' : make him have them odd upon odd ' —he guesses the second . he loses one.' and loses but upon the second trial he wins. right. is his it?" .THE PURLOINED LETTER. mere observation and admeasurement of the astuteness of his opponents.

or how : ' good." said Dupin boy It is merely. its practical value it depends upon this. by what means he effected the thorough identification in which his success consisted." " And the identification. in accordance with the expression of his." replied and the Prefect and his cohort fail so fre- first. to Machiavelli. as accurately as possible. advert only to the in which they would have hidden this much —that their own it." " " It and. ideas of ingenuity . or how stupid. depends.THE PURLOINED LETTER. 404 " " an identification of the rea- soner's intellect with that of his opponent. upon the accuracy with which the opponent's intellect is admeasured. and. to La Bougive.or rather through non-ad- with which they are engaged." I said.' This response of the school-boy lies at the bottom of all the spurious profundity which has been attributed to Rochefoucault. of the They intellect consider only their own . by default of this identification. searching for any thing hidden. . I fashion the expression of my face. or how wicked is any one. as if to match or correspond with the expression. upon inquiring of the is." I said. I received answer as follows When I wish to find out how wise. and to Campanella. quently. and then wait to see what thoughts or sentiments arise in my mind or heart. measurement. ondly." tellect " For Dupin " . in modes are right in a faithful repre- . if I understand you aright. or what are his thoughts at the moment. " of the reasoner's in- with that of his opponent. ingenuity They is and. sec- by ill-admeasurement.

at least. and very usually when it is They have no variation of principle in their it is below. and dividing the surface of the building into registered square inches what is it is all this — but an exaggeration of the application of the one principle or set of principles of search. — emergency by some when urged by some unusual — extraordinary reward they extend or exaggerate their old modes of practice. of course. and sounding. D What . in some out-of-the-way hole or corner suggested by the granted that all same tenor a letter in which would urge a man to secrete a gimlet-hole bored in a chair-leg ? And do of thought you not see also. for example. has Do you not see he has taken it for in men proceed to conceal a letter. and would be adopted only by ordinary intellects . at best. which are based upon all the one set of notions regarding which the Prefect. been accustomed ? human ingenuity. What. This always happens above their own. that such reciterChe's nooks for concealment are adapted only for ordinary occasions. in has been done to vary the principle this case of of action? boring. a disposal of the article concealed — a the very in this recherche' manner. and scrutinizing with the microscope. investigations. the felon when foils them. in all cases of concealment. 405 sentative of that of the mass . without touch- ing their principles. to the long routine of his duty. but. and probing. for. in disfirst .THE PURLOINED LETTER. the individual felon is but when the cunning of diverse in character from their own. not exactly in a gimlet-hole bored in a chair-leg. — posal of it is.

—the qualities fail. mathematician. of the Prefect. he could not have reasoned at thus would have been at the mercy all. are fools. and he is merely guilty of a non distributio medii in thence inferring that all poets fool." " You he is both. As are mistaken I know him well he would reason well as mere and mathematician. had the purloined in been hidden anywhere within the limits of the Preexamination in other words. presumable covery depends. — You will in ques- now under- suggesting that. in the political eyes. . is tion have never been stand what letter fect's I meant known to of importance or. two brothers.THE PURLOINED LETTER. had the principle of — concealment been comprehended within the principles of the Prefect its discovery would have been a matter its — This functionary. however. in letters." "But is this really the poet?'! I asked. not at . . and thus its upon the acumen. All fools are poets this the Prefect feels . He is a mathematician. and no poet. has been thoroughly mystified and the remote source of altogether beyond question." and . his defeat lies in the supposition that the Minister is a because he has acquired renown as a poet. . 406 and presumed instance. minister I believe has written learnedly on the Differential Calculus. I The know "There are and both have attained reputation . and determination of the seekers . but all dis- alto- gether upon the mere care. poet . . and where the case is what amounts to the same thing when the reward of magnitude. patience.

this particular deception . — if ' ambitus' ' ' ' implies * 'ambition. 407 "You surprise me.' The grant you. which have been contradicted by the voice of the world.THE PURLOINED LETTER.' or homines honestV a set of honorable men. I dispute. in particular. "by these opinions. car elle mathematicians.' religio' religion. est ' \ tine sottise. The mathematical garded as the reason reason has long been re- excellence" par " II y a hparier. for exhave insinuated the term analysis into apample. I the abstractly logical. in Latin. replied Dupin. I a convenue au plus grand nombre. and which is none the less an error for its promulgation With an as truth. quoting from Cham" ' toute ide'e fort." " You have some a quarrel on hand. ' ' tance — ' 1 ' but if a term is of any imporwords derive any value from applicability then analysis conveys algebra about as much as. You do not mean to set at naught the idea of well-digested centuries. reason which is cultivated in any especial form other than " ." said I. " with but proceed. of that dispute availability. have done their best to promulgate the popular error to which you allude. the science of form and quantity . they The French are the originators of plication to algebra. que publique. The great error lies in supposing that even the ing is ." I said. are mathematical reason- merely logic applied to observation upon form and quantity. toute convention rccue. the reason The mathematics educed by mathematical study. of the algebraists of Paris I see. art worthy a better cause." the and thus the value.

' ferences are made. algebraists. Mathematical axioms are not axioms of general truth. when he the pagan fables are not believed. pure algebra are abstract or gen- this error so egregious that is I am con- founded at the universality with which it has been received. for example. as if they were of an absolutely general ap- —as the world indeed imagines them to be. What is true of relation — of form and quantity— often grossly false in regard to morals. realities.' says that we ' although forget ourselves and make inferences from them as existing With the themselves. equal to the sum of their There are numerous other mathematical values apart. neces- united. I never mathematician encountered the mere short. In chemistry also fails.THE PURLOINED LETTER. have not. each sarily.' mentions an plicability ' analogous source of error. . or one not clandestinely hold x* -\- px was it as who did a point of his faith that absolutely and unconditionally equal to q. a value when of a given value. however. yet continually. yet as who could be trusted out of equal roots. in his very learned Mythology. Bryant. 408 truths of what is called And eral truths. the ' who are pagans and the inpagan fables are believed. In the consideration of motive it fails the axiom for . two motives. truths which are only truths within the limits of relation. But the mathematician argues from his finite truths. through habit.ztrue that the aggre- gated parts are equal to the whole. this latter science it is is In very usually &. not so much through lapse of memory In through an unaccountable addling of the brains.

while I merely at his last observations. He must have foreseen. get out of his reach as speedily as convenient. did finally arrive —the conviction that was not upon the premises. which were hailed by the Prefect as cer- tain aids to his success. He could not have — and events have proved that he did —the waylayings to which he was anticipate failed to anticipate not fail to subjected. considered. the Prefect would have been under no necessity of giving me this check. a man. " mean to say. the secret investigations of his premises. that 2 is -\-px you of experiment. I and as a bold intriguant. at some the that the pains in de- now. in fact. Say to one you x of these gentlemen. His frequent absences from home at night. with reference to the circumstances by which he was surrounded. he will endeavor to knock you down. could not dinary policial modes of fail Such to be aware of the or- action. and my measures were adapted to his capacity. too. I reflected. and thus the sooner to impress them with the conviction to which G . I knew him. having made him understand what you mean. to afford opportunity for thorough search to the police. please. beyond doubt. as both mathematician and poet. whole train of thought. I regarded only as ruses." continued Dupin. 409 may if occur where and. " that if the minister had I laughed been no more than a mathematician.THE PURLOINED LETTER. however. by way believe occasions not altogether equal to q. which I was letter tailing to you just I felt. also. I knew him as a courtier. for. concerning the invariable princi- .

how not deliberately if You will gested." " " I remember his merriment well. to the gimlets." continued Dupin. than it is. seems to be identical and physics metaphysics. pie of policial action in searches for articles concealed I felt that this whole train of thought would necessarily- pass through the him tively lead He cealment. Yes. upon our first interview. to simplicity. for in former.4jO THE PURLOINED LETTER. I this really thought he would have fallen into convulsions. that intellects of the vaster capacity. and to the microscopes of the Prefect. I saw. that he would be driven. argument may be made dogma. to the probes. that it was remember. it as a matter of choice. to see that the hotel — would be mind of the minister. that a large body is with more difficulty set in motion than a smaller one. most as all I reflected. and that its subsequent momentum is commensurate with this difficulty. to despise could not. to strengthen an as well as to embellish a description. in fine. as a matter of course." " The material world. It is not more true in the ciple of the vis inertice. in the latter. while . duced to perhaps. The prin- example. his would impera- be so weak as not and remote recess of intricate open as It the ordinary nooks of con- commonest his closets to the eyes. when desperately the Prefect laughed in- I sug- just possible mystery troubled him so much on account of its be- ing so very self-evident." said I. " abounds with very some strict analogies to the immaterial . or simile. and thus color of truth has been given to the rhetorical that metaphor.

and more embarrassed. and full of hesita- few steps of their progress. upon the motley and per- A novice in the game gener- plexed surface of the chart. which There to find a given — empire any is One played upon a map. words as stretch. But this is a point. Again have you ever noticed which of the street signs. by way of best preit. and more eventful in their movements than those of inferior grade. or word. are the " " I : most attractive of attention ? " have never given the matter a thought. that the minister had deposited the letter immediately beneath the nose of the whole world. somewhat above or beneath the understanding Prefect. signs and placards of the from one end of the like the over-largely lettered street. He never once thought it of the probable. embarrass his opponents by giving them the most minutely lettered names but the adept selects such ally seeks to . in large characters. in short." he resumed. state. escape observation by and here the physical precisely analogous with the moral inappreoversight hension by which the intellect suffers to pass unnoticed those considerations which are too obtrusively and too is palpably self-evident. more constant. dashing. it appears. venting any portion of that world from perceiving " But the more I reflected upon the daring. river. chart to the other. These. 411 more forcible. are yet the less readily moved. dint of being excessively obvious . over the shop tion in the first doors.THE PURLOINED LETTER. " is a game of puzzles. word — party playing requires another the name of town. and . or possible." I said.

and upon which lay confusedly. to conceal this letter. the minister had resorted to the comprehensive and sagacious expedient of not attempting to conceal " Full of these ideas. " To be even with him. quite by green spectacles. some misother papers. and dawdling. . and lamented the necessity of the spectacles. in going the circuit of the room. He is. I Here. fell upon a trumpery filigree card-rack of pasteboard. and pretending to be in the last extremity of ennui. paid especial attention to a large writing-table near which he sat. at the Ministerial hotel. I complained of my weak eyes. evidence. . perhaps. obtained by the Prefect. if he intended to use it to good purpose and upon the decisive . " At length my eyes. with one or two cellaneous letters and musical instruments and a few books. however saw nothing to excite particular suspicion. after a long and very deliberate scrutiny. called home. I found D at accident. under cover of which I cautiously and thoroughly surveyed the whole apartment. prepared myself with a pair of one fine morning. while seemingly intent only upon the conversation of " I my host. as usual. and I at it all. that it was not hidden within the limits of that dignitary's ordinary search the — more satisfied I became that.THE PURLOINED LETTER. 412 upon the fact that discriminating ingenuity of D the document must always have been at hand. the most really energetic —but that is only when nobody human being now alive sees him. yawning. lounging.

to the minister. was large and black. S description. which was excessive . a diminutive female hand. in the first in instance. with the D cipher. brass was much just soiled two. that hung dangling by knob 413 a dirty blue ribbon. had been altered. . there the superscription. in and crumpled. carelessly. " No cluded it of sooner had I glanced at this letter than to be that of which it was. radically different from the one which the Prefect had read us so minute a there I seal family. appearance. across the to tear it stayed. the radicalness of these differences. as it seemed. to a was markedly bold and decided the size alone formed a point of correspondence.THE PURLOINED LETTER. was diminutive and feminine certain royal personage. contemptuously. the soiled and torn condition of the paper. him- the in . up as worthless. and even. which had three or four compartments. so inconsistent with the true methodical habits of D and so suggestive of a design to delude the beholder into an idea of the worthlessness of the document . from a little beneath the middle of the mantel-piece. the address. with the ducal arms of the Here the it con- To be sure. Here. then. to all I was in search. bearing entirely D cipher very conspicuously. . and was addressed. or the second. In this rack. But. into one of the uppermost divisions of the rack. the dirt . middle— as if It was torn nearly a design. . were five or six visiting cards and a This last solitary letter. It had a large black seal. was small and red. to D the minister. was thrust It self. .

doubt trivial upon a discovery which I set might have entertained. I kept my attention really riveted interest upon the memory rack letter. were strongly . its and . inside out. as if of .4H THE PURLOINED LETTER. upon a topic which I knew well had never failed to and excite him. I committed to external appearance and arrangement in the fell. quite eagerly. in the same creases or edges which had formed the original fold. — these things. when we resumed. corroborative of suspicion. While thus engaged. and. as a sealed. a loud report. at length. together with the hyperobtrusive situation of this document. " I protracted my visit as long as possible. leaving a gold snuff-box upon the table. my I It was clear to me This dis- that the letter glove. In scrutinizing the edges of the paper. is refolded in a reversed direction. and thus exactly in accordance with the conclusions to which I had previously arrived these things. I say. had been turned. having been once folded and pressed with a folder. and took departure at once. discussion with the minister. while I maintained a most animated. " The next morning I called for the snuff-box. They presented the broken appearance which is manifested when a stiff paper. re-directed and re- bade the minister good-morning. also whatever at rest In this examination. however. in one who came with the in- tention to suspect. covery was sufficient. I observed them to be more chafed than seemed necessary. the conversation of the preceding day. full in the view of every visitor.

THE PURLOINED LETTER. formed of bread. whither I he had gone. took the letter. Soon afterward I bade him farewell. D rushed to a casement. and the shoutings of a terrified mob. and was succeeded by a series of fearful screams. devoted to his you suggest. first D a in But what purpose had you. The pretended lunatic was a " man the letter by a facsimile? at the " my own man of nerve. too. lowever. " in replacing not have been better. Had is I pay. of the hotel. and looked out. I presence alive. In the mean- stepped to the card-rack. But I You know my I act as political preposses- a partisan of the lady con- . to have seized " . it put my pocket. (so far as regards externals) which I had carefully prepared at my in lodgings means " — imitating of a seal D the cipher. D as a lunatic or a drunkard. suffered to had followed him immediately upon securing the object in view." asked. very by readily. heard of me it is His hotel. openly. and the fellow was When go his way came from the window. I Would it visit." In this matter. these considerations. and departed a desperate " ? man. It proved. interests. and not without attendants made might never have left the wild attempt the Ministerial of Paris might have had an object apart from The good people no more. threw time I it open. to have been without ball. The disturbance in the street had been occasioned by the frantic behavior of a man with a musket. 415 was heard immediately beneath the windows a pistol. He had [red it among a crowd of women and children. sions. and replaced it by a facsimile." replied Dupin.

downfall. when. est digne de Thyeste. as I curiosity in regard to the iden- who had him a pity not to give evil turn. as Catalani said of more easy up than to come down. but in all kinds of climbing. being un- cerned. Thus will he inevitably aware that the commit letter is himself. — ' S' They il n' est digne d' Atree. told him. and I just copied into the middle of the blank sheet the words " Un dessein si funeste. at once. did me an quite good-humoredly. that knew he would feel tity of the person some I insulting. to his political destruction.. He is that monstrum singing. which I should remember. outwitted him. — his not in his possession. however. 41 6 For eighteen months the minister has had her in power. will not be It is more His awkward. that I should like very well to know the precise character of his thoughts. He clew.THE PURLOINED LETTER. I thought it a well acquainted with is my MS.' are to be found in Crebillon's ' Atr6e. So.' M .' he opening the letter which " " How? Why— terior at reduced to him in the card rack. In the present instance I have no sympathy at least no pity for him who descends. horrendum. it is far to get — — I confess." " thing particular in it? I left for did you put any it is whom did not seem altogether right to leave the in- blank— that would have been Vienna once. D . being defied by her the Prefect terms i a certain personage. She has now him in hers since. too. an unprincipled man of genius. precipitate than very well to talk about the facilis descensus all Averni . he will proceed with his exactions as if it was.

own. these events have attempt to To me. which Yet terri- not I will they have presented Hereafter. be found which place My soul. and to-day cinctly. I less terrible intellect to the may common- logical. —some will reduce intellect less excitable many they than more my my will seem some phantasm more calm. perhaps. events. indeed would I own evidence. in a case where senses reject their —and very surely do diate purpose fied to pen. suc- is — have tortured — have destroyed me. my very I not I I die. a imme- series of mere household In their consequences. in the nothing more than an ordinary succession of very natural causes and effects. the most wild yet most homely narrative which FOR am about I Mad lief. and far will perceive. But to-morrow not dream. I neither expect nor solicit bebe to expect it. My 417 tenderness of heart was . to place before the world. little mad am Yet.THE BLACK CAT. expound them. disposition. plainly. From my infancy I was noted for the docility and hucircumstances manity of my I detail with awe. —to but horror than bar rogues. would unburden my and without comment.

and never was so happy This peculiarity of as when feeding and caressing them. which goes directly to the him who has had frequent occasion to test the friendship and gossamer fidelity of mere Man. There is something in the unselfish and self-sacrificing love of a brute. I of my principal sources of pleasure. and was indulged by my parents with a great variety of pets. character grew with derived from To those it one who have and sagacious dog. and sagacious to an astonishing degree. heart of paltry married early. gold-fish. made frequent allusion to the ancient popular notion.THE BLACK 41 8 CAT. I was especially fond of animals. my wife. rabbits. a small monkey. I my growth. I no opportunity of procuring those of the most agreeable kind. just now. In speaking of his intelligence. and a partiality for domestic pets. entirely black. and was happy to find in my wife a Observing my disposition not uncongenial with my own. who at heart was not a little tinctured with superstition. black cats as witches in disguise. I cherished an affection for a faithful need hardly be at the trouble of ex- plaining the nature or the intensity of the gratification thus derivable. This latter was a remarkably large and beautiful animal. We had birds. a fine dog. With these spent most of my time. to be . she lost cat. in my manhood. Not which regarded all that she was ever mention the matter it at all happens. and. serious for upon this point —and I no better reason than that remembered. even so conspicuous as to make me the jest of my companions.

It was even with dimculty that I could prevent him from following me through the streets. more moody. of course. I alone fed him. and consequently somewhat peevish perience the effects of is ill —even Pluto began to ex- temper. lence. monkey. by accident. dog. I fancied that the cat avoided my I seized him when. 4!9 name—was my favorite pet and playmate. One my night. I suffered myself to use intemperate language to At length. but ever. how- them. For Pluto. or through affection. I . in his fright at my viopresence. for several years. returning like Alcohol ! — who was now becoming old. from one my haunts about town.THE BLACK Pluto— this was the cat's CAT. home. more I regardless of the feelings of others. he inflicted a slight wound upon my hand with his of . I still ill-used my wife. I even offered her personal violence. more grew. my disposition. during which my general temperament and characterthrough the instrumentality of the Fiend Intemperance had (I blush to confess it) experienced a radical alteration for the worse. much intoxicated. they came in my way. retained sufficient regard to restrain me from I made no scruple of maltreating the the or even the rabbits. My pets. Our friendship lasted. as ease grew and upon me at length — what disease for even Pluto. teeth. when. were I made to feel the change in not only neglected. day by day. irritable. The fury of a demon instantly possessed me. But my dis- maltreating him. in this manner. and he attended me wherever I went about the house.

of the lost eye presented. a frightful appear- ance. and equivocal I again plunged into excess. as to The socket true.. than I am impulses of the mary my Yet final I am not more sure that that perverseness human heart is — one faculties. half of remorse. my soul one of the primitive of the indivisible pri- which give direction to the . it is my extreme terror at old heart left. for the crime of which I had been guilty but it was. at and a more than . grasped the poor beast by the throat. took from I my waistcoat-pocket a penknife. and deits eyes from the socket I blush. thrilled every fiber of my frame. —when had — experienced reason returned with the morning the fumes of the night's debauch I I a sentiment half of horror. approach. at best. as my be at first grieved by this evident on the part of a creature which had once so loved But this feeling soon gave place to irritation. soul original my body seemed. and soon drowned in wine memory In the meantime the cat slowly recovered. from its flight CAT. gin-nurtured. He might be expected. but. and irrevocable overthrow.Of this spirit philosophy then came. a feeble feeling. fiendish malevolence. any pain. as the spirit to if takes no account. I had so much of usual. . but he no longer appeared to suffer went about the house as fled in all of the deed. and the soul remained untouched. of PERVERSENESS. shudder. And dislike me. or sentiments. liberately cut one of I burn. while I When slept off ! I pen the damnable atrocity. lives. opened it. to take My longer.THE BLACK 420 knew myself no once.

wealth was swallowed up. morse at my heart . a hundred times. my It bed were in flames. I slipped a noose about its neck and hung it to the limb of a tree hung it with the tears streaming from my eyes. My entire worldly servant. I resigned myself thence- . was It unfathom- this able longing of the soul to vex itself—to offer violence to own nature —to do wrong for the —that urged me to continue and wrong's sake only its consummate finally to the injury I had inflicted upon the unoffending brute. came it to to be such my final This ? spirit of perverseness. I overthrow. in cold blood. —hung loved me. made our escape from the conflagraThe destruction was complete. to violate that which is Law. and with the bitterest re. was with great The whole house difficulty that my wife. 42 1 has not. I was aroused from sleep by the cry of fire. a and myself. for no other reason than because he knows he should not f Have we not a perpetual inclination. and because offence —hung . On I the night of the day on which this most cruel deed was done. in the teeth of our best judgment. The was curtains of blazing. it because I it I felt it because I — knew had given knew — me that it had no reason of that in so doing I was committing a sin a deadly sin that would so jeopardize my immortal soul as to place it if such a thing were pos- — sible — even beyond the reach of the infinite mercy of the Most Merciful and Most Terrible God. merely because we understand say. and forward to despair. character of CAT. One morning.THE BLACK Who Man. tion. found himself committing a vile or a stupid action.

osity. The words strange " and other similar expressions. through an open window. had been hung house. and against which had rested the one exception. When regard But it I first —for could scarcely —my wonder and my terror were extreme. into my chamber. in a head of my bed. the middle of the house. which stood about compartment wall. succeding the se- between the disaster and the wish the day walls. had fallen in. resisted the action of the fire —a fact which I attrib- having been recently spread. I and effect. Upon the alarm of to in a my I aid. as if graven in bas-relief upon the white surface. —and On not to leave even a possible link imperfect. The impression was given with an accuracy truly marvellous. in great meas- ure. This had probably been done with the view of arousing me from . About this wall a dense crowd were collected. The cat. am detailing a chain of facts fire. I There was a rope about the animal's neck. and many persons seemed uted to its to be examining a particular portion of with very mi- it " " " sinnute and eager attention. The plastering had here.THE BLACK 422 I am above the weakness of seeking to establish a of cause quence But atrocity CAT. excited my curigular ! ! approached and saw. this — mediately filled by the crowd by some one of whom the animal must have been cut from the tree and thrown. beheld this apparition as less at length reflection came membered. I re- garden adjacent to the garden had been im- fire. the figure of a gigantic cat. with This exception was found not very thick. I The visited the ruins.

went so far as to regret the loss and to look about me. remorse. falling of other walls plaster had compressed the vic- . there spirit a half-sentiment that seemed. but this cat had a . with the flames. but was not. him in every respect but one. thus readily accounted to reason. cruelty into the substance of the freshly-spread the lime of which. in a den of more than infamy. reposing upon the head of one of the immense hogsheads of gin. if not my fancy. half stupefied. its place. It was a black cat large one — and and closely resembling Pluto had not a white fully as large as Pluto. and what now caused me surprise was the fact that I had not sooner furniture of the apartment.. among the now habitually frequented. which constituted the chief had been looking steadily at the top of this hogshead for some minutes. haunts which I same could not rid myself of I . —a very upon any portion of his body .THE BLACK The sleep. my attention was suddenly drawn to some black object. I sat. pet of the my conscience. during this period. I I approached perceived the object thereupon. saw altogether to One 423 my tim of upon CAT. hair it. species. it. vile for another and of somewhat similar appear- ance. touched it with my hand. and the am- monia from the traiture as I Although I detailed. or of rum. with which to supply night as I and. For months the phantasm of the cat came back into my of the animal. for the startling fact just did not the less fail to make a deep impression it my had then accomplished the por- carcass.

and when I prepared to go the animal evinced a disposition to accompany me. upon it from its What but I avoided the creature and the remembrance of some weeks. for use it . certain sense of shame. . deed of cruelty. against my hand. This. my own For . favorite with occasionally stooping and patting it reached the house domes- it and became immediately a great my wife. added. a former from physically abusing it. — I — it arising had its antici- evident pated fondness for myself rather disgusted and annoyed me. I soon found a dislike to This was just the reverse of what but I know not how or why it was within me. home. covering nearly the whole region of the breast. When part. me my . touching him. was the discovery. strike. and to flee silently odious presence. he immediately arose. of the landlord knew nothing . on the morning after I brought it home. ticated itself at once. of it at I —had never seen it it — before. preventing I did not. and appeared delighted with my notice. large. By slow degrees these feelings of disgust and annoyance rose . as from the breath of a pestilence.THE BLACK 424 CAT. I I it continued permitted as I it to do so proceeded. to my hatred of the beast. was the very creature of Upon my which I was once offered to purchase but this person made no claim to it in search. no doubt. then. or otherwise violently ill — gradually very — gradually I came to look with unutterable loathing. my caresses. into the bitterness of hatred. although indefinite splotch of white. purred rubbed loudly.

as I have already said. and the source of many of my simplest degree. a memory confess it at I of times. 425 Pluto. more My wife had called than once. I am cell. footsteps with feet manner. — This dread was not exactly a dread of physical evil and yet I should be at a loss how otherwise to define it. or.THE BLACK CAT. It followed my a pertinacity which it would be difficult Whenever reader comprehend. my long and sharp claws in my dress. I almost ashamed to am own —yes. my wife. With my aversion to this cat. in a that. its myself seemed to increase. mark of white have spoken. like high humanity of feeling which had once been my distinguishing trait. only endeared it to eyes. clamber. that and purest pleasures. in my longed to destroy so doing. although I was yet withheld from my former crime. however. however. beneath my with loathsome caresses. of which I my attention. its get between fastening this its chair. with a blow. had been be heightened by one of the merest chimeras it would horror with which the possible to conceive. covering walk If I arose to it me would and thus nearly throw me down. but once — by absolute dread of the beast. even in this felon's own—that the terror and almost ashamed to animal inspired me. and which constituted the . to — chiefly I partiality for me it by At such breast. who. partly let sat. or spring my upon to make the would crouch it knees. to the character of the hair. it also had been deprived of one of its This circumstance. possessed.

brute beast —whose fellow —a brute beast to work — out for me for me. by slow degrees which fanciful — it reader will remember that this had been — degrees a long time for CAT. above all. and dreaded. Death the image of a hideous — —oh. mark. nearly imperceptible. at length. mournful and — engine of Horror and of Crime of Agony and of of a ghastly thing terrible I say. assumed a rigorous distinctness was now the representation of an object that I shudder to name and for this. a man fashioned in the image of the Alas neither High God — so much of insufferable woe I had contemptuously destroyed ! by day nor by night knew I the blessing of rest any more During the former the creature and ! left me no moment ! alone. Evil thoughts became my sole intimates —the darkest and . and reason struggled to reject as had. but. and would have rid myself of the monster of outline. my originally very indefinite . and in the latter I started its no power to heart — an incarnate nightmare that had — incumbent eternally upon my shake vast weight I off I Beneath the pressure of torments such as these the feeble remnant of the good within me succumbed. I loathed. It — had I dared— it was now. — of the GALLOWS ! ! And now was I indeed wretched beyond the wretched- And# ness of mere Humanity.THE BLACK 426 sole visible difference one I between the strange beast and the The had destroyed. although large. hourly from dreams of unutterable fear to find the hot breath of the thing upon my face.

demoniacal. me headlong. me to madness. which.THE BLACK most 427 The moodiness of thoughts. arm from her grasp and burShe fell dead upon the spot without a groan. exasUplifting an axe. alas. This hideous murder accomplished. and forgetting and. my uncomplaining wife. I resolved to dig a grave for cellar. I knew that the house. I it fire. ied the axe I withdrew in my her brain. nearly throwing my wrath the childish dread which had hitherto stayed my hand. Again. I set myself forthwith. evil CAT. upon some household errand. and destroying them by another. of course. in would have proved instantly fatal had it descended as I wished. The cat followed me down the steep perated stairs. and with entire deliberation. But this blow was arrested by the hand of my Goaded by the interference into a rage more than wife. frequent. to the task of concealing the body. At in the floor of the deliberated about casting it in the well . without the it from risk of being observed by the neighbors. I aimed a blow at the animal. Many projects entered my mind. myself. One day she accompanied me. At one period I thought of cutting the corpse into minute fragments. into the cellar of the old building which our poverty compelled us to inhabit. was the most usual and the most patient of sufferers. temper increased to hatred of of my usual things and of all mankind while from the sudden. either by day or I could not remove by night. and ungovernable outbursts of a fury to which I now blindly abandoned all .

having carefully deposited propped it relaid the the body against the inner wall.THE BLACK 428 CAT. so that no eye could detect any thing suspicious. For a purpose such as this the cellar was well adapted. And in this calculation I was not deceived. whole structure as it little originally stood. Its walls were loosely constructed. chimney. I trouble I Having procured mortar. and with this I very carefully went over the new brick-work. which the atmosphere had prevented from hardMoreover. By means of a crowbar I easily dislodged the bricks. while with in that position. sand. The slightest appearance of having wall did not present the been disturbed. made no doubt that I could readily displace the bricks at caused by a false this point. — yard about packing it in a box. as monks the are recorded to have walled up of their victims. I in the determined to wall the Middle Ages it up the in cellar. and. I felt satisfied that all was right. or fireplace. insert the corpse. Finally I hit upon what I considered a far better expedient than either of these. I prepared a plaster which could not be distinguished from the old. of the dampness ening. and hair. and had lately been throughout with a rough plastered plaster. with every possible precaution. that had been I filled up and made to resemble the rest of the cellar. and so getting a porter t< take it from the house. When I had finished. The rub- . as if merchandi< with the usual arrangements. in one of the walls was a projection. and wall the whole up as before.

* future felicity as secured. and said to myself: "Here at least. slept even with the burden of murder upon my . . into the house. since its introduction into the house. and Upon . there could have been no but it appeared that the crafty animal had been alarmed at the violence of and forebore to present itself in my my previous anger. looked around triumphantly. It did not make its appearance during the night and thus for one ni^ht. at length." bish on the floor I My next step was to look for the beast which had been the cause of so much wretchedness firmly resolved to put meet with doubt of at the it fate its . then. but these had been readily answered. soul. ! Some few inquiries had been made. The second and the third day passed. my labor has not been in vain. Had been able to I moment. . It is impossible to describe or to imagine the deep. Once again I breathed as a freeman. I soundly and tranquilly slept aye. present mood. a party of the police came. and still my tornot. very unexpectedly. it for I had. the blissful sense of relief which the absence of the detested creature occasioned in my bosom. in terror. Even a search had been instituted but of — course nothing was to be discovered.THE BLACK CAT 429 was picked up with the minutest care. to death. I looked upon my the fourth day of the assassination. at least. had fled the premises for ever mentor came ! I should behold The guilt of my it no more ! My happiness was supreme dark deed disturbed me but little. The monster.

and The police were thoroughly and prepared to depart. the rabid desire to say something I glee at and to render doubly sure (in knew what cellar said at last. my assurance of I my arms upon my bosom. corpse of the wife of But may God the Arch-Fiend my shield ! bosom. At length. of triumph. and through the mere frenzy of bravado. say an —are scarcely excellently you going." gentlemen. The I — have allayed your suspicions. by way Gentlemen. ?— these By I wish the bye. house. " I steps. very well-constructed house. proceeded again to make rigorous investigation of the premises. upon that very portion of the brickwork behind which stood the here. of one who slumbers from end to end. no embarrassment whatever. roamed and easily to was too strong to be word." all restrained. walls are solidly put together " . however. as the party ascended the I health and a this walked the guiltlessness.THE BLACK 43° CAT. nook or corner unexplored. and deliver No sooner had me from the fangs of the reverberation of my . I rapped heavily with a cane which I held in my hand. — " I may These walls I easily. for no They the third or fourth time. I The officers left My heart quivered not in a muscle. delight to you fro. satisfied " in innocence. little this is a uttered at well-constructed gentlemen my heart burned to say if but one more their courtesy. Secure. I felt bade me accompany them in their search. in the inscrutability of my place of concealment. they descended into the cellar. folded I beat calmly as that all).

with sat the of fire. Swooning. clotted with before the eyes of the spectators. red extended mouth and The stood gore. conjointly from the throats of the damned in their agony and of the demons that exshriek. at first muffled and a child. and whose informing voice had consigned me to the hangman. already its erect head. than CAT. my own thoughts it is folly to speak. and continuous scream. half of horror ult in the Of damnation. utterly anomalous and inhuman a howl a wailing — — and half of triumph. such as might have arisen only out of hell. staggered to the opposite wall.THE BLACK blows sunk into silence. Upon eye hideous beast whose craft had seduced solitary corpse. 43! was answered by a voice cry. . In the next a dozen stout arms were toiling at the wall. For one I instant the party on the stairs remained motionless. and then quickly I from within the tomb !—by a broken. like the sobbing of swelling into one long. greatly decayed and It fell bodily. through extremity of terror and awe. loud. me into murder. I had walled the monster up within the tomb.

'- .

and. had been one of my boon companions in boy- to myself a sojourn of erick hood . and the vacant and eye-like windows. or perhaps to annihilate capacity for sorrowful impression . Nevertheless. It was possible. acting upon its this my horse to the precipitous brink of a black and lurid tarn that lay in unruffled lustre by the dwelling. a veil. . that a mere different arrangement of the particulars of the scene. there are combinations of very simple natural objects which have the power of thus affecting us. a sinking. still the analysis of this power lies among considerations beyond our depth. that while. Its proprietor. RodUsher. I reflected. idea.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. 433 the after-dream of the reveller upon opium— the bitter lapse into every-day life— the hideous dropping off of the There was an iciness. I was forced to fall isfactory conclusion. sickening of the heart —an unredeemed dreariness of thought which no goading of the imagination could torture into aught of the What was it— I paused to think—what was it me in the contemplation of the House sublime. would be sufficient to modify. back upon the unsat- beyond doubt. I reined —but with a shudder even more — than before upon the remodelled and inverted images of and gazed down thrilling the gray sedge. in this mansion of gloom I now proposed some weeks. but many our years had elapsed since last meeting. that so unnerved It was a mystery all insoluble nor could I with the grapple shadowy fancies that crowded upon me of as Usher ? I . of the details of the picture. and the ghastly tree-stems. pondered.

through long ages. — . as boys. perhaps even more than to the orthodox and easily recognizable beauties. that his very ancient family had been noted. It was the — and much more. it that the stem of the was. the very remarkable fact. as well as in a pas- of exalted art.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. displaying itself. His reserve had been always excessive and habitual. of musical science. ates. however. as his best and indeed his only personal friend. by the cheerfulness of my society. all time-honored as no period. was said it was the apparent heart that went with his request which allowed me no room for hesitation and I accordingly manner in which all this. yet I really I still considered a very singular we had been even knew little of my intimate associ- friend. had admitted of no other than a personal reply. had put in other forth. for a peculiar sensibility of temperament. in its wildly — — importunate nature. with a view of attempting. The MS. of repeated deeds of munificent yet unobtrusive charity. Although. any enduring branch . The writer spoke of acute bodily illness — of a him — and of an earnest mental disorder which oppressed desire to see me. had lately reached me in a distant part of the country a letter from him which. in sionate devotion to the intricacies. 434 A letter. words. that the entire family lay in the direct . late. I was aware. however. obeyed forthwith what summons. too. at Usher race. gave evidence of nervous agitation. some alleviation of his malady. in many works and manifested. I had learned. time out of mind.

I ridiculous.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. from sire to son. in the long lapse of centuries. from might have been again uplifted my eyes image in the pool. and while speculating upon the possible influence which the one. that. very temporary I considered. the family mansion. in- vivid force of had so worked . and 435 had always. in the Usher — minds of the peasantry who used it. which had. of collateral issue. line of descent. with very trifling and It was this deficiency. to the house And terror as a basis. of the patrimony with the name. that I but mention it to show the in the sensations which oppressed me. I have long known. while running over in thought the perfect the of character of the keeping premises with the accredited character of the people. is the paradoxical law of all senti- ments having for this reason only. perhaps. I have said that the sole effect of — both the family and my somewhat childish — experiment that of looking down within the tarn had There can been to deepen the first singular impression. at length. so identified the two as to merge the original title of the estate in the quaint and equivocal apellation of the " House of " an appellation which seemed to include. itself. Such. be no doubt that the consciousness of the rapid increase for why should I not so term it ? of my superstition — — served mainly to accelerate the increase itself. might have exercised upon the other it was — this deficiency. and the conse- quent undeviating transmission. there grew when its it I my mind a strange fancy—a fancy so deed. so lain. variation.

however. be a wild inconsistency between its still perfect adaptation of parts. hanga fine tangled web-work from the eaves. with no disturbance from the breath of the external air. Yet all was apart from any extraordinary dilapidation.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. faintly —a and mystic and leaden- pestilent discernible. I scanned more narrowly the real aspect of the Its principal feature seemed to be that of an building. Beyond this indication of extensive decay. Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream. great. vapor. . In this there was specious totality of old much that reminded me of the wood-work which has rotted for long years in some neglected vault. sluggish. hued. extending from the roof of the building in little front. and the gray wall. its became way down the wall in a zigzag direction. and the crumbling condition of the individual stones. but which had reeked up from the decayed trees. the fabric gave token of Perhaps the eye of a scrutinizing observer might have discovered a barely perceptible fissure. until made it instability. lost in the sullen waters of the tarn. which. and the silent tarn dull. 43 6 uport my imagination as really to believe that about the whole mansion and domain there hung an atmosphere peculiar to themselves and their immediate vicinity an — atmosphere which had no affinity with the air of heaven. excessive antiquity. No portion of the masonry had fallen and there appeared to this . ing in The discoloration of ages had been Minute fungi overspread the whole exterior.

Feeble gleams of encrimsoned light made their way through the trellissed panes.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. wore a mingled expression of low cunning and perplexity. I my Much that I know not how. sentiments of which I progress to the encountered on the heighten the vague have already spoken. and ushered me The valet now threw open a door into the presence of his master. I A to the house. While the around me— while the objects carvings of the ceilings. and the phantasmagoric armorial which trophies were but matters to which. to studio of his master. I I — hesitated not to acknowledge how familiar was all this — I still wondered to find how unfamiliar were the fancies which ordinary images were stirring up. and served to render sufficiently distinct the more prominent objects around . the ebon blackness of the floors. A valet. Noticing these things. as which. the sombre tapestries of the walls. He accosted me with trepida- countenance. I met the physician of the family. of stealthy step. however. His thought. the eye. The windows were long. and pointed. On one of the staircases. narrow. in silence. struggled in . tion I and passed on. and I entered the Gothic archway of the hall. and at so vast a distance from the black oaken floor as to be altogether inaccessible from within. thence conducted me. or to such had been accustomed from my infancy while rattled as I strode. through many dark and intricate passages in way contributed. 437 rode over a short causeway servant in waiting took my horse. The room in which I found myself was very large and lofty.

ceiling. a breadth of . man had never before so terribly altered. Yet the character of his face had been at all times rethat I A cadaverousness of complexion an eye large. An air of stern. while he spoke not. but with unusual in similar formations . musical instruments lay scattered about. in so brief a It was with difficulty period. and greeted me with a vivacious warmth which had much in it. comfortless. or the recesses of the vaulted and fretted hung upon the The walls.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. atmosphere of sorrow. Surely. general furniture Many books and and tattered. but of a surpassingly beautiful curve markable. A glance. of an overdone cordiality — of the constrained effort of the enmiyt man of the world. Upon my entrance. antique. however. as had Roderick Usher ! could bring myself to admit the identity of the wan being before me with the companion of my early boyhood. deep. I gazed . and luminous beyond comparison lips somewhat liquid. but failed to I felt that I breathed an give any vitality to the scene. and deemable gloom hung over and pervaded all. . upon him with a feeling half of pity. speaking. Dark draperies was profuse. . a finely moulded want of prominence. at his countenance convinced me of his perfect sincerity. in its moral energy . . of a want of hair of a more than web-like softness chin. We sat down and for some moments. a nose of a delicate nostril Hebrew model. half of awe. 43§ vain to reach the remoter angles of the chamber. thin and very pallid. I at first thought. irre- Usher arose from a sofa on which he had been lying at full length.

it floated all silken hair. The now ghastly pallor of the skin. all The unheeded. self-balanced. or the irre- . above awed me. I Arabesque expression with any idea of simple humanity. unspecies of energetic concision— and hollow-sounding enunciation— that leaden. His alternately vivacious and sullen. in the mere exaggeration of the prevailing character of these features. certain boyish traits. and rather than effort. too. than by reminiscences tion. and his peculiar physical His action was by conclusions deduced from confirmation and temperament. which may be observed in the lost drunkard.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. In the manner of my friend I was an incoherence — an inconsistency . with an inordinate expansion above the regions of the temple. voice varied rapidly from a tremulous indecision (when the animal spirits seemed utterly in abeyance) to that that abrupt. 439 and tenuity . fell connect things startled and even had been suffered to grow wild gossamer texture. and the now miracu- lay so lous lustre of the eye. weighty. and of the expression they were wont to convey. hurried. no less by his letter. even with face. at and once struck with I soon found this to arise from a series of feeble and futile struggles to over- come an —an excessive nervous habitual trepidancy agita- For something of this nature I had indeed been of prepared. much of change that I doubted to whom I spoke. as.— these features. made up altogether a And now countenance not easily to be forgotten. and perfectly modulated guttural utterance. in its about the its could not.

" said he. any. at he conceived to be the nature of some length. selves. a constitutional and a family — he despaired to find a remedy a mere nervous affection. interested and although. even the most trivial. indeed. displayed itself in a host of unnatural sensa- Some of bewildered me these. and of the solace he expected It his earnest desire to see me He to afford him. entered. be dread the events of the future. not in them- lost. suffered most he detailed them. the was alone endurable he could wear only . I but in their results. which would undoubtedly soon pass It off. was thus that he spoke of the object of my visit. upon no abhorrence I have. into what malady. " I him a bounden must perish in this Thus. To an anomalous species " slave. I of terror I found shall perish. perhaps. shudder at the thought of incident. . except in its absolute effect — in . which did not inspire him with horror. the terms and the much from insipid food oppressive . of me. during the periods of his most intense excitement.THE FALL OF 440 TILE HOUSE OF USHER. he evil. all were tortured by even a flowers were faint light . and there were but peculiar sounds. a morbid acuteness of the senses . and not otherwise. He their weight. of certain texture garments had his eyes the odors of . and one for which his said. shall I deplorable folly. as general manner of their narration tions. It was. he immediately added. claimable eater of opium. thus. and these from stringed instruments. of danger. which may operate I this intolerable agitation of soul.

" he can never forget. although with hesitation. the lady said. the grim phantasm. for — in regard to conveyed in many years. He much all admitted." While he spoke. " would leave him (him. brought about upon the morale of his existence. his last and only relative on earth. had. obtained over his spirit — the physique of the gray walls and turrets. condition I the period will sooner or later arrive when I must feel that abandon and reason together. he had never ventured forth an influence whose supposititious force was terms too shadowy here to be re-stated— an some influence which peculiarities in the mere form and substance of his family mansion had. however. at intervals. condition. hints. the hopeless and the frail) the last of the ancient race of the Ushers. his sole companion for long years. " Her decease." life in some struggle with learned. and through broken I and equivocal another singular feature of his mental enchained by certain superstitious impressions in regard to the dwelling which he tenanted. and of the dim tarn into which they looked down. by dint of long sufan effect which ferance. he said. He was and whence. in this pitiable. 441 In terror.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. that of the peculiar gloom which thus afflicted him could be traced to a more natural and " ble —to origin far more the severe and long-continued palpa- illness — — indeed to the evidently approaching dissolution of a tenderly beloved sister. with a bitterness which Madeline (for so was she I a called) passed through remote . Fear. this unnerved. moreover. at length.

presence. without having.noticed my regarded her with an utter astonishment not unmingled with dread and yet I found it impossible to account for such sensation of feelings. of the person. and. and during painted and read together. 44 2 portion of the apartment. We . at length. and had not betaken herself but on the closing in of the evening of my finally to bed .THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. but he had buried his face in his hands. For several days ensuing. A me as my eyes followed her retreating stupor oppressed When a door. my steps. I disappeared. the pressure of her malady. would be seen by me no more. arrival at the house. closed upon her. her name was unmentioned this period I was the busied in earnest endeavors to alleviate melancholy of by my either Usher or myself friend. A settled apathy. . a gradual wasting and frequent although transient affecaway tions of a partially cataleptical character were the unusual Hitherto she had steadily borne up against diagnosis. glance sought instinctively and eagerly the countenance of the brother. . at least while living. or I listened. and I could only perceive that a far more than ordinary wanness had overspread the emaciated trickled The many fingers through which passionate tears. she succumbed (as me at night with inexpressible agitation) of the destroyer power I had obtained last I . and of her person should obtain —that I her brother told to the prostrating learned that the glimpse would thus probably be the the lady. disease of the lady Madeline had long baffled the skill of her physicians.

If ever mortal painted that mortal was Roderick Usher. admitted me more unreservedly into the recesses of his more the bitterly did I perceive the futility of all spirit. in which he involved me. into vaguenesses at which I shuddered the more thrillingly. By the he utter simplicity. His long improvised dirges Among other things. touch by touch.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. ears. because I as their images now deavor to educe why— from these paintings (vivid are before me) I would in vain en- shuddered knowing not more than a small portion which should within the compass of merely written words. For me at . an idea. lie arrested and overawed attention. I of Usher. An excited and highly distempered ideality threw a sulphureous lustre over will ring forever in painfully in my mind a all. or of the occupations. or led me the House way. as if in a 443 dream. poured forth upon all objects of the moral and physical universe in one unceasing radiation of gloom. by the nakedness. guitar. and which grew. of his designs. last waltz of plification of the wild air of the From the I hold certain singular perversion and am- paintings over which his Von Weber. to the wild improvisations of his speaking as a closer and still closer intimacy And thus. attempt at cheering a mind from which darkness. as if an inherent positive quality. I shall ever bear about emn hours me a memory of the many sol- thus spent alone with the master of the Yet I should fail in any attempt to convey an idea of the exact character of the studies. elaborate fancy brooded.

in the notes. spirit of abstraction.444 THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. he thus confined himself upon the guitar which gave birth. Certain accessory points of the design served well to convey the idea that an exceeding depth below the surNo outlet was observed in any portion this excavation lay at face of the earth. perhaps. to the fantastic character of his perform- ances. of its vast extent. as well as in impromptus could They must have been. smooth. and were. no shadow of which felt I ever yet in the driac contrived to contemplation of the certainly glowing yet too concrete reveries of Fuseli. A may small picture presented the interior of an immensely long and rectangular vault or tunnel. and without interruption or device. and of light no torch or other was discernible . in the circumstances then surrounding me. feebly. have just spoken of that morbid condition of the auditory nerve which rendered all music intolerable to the I with the exception of certain effects of stringed instruments. least. an intensity of intolerable awe. artificial source yet a flood of intense rays rolled in a ghastly and inap- throughout. white. although my friend. the words of his wild fantasias . But the fervid facility of his not be so accounted for. and bathed the whole propriate splendor. with low walls. in great measure. in words. One of the phantasmagoric conceptions of partaking not so rigidly of the be shadowed forth. there arose out of the pure abstractions which the hypochon- throw upon his canvas. the narrow limits to which sufferer. It was.

— Once — In the monarch Thought's dominionIt stood there ! Never seraph spread a pinion Over fabric half so fair. glorious. By good angels tenanted. golden. 445 he not unfrequently accompanied himself with rhymed verbal improvisations). if not entitled accurately. a fair and stately palace Radiant palace reared its head. a full con- because. forcibly impressed with it of I of one of was. per- as he gave it. In that sweet day." ran very nearly. in the fancied that I sciousness on the part of Usher of the tottering of his lofty reason upon her throne. the more I excitement. I perceived. The verses. Along the ramparts plumed and A winged odor went away. every gentle air that dallied. have previ- moments The words have easily remembered. pallid.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. II. On its roof did float and flow (This — all this Time long And —was ago) in the olden . under or mystic current of its meaning. thus : — In the greenest of our valleys. and for the first time. . the result of that intense mental (for collectedness and concentration to which I ously alluded as observable only in particular the highest artificial these rhapsodies haps. which were " The Haunted Palace. Banners yellow.

IV. —but smile no more. red-litten windows Vast forms that move fantastically To a discordant melody . And travellers Through the now within that valley. desolate !) (Ah. let And. Wanderers in that happy valley Through two luminous windows saw Spirits moving musically To a lute's well-tuned law Round . us mourn. While. flowing sparkling evermore. where sitting (Porphyrogene !) In state his glory Well befitting. In voices of surpassing beauty. for never morrow Shall dawn upon him. round about his home.446 THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. like a rapid ghastly Through A hideous throng rush out And river. laugh forever. And all with pearl and ruby Was the fair palace door. A troop of Was glowing Echoes whose sweet duty but to sing. see . Assailed the. The ruler of the realm was seen. in robes of sorrow. Through which came And flowing. v. about a throne. But evil things. the glory That blushed and bloomed Is but a dim-remembered story Of the old time entombed. monarch's high estate . VI. The wit and wisdom of their king. in. flowing. the pale door.

and especially the Bishop —See " Chemical Essays. and and the walls. in the long undis- which stood around — turbed endurance of this arrangement. I lack words to express character. in his ordered fancy. the full The extent. v. in that silent yet importunate and terrible influence which for centuries had moulded the destinies of his family. was connected (as I have previously hinted) with the gray stones of the home of his forefathers. which on account of I mention not so much novelty (for other men* have thought on account of the pertinacity with which he maintained it. was that its thus). in the gradual yet certain condensation of an atmosphere of their own about the waters The was discoverable. or the earnest abandon of his persuasion. Spallanzani. result * Watson. he added. and of the decayed above all. the idea had assumed a more dis- daring and trespassed. 447 I well remember that suggestions arising from this ballad led us into a train of thought wherein there became mani- fest an opinion of Usher's. But.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. fulfilled in the method of collocation of these stones — in the order of their arrangement. in its general form. he imagined. This opinion. belief. Dr. as well as in that of the many fungi which trees overspread the*m. he said (and I here started as he spoke). upon the kingdom of inorganization. however. and in its reduplication in the still waters of the tarn. . Its evidence the — evidence of the sentience —was to be seen. as of the sentience of all vegetable things." vol. under certain conditions. The conditions of the sentence had been here. of Landaff. Percival.

448 which made him what I now saw him —what he was. of the Sun of Campanella. and I will make none. for years. having informed me abruptly that the its lady Madeline was no more. over which Usher would sit dreaming for in His chief delight. he stated his intention of preserving her corpse for a fortnight (previously to its final interment)." small octavo edition of the " Directorium Inquisitorium. of Jean D' Indagine. could not help thinking of the wild ritual of this work. when. Such opinions need no comment.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. however. and of Dela Chambre . — — Mortuorum secundum Chorum I Ecclesice Maguntince. one evening. " of u Subterranean by Holberg . and of probable influence upon the hypochondriac. . in strict keeping with this character of phantasm. the " " of Gresset Heaven and Hell the . passages Pomponius Mela." by the Dominican Eymeric de Gironne and there were . in one of the numerous vaults within the main walls of the building. et Chartreuse of Machiavelli the . the " Jour- " and the " City One favorite volume was a ney into the Blue Distance of Tieck . about the old African Satyrs and CEgipans. however. Voyage of Nicholas " the " Chiromancy of Robert Flud. as might be supposed. The worldly reason. was found in the perusal of an exceedingly rare and curious book in quarto Gothic the manual of a forgotten church the Vigilics hours. Our books the books which. pored together over such We works as the " "Ververt " " Belphegor Swedenborg Klimm " . ha'd formed no — small portion of the mental existence of the invalid — were.

had . in remote feudal times. were carefully for sheathed with copper. in later days. im- mediately beneath that portion of the building in which was my own sleeping apartment. at great depth. was one which I did not feel at liberty to dispute. 449 assigned for this singular proceeding. for the The vault in which we it placed (and which had been so long unopened that our torches. not deny that when I called to mind the sinister countenance of the person whom I met upon the staircase. I personally aided him in the temporary entombment. at the house. we two alone bore it to its rest. and of the remote and exposed situation of the tain obtrusive ical burial-ground of the family. The body arrangements having been encoffined. apworst purposes parently. on the day of my arrival I will had no desire to oppose what I regarded a but as at best harmless. for the a as of a donjon-keep. or some other highly combustible substance. and for light . as a portion of its floor. of cer- and eager inquiries on the part of her medmen. and by no means an unnatural. half smothered oppressive atmosphere. of massive iron. I precaution. It had been used. in opportunity its for entirely without lying. investigation) was means of admission gave us small. At the request of Usher. place of deposit powder. The brother had been led to his resolution (so he told me) by consideration of the unusual character of the malady of the deceased. The door. little damp.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. and. and the whole interior of a long archway through which we reached it.

grating sound. had been twins. rested not long upon the dead — for we could not regard her unawed. yet unscrewed of the tenant. perhaps.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. immense weight it moved Having deposited our mournful burden upon tressels caused an unusually sharp. however. my thoughts. He roamed from chamber to chamber with hurried. and now lid of we partially turned aside the the coffin. His ordinary manner had vanished. having secured the door of made our way. also. as upon its hinges. The disease which had thus entombed the lady in the maturity of youth. His ordinary occupations were neglected or forgotten. replaced and We screwed down the iron. had left. Its similarly protected. and. within this region of horror. as usual in all maladies of a strictly cataleptical character. dimy vining. and looked upon the face A striking similitude between the brother and Usher. that suspiciously lingering smile upon the lip which is so terrible in death. the mockery of a faint blush upon the bosom and the face. glances. with toil. and. into the scarcely less gloomy apartments of the upper portion of the house. And now. 450 been. unequal. an observable change came over the features of the mental disorder of my friend. lid. murmured out some few words from which I learned that the deceased and himself sister first arrested attention . The pallor of his countenance . and objectless step. and that sympathies of a scarcely intelliOur gible nature had always existed between them. some days of bitter grief having elapsed.

a more ghastly 'hue 451 —but the luminousness of his eye had utterly gone out. I was obliged to secret. habitually char- acterized his utterance. which. upon the walls. as if for I listening to some imaginary sound. the wild influences of his own fantastic yet impressive super- stitions. had assumed. I struggled to reason off the nervousness which had dominion over me. There were times. as if of extreme terror. hours. endeavored to believe that much. But my efforts . Sleep came not near my couch — while the hours waned and waned away. especially. in an attitude of the profoundest attention. if possible. tremulous quaver. mere inexplicable vagaries of mad- beheld him gazing upon vacancy for long ness. of the dark and tattered draperies. by slow yet certain degrees. was due to the bewildering influence of the gloomy furni. if not all of what I I felt.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. was. again. to divulge At the necessary courage. upon retiring to bed late in the night of the seventh or eighth day after the placing of the lady It Madeline within the donjon. I felt creeping upon me. ture of the room — tortured into motion by the breath of a rising tempest. The once occasional huskiness of his tone was heard no more and a . that I experienced the full power of such feelings. swayed fitfully to and fro easily about the decorations of the bed. and rustled un. indeed. when I mind was laboring with thought his unceasingly agitated some oppressive resolve into the all which he struggled for times. that his condition terrified —that it It was no wonder infected me.

by pacing rapidly to and fro through the apartment. peering earnestly within the intense dark- ness of the chamber. step on an adjoining staircase arrested presently recognized it my a light I In an instant as that of Usher. I my very this Shaking uplifted myself upon the pillows. moreover. as usual. through the pauses of the storm. at entered. at length. off with a gasp and a struggle. hearkened — I that an instinctive spirit prompted know not why. at long intervals. " have not seen it ? he said abruptly. except me — to certain low and sounds which came. —but. stay you shall. there was a species of — eyes an evidently restrained hysteria — demeanor. and. with a gentle touch." — ! . 45 2 were vaded An fruitless. and " And you I had so long I even welcomed his presence as a relief. my door. there sat upon heart an incubus of utterly causeless alarm.' my frame . after — having stared about him for some moments in silence " you have not then seen it ? but. unaccountable yet indefinite unendurable. I knew not whence. and en- deavored to arouse myself from the pitiable condition into which I had fallen. tremor irrepressible gradually per- and. when attention. afterward he rapped. I had taken but few turns in this manner.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. bearing a lamp. I threw on that I should sleep my clothes with haste (for I felt no more during the night). His appalled me but any cadaverously wan mad hilarity in his in his whole air thing was preferable to the solitude which endured. and His countenance was. Overpowered by an intense sentiment of horror.

Thus speaking. a tempestuous yet sternly beautiful night. without passing away into the distance. indeed. The impetuous us from our feet. bewilder you. I say that even their exceeding —yet we had no density did not prevent our perceiving this glimpse of the moon or stars. and one wildly singular in terror and lected its its A beauty. led him. huge masses of agitated vapor. whirlwind had apparently force in our vicinity and violent alterations in its col- were frequent the direction of the wind and . are merely electrical common — or " ! phenomena not un- they have their ghastly origin of the tarn. and threw it open freely to the storm. may be that the rank miasma said I.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. with a gentle violence. " These which appearances. the exceeding density of the clouds (which hung so low as to press upon the turrets of the house) did not prevent our perceiving the life-like velocity with which they flew careering from all points against each other. he hurried to one of the casements. nor was there any flashing But the under surfaces of the forth of the lightning. as from the window to a shall not I behold this in it seat. to Usher. and having 453 carefully shaded his lamp. for there . were glowing in the un- natural light of a faintly luminous and distinctly visible gaseous exhalation which hung about and enshrouded the mansion. fury of the entering gust nearly lifted It was. " You must not —you shuddering. Let us close this case- . as well as all terrestrial objects immediately around us.

the only book immediately at hand and I indulged a vague hope that the excitement which now agitated the hypochondriac. the wild overstrained air of vivacity with which of the folly indeed. will be remembered. air is chilling : — night together. Could I have judged. we will shall listen and so pass away this terrible you . and who was now mighty withal. Here. 454 ment Here —the and dangerous to your frame. It was. on account of the powerfulness of the wine which he had drunken. waited no . order is full of similar anomalies) even in the extremeness which I should read. by he hearkened. the hero of the Trist. I might well have congratulated myself upon the success of I my design. in sad jest than in earnest . to the words of the tale.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. having sought in vain for peaceable admission into the dwelling of the hermit. or apparently hearkened. the words of the narrative run thus: " And Ethelred. however. there is little in its my friend." The antique volume which " it Mad Trist " a favorite of Usher's more had taken up was the Canning but I had called I of Sir Launcelot . and is one of your favorite romances. who was by nature of a doughty heart. it proceeds to make good an entrance by force. had arrived at that well-known portion of the story where Ethelred. in truth. I will read. might find relief (for the history of mental dis. tive uncouth and unimaginaprolixity which could have had interest for the lofty and spiritual ideality of for.

in its exact similarity of character. with blows. that the noise of the dry and hollow-sounding wood alarumed and reverberated throughout the At forest. feeling the rain his and the shoulders. and of a fiery tongue. surely." the termination of this sentence moment. with . was of an obstinate and maliceful turn.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. in itself. for a appeared to me (although I at excited fancy had deceived me) it my from some very remote portion of the mansion. upon fearing rising of the tempest. was sore enraged and amazed to perceive no signal of the maliceful hermit but. the coinci- dence alone which had arrested my attention . " But the good champion Ethelred. It was. once concluded that me I started and. and ripped. who. uplifted his mace outright. 455 longer to hold parley with the hermit. and. there came. in the stead thereof. and tore all asunder. the had nothing. might have been. indistinctly to my ears. the echo (but a stifled and dull one certainly) of the very cracking and ripping sound which Sir Launcelot had so particularly described. which sate in guard before a palace of gold. now entering within the door. which should have interested or disturbed me. what it appeared to that. for. a . he so cracked.' and now pulling therewith sturdily. in sooth. and the ordi- nary commingled noises of the still increasing storm. amid the rattling of the sashes of the casements. made quickly room in the plankings of the door for his gauntleted hand . dragon of a scaly and prodigious demeanor. paused for . I continued the story: sound. beyond doubt. but.

but harsh. and gave up his pesty breath. and struck upon the head of the dragon. And Ethelred uplifted his mace. and — most unusual screaming or grating sound the exact counterpart of what my fancy had already conjured up for the dragon's unnatural shriek as described by the romancer. as I certainly was. by a thousand conflicting sensations. my retained sufficient by any observation. upon the occurrence of this second and most extraordinary coincidence. assuredly. and now with a feeling for there could be no doubt whatever of wild amazement — that. presence of mind to avoid the sensitive nervousness of I still exciting. a strange alteration had. a conqueror hath bin slayeth the dragon. protracted. that Ethelred had fain to close his ears with his hands against the dreadful noise of whereof was never before heard. although. and fell withal so piercing. with a shriek so horrid and harsh. I was by no companion. means certain that he had noticed the sounds in question .45^ THE FALL OF THE LLOUSE OF USHER. during the . . and upon the wall there hung a shield of — shining brass with this legend enwritten Who Who entereth herein." it. Oppressed. which before him. a floor of silver. I did actually hear (although what direction it proceeded I found it from impossible to say) a low and apparently distant. in this instance. in which wonder and ex- treme terror were predominant. the like Here again I paused abruptly. the shield he shall win.

Having rapidly gentle yet taken notice of all this. and approached valorously over the silver pavement of the castle to where the shield was upon the wall which in sooth tarried not for his full coming. muffled. I resumed the narrative of Sir with this Launcelot. but . removed the carcass from out of the which was upon way before him. at the heavily to silver floor. I leaped but the measured rocking movement of . became aware —as fallen of a dis- and clangorous. the champion. taken place last position round fronting my in his demeanor.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. and of the breaking up of the enchantment it. idea — for I caught a glance of of his body. which thus proceeded " And now. metallic. few minutes. yet apparently Completely unnerved. and thus I door of could but partially perceive his features. terrible ringing sound. from the — wide and it rigid opening of the eye as The motion in profile." feet . — I lips. than moment. was at variance he rocked from side to side with a constant and uniform sway. own. too. His head had dropped upon his breast yet I knew that he was not asleep. upon a floor of silver hollow. fell down great and No if at his feet upon the sooner had these syllables passed tinct. having escaped from the terrible fury of the dragon. so as to sit with his face to the the chamber. he had 457 From a gradually brought his chair. although I saw that his lips trembled as if he were murmuring inaudibly. reverberation. bethinking himself of the : brazen shield. my with a mighty my a shield of brass had indeed.

I at length " drank Not hear it? in the —yes. 45§ Usher was undisturbed.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. I placed my . the — rending of her coffin. hear it. many hours. as if unconscious of my presence. and throughout his whole countenance there reigned a stony hand upon his shoulder. and the death-cry of the dragon. and have heard it. Bending closely over him. many days. Long —long— long—many minutes. spoke in a low. heart? Madman I ! and shrieked out — his syllables. miserable have am — dared not — dared not speak wretch that I I it I I I ! ! We have put her living in the tomb ! Said I not that. my senses were acute? I now tell you that I heard her first many. hurried. as rigidity. and the clangor of the shield say. heard — yet dared not — oh. speak heard them — hollow — — dared not I dared not many days ago yet And now — to-night — Ethelred — ha ha —the movements feeble ! in the coffin. and gibbering murmur. and her struggles within the coppered archway of the vault Oh whither shall I fly ? Will she not be ! ! here anon haste ? ? not hurrying to upbraid me for not heard her footstep on the stair ? Is she Have I my Do not distinguish that heavy and horrible beating of her " here he sprang furiously to his feet. pity me. a there came a strong shudder over his whole person sickly smile quivered about his lips. and the grating of the iron hinges of her prison. His eyes were bent fixedly before him. and I saw that he But. I rushed to the chair in which he sat. rather. I I I ! breaking of the hermit's door. as if in the effort he were . I hideous import of his words.

bore him to the floor a corpse. that chamber. and in her violent and now final death-agonies. the huge antique panels to which the speaker pointed threw back. . this fissure rapidly a fierce breath of the whirlwind— the entire While I . shot along the path a wild light. giving up his soul—" Madman stands without the door ! ! I tell 459 you that she now " As if in the superhuman energy of his utterance there had been found the potency of a spell. For a upon every portion moment she remained trembling and reeling to and fro then. and the evidence of some bitter struggle of her emaciated frame. From aghast. The storm was still abroad in all its found myself crossing the old causeway. there came widened— gazed. of which I have before spoken as extendto ing from the roof of the building. and I fled wrath as I Suddenly there I turned to see for the whence a gleam vast house and its shadows were alone behind me. the base. and blood-red moon. slowly upon the instant. setting. and from that mansion. their ponderous and ebony jaws. The so unusual could have issued radiance was that of the full. There was blood upon her white robes. with a low moaning cry.THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. in a zigzag direction. fell upon the threshold — heavily inward upon the person of her brother. and a victim to the terrors he had anticipated. which now shone vividly through that once barely discernible fissure. It was the work of the rushing gust— but then without those doors there did stand the lofty and enshrouded figure of the lady Madeline of Usher..

" silently over the fragments of the .460 THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER. — orb of the satellite burst at once upon my sight my brain reeled as I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder there — was a long tumultuous shouting sound like the voice of a thousand waters and the deep and dank tarn at my feet — closed sullenly and " House of Usher.

peri- Yet. fracto nunc funeris antro. [Quatrain composed for the gates of a market to be erected upon the Jacobin Club House at Paris. —perhaps for presently I heard —but with how terrible lips of the black-robed white —whiter — and last of distinct After that. aluit. Sospite nunc patria. and I was permitted to sit. I ! I saw the They appeared than the sheet upon which I to me trace these thin even to grotesqueness. It conveyed to my soul the from its association in fancy with the burr of a mill-wheel. Impia tortorum longas hie turba furores Sanguinis innocui. The sentence —the dread sentence of death accentuation which reached sound of the dreamy indeterminate hum.'] site WAS sick— sick unto death with that long agony of . for a while. the ears. the and I when they at length unbound me. my the inquisitorial voices seemed merged in one idea of revolution saw —was This only for a brief no more. I felt that my senses were leaving me.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. Mors ubi dira fuit vita salusque patent. thin with the intensity of their expression of firmness immovable words 461 —of . an exaggeration judges. non satiata. od.

with heads of flame. but still will not say that all of con- . And then my vision upon the seven tall candles upon the table. and stillness. I saw them writhe with a deadly locuresolution tion. and them there would be no help. while the angel forms less spectres. the tall candles sank into nothingness their flames went out utterly the blackness of darkness supervened all sensations appeared . At first they wore the aspect of charity. but just as my spirit came at length properly to feel and entertain it. and vanished. my name I and . I saw that the decrees of what to me was Fate were still issuing from those lips. and seemed white slender fell angels came who would a fibre in me save but then. too. from before me . the soft and nearly imperceptible waving of the sable draperies which en- wrapped the walls of the apartment. for a few moments of delirious horror. . And became meaningI saw that from then there stole into musical note.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. I had swooned . all at once. I I stern saw them fashion the syllables of shuddered because no sound succeeded. the figures of the judges gently and stealthily. 462 — of contempt of human torture. swallowed up in a mad rushing descent as of the soul into Hades. as if it magically. . The thought came fancy. Then silence. saw. the thought of what my sweet rest there must be in the grave. and I felt every my frame thrill as if I had touched the wire of a galvanic battery. there most deadly nausea over my spirit. . and night were the universe. like a rich seemed long before it attained full appreciation.

In the return to : first. musical cadence which has never before arrested his at- tention. whence they they not come unbidden. — ! we break ing from the most profound of slumbers. while we marvel come ? He who has never swooned. we if. there are two stages spiritual . exist- seems probable that ence. — — ! . we shall But if from the swoon secondly. is who not he finds faces in coals that strange palaces and wildly familiar in mid-air the sad glow is not he who beholds floating . recalled. upon reaching the second could recall the impressions of the should find these impressions eloquent gulf beyond. the gossamer web of some dream. — lost. at will. is not he who not he novel flower is ponders over the perfume of some the meaning of some with whose brain grows bewildered . visions that the many may not view. It stage. of it 463 there remained attempt to define. or even to describe not I will was not all yet In the deepest slumber no! In delirium no! In death no even in the grave all is In a swoon no Else there is no immortality for man. Amid endeavors to remember frequent and thoughtful . life that of the sense of mental or And distinguish that gulf its in —what? How is shadows from those the impressions of what I of we first.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. after long interval. yet. that of the sense of physical. (so frail may that web have been) we remember not that we have dreamed. Yet in a second afterward. memories of the at least the tomb have termed the ? first do stage are not. Arousnot lost. What sciousness was lost.

indistinctly.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. 464 amid earnest struggles to regather some token of the state of seeming nothingness into which my soul had lapsed. I have dreamed of suc- there have been brief. very suddenly. toil. all is busies itself on account of that heart's un- all things . if had outrun. a sense of sudden motionas call to I mind madness — the among the sound of blank. sound — the tumultuous is those and dampness madness of a memory which Very suddenly there came back ears. very brief periods when I have conjured up remembrances which the lucid reason of a later epoch assures me could have had reference only to that condition of seeming unconsciousness. who Then flatness . in their descent. thought. Then a pause in which all tingling sensation pervading shuddering bore forbidden things. —a Then the mere consciousness of existence. —a condition Then. its to my soul motion and again sound. These shadows of memory tell. the limits of !) and paused from the wearisomeness of their After this and then heart. and touch my frame. which lasted long. true state. and and earnest endeavor to comprehend Then a strong desire to lapse into insensi- . terror. Then comes natural stillness. in my beating. without thought my me (a motion of the heart. and motion. They tell also of a till vague horror at my lessness throughout ghastly train the limitless. moments when there have been cess . and. of tall figures that lifted and bore me in silence down down still down — — — a hideous dizziness oppressed me at the mere idea of the interminableness of the descent.

while I strove to heavily upon something suffered it to remain for imagine where and what not. is not- altogether incon- . read in fiction. and it far. There I many minutes. Then bility. The intensity of the darkness seemed to oppress and stifle me. It I longed. . I still lay quietly. I felt that I lay back. blackness of eternal night en- compassed me. of the judges. had not opened my eyes. were confirmed. of the sentence. with a wild desperation at heart. of the swoon. I point interval passed and it appeared to me that a very long did I moment a for not Yet of time had since elapsed. that followed .THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. I vision. of all that a later day and ness of endeavor have enabled So upon fell me much earnest- vaguely to recall. The sentence had made effort to exercise my reason. effort to 465 And now a full memory of the trial. I reached out my hand. I quickly unclosed then. suppose myself actually dead. could be. and brought to mind the inquisitorial proceedings. a rushing revival of soul and a successful move. At length. to employ my objects around me. and attempted from that to deduce my real condition. My worst thoughts. unbound. but that I grew aghast lest there should be nothiitg to see. of the sable draperies. I my damp and hard. withstanding what we sistent with real existence Such a supposition. yet dared dreaded the I was not that I first glance at feared to look upon things horrible. I struggled for breath. The atmosphere was intolerably close. of the Then entire forgetfulness of all sickness. my The eyes.— but where and in what state .

knew. lest I beads upon my at length intolerable. my recollection a thousand came thronging upon vague rumors of the horrors of Toledo. Had I been rey manded to dungeon. Upon recovering. to await the next my sacrifice. Perspiration burst from every pore. fates. and light was my not altogether excluded. The agony forehead. Victims had been in immediate demand. demned cells dungeon. fearful idea now suddenly drove the blood in A rents upon my heart.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. perished usually at the auto-da-fes and one of these had been held on the very night of the day of my trial. the most hideous of there of suspense hope of catching some for I seemed I arms extended. had stone floors. as I still continued to step cautiously onward. at least. and their sockets in the light. Moreover. started to I thrust my my directions. which would not take place for many months ? This I at once saw could not be. but breathed more faint ray of all was freely. And cautiously my moved many I grew forward. and stood in cold big . every arms wildly above and around I felt tor- once more I me move in all a step. Of the dungeons . It still evident that mine was not. nothing should be impeded by the walls of a tomb. now. I at once trembling convulsively in yet dreaded to fibre. and for a brief period relapsed into insensibility. eyes straining from paces . feet. as well as all the conat Toledo. with my and proceeded blackness and vacancy. 466 was The condemned I ? to I death.

in some min- my point of was but it seemed hem from trivial : at first the robe and placed the fragment at full length. I had thought of forcing the blade ute crevice of the masonry. and cold. so perfectly uniform seemed the wall. but my it pocket was gone. me no means dungeon. and at right angles to the wall. afforded my sions of had inspired me. I of my doubt. left to perish of starvation subterranean world of darkness. I my tore a part of the fancy. and too ghastly to Was I repeat. of ascertaining the dimen- might make its circuit and re- turn to the point whence I set out without being aware of the fact. tain antique narratives however. The difficulty. My solid outstretched hands at length encountered some obstruction. awaited me ? That the result in this would be death. slimy. or what fate perhaps even more fearful. I followed it with all the careful distrust with which cerstepping masonry up . so as to identify departure. 467 there had been strange things narrated— fables I had always deemed them —but yet strange. and a death of more than customary knew too well the character The mode and the hour were bit- terness. all that occupied judges to or distracted me. in the disorder of insuperable. I therefore sought the knife which had been in when my led into the inquisitorial chamber . clothes had been exchanged for a wrapper of coarse serge. I could . seemingly of stone —very smooth. It was a wall. In groping my way around the prison. as I This process. although.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. save in a whisper. nevertheless.

I resumed tour around the prison. — had counted forty-eight more when I arrived There were in all. and stretching forth an arm. ground was moist and slippery. however. came at my last upon the fragment of the serge. upon resuming my walk. and did not hesitate to step firmly — endeavoring . had met. as I lay. I staggered onward for some time. and. I thought . but ate and drank with avidity. for vault posing it I had searches them. Upon awaking. I found beside me a loaf and a pitcher with water. then.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. Up to the period when I fell. with I could form no guess many angles in I presumed the dungeon the wall. I took was treacherous with slime. object — certainly no hope but a vague curiosity prompted Quitting the wall. however. of the enclosure. little . I could not help sup- to be. and thus at the shape of the vault. At first. My excessive me fatigue induced overtook me to remain prostrate and sleep soon . but I had not counted upon the to encounter this rag fail So. courage. I to be fifty yards in circuit. or upon my own The weakness. At length. I I — me in these re- to continue resolved to cross the area proceeded with extreme cau- tion. I was too much exhausted to reflect upon this circumstance. when I stumbled and fell. a hundred paces and. I had counted fifty-two paces. and with much toil. extent of the dungeon. . at least. although seemingly of solid material. admitting two paces to the yard. 468 not upon completing the circuit. I at the rag. for the floor. Shortly afterward.

and while prostrate. of course. arrested rested my somewhat a diately apprehend upon the my attention. It floor of the prison. At the same time. I did not imme- circumstance. and fell violently on face. I saw clearly the doom which had been prepared for . and shuddered to very brink of a circular whose extent.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. while a faint gleam of suddenly through the gloom. and the peculiar smell of decayed fungus arose to my nostrils. was a At I hearkened sides' of the sullen plunge the same mo- ment. my forehead seemed bathed in a clammy my lips. 469 it. In the confusion attending which yet. reverberations as chasm in its descent it ascertaining at just below the a small fragment. there . by loud echoes. touched nothing. although seemingly at a less elevation than the chin. vapor. when the robe became entangled this stepped on I legs. was but this : I still my lay chin and the upper portion of my head. into water. to cross in as direct a line as possible. let to I it fall its succeeded in dislodging into the abyss. find that I I had put forward fallen at the my arm. and as light flashed suddenly faded away. there came a sound resembling the quick opening and as rapid closing of a door overhead. Groping about the masonry margin. startling few seconds afterward. and For many seconds dashed against the at length. I had no means of the moment. in a fall. succeeded pit. some ten or twelve paces in remnant of the torn hem of my between my my had advanced I manner.

strung. and I emptied the vessel at must have been drugged for scarcely had drunk. or death most hideous moral horrors. — I upon me became —a sleep irresistibly drowsy. as before. like that of death. for the latter. choice of death with with its its direst physical agonies. and the world had seen me no more. I groped my way back to the wall in — resolving there to perish rather than of the wells. but now I in various positions was the I veriest of cowards.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. before fell a loaf and a pitcher of water. by my side. by a plunge into one of these abysses . I It sleep A consumed me. tions of mind. Upon arousing. until I By I and had become every respect a fitting subject for the species of torture which awaited me. I found . And the death just avoided was of that very character which I had regarded as fabulous and frivolous in the tales respecting the To the victims of its tyranny. of risk the terrors now which my imagination pictured many In other condiabout the dungeon. Shaking in every limb. had read of these pits Neither could I forget what —that the sudden extinction of life formed no part of their most horrible plan. I might have had courage to end my misery at once. 470 me. there was the Inquisition. had been reserved long suffering my nerves had been untrembled at the sound of my own voice. A How deep long . Agitation of spirit kept me awake for many long hours but at length I again slumbered. burning thirst a draught. Another step before my fall. and congratulated myself upon the timely accident by which I had escaped.

THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. >rtance. . For some minutes •ouble this fact occasioned indeed — vain . too. the origin of which By not at first was enabled I determine. I had been deceived. attempt at exploration first a world of vain what could be terrible circumstances ml took a wild interest r for me the period when I I fell had counted : I fifty- must then have within a pace or two of the fragment of serge in I I had nearly performed the circuit of the vault. truth at length flashed upon me. . sulphurous lustre. then slept upon what actually was. must — steps thus supposing the observing the left. double confusion of mind prevented that I began my tour with the My and ended it with the wall to the right. The whole circuit of its walls did not exceed twenty-five yards. up to of less im- which environed dungeon? But my and I busied myself in the error I had committed in my my in trifles. lasted. upon awaking. I could to see the extent and aspect of the prison. In its size I had been greatly mistaken. under the than the mere dimensions of ). my o paces. . of course I it I my unclosed know not 471 but when. the objects around a wild. once again. upon . ?en fact. me were visible. ideavors to account for The :asurement. in respect to the shape of the In feeling my way I had found many angles. eyes. me from to wall I have returned circuit nearly my it —and. and thus deduced an idea of great irregularity so potent one arousing from is the effect of total darkness enclosure.

too. on a low framework of wood. or whose sutures or The intervals. and dint of I my left arm to such extent.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. leaving at liberty only that my head. The the depression. and at full length. convolutions about my limbs and body. 47'2 lethargy or sleep The ! angles were simply those of a few slight depressions. damp atmosphere. at odd taken for masonry seemed metal. by with food from an earthen dish which lay by my side on the floor. with skeleton forms. I observed that the outlines of these monstrosities were sufficiently but that the colors seemed faded and blurred. as distinct. much exertion. now What to be iron. The figures of fiends in aspects of menace. which was of stone. I now species of upon my back. to my horror. or niches. I saw. To this I was securely lay bound by a long in many It passed strap resembling a surcingle. I say to my horror — for I was consumed with . overspread and disfigured the walls. if from the the effects of a floor. in huge plates. that the pitcher had been removed. All this saw I indistinctly I I now noticed In the centre yawned had escaped but it . and by much effort — for my personal condition had been greatly changed during slumber. supply myself could. the circular pit from whose jaws was the only one in the dungeon. and other more really fearful images. general shape of the prison I had some other joints occasioned entire surface of this metallic enclo- was rudely daubed in all the hideous and repulsive devices to which the charnel superstition of the monks sure has given rise. was square.

my In an instant afterward the fancy was confirmed. ever. was Looking upward. they came up in troops. save that. such in lieu of as we see on antique clocks. some minutes some- what in fear. I watched but more in it I floor. allured meat. Its and of course slow. and constructed much as the side walls. I surveyed the ceiling of my prison. It was some thirty or forty feet overhead. right. hurriedly. in the to regard at upward I own) appearance of this it more it (for its There was something. my sign of dish 473 This intolerable thirst. to scare It From this it required much by the scent effort of the and attention them away.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. at length eyes upon notice. while I gazed. noise attracted my I sweep was Wearied wonder. as he is commonly panels a very singuIt was the painted represented. lar figure riveted Time figure of In one of its my whole attention. the other objects in the cell. might have been half an hour. I supto be the of a posed pictured image huge pendulum. They had issued from the well which lay just within view to my Even then. with ravenous eyes. looking to the saw several enormous rats traversing it. a scythe. at a casual glance. howmachine which caused me While attentively. fancied that I gazed directly position was immediately over I saw it in motion. and. A slight for turned my brief. he held what. with observing its dull movement. thirst it appeared to be the deto stimulate— for the food in the persecutors meat pungently seasoned. perhaps even an hour .

is I a natural But greater. could no longer doubt the monkish ingenuity in torture. the horns upward. the demon accidents. The sweep of the pendulum (for I had increased consequence in its extent by nearly a yard. was velocity what mainly disturbed me ceptibly descended. before I again cast my eyes upward. was the idea that now observed needless to say— that much also As it —with what had per- horror it nether extremity was formed its of a crescent of glittering steel. it was no part of and thus into the abyss . (there being no alternative) a different and a milder deI half smiled in my Milder struction awaited me. — the pit. 474 could take but imperfect note of time). . tapering from the It was ap- edge into a solid and broad structure above. ! agony as I thought of such application of such a term. seemed massy and heavy. or entrapment into torment. I had avoided by the merest of formed an important portion of dungeon deaths. for so bold a recusant as myself the pit typical of hell and regarded by rumor as the Ultima Thule of all their punishments. and the under edge evidently as keen as that of a razor. about a foot in length from horn to horn. pended to a weighty rod of it swung I through the brass. What I then saw confounded and amazed me. had become known to the doom My prepared for me by cognizance of the pit inquisitorial agents whose horrors had been destined — and the whole hissed as air. Like a razor it also. that surprise. The plunge into this pit and I knew '. Having plan to hurl all the grotesquerieof these failed to me fall.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM.

as I say. — — expressibly sick and weak. The odor of the sharp steel forced I itself into wearied heaven with scent. my I my what business had /with hope? It was. during which oscillations of the steel w 475 I counted the rushing line by line with Inch by inch ! — a descent only appreciable at intervals that seemed ages — down and down still came it — Days passed it might have been that many days passed— ere it swept so closely over me as to fan me with its acrid breath. and who could have arrested the vibration Upon my recovery. With painful effort I outstretched my left bonds permitted. and took possession of the small remnant which had been spared me by the rats. long hours of horror tell more than mortal. And then I fell suddenly calm. Even amid the agonies of that period. been long— for .THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. I felt very oh inpleasure. there rushed Yet of of mind a half-formed thought joy— hope. too. as a child at There was another brief . and lay smiling at the glittering death. for. interval of utter insensibility again lapsing into upon life. some rare bauble. which are never — . I it my swoon. I prayed — more speedy demad. arm as far as As to put a portion of it within my lips. a halfformed thought man has many such. I grew my ! my nostrils. the human nature craved food. of at it was there had been no But might have knew there were demons who took note perceptible descent in the pendulum. What boots to it of the long. and struggled to force prayer for its frantically myself upward against the sweep of the fearful scimitar. as if through ! long inanition.

THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. my I Long suffering had it. sufficient to sunder these very walls of iron. Notwithstanding its terrifically wide sweep (some thirty feet or more). I felt also that had perished it struggled to perfect nearly annihilated was an imbecile The —to all —an it formation. I of the crescent — should pass across the garment upon the peculiar thrilling sensation which the friction of cloth produces on the nerves. in its regain — of hope but . robe would be my would accomplish. . I idiot. I felt In vain ordinary powers of mind. I saw that the crescent was designed to cross the region of the heart. with the stealthy pace alternately laughed and howled. 47 6 that was of joy completed. still the fraying of utes. ! it left to crept. as the one or the other idea grew predominant. Down —steadily down ure in contrasting To the right of a damned of the tiger ! — to I its the spirit took a frenzied pleasdownward with its lateral velocity. I all that. It would fray the serge of my robe it would return and repeat its operations again — — — and again. — my far I and wide —with the shriek heart. And at for several minthis thought I dared not go further than this reflection. and the hissing vigor of its descent. in so — could arrest here the descent of the forced myself to ponder upon the sound steel. it paused. I pondered upon all this frivolity until my as it teeth were on edge. I it with a pertinacity of attention as if. I dwelt upon dwelling. vibration of the pendulum was at right angles to my length.

I shrunk con- eyes followed ward or upward whirls with the eagerness at the descent. collected calmness of despair. from the platter beside me. how unspeakable Still I quivered in every nerve to how slight a sinking of the machinery would pre! think It cipitate that keen. I saw that some ten or twelve vibrations would bring the steel in actual contact with my robe and with this — observation there suddenly came over keen. with great effort. that the bandage. This was free only from the elbow to the hand. down! inevitably gasped and struggled at each vibration. which en- . It the time now occurred to me. ' Could I avalanche ! Down — still unceasingly — still vulsively at its every sweep. unmeaning despair oh. I my mouth. Down—certainly. I might as well have attempted to arrest an elbow. three inches of my relentlessly bosom ! I down 477 It vibrated within ! struggled violently— furi- ously—to free my left arm. — — during many hours or perhaps days my spirit all For the first I thought. or surcingle. I could reach the latter. was hope that prompted the nerve to quiver the frame to shrink. . My I out- its of the most they closed themselves spasmodically although death would have been a relief. to farther. but no have broken the fastenings above the would have seized and attempted to arrest the pendulum. the hope that triumphs on the It was hope rack that whispers to the death-condemned even in the — — — dungeons of the Inquisition. glistening axe upon my bosom.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM.

limbs and body close in all it head surcingle directions — save in the path of the destroying crescent. to attempt its execution. thought was now present definite but still entire. in that case. that the minions of the torturer foreseen and provided for this possibility my able that the bandage crossed the pendulum my seemed. how deadly Was it ! ! had not likely. it wound from my person by means of my how fearful. scarcely proceeded at once. I as I lay had been literally red eyes for motionlessness waited but they wild. Dreading to ? last hope frustrated. They were glaring on my upon me part to " thought. The first stroke of the razor-like crescent athwart any portion of the band would so detach that it might be unBut left hand. as my so far elevated The breast.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. 478 veloped me. as to obtain a distinct view of enveloped my find I my Was ? bosom in my it prob- the track of faint and. I was tied by no separate cord. the proximity of the steel The result of the slightest struggle. moreover. when I dropped my head back into original cannot upon my the unformed half of that idea of better describe than as deliverance to which its mind what there flashed I I have previously alluded. The whole — feeble. Scarcely had position. — scarcely sane. bold. and of which a moiety only floated indeterminately through my brain when I raised food to my burning lips. if swarming with ravenous — their make me their prey. For many hours the immediate vicinity of the low frame- work upon which rats. " have they been accustomed To what in food. was unique." the well " ? I . with the nervous energy of despair.

in ever throat its They pressed accumulating heaps. at length. the unconscious uni- movement deprived it of effect. swelled a heavy clamminess. their cold lips sought their thronging pressure my swarmed They writhed upon my own . With the particles of the and oily viand which now dage wherever from the floor. ried in fresh troops. the I had fallen into an habitual see-saw or wave of the all about the platter formity of the . They had devoured. world has no name. raising . their voracity. Forth from the well they hurto the They clung wood —they over- and leaped in hundreds upon my person. had not counted Observing that They But in vain this upon remained without mo- I one or two of the boldest leaped upon the framework. and chilled. This seemed the tion. strokes. The measured movement of the pendulum disturbed them not ran at it. At first. in spite of all 479 my efforts to prevent but a small remnant of the contents of them. lay breathlessly still. many sought I the well. with Yet one minute. sharp fangs in my fingers. moment.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. shrank alarmedly back was only I remained. I disgust. . for was half which the bosom. the ravenous animals were startled and terrified change — at the cessation of movement. hand and. all. signal for a general rush. for a . dish. —they my . and smelt at the surcingle. at the could reach I I spicy thoroughly rubbed the banit hand my then. they busied themselves with bandage. In their the vermin frequently fastened their voracity. and I heart. the Avoiding anointed upon me my stifled by .

endured I The surcingle But the stroke of the my bosom. had . to *be delivered unto worse than ! death in some other. Something unusual some change which. through the ceiling. one place it I Plainly knew I at felt length in ribands from that my I was hung pendulum already pressed upon body. and I beheld it — I had but escaped death undoubtedly watched. 480 felt would be that the struggle over. Nor had I erred in my calculations in vain. But the moment of escape had At arrived. human resolution I lay still. at least. This was a lesson which I took desperately to heart. With that thought I rolled my around on the barriers of iron that hemmed eyes nervously me in. shrinking. Free in one form of agony. My every motion was ish machine ceased. perceived more than With a more than must be already severed. — I could not appreciate distinctly — it was obvious. It had di- vided the serge of the robe. and a sharp sense of pain shot through every nerve. from the embrace of the bandage and beyond the reach of the scimitar. the moment. by some invisible force. the loosening of the bandage. Twice again it swung. I that in —nor had free. the grasp of the Inquisition I had scarcely stepped from my wooden bed of horror upon the stone floor of the prison. and slow I slid — cautious. at first. a wave multously away. It had cut through the linen beneath. of my hand my deliverers hurried tu- With a steady movement — sidelong. when the motion of the hell- Free ! in ! drawn up.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. —and For I was free.

about half an inch in It proceeded width. These colors had now asand were momentarily assuming. yet the colors I seemed blurred and indefinite. the mystery of the altera- tion in the chamber broke at once upon my understanding. extending entirely around the prison at the base of the walls. came aware. unconnected conjecture. startling and most intense brilliancy. Unreal! Even while I breathed there came to — my my nos- A the breath of the vapor of heated iron suffoodor the settled cating pervaded prison deeper glow each moment in the eyes that glared at my agonies trils ! ! A ! A richer tint of crimson diffused itself over the pictured . first 48 j I During of a busied myself in this period. which thus appeared. for the For many minutes abstraction. Demon eyes. that gave to the and spectral an aspect that might have thrilled even firmer nerves than my own. of a wild and ghastly vivacity. As I arose from the attempt. glared upon me in a thousand direcfiendish portraitures tions. and were completely separated from the floor. to look the through aperture. a sumed. although the outlines of the figures upon the walls were sufficiently distinct. that I and gleamed could not force imagination to regard as unreal. where none had been with the lurid lustre of a fire visible before. I endeavored.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM taken place in the apartment. but of course in vain. dreamy and trembling vain. from a fissure. I be- time. have observed that. of the origin of the sul- phurous light which illumined the cell.

conseobtuse. for a wild moment. — with a low rumbling or moaning sound. comprehend the meaning forced itself in face in my soul like my strain- threw The ing vision below. The heat rapidly increased. The room had been square. The Inquisitorial vengeance had been hurried by my two-fold escape. horror ! — oh ! I my Oh into ! any horror but rushed from the margin. the came idea of the coolness of the well balm. now it the change was obwas in vain that I at endeavored to appreciate or understand what was But not long was I left in doubt. illumined "over I its ! wrestled my its way of what shuddering reason. glare from the enkindled roof spirit refuse to my saw. . rushed to I did soul — inmost recesses. and there was to be no more dallying with the taking place. At it length burned for a voice to this With a ! buried deadly brink. first cell —and As before. and once again I looked up. I panted I ! ! — ! most unrelenting oh most demoniac of men I shrank from the glowing metal to the centre of the cell. its my it — it upon —oh speak ! shriek. 482 There gasped for breath could be no doubt of the design of my tormentors oh horrors of blood. The fearful difference quickly increased Terrors. I my Yet. shuddering as with a fit of the ague. There had been a second change in the viously in the form. King of that two quently. I saw of its iron angles were now acute two. In an instant the apartment had shifted its form into that of a lozenge. Amid ! ! ! the thought of the fiery destruction that impended. and hands —weeping bitterly.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM.

averted human my eyes— voices trumpets! ! There There was a The fiery walls harsh grating as of a thousand thunders An outstretched arm caught my own as I rushed back ! ! fell.THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM. just over the yawning found vent in gulf. but the agony prison. greatest width. flatter the with a grew lozenge. The . could I and me ? Could ! hum many of — I floor of the my of soul scream of despair. I felt or ? withstand no time back I resist its its pressure ? And now. Lasallei into the abyss. and There was a discordant blast as of its shrank seared and writhing body there my final that I tottered upon the brink was a loud I resistlessly on- was no longer an inch of foothold on the firm I struggled no more. long. glow even if me the closing walls pressed length for and of course Its centre. rapidity that left me that. But the desired here— I alteration stopped not it to stop. " Death. any death but that of the pit have known that into the pit it was the object of the burn- my bosom as a " ! ing iron to urge flatter for contemplation. enemies. 483 neither hoped nor could have clasped the red walls to I garment of eternal peace. one loud. came —but At ward. It The French army had Inquisition was in the hands of its was that of General entered Toledo." I " Fool might I not said. fainting.

the As should regard them with simple abhor- rence. or to disgust. not than the character of the calamity. of the Massacre of St. have mentioned some few of the more prominent and august calamities on record but in these it is the extent. I . of the Plague at pleasurable pain Beresina. They are with propriety handled only when the severity* and majesty of truth sanctify and sustain them. with the thrill. are certain themes of which the interest is THERE all-absorbing. he do not wish to offend.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. " We if for example. stifling of the Bartholomew. or of the hundred and twenty-three prisoners in the Black Hole at Calcutta. less 484 . fact — it is the reality inventions. which so I need not remind the reader vividly impresses the fancy. from the and weird that. romanticist must eschew. it is it is the history which excites. in these accounts. long catalogue of human miseries. but which are too entirely horrible These the mere for the purposes of legitimate fiction. most intense of " over the accounts of the Passage of the Earthquake at Lisbon. we — But. of the London.

— the particular. ultimate woe. ces- They are only temporary pauses in the incomprehensible mech- anism. not diffuse. these extremes which has ever fallen to the lot terrific of mere mortality. nor the golden bowl irreparably broken. That has frequently. 485 might have selected many individual instances more plete with essential suffering than any of these vast I re- gener- The alities of disaster. Who shall say where the where the other begins? We know that one ends. —apart from this consideration.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. from the inevitable But conclusion. it The boundaries which divide Life from Death and shadowy vague. That the ghastly extremes of agony are endured by man the unit. meantime. now and then. where. the most is. and some unseen mys- terious principle again sets in motion the magic pinions and the wizard wheels. and there are diseases in which occur total cessations of all the are at best apparent functions of vitality. we have the . scarcely be denied by those who think. and yet in which these sations are merely suspensions. —that the well-known occurrence of such cases of suspended animation must naturally give rise. indeed. was the soul ? Apart. properly so called. very freso fallen will quently. however. a priori that such causes must produce such effects. and never by man the mass— for this let us thank a merciful God! To be buried while alive of beyond question. to premature interments. A certain period elapses. The silver cord was not for ever loosed. — is true wretchedness.

or had reason to suspect. was opened alas ! how At the expira- for the reception of a fearful a'shock awaited the husband. on account what was supposed to be decom- of the rapid advance of position. much suffering she died. The wife of one of the most respectable citizens ago. and of which the circumstances fresh in the memory of some of my may be readers. dred well-authenticated instances. indeed. personally. during which it had acquired a stony rigidity. if necessary.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. The funeral. intense. was undisturbed. pallor. sarcophagus . where very long it occasioned a painful. who. There was no warmth. I might refer at once. in the —a lawyer of — eminence and a member of Congress was seized with a sudden and unaccountable illness. for three subsequent years. were of the usual marble lips The eyes were lustreless. or was supposed to die. After No one suspected. that she was She presented all the ordinary apThe face assumed the usual pinched not actually dead. which completely baffled the skill of her physicians. in short. threw open the door ! As its . and sunken The outline. which. Pulsation had ceased. pearances of death. 486 direct testimony of medical number and ordinary experience to of such interments have actually prove that a vast taken place. occurred. to a hun- One of very remark- able character. not neighboring city of Baltimore. tion of this term it —but. For three days the body was preserved unburied. The lady was deposited in her family vault. and widely-extended excitement. was hastened.

His talents and general amiability of wealth. might have been exhausted. or journalist. by evaporation. in falling.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. with which. she probably swooned. through sheer terror and. fall that her from a was so broken as to A permit her escape. erect. where it it to . lamp which had been accidentally of full within the tomb. to the floor. iron-work which projected interiorly. a poor litterateur. that she had endeavored to arrest attention by While thus occupied. The Victorine Lafourcade. however. or shelf. indeed. had recommended him whom to the notice of the heiress. 487 some white-apparelled obIt was the skeleton of ject fell rattling within his arms. On the uppermost of the steps which led down into the dread chamber was a large fragment of the coffin. Among her numerous suitors was Julien Bossuet. stranger than heroine of the story was a Mademoiselle warrant the assertion that truth fiction. but her . or possibly died. a case of living inhumation happened in France. it seemed. portals swung outwardly back. striking the iron door. was found empty it oil. and thus she rotted. a young girl of illustrious family. . Thus she remained. and of great personal beauty. by he seems to have been truly beloved. of Paris. left. her shroud became entangled in some . In the year 18 10. A careful investigation rendered evident that she had it revived within two days after her entombment struggles within the coffin had caused ledge. his wife in her yet unmoulded shroud. attended with circumstances which go far to is.

. a banker and a diplomatist of some eminence. and to wed a Monsieur Renelle. she revived. village. and. Having passed with' him some wretched years. She recognized her preserver. had been mistaken of her lover from the lethargy which He bore her frantically to his lodgings in the He employed certain powerful restoratives sug- for death. this gentleman neglected. however. She remained with him by slow degrees. she fully recovered her original Her woman's heart was not adamant. is the lady had been buried alive. she — her condition so closely resembled death as to deceive every one who saw her.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. She bestowed it She returned no more to her husband. and she was aroused by the caresses In fact. more positively ill-treated her. until. upon but. 488 pride of birth decided her. with the romantic purpose of disinterring the corpse. and arrested At midnight he unearths the in the act of detaching the hair. finally. and this health. opens when he is it. from the capital to the remote province in which the village lies. perhaps. Vitality had not altogether departed. fled with her Bossuet. coffin. concealing from him her resurrection. even. last lesson of love sufficed to soften it. but in an ordinary grave in the village of her Filled with despair. gested by no little medical learning. After marriage. the by unclosing of the beloved eyes. In fine. She was buried not died at least — nativity. He reaches the grave. to reject him. the lover journeys in a vault. and still inflamed by the memory of a profound attachment. and possessing himself of its luxuriant tresses.

a man of gigantic stature and of robust health. the two re- turned to France. On the Sunday following. Trepanning was accomplished successfully. not only equitably. finally. in the persuasion that time had so greatly altered the lady's appearance that her friends would be unable to recognize her. received a very severe contusion upon the head. lover to America. Twenty 489 years afterward. and. at the first meeting. which rendered him insensible at once the skull was slightly . and he was buried with inde- cent haste in one of the public cemeteries. actually recognize and make claim to his wife. fractured. They were mistaken. had extinguished. he more hopeless fell into a state of stupor. records distressing event of the char- acter in question. Gradually. however for. and a judicial tribunal sustained her in her resistance. but no immediate danger was apprehended. it more and was thought that he died. The weather was warm.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. but legally. which some American bookseller would do well to in a late translate number a very and republish. An officer of artillery. a periodical of high authority and merit. This claim she resisted. the authority of the husband. was bled. His funeral the took place on Thursday. deciding that the peculiar circumstances. . He other of the ordinary means of relief were and many adopted. Monsieur Renelle did . being thrown from an unmanageable horse. with the long lapse of years. however. The Chirurgical Journal of Leipsic.

he said. and there pronounced to be tic condition. terror. still living. He the crowd overhead. he had distinctly felt a commotion of the earth. much thronged with visitors. before lapsing into insensibility. Spades were hurriedly procured. while sitting upon the grave of the officer. which was shamefully shallow. 49° grounds of the cemetery were. and the grave. and. recognized individuals of his acquaintance. was in a few minutes so far thrown open occupant appeared. which appeared . as if occasioned by some one At struggling beneath. It was the tumult within the grounds of the cemetery. he had partially that the head of its uplifted. it was clear that he must have been conscious of life for more than an hour. and endeav- air heard the footsteps of ored to make himself heard in turn. He was forthwith conveyed to the nearest hospital. carelessly soil . although in an asphy- After some hours he revived.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. and about noon an intense excitement was created by the declaration of a peasant that. He was then seemingly dead . in his furious struggles. had at length their natural effect upon the crowd. while humed. in broken sentences spoke of his agonies in the grave. and the dogged obstinacy with which he persisted in his story.'but he sat nearly erect within his coffin. and loosely and thus some filled The in- grave was with an exceedingly porous was necessarily admitted. the man's asseveration first little attention was paid to but his evident . as usual. the lid of which. From what he related.

The patient. at the time. it is recorded. As often happens. nevertheless. from a grave eight feet deep. appar- typhus fever. occasionally. disinter the refusals are made. and corpse was unearthed and. to awaken him from a deep awake than he became fully 4gl sleep. my memory a well-known and very extraordinary case in point. the corps the supposed upon the third night after the funeral. was doing well. Mr. accompanied with some anomalous symptoms which had excited the curiosity of his medical attendants. but fell a victim to the quackeries of medical experiment. and seemed to be in a fair way of ultimate recover}'. and created. Edward Stapleton. a very profound sensation wherever it was made the subject of converse. in private. . practitioners resolved to body and dissect it at leisure. This occurred in 1831. it superin- duces. and he suddenly expired in one of those ecstatic paroxysms which. This patient. Arrangements were easily effected with some of the -numerous of body-snatchers with which London abounds. had died. The galvanic battery was applied. The mention the galvanic of battery. where its action proved the means of restoring to animation a young attorney of London.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. who recalls to had been interred for two days. Upon his seeming decease. his friends were ently. when such declined to permit it. of but requested to sanction a post-mortem examination. but no sooner was he aware of the awful horrors of his position.

It grew late. It was seen that Mr. with a hurried but quite unconvulsive movement. and insisted upon applying the battery to one of the pectoral muscles. although in a swoon. he . fell the syllabification was distinct. then gazed about him uneasily for a few seconds. An some extent had been actually made in the abdomen. and spoke. at length. however. except. A student. The day was about to dawn and . and a wire hastily brought in contact . another.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. and the customary effects supervened. stepped into the middle of the floor. all knowledge was no until a relapse . heavily to the floor. it was thought expedient. when the patient. when the fresh and undecayed appearance incision of of the subject suggested an application of One experiment succeeded the battery. What he said was unintelligible but words — . arose from the table. to proceed at once to the dissection. were uttered spoken. a more than ordinary degree of life-likeness in the convulsive action. however. upon one or two occasions. all Upon exhibition of ether he revived and was rapidly restored to health. was especially desirous of testing a theory of his own. A rough gash was made. Stapleton was alive. 49 2 deposited in the operating chamber of one of the private hospitals. For some moments Having — were paralyzed with awe but the urgency of the case soon restored them their presence of mind. with nothing to characterize them in any respect. was withheld. and to the society of his friends of his resuscitation — from whom.

S. reflect how very rarely. longer to be apprehended. our power to detect them. upon recognizing the locality of the dissecting-room. we must may frequently occur without our cogniin Scarcely. Fearful indeed the suspicion doom ! It may —but more fearful the be asserted. we have it admit that they zance. 493 asserts. from the nature of the When we case. from the moment in which he was pronounced dead by his physicians. in truth. that skeletons are not found in postures which suggest the most fearful of suspicions. he was aware of everything which happened to him. in his extremity. himself declares that at no period was he is less. raptu- thrilling peculiarity of this incident. for any is a graveyard ever encroached purpose. neverthe- involved in what Mr. he had fell endeavored. without hesitation. rous astonishment The most Their wonder—their — may be conceived. to utter. we have no need of — — such to establish the fact that premature interments occur. as is burial before event is — oppression of the lungs the to the stifling fumes of the damp earth— the clinging death. to any great extent. dully he swooning to the floor of the hospital. that no so terribly well adapted to inspire the supremeness of bodily and of mental distress.TEE PREMATURE BURIAL. to that in which that. " I am alive." were the uncomprehended words which. upon. indeed. The unendurable . He altogether insensible— and confusedly. It were an easy matter to multiply such histories as these but I forbear for.

which still palpitates. or even for a shorter . carry into the heart. for a day only. 494 — — death garments the rigid embrace of the narrow house the blackness of the absolute Night the silence like a — —the unseen but palpable presence of the Conqueror Worm — these things. very properly and very peculiarly depends upon our conviction What I have now to of the truth of the matter narrated. and of the air with consciousness that of this fate they can never be informed that our hopeless portion is that of the really — dead —these considerations. nevertheless. tell is of my own actual knowledge — of my own positive and personal experience. its obvious and apparent character is sufficiently well understood. which. For several years I had been subject to attacks of the singular disorder which physicians have agreed to term catalepsy. Although both the immediate and the predisposing causes. through the sacred awe of the topic itself. an interest. I say. Its variations seem to be chiefly of degree. We know of nothing so agonizing upon Earth — we can dream of nothing half so hideous in the realms of the nethermost Hell. of this disease are still mysterious. with memory of dear friends who would fly to save us if but informed of our fate. with the thoughts sea that overwhelms and grass above. a degree of appalling and intolerable horror from which the most daring imagination must recoil. Sometimes the patient lies. in default of a more definitive title. And thus all narratives upon this topic have an interest profound .THE PREMATURE BURIAL. and even the actual diagnosis.

Then again the duration of the trance is for weeks — even for months while the closest scrutiny. can detect a torpid. the fits grow and endure each sucfor a longer term than the preceding. or. The cessively more and more first manifestations. by the consequent suspicion excited. upon application of a mirror to the . and vacillating action of the lungs. faintly perceptible He sense- some . above The advances of by the non-appearance of decay. luckily. in a species of exaggerated lethargy. Sometimes. would almost inevitably be consigned alive to the tomb. distinctive. stir. is but the pulsation of the we lips. less and externally motionless heart is remain cheek still . are unequivocal. traces of warmth a slight color lingers within the centre of the . or half swoon without pain. little. . gradual. fail to establish distinction between the of absolute death. in this condition. first attack My those case differed in no important particular from mentioned in medical books. and. the most rigorous medical terial what we conceive any mastate of the sufferer and tests. and. strictly speaking. The although marked. malady are.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. little of semi-syncope. without own any apparent cause. unequal. occasionally should be of the extreme character which is seen. In this lies the prinThe unfortunate whose cipal security from inhumation. without ability to by . 495 period. I sank. Very usually he is saved from premature interment solely by the knowledge of his friends that he has been previously subject to catalepsy. and . into a condition and. all.

for chilly. and black. at once. 49^ to think. I was and the idea of premature burial . I me. in much bewilderment and perplexity the mental faculties of my senses. My fancy grew charIn nel. but of moral distress an infinitude. to perfect sensation. of tombs. but with a dull lethargic consciousness of and of the presence of those who surrounded my remained. and silent. however. for many minutes. until the crisis of the disease restored At denly. sud- was quickly and impetuously smitten. —just so wearily my gen- good nor could I perceive affected by the one prevalent malady . an idiosyncrasy in — my may ordinary sleep be looked upon as superinduced. however. other times I life bed. all I that I talked "of worms. thorough possession and always remained. — but the memory in especial." lost in reveries of death. and Then. Total annihilation could be no these latter attacks I awoke. indeed. houseless beggar who roams — long desolate winter night —just so cheerily came back the streets throughout the just so tardily the light of the Soul to me. Upon awaking from slumber. endured there was no physical suffering. became the universe. all was void. I grew sick. and dizzy. I could never gain. and epitaphs.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. and Nothing weeks. appeared to be at all unless. Apart from the tendency to eral health that was it trance. with a gradation slow in proportion to the suddenness of the Just as the day dawns to the friendless and seizure. and so fell prostrate at once. in general. From more. being in a condi- tion of absolute abeyance. and numb.

From the innumerable images of gloom which thus oppressed me in dreams. with every horror of thought. gibbering whispered there icy my ! in my I ear. nor the locality in which I I I I had then lay. sat erect.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. with vast. could not see could call to fallen into the While I re- mained motionless. held continual possession of my brain. thoughts. predominant. ger to which I was subjected haunted 497 The ghastly Dan- me day and night. overshadowing wings. and an impa" the word " Arise voice withtient. supreme. the cold hand grasped me fiercely by shaking again : it voice petulantly. the of more than usual duration and came an hand upon profundity. longer." tenant of a grave. Suddenly forehead. then. I might I shuddered find myself the And when. and busied in endeavors to collect my the wrist. I sank into slumber. In the former. while the gibbering said . When the grim Darkness over' spread the Earth. with a struggle that to reflect that. When Nature could endure wakefulness no it was . which mind neither the period at trance. above which. the figure of The darkness was total. sable. I shook— shook as the quivering plumes upon the hearse. Methought I was immersed in a cataleptic trance ered. hovone sepulchral Idea. I consented to sleep— for upon awaking. him who had aroused me. finally. the torture of meditation was excessive in the latter. it was only to rush at once into a world of phantasms. I select for record but a solitary vison.

And the voice again said to me as I gazed : . than those who slum- and there was a feeble struggling and there was a general and sad unrest and from out the bered not at all . so that I could see into the innermost and there view the shrouded bodies and solemn slumbers with the worm.49 8 THE PREMATURE BURIAL. ! "I have no name in was merciless. unfold to thee the graves. depths of the countless pits there came a melancholy And of those rustling from the garments of the buried. who seemed tranquilly to repose. dost feel that I My speak. . which still grasped me the had caused to be thrown open the graves ol wrist. sleepers were fewer. But this hideousness is insufferable. Get These sights are more than Come ! with me into the outer Night. the rigid and uneasy position in which they had originally been entombed. ." was mortal. by all mankind and from each issued the faint phosphoric I looked and the unseen . re- inhabit. mournfully I " " ? am " . radiance of decay recesses. How canst thou shudder. but am fiend." I demanded. I I Thou pitiful. but art thou " ? the regions which plied the voice. I saw that a vast num- ber had changed. woe ? — Behold and let Is not this a spectacle oi " ! figure. . yet the chilliness of the night of the night without end. But in their sa( alas ! the real by many millions. in a greater or less degree. thee up me I ? cannot rest for the cry of these great I can bear. teeth chatter as I it not with is — tranquilly sleep agonies. . " Arise " did I not bid thee arise And who.

and a prey to perpetual horror. I ness to catalepsy. friends. they might be glad to consider any very protracted attack as sufficient excuse It was in vain they enfor getting rid of me altogether. they might be prevailed upon to reI even went so far as to fear gard me as irrecoverable. that under no circum- would bury me until decomposition had so further preservation immaterially advanced as to render listen And. doubted the I I my into one of my real condition could care. deavored to reassure me by the most solemn promises. these. my mortal terrors would stances they possible. as I occasioned much trouble. while from out them I arose a tumult of despairing cries. usual in some trance of be my fits. 11 Is it not— oh ! is not a pitiful sight it ? 499 " But. lest. In fact. the phosphoric lights expired.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. presenting themselves terrific influence far into my waking nerves became thoroughly unstrung. God is it not a very pitiful sight ? — it not ! Phantasies such as night. I exacted the most sacred oaths. even then. the figure had ceased to grasp my wrist. or to walk. that. and the graves were closed with a sudden violence. to no reason—would accept no consolation. I ascer- dearest more than customary duration. the fidelity of dreaded that. I entered . I at I fell hesitated to ride. extended their My hours. before could find words to reply. me or to indulge in any exercise that would carry from no longer dared trust myself out of the immediate presence of those who were aware of my prone- home. saying again: " Is " O. falling should be buried before tained.

and so be fastened to one of the hands of the But. after a lapse still longer. There were arof being readily rangements also for the free admission of air and light. Among other things. there was suspended at liberty. a wretch to these agonies foredoomed There arrived an epoch as often before there had ! — —in which found myself emerging from total unconsciousness into the first feeble and indefinite sense of arrived existence. . after a long interval. and convenient receptacles for food and water. should extend through a hole in the coffin. The slightest pressure upon a long lever that extended far into the tomb would cause the iron portals to fly back. within immediate reach of the coffin intended for my reception. with the addition of springs so contrived that the feeblest set it movement body would be sufficient to Besides all this. of the from the roof of the tomb. alas corpse. fashioned upon the principle of the vault-door. Slowly proached the faint torpid uneasiness. . the rope of which. a large bell. and was provided with a lid. it was designed.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. apathetic endurance of dull pain. This coffin was warmly and softly padded. Destiny of man ties sufficed to what ! avails the vigilance against the Not even these ? well-contrived securi- save from the uttermost agonies of living inhumation. then. I had the family vault so remodelled as to admit into opened from within. Then. 500 a series of elaborate precautions. No care I —with a tortoise gradation —apA gray dawn of the psychal day. An —no hope—no a ringing in the ears effort.

my shuddering spirit is overwhelmed by the one grim Danger —by the I one spectral and ever- prevalent idea. that.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. It I the heavy was dark— all lids dark. And now And now the first the memory measure. I that the uplifted fit was knew that the crisis of my disorder had long the I knew that I had now fully recovered . at last. was to satisfy thing at me of I I could not sum- dared not make the effort which —and yet there was some- my fate my heart which whispered me it was sure. not awaking from ordinary sleep. over. an electric shock deadly and indefinite. 501 a pricking or tingling sensation in the extremities . then a seemingly eternal period of pleasurable quiescence. I re- And why ? mained without motion. and immediately thereupon. in some state. a partial and evanescent success. For some minutes after this fancy possessed me. during which the awakening feelings are struggling into thought then a brief re-sinking into nonentity. passed. of my I knew eyes. effort to think. At length the slight quivering of an . as if by the rush of an ocean. eyelid. to uplift them. —such as no other species of wretchedness ever spair into being— despair alone urged me. which sends the blood And now from the temples to the heart. then a sudden recovery. has so far regained of a terror. And now the dominion. I feel that I am recollect that I have been subject to catalepsy. mon courage to move. And now. I am cognizant of its my in torrents first positive endeavor to remember. after long Decalls irresolu- tion.

triumphant my would not move. The movement of the jaws. and tongue moved my convulsively together lips and in the my parched attempt but — no voice issued from the cavernous lungs. They struck a solid wooden substance. I endeavored to shriek. it : all Hope — for my wrists for the And now the Com- sterner Despair reigned for I could not help perceiving the absence paddings which I had so carefully prepared —and . that I lay upon some hard substance . with the wrists crossed. which extended above my per- son at an elevation of not more than six inches from my face. also. limbs but now I violently threw up my arms. too. with the heart. my thought of made spasmodic and a still came sweetly precautions. as is usual with the dead. . 5° 2 use of my visual faculties —and yet was dark it — all — dark the intense and utter raylessness of the Night that endureth for evermore. oppressed as if by the weight of some incumbent mountain. And now.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. and by something similar my sides were. showed me that they were bound up. I felt. forter fled for ever. could no longer doubt that I I reposed within a coffin at last. and the lid bell-rope : it of the I infinite miseries. I exertions to force open I felt was not to be found. closely comSo far. which had — been lying at length. amid the cherub writhed. which. I had not ventured to stir any of my pressed. and at every elaborate struggling inspiration. gasped and palpitated. in this effort to cry aloud.

503 came suddenly to my nostrils the strong odor of moist earth. once again struggled to second endeavor or shriek. had proceeded. " Hillo ! hillo. by a junto of very rough-looking individuals. I and continuous wild. This adventure occurred near Richmond. I A succeeded. a friend. too. They did not arouse me from my slumber for I was — wide-awake when the full I possession of screamed my —but they restored me to memory. I who had me buried could not as a I had fallen into a home—while among strangers— remember—and dog— nailed up in was they some common it coffin— and thrust. deep. upon a gun- Accompanied by ning expedition. for several said a fourth. into the innermost chambers of And cry aloud. yell. in Virginia. trance while absent from when. minutes. 's ! " ! " ! said a third. or how. "What do you mean by style. of the James overtaken were we and by a Night approached. into some ordinary and nameless grave. resounded through the realms of the subterranian Night. there sistible. As this awful conviction forced itself. * What " Get out there the devil o' that said a gruff voice. storm. some miles down the banks I River. " the matter now said a second. was I not within the vault. and for ever. in this my soul. like a yowling in that ere kind of and hereupon I cattymount?" was seized and shaken without ceremony. long. in reply. of agony.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. The conclusion was peculiar irrethen. deep. The cabin of a small sloop lying at anchor in the . thus.

which I found a matter of exceeding difficulty to squeeze myNevertheless. Its extreme width was eighteen inches. for the time. and no nightmare ordinary bias of thought —and have alluded.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. and some laborers engaged to unload it. I slept soundly and the whole of it self in. and passed the night on board. to senses. breathed the free My . I slept in one of the only two berths in the vessel and the berths of a sloop of — That sixty or seventy tons need scarcely be described. the jaws was a silk handkerchief in had bound up my head. The men who shook me were the crew of the sloop. to those of actual sepulture. I occupied had no bedding of any kind. in default of my custom- ary nightcap. however. 504 stream. afforded us the We only available shelter. The distance of its bottom from the deck overhead was precisely the same. were indubitably quite equal. and laden with garden mould. From the load The bandage about which I itself came the earthy smell. for a long memory. I . and espetime after awaking from slumber. . cise. The tortures endured. I air They but out wrought in soul acquired tone took vigorous exerof Heaven. my vision — . for it naturally from the circumstances of my —arose —from position was no dream. made the best of it. —acquired temper. I thought upon went abroad. were — they were inconceivably hideous fearfully of Evil proceeded my spirit Good I for their very excess an inevitable revulsion. of collecting which I cially of regaining my my from the my difficulty.

or they will devour us must be suffered to slumber. There are moments when. they had been less the consequence than the cause. —they . and that memorable night. 505 discarded my medical read no " I Night —no church-yards I bugaboo became a new man. they must sleep. the world of our sad Humanity may assume the semblance of a Hell —but the explore with imagination of man is no every cavern. and with them vanished the cataleptic disorder. —no fustian about as this. man's missed forever my In short From life. other subjects than Death. Alas the grim legion of sepulchral terrors cannot be in regarded as altogether fanciful but. of which. or we perish. Thoughts" tales —such lived a " Buchan I I burned. I dis- charnel apprehensions.THE PREMATURE BURIAL. even to the sober eye of Reason. to impunity its ! — Oxus. " books. perhaps. like the Demons the down whose company Afrasiab made his voyage Carathis.

No pestilence had ever been so fatal. were the pest ban which shut him out from the aid and from the sympathy of his fellow-men. light- the knights and dames of his own A strong and lofty wall girdled This wall had gates of iron. sagacious. and then profuse bleeding dissolution. were the incidents of half an hour. at and sudden the pores.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. and termination of the disease. he summoned to his presence a hearted friends from court. of and with these among thousand hale and deep seclusion of one This was an extensive and retired to the his castellated abbeys. or so hideBlood was its Avatar and its seal the redness and THE ous. the creation of the prince's eccentric yet august taste. with upon the body and especially upon the face of the victim. having . dizziness. The stains scarlet pains. 506 The courtiers. " Red Death " had long devastated the country. But the Prince Prospero was happy and dauntless and When his dominions were half depopulated. it in. — There were sharp the horror of blood. And the whole seizure. magnificent structure. progress.

With such precautions the courtiers might bid defiance to contagion. Without was the " Red Death. The In the meantime external world could take care of it was prince had provided all itself. In many palaces. such form a long and straight vista. . however. close of the fifth or sixth month and while the pestilence raged most of furi- ously abroad.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH 507 entered. There were buffoons. the. that the Prince Prospero entertained his thousand friends at a masked ball of the most unusual magnificence. there were improvisatori. They resolved to leave means neither of ingress nor egress to the sudden impulses of despair or of frenzy from within. The the appliances of pleasure. and at each turn a but little more than one at a time. ments were so The apart- irregularly disposed that the vision embraced There was a sharp turn at every twenty or thirty yards." It was toward his seclusion. that masquerade. was a voluptuous scene. But first me tell of the rooms in which it was held. pected from the duke's love of the bizarre. there were musicians. there was wine. there was Beauty. there were balletdancers. folly to grieve. brought furnaces and massy hammers and welded the bolts. as scarcely impeded. or to think. There were It let seven —an imperial suite. All these and security were within. while the folding doors slide back nearly to the walls on either hand. so suites that the view of the whole extent is Here the case was very might have been ex- different . The abbey was amply provisioned.

But in the corridors light of that followed the suite. window. But in the westen . falling in heavy folds upon a carpet of the sam< material and hue. — was green throughout. a heavy projected its tripod. 508 novel To effect. a tall These windows were of stained glass whose color varied accordance with the prevailing hue of the decorations of the chamber into which it opened. of there stood. But in this chamber only. and so wen fourth was furnished and lighte< The — with orange the fifth with white the sixth with violet. The second chamber was purph in its ornaments and tapestries. bearing a opposite to eacl brazier of fire. the color of the windows failed to correspond with the decorations The panes in no here were scarlet —a deep blood color. that rays through the tinted glass and so glaringh illumined the room.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. and here the panes were purple. The third the casements. gaudy and And thus were produced a multitud< fantastic appearances. for example in blue and vividb bkie were its windows. amid the profusion of golden ornaments that lay scattered to and fro or depended from the roof. No^ was there any lamp 01 one of the seven apartments candelabrum. in the middle of each and narrow Gothic window looked out upon a closed corridor which pursued the windings of the suite. That at the easten in — extremity was hung. The seventh apartment was closely shrouded in blacl velvet tapestries that hung all over the ceiling and dowi the walls. wall. the right and left. There was no any kind emanating from lamp 01 candle within the suite of chambers.

the musicians of the orchestra were constrained to pause. to hearken to the sound and thus the waltzers perforce ceased their evolu. in their performance. a light laughter at once pervaded the assembly as if . and when the minute-hand made the circuit of the and the hour was to be stricken. the brazen lungs of the clock a sound which was clear and loud and deep and exceedingly musical. aged and sedate passed their hands over their brows as if in confused revery or meditation. also. after the lapse of sixty minutes (which embrace . at each lapse of an hour. But when the echoes had fully ceased. a gigantic clock of jbony. that the next chiming of the clock should produce in them no similar emotion and then. Its pendulum swung to and fro with a dull. and made whis- pering vows. and the more . there came from . momentarily. heavy. it was observed that the giddiest grew pale. that there were few of the company bold enough to its precincts at was It set foot within all. but of so peculiar a note and emphasis that. and there was a brief disconcert of the whole gay company and. or black chamber the effect of the fire-light that 509 streamed upon the dark hangings through the was ghastly in the extreme. in this apartment. that there stood against the western wall. each to the other. the musicians looked at each other and smiled at their own nervousness and folly. tions . and blood-tinted panes produced so wild a look upon the countenances of those who entered. .THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. monotonous clang face. while the chimes of the clock yet rang.

His folhis conceptions lowers felt that he see and touch He had him was not. anon. And. disregarded the His plans were bold and fiery. thing of the terrible. There are some who would have thought him mad. He But. meditation as before. There were delirious fancies such as the madman fashions. It to be sure that he directed. there strikes . glowed with barbaric lustre. some- which might the seven chambers of that fro in there stalked. and it was his own guiding taste which had given character to the masqueraders. —the dreams—writhed in And these and about. and not a have excited disgust. much of the wanton. a multitude of dreams." There were arabesque figures with unsuited limbs and appointments. — " Hernani. in fact. was necessary to hear and was not.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. Be sure they were gro- There were much glare and glitter and piquancy and phantasm much of what has been since seen in tesque. in great part. the movable embellish- ments of the seven chambers. in spite of these things. had a fine The eye tastes of for colors and decora of mere fashion. upon occasion of this great fete . cent revel. taking hue from the rooms. and causing the wild music of the orchestra to seem as the echo of their steps. To and much little of the bizarre. 5IO three thousand and six hundred seconds of the Time that there came yet another chiming of the clock. There were much of the beautiful. and it He effects. was a gay and magnifithe duke were peculiar. and then were the same disconcert and tremulousness and flies).

ruddier light through the blood-colored panes . and writhe to and laughter floats after fro more merrily than ever. for a moment. to be sounded by the bell of the clock and thus it hap. But these other apartments were densely crowded. and all is silent save The dreams the voice of the clock. are stiff-frozen as But the echoes of the chime die they stand. half-subdued them as they depart. with time. and the blackness of the sable drapery appals and to him whose foot falls upon the sable carpet. And then music ceased. into the meditations of the thoughtful more among of those . clock of ebony a muffled peal more solemnly emphatic than any which reaches their ears who indulge in the more remote gaieties of the other apartments. and there was an uneasy cessation of But now there were twelve strokes all things as before. But to the chamber which of the seven there are ture . taking hue from the manywindows through which stream the rays from the tinted tripods. And now again the music swells. there comes from the near . waltzers were quieted. as I have told and the evolutions of the . and in them beat feverishly the heart of went whirlingly life. away—they have endured but an instant— and a light. all is still. until at length there And the revel commenced the the sounding of midnight upon the clock. perhaps that more of thought crept.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH 5H the ebony clock which stands in the hall of the velvet. And then. and the dreams live. for the night now none is lies most westwardly who of the maskers waning away ven- and there flows a . pened. on.

that echoes of the last chime had utterly sunk it were many individuals in the crowd who had found leisure to become aware of the presence into silence. there I —then. and of disgust. seemed and bearing of existed. have painted. there of a masked figure single individual which had arrested the attention of no before. there are matters The whole company. There license of the night . or mur- mur. and shrouded The in the habiliments of the grave. of In an assembly of phantasms such as may well be supposed that new whisperingly around. if not . and death are equally jests. perhaps. of which no jest can be made. to life now deeply indeed. 512 who revelled. happened. are chords in the hearts of the be touched without emotion. expressive disapprobation and surprise finally. of terror. it no ordinary appearance could have excited such sensation. whom most reckless which cannot Even with the utterly lost. And itself the rumor of this presence having spread arose at length from the whole company a buzz.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. of horror. mask which concealed the visage was made so nearly to resemble the countenance of a stiffened corpse that the closest scrutiny must have had dffficulty in detecting the cheat. and gone beyond the bounds of even the prince's indefinite decorum. In truth the masquerade was nearly unlimited but the figure in question had out-Heroded Herod. And yet all this might have been endured. The to feel that in the costume the stranger neither wit nor propriety figure from head to foot was tall and gaunt. before the last And thus too.

THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. with a slow and solemn as if more fully to sustain its role. It was in there was a slight rushing movement of this group in the direction of the intruder. At first. the blue room where stood the prince. and now. —he stood near him demanded hoarsely —" who blasphemous mockery? that It Seize him and unmask him— we may know whom we have the battlements was in the of the courtiers dares insult us with this to hang. at sunrise. made closer approach to the speaker. and fro among the waltzers) he was seen to be convulsed. When the eyes of Prince Prospero fell upon this spectral image (which. 513 mad revellers around. who. But the mumso far as to assume the type of the Red His vesture was dabbled in blood— and approved. stalked to movement. with all his broad the features of the face. and the music had become hushed at the waving of his hand. But from a certain nameless awe with which the mad assumptions of the . in the next. was besprinkled with the scarlet horror. in the first moment with a strong shudder either of terror or distaste but. They rang throughout the seven rooms loudly and clearly. from !" eastern or blue chamber in which stood the Prince Prospero as he uttered these words. for the prince was a bold and robust man. at the moment was also near at hand. his brow reddened with . as he spoke. by the mer had gone Death. with deliberate and stately step. with a group of pale courtiers by his side. " Who who dares " rage. brow.

to and dagger.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. and. through the blue chamber to the purple through — — the purple to the green through the green to the orange —through this again to the white—and even thence to the violet. there were found none who put forth hand to seize him so that. a throng of the revellers at once threw themselves into the black apartment. terror that within three or four feet of the retreating figure. He bore aloft a drawn had approached. however. but with the same solemn and measured step which had distinguished him from the first. gleaming upon instantly afterward. when the latter. that the Prince Prospero. in rapid impetuosity. he . rushed hurriedly through the six chambers. whose tall figure stood erect and motionless within the shadow of the ebony clock. made his way uninterruptedly. Then. maddening with rage and the shame of his own arrest him. as if with one impulse. 514 mummer had inspired the whole party. prostrate in seizing the mummer. peded. ere a decided movement had been made to was then. shrank from the centres of the rooms to the walls. It momentary cowardice. he passed within a yard of the prince's person and. while the vast assembly. upon which. summoning the wild courage of despair. turned suddenly and confronted his pursuer. having attained the extremity of the velvet apart- ment. fell death the Prince Prospero. while none followed him on account of a deadly had seized upon all. unim. gasped in unutterable horror at finding the grave cerements and . There was a sharp cry the sable — and the dagger dropped carpet.

corpse-like mask. He had come like a thief in presence of the the night. And ebony clock went out with And the flames of the tripods Darkness and Decay and the Red Death held illimitable dominion over all. 515 which they handled with so violent a untenanted rudeness. And now was acknowledged the Death. And the life of the that of the last of the gay. . by any tangible form. and died each in the despairing posture of his fall. expired.THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH. And Red one by one dropped the revellers in the blood-bedewed halls of their revel.

It had I must be understood. who so well know the vowed revenge. He — — had a weak point this Fortunato although in other regards he was a man to be respected and even feared. thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could but when he ventured upon THE insult. to A must not only punish. make unredressed It is when retribution overtakes equally unredressed himself felt as when such to him its the avenger who re- fails has done the wrong. but punish with impunity. I nature of my soul. precluded the idea of risk. He prided himself on 516 his connoisseurship in wine. . not suppose. — was a point definitively settled but the very definitiveness with which it was resolved. that neither by word nor deed given Fortunato cause to doubt my good-will. I continued. I wrong is dresser.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. You. to smile in his face. as was did not perceive my wont. however. that I gave length I would be avenged this At . will utterance to a threat. and he that my smile now was at the thought of his immolation. .

of the carnival season." " Amontillado " I have my " ! doubts. It was about dusk. of old wines he was was a quack sincere. and I ing you in the matter. nato. that He accosted me I encountered my with excessive warmth." of the carnival I replied. him said to I My thought I I was so should never have dear Fortunato. was fearful of losing a bargain. you are luckily How met. ! "and I was silly without consultenough to pay the full Amontillado price You were not to be found. and bought largely whenever I could. The man wore motley. For the most suit the time and op- portunity—to practise imposture upon the British and In painting and gemmary Fortu- Austrian millionnaires." . and his head was surmounted by the conical cap and pleased to see him. for he had been drinking much. I remarkably well you are looking to-day have received a pipe of what passes for Amontil- and lado. But " : I bells. one evening during the supreme differ madness friend. doubts/' " Amontillado ? A pipe ? Impos- "' in the middle my doubts. like his countrymen. Few have the true virtuoso part their enthusiasm is adopted to Italians 517 spirit. ^ How sible ! ! have I " ? And "I have my said he. He had on a tight-fitting parti-striped dress. that done wringing his hand. —but in the In this respect I matter did not from him materially: I was skilful in the Italian vintages myself.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO.

The are encrusted with nitre. There were no attendants at home they had absconded . and drawing a roquelaire closely about my person. Amontillado Luchesi. It is severe cold with which vaults are insufferably I not impose upon your have an engagement you perceive have no engagement My a go." Luchesi cannot tell " " Come. And as he cannot distinguish Sherry from Amon- go. He will tell me ! " Amontillado from Sherry. any one has a critical turn." nature." not the engagement. friend. ." Thus speaking." " Let us for The cold is merely nothing. " good If " . You have been imposed upon. —come. Fortunato possessed himself of my arm. no. 518 " " " Amontillado And I must ! satisfy " them." And yet some fools will have it that his taste match for your own. you They are afflicted. I suffered him to hurry me to my palazzo. nevertheless." "Amontillado " As you are engaged. but the perceive damp.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. I am on my way to Luchesi. I will I . let us "Whither?" " To your " My " no friend. ! tillado. Putting on a mask of black silk. it is he." Luchesi " I is vaults.

I 519 had told them should not return until the morning." I " How replied. make merry to in honor of the time. These that I orders were sufficient. at length. ugh ! 1 for impossible to reply nothing. I took from their sconces two flambeaux. down We and stood together on the damp ground the catacombs of the Montresors. requesting him to be came at length to the foot cautious as he followed. of the descent. " It is ! ! ! ! it ugh ! ugh ! ugh last. and the bells upon his cap jingled as he strode. bowed him through several rooms to the archway that led into the vaults. and had given them explicit orders not to stir from the house.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. well knew. suites of I passed a long and winding staircase. of The gait of my friend was unsteady. to insure their im- I mediate disappearance. " Nitre. one and all." turned toward me." he said. at ! many . as soon as my back was turned. and giving one to Fortunato. " It is farther on. " " The pipe ? said he. " but observe the white web- work which gleams from these cavern He walls." said I . long have you had that " cough ? " ugh Ugh ugh ugh !— ugh ugh ugh !— " ! —ugh My ! ugh ! ugh !— ugh poor friend found minutes. and looked into the rheum two filmy orbs that distilled " Nitre ? " he asked. my eyes with of intoxication.

draught of this Medoc will defend us from the damps. I shall True — true." he around us. in a field azure. you are happy. We will go back beloved . it me off its the neck of a bottle which fellows that lay I drew upon the mould. I me. "we will go back." I proceeded. while his be^lsjiiigled. as once I was. and. and nu- merous family. 520 " Come/' health is I said. respected. and we " These vaults. " Luchesi Enough. presenting him the wine. You are a man to be missed. drink. kill Besides. admired. to his lips with a leer. your are rich. the foot crushes a serpent rampant whose fangs are imbedded in the heel." . You precious." " were a great replied. said " the . He paused and familiarly." he " The Montresors. indeed. " to the buried that repose said. it not die of a cough. For me it is no matter." He raised nodded " I to I said." " And I to your long life. " are extensive. you there " will " be will is and ill." tion of alarming . ." I cough is a mere nothing ." he not cannot be responsible." " I "A forget your arms." " replied ." He again took my arm. A Here I knocked from a long row of " Drink. with decision. said. I had no inten- you unnecessarily but you should use all proper caution." huge human foot d' or.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO.

We It hangs The drops of moisture trickle among the bones. Impossible "yes. Your cough " It is nothing." ! A mason " ? . vaults. said . You do " Not I." he said " . see. it increases. My own fancy grew warm with the Medoc." Yes." I broke and reached him a flagon of emptied light. Then you are not not comprehend " ? he " You of the brotherhood. We had ! through walls of piled bones. " The I " nitre ! moss upon the I said " . " And the motto u Nemo 52 1 " ? me impune lacessit" " " he said. Good The wine sparkled in his eyes and the bells jingled. yes. it He at a breath. ment — a grotesque " De But Come. His eyes flashed with a one. " laughed and threw the bottle upward with a gesticulation I like are below the river's bed. I looked at him He in surprise." I replied. " " first." You ? an- He fierce I repeated the move- said. let us go on. and this time I made bold to seize Fortunato by an arm above the elbow. "How?" " Grave. other draught of the Medoc. catacombs. yes. with casks and passed puncheons intermingling." are not of the masons. into the inmost recesses of the paused again.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. we will go back ere it is too late. did not understand.

THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. descended. in still interior recess. Within the wall thus exposed by the displacing of the bones. he exclaimed. piled to the vault overhead." I said. replacing the tool beneath the You cloak. in height six seemed to have been constructed for no especial use within itself. From the fourth the bones had been thrown down. forming at one point a mound of some size. in the fashion the great catacombs of Paris. " But let us proceed to the Amontillado. passed on. arm. it jest. At the most remote end of the crypt there appeared another less spacious. crypt were still ornamented Three in this of sides of this interior manner. width three. He leaned upon continued our route in search of the my We We Amontillado. A sign." he said." and again offering him heavily. arrived at a deep crypt. and lay promis- cuously upon the earth. and descending again. but formed merely the interval between two of the colossal supports of the roof of the catacombs." I replied. producing a trowel from beneath the folds of " my roquelaire. It is this. 522 " " " A mason. It we perceived a feet." " Be it so. recoiling a few paces. . Its walls had been lined with human remains. in which the foulness of the air caused our flambeaux rather to glow than flame. in depth about four or seven. and was backed by one of their circum- scribing walls of solid granite. passed through a range of low arches." I answered.

Its I termination the feeble light did not enable us to see. He was it. " True." I said. Throwing the links about his it was but the work of a few seconds to secure waist. -herein is the Amontillado. more let me " attentions in But my The Amontillado is it to return." said. Throwing them soon uncovered a quantity of building stone and of bones of aside. you cannot Once very damp. I I . distant From one horizontally.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. I Withdrawing recess. uplifting his dull torch. " Luchesi for " He As an ignoramus." words I busied myself among the pile which I have before spoken. help feeling the nitre. stood stupidly bewildered." " ejaculated ! my friend. the Amontillado. while I followed immediately at his heels. No ? Then first render you I must all the power. must . as he stepped unsteadily forward. its of these depended a short I two feet. I "Proceed. little " to resist. A moment more and had fettered him to the In iron granite. chain." As I " replied said these . surface were from each other about two staples. In an instant he had reached the extremity of the niche. It 523 was in vain that Fortunate. over the wall Indeed implore you positively leave you." interrupted is my friend. endeavored to pry into the depth of the recess. the key " I too much astounded stepped back from the Pass your hand. not yet re- covered from his astonishment. and finding his arrested progress by the rock. from the other a padlock.

With trowel. placed began to but the thought of an my I aided — I I rapier. I had scarcely laid the first tier of the masonry when I discovered that the intoxication of Fortunato had in a worn great measure The off. bursting sud- denly from the throat of the chained form. my I solid reapproached him who clamored. I laid the second tier. I resumed the trowel. during which. and the seventh tier. was not the cry of a drunken man.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. and the wall. I hand upon the felt satisfied. earliest indication I had of was a low moaning cry from the depth of the recess. threw a few feeble rays upon the A succession figure within. upon the bones. and this It the third. There was then a long and obstinate silence. and then The the chain. in strength. and the fourth vibrations of . 5 24 mortar. I fabric of the catacombs. heard the furious noise lasted for several might hearken to it with ceased my labors and sat down minutes. and of loud shrill screams. grope with it Unsheathing about the recess instant reassured me. I began vigorously to wall up the entrance of the these materials and with the aid of my niche. and finished without interruption the The wall was now fifth. I again paused. I I When I at last the clanking subsided. seemed to thrust me violently back. and the clamorer grew still. that the more satisfaction. and holding the flambeaux over the mason-work. . nearly upon a level with my breast. replied to the yells of I re-echoed — . surpassed them in I volume and did this. the sixth. For a brief moment I hesitated — I trembled.

" " " let us be gone. But to these words grew impatient. was now midnight. " ! No I called answer. " Fortunato I hearkened I called aloud " ! in vain for a reply. eleventh had I my 525 task was drawing to a eighth.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. It tenth tier. its weight . I . and plastered I in. and I had completed the close. I placed But now there came from out the niche a low laugh that erected the upon I had head. for the love Yes. the Amontillado. I thrust a torch through the remain- ." " " For the love of God. my It was succeeded by a sad The voice said "Ha! ha ha ! ! an excellent —he which — he ! ! We will jest." I said. the ninth." I said. hairs difficulty in recognizing as that of the noble For- tunato. ! —he he ! getting late at the palazzo. " Fortunato No answer again . it it he ! —a very good joke indeed — have many a rich laugh about over our wine he he he ! ! — — ! ! he!" " " The Amontillado He he ! But is it he ! not ! " I said. struggled with partially in its destined position. the palazzo —he at voice. the ? Lady ! he ! —yes. Will not they be awaiting us Fortunato and the rest ? Let us be gone. and the finished a portion of the last and the there remained but a single stone to be fitted . Montr esor ! " " of God Yes. " ! still.

I plastered it up. return only a jingling of the bells. I forced the last stone into its position . In pace re- quiescat / . There came forth in My heart grew sick — on account of the dampness of the catacombs. For the half of a century no mortal has disturbed them. I hastened to make an end of my labor.THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. 526 ing aperture and let it fall within. Against the new masonry I re-erected the old rampart of bones.

we have all overlooked it. rather than the . —we could not might be made to further the objects of humanity. in great measure. irre- ducible sentiment. It priori. The intellectual or logical 527 man. it The idea be faith in Revela- of it has never oc- curred to us. We saw We could not for the propensity. simply because of its supererogation. that mobile ever obtruded have understood is not have understood. primitive. we could primum — We could not understand. We have suffered its existence to escape our senses.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. has been equally overlooked by all the who have preceded them. —whether tion. In the pure arrogance of the reason. no need of the impulse perceive to say. all metaphysicianism have been concocted a nal. the phrenolo- IN have gists although failed to make room for a propensity which. the consideration of the faculties and impulses—of the prima mobilia of the human soul. obviously existing as a radical. this its necessity. either temporal or eter- cannot be denied that phrenology and. had the notion of in what manner itself it . solely through moralists want of belief —of faith . or faith in the Kabbala.

how then in his inconceivable thoughts. intellect. forthwith. rather than upon the basis of what we took it for granted the Deity intended him to do. we determined. Secondly. whether right or wrong. It would have been wiser. organ of alimentiveness. that it was the design of mind. the intentions of Jehovah. and comprehend God in his visible works. for example. — with every organ. have but followed. man. that call the works into being ? . is will-I the nill-I. naturally enough. or a faculty of the pure propensity. And so with combativeness. to classify (if classify we must) upon the basis of what man was always occasionally doing. 528 understanding or observant man. with constructiveness. set himself to imagine designs to dictate purposes to God. We and then assigned to this organ scourge with which the Deity compels man. that man organ of amativeness. the Spurzheimites. whether representing a a moral sentiment. with causality. in short. to his satisfaction. out of these intentions he built his innumerable systems In the matter of phrenology. having settled it to be God's will should continue his species. it would have been safer. If we cannot usually or occasionally did. human And in these arrangements of the principia of action. with ideality.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. in princi- ple. the footsteps of their predecessors deducing and establishing every thing from the preconceived destiny of . Having thus — fathomed. in part. first of the Deity that man an man should eat. we discovered an into eating. so. or upon the whole. and upon the ground of the objects of his Creator.

529 we cannot understand him in his objective how then in his substantive moods and If creation creatures. a primisaid. this shall may be under- so far modify the proposition as to say. I am not more certain that I breathe. we . feel we should not persist in them. a motivirt. that is — impulse elementary. would have brought phrenology to admit.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. With certain minds. than that the assurance of the wrong or error of any action conquerable force which impels to its to do wrong prosecution. when we persist in It is It will acts be a radical. that through its promptings we for the reason that we act. The But a glance will show the fallacy of phrenological combativeness has for its . motive not it is. there is . in fact. I because am we aware. without comprehensible object or. as an innate and primitive of human principle action. if stood as a contradiction in terms. under certain conditions. no reason can be more unreasonable but. or resolution into ulterior elements. which we call may perverseness. none more strong. this idea. our conduct is but a modification of that which ordinarily springs from the combativeness of phrenology. a posteriori. admit of analysis. will this tive often the one un- and alone impels us overwhelming tendency for the wrong's sake. a paradoxical something. In the sense I in fact. In theory. Nor us. phases of ? Induction. should not. a mobile without motive. Through its promptings we act intend. it becomes absolutely irresistible. for want of a more characteristic term.

will be di< deny the entire radicalness of the propensity It is There tive. and in defiance of all consequences) is indulged. the most laconic and luminous language is struggling for utterance upon his tongue it is only with difficulty that he restrains himself . 530 It is our safeguard our well-being and excited simultaneously with essence. the thought strikes him. The im- pulse increases to a wish. but in the case of that something which I term perverseness. the desire to an uncontrollable longing. and the longing (to the deep regret and mortification of the speaker. own his ii not more incomprehensible than distinc- no man who lives at some period has not been tormented. but a strongly antagonistical sentiment exists. The speaker is aware that he displeases he has every intention to please he is talize . soul. for example. by an earnest desire to tana listener by circumlocution. It follows. after all. the shall not only not aroused. that the desire to be well must be excited simultaneously with any principle which its be merely a modification of combativeness. development. the necessity of self-defence. thus the desire to be well is . single thought is enough. . and clear . That yet. . from giving of it flow .THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. the best reply desire to be well is No one who trustingly con- to the sophistry just noticed. and parentheses this anger may . usually curt. precise. the wish to a desire. he dreads and deprecates the anger him whom he addresses that by certain involutions be engendered. Its principle regards against injury. An appeal to one's own heart is. and thoroughly questions sults posed to question.

To-morrow arrives. also. if the the shadow which clock strikes. We peer into turns. the knell of our welfare. except that to-morrow we . it shall be undertaken and yet we put to-day. because unfathomable. it off until answer. the abyss it —we grow sick and to shrink from the danger. It flies — it disappears —we are free.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. We know that it will be ruinous to make delay The most important crisis of our life calls. At is But. a nameless. it is is the chanticleer-note to the ghost that has so long overawed us. we the work. is too late ! We stand upon the brink of a precipice. By dizzy. tongued.whole' souls are on fire. a positively fearful.— of the definite with the indefinite — of the substance with the shadow. it The struggle in vain. It must. are consumed with eagerness to commence trumpet- We glow. for immediate energy and action. Our first impulse Unaccountably we is remain. —we far. This craving gathers strength as the moments The fly. and why? feel perverse. Alas. and the same time. By become merged . for craving delay. slow degrees our sickness and dizziness and horror in a cloud of unnamable feeling. The old energy re- We will labor now. last hour for action is at hand. contest have proceeded thus prevails. and with it a more impatient anxiety to do our duty. using There is no the word with no comprehension of the principle. with the anticipation of whose glorious result ou. but with this very increase of anxiety arrives. 53J We have a task before us which must be speedily per formed. We tremble with the violence of the conflict within us.

more imperceptible. To is indulge. as did the vapor from the bottle out of which arose the genius in the Arabian Nights. that arm to check us. and yet it is but a thought. Examine these and similar actions at but urges we cannot.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. and therefore there be no friendly sudden moment. to be inevitably lost . I in any attempt for reflection say. or effort to prostrate ourselves we plunge. there grows into palpa- a shape. therefore do we the most impetuously approach it. far more terrible than any genius or any demon of a tale. presented very cause do because our rea- son violently deters us from the brink. as that of him who. it is. — this the most ghastly and and suffering which themselves to our we now fall rushing annihilation for the very involves that one most ghastly and loath- it all death of — loathsome images have ever — imagination for this the most vividly desire And it. If if we fail in a backward from the abyss. we shall resulting solely from the spirit of the Perverse. this cloud assumes shape. . fearful one. It is merely the idea of what would be our sensations during the sweeping precipitancy of a And this fall reason that some of from such a height. and one which chills the very marrow of our bones with the fierceness of the delight of its horror. and are destroyed. for a us to forbear. thus meditates a in plunge. find them as we will. thought. 532 still gradations. shuddering upon the edge of a precipice. But out of this our cloud upon the precipice's edge. although a bility. There is no passion nature so demoniacally impatient.

and we might. because their accomplish- ment involved a chance of detection. in his . For weeks. have misunderstood have fancied that I am one me mad. by which I need not describe the easy artifices bed-room candle-stand. in reading some French memoirs. Beyond or behind this there is no ble principle. you might either me altogether. I impertinent details. too. with the rabble. a I substituted. indeed. deem this that we intelligi- perversl ness a direct instigation of the arch-fiend. agency of a candle accidentally poisoned. It is impossible that any deed could have been wrought with a more months. rejected a thousand schemes. you will easily perceive uncounted victims of the Imp of the Perverse. I have said thus much. pondered upon I I thorough deliberation. of the As many it is. 533 We perpetrate them merely because we feel should not. But I need not vex you with in bed. I knew my through the The idea victim's habit of knew. were it not known to operate in furtherance of occasionally good. for the means of the murder. or. At length.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. struck my fancy at once. I may why I my tenanting shall my wearing this cell of the con- not been thus prolix. that in some measure I answer your question— that am here— that have at I may I assign to may explain to you you something that least the faint aspect of a cause for these fetters. that his apartment was reading narrow and ill-ventilated. I found an account of a nearly fatal illness that occurred to Madame Pilau. and for Had demned.

" One day. years. or rather in our memories. in a low under-tone. Of the remains of the fatal taper I had myself carefully I had left no shadow of a clew by which it disposed. whilst sauntering along the streets. by more real delight scarcely perceptible gradations. me in this sentiment. The all went well with me idea of detection never once entered my for brain. convict. is quite a I could common annoyed with the ringing in our ears. and repeating. in his bed. than all the mere wordly advantages from my sin. It scarcely get rid of it harassed because for an instant. I would perpetually catch myself pondering upon my secu" I rity. In this manner. But there arrived at length an accruing epoch. from which the pleasurable feeling grew. would be possible to the crime. or will some unimpressive snatches from an we be the less tormented or the opera air meritorious. at last. of the burthen of some ordinary thing to be thus song. how It is inconceivable satisfaction arose in my bosom accustomed to revel of rich a sentiment of upon my of time I was It afforded me as I reflected For a very long period absolute security. or even to suspect. I arrested .THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. and the coroner's verdict was —" Death by the visi- tation of God. the phrase." Having inherited his estate. 534 my own making for the one which I The next morning he was discovered dead wax-light of there found. itself Nor be good. into a haunting and har- assing thought. am safe. if the song in opera. it It haunted.

For a moment pangs of suffocation giddy and then some . and pursued me. I still madman through quickened the crowded length. And casual self-suggestion. of perversity (whose nature I have fits if " ! been at some remembered well that no in resisted their attacks. too well. I thought. these customary syllables. 535 myself in the act of murmuring. half aloud. I the soul. —and beckoned me on to death. confronted me. At like a lost. I the and invisible fiend. effort to shake walked vigorously I off this — faster— nightmare of still faster —at a maddening desire to shriek aloud. and instance I heart.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE. . I became I I — turned — experienced blind. I re-modelled them thus fool " : to enough No chill am I these — make open sooner had creep to safe my I I am safe confession —yes— I I had successfully now my own be not spoken these words. as if the very ghost of him whom At had murdered I made an first. Could I have torn out my tongue. the populace took the alarm. the shoulder. bounded thoroughfares. and all deaf. that I might possibly be fool enough to confess the murder of which I had been guilty. In a fit of petulance. in my my pace. of thought overwhelmed me with wave Every succeeding new terror. I was to be situation. I would have done it but a rough voice resounded in my ears a — me by rougher grasp seized gasped for breath. I felt then the consummation of my fate. for. alas I well. I felt ! think. understood that to length I ran. struck . than I felt an icy I had had some experience in trouble to explain).

as if in dread of interruption before concluding the brief but pregnant sentences that consigned and to me to the hangman hell. They say that I long-impris- spoke with a distinct enunciation. I fell prostrate in a for the fullest swoon. 536 me The with his broad palm upon the back. oned secret burst forth from my soul. and am here ! ! but where ? ^xtf^W^&x*" — . Having related all that was necessary judicial conviction. But why shall I say more? To-day I wear these To-morrow I shall be fetterless chains. but with marked emphasis and passionate hurry.THE IMP OF THE PERVERSE.

" here confounds the pleasure derivable from sweet sounds with the capacity for creating them. in all our translations. in those " * Moraux which. doubtless. very tenable one that the higher order of music is the most thoroughly es- timated when we in this form. is no second party to appreciate only in effects common its with other talents which may be fully enjoyed in idea which the racoyiteur has either failed to entertain clearly. " of manners. is. or has sacrificed in its expression to his the national love of point. No more than any other talent. once by those its meaning is who love "fashionable . " Contes musique. be admitted at here derived from mceurs. that it it is produces The solitude. more is are exclusively alone. Nullus enim locus sine genio A " « J j insisted — Servius. is that for music susceptible of complete en- joyment. we have " upon calling Moral Tales/' as —"la musique their spirit de lui est." 537 The proposition.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY. if in est le seul des talents mockery of quijouissent He tous les autres veulent des temoins. mime . where there And exercise." says Marmontel. will * Moraux or." . and strictly.

But one pleasure still within the reach of fallen morand perhaps only one which owes even more tality than does music to the accessory sentiment of seclusion. and the waters that is bers. . but of life in any other form than that — of the green things voiceless — which grow upon the soil — and are a stain upon the landscape is at war with the genius of the scene. and the gray rocks. the of natural scenery. and the forests that sigh in uneasy slumand the proud watchful mountains that look down upon all. I love. . To me. 53 8 the lyre for its own sake. aright the glory of God upon earth must in solitude behold that glory. regard as purely inanimate and material. . whose cognizance own cognizance of ourselves is akin with our of the animalcule? which infest the brain —a being which we. all . there is — I — mean the happiness experienced in the contemplation behold man who would In truth. at least. the presence not of human life only. much in the same manner as these animalcule? must regard us. mensity . and for its spiritual uses. . indeed.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY. . silently smile. to regard the dark valleys. whose mediate sovereign is the sun whose life is eterwhose thought is that of a God whose ennity joyment is knowledge whose destinies are lost in im. in consequence. — I love to regard these as themselves but the members of one vast animate and sentient whole a whole whose form (that of the sphere) is the most colossal — perfect and most associate planets whose path is among whose meek handmaiden is the moon inclusive of .

we are madly erring. — while the surfaces themselves are so disposed as to accommodate a denser population than could be accommo- dated on the same surfaces otherwise arranged. for there we since of matter with vitality is may be an infinity see clearly that the en- a principle —indeed. in either to be of more moment in the universe than that vast " " clod of the valley which he tills and contemns. in be- his temporal or future destinies. the within all less within the greater. to include the greatest possible amount of matter . and Spirit Divine ? In short. through self-esteem. Nor is it any argument against bulk being an object with God. is of the Almighty. and there- fore that bulk. an important consideration in the eyes The cycles in which the stars move are those best adapted for the evolution. and to . as our judgments extend. As we find it. — it is in the scarcely logical to imagine it confined to the regions of the minute. within a given surface. without collision. The forms of those bodies are accurately such as. and not extending cycle within cycle without end. and our mathematical investigations as- hand—notwithstanding sure us on every the cant of the more ignorant of the priesthood— that space. Our 539 telescopes.THE ISLAND OP THE FAY. the leading principle operations of Deity. of the greatest possible number of bodies. And . that space itself of matter to dowment far as is infinite fill it. the analogically suppose in the same manner. one far-distant centre which is —yet all revolving around the Godhead. lieving man. may we not life within life. where we daily trace to those of the august.

says I do not remember the words. has been an interest greatly deepened by the thought that strayed and gazed alone. was it who flippant that. by the rivers and often solitary . either the world is a great animal.* and such as among these. "la solitude est une quelqu un pour vous dire que belle chose ? necessity is " have Frenchman f work said in allusion to the well-known Zimmerman. but the a thing that does not exist.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY. was during one of my lonely journeyings. \ Balzac in substance * — — . 540 which he denies a soul for that he does not behold These my fancies. and threw myself upon the turf. and the interest with which I have strayed through many a dim. have always given to the mountains and the forests. amid a fardistant region of mountain locked within mountain. My wanderworld day ings amid such scenes have been many. that I might doze as I conisland. I felt that thus only should I look upon it such was the character of phantasm which it wore. beneath the branches of an unknown odorous shrub. meditations it no more profound reason than in operation. a tinge of what the everywould not fail to term fantastic. in his treatise De SildOrbis" " ". or gazed into the reflected heaven of many a bright lake. and far-searching. of mats la solitude est 7ine The epigram cannot be gainsaid . I templated the scene. il faut What I belle chose . or etc. and the ocean. — " Speaking of the tides. and It sad rivers and melancholy tarns writhing or sleeping within all that I chanced upon a certain rivulet and — came upon them suddenly in the leafy June. Pomponius Mela. deep valley.

reposed upon the my dreamy circular island. 54 1 sides — save to the west. in the short vista which About midway vision took in. which turned sharply in its course. possible to say at ald turf My its position enabled me to include in a single view both the eastern and western extremities of the islet. profusely ver- bosom of the stream. observed a singularly marked difference in their aspects. grass was It short. slender. The latter was all one radiant harem of garden and I glowed and blushed beneath the eye of the The slant sunlight. and was thus immediately lost to sight. and fairly laughed with flowers.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY. and graceful. and asphodel- mirthful. springy. interspersed. a rich golden and crimson waterfall from the sunset fountains of the sky. The trees were —of bright. one small dured. and parti-colored. So blended bank and shadow there That each seemed pendulous in air — so mirror-like was the glassy water. — foli- There . beauties. lithe. be absorbed but to by the deep- — green foliage of the trees to the east while in site quarter (so it appeared to me the oppo- as I lay at length and glanced upward) there poured down noiselessly and continuously into the valley. seemed to have no exit little river from its prison. erect Eastern figure and age. that it was scarcely what point upon the slope of the emercrystal dominion began. glossy. with bark smooth. where the sun was about — The sinking arose the verdant walls of the On all forest. sweet-scented.

solemn. . Commire . The shade . and spectral shapes that conveyed ideas of mortal sorrow and untimely death. and not very long. and thus became absorbed by the stream while other shadows issued momently from the trees. and mournful in form and attitude. The grass heads of thither wore the deep its blades among it tint of the cypress. separated itself sullenly from the trunk that gave it birth. and the hung droopingly. " If idea. I fancied that each shadow. —P. *Florem putares mare per liquidum sethera. wreathing themselves into sad. it. of the trees bury itself fell heavily upon the water. and hither and were many small unsightly hillocks. that taken for tulips with wings. This excited having once seized upon my fancy. but were not although over and all about them the rue and the rosemary clambered. impregnating the depths of the ele- ment with darkness.* The other or eastern end of the A blackest shade. taking the place of their predecessors thus entombed. low and narrow. gloom here pervaded might have been mis- isle was whelmed in the sombre.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY. and seemed to therein. 542 seemed a deep sense of life and joy about all and although no airs blew from out the heavens. yet every . that had the aspect of graves. greatly and I lost myself forthwith in revery. thing had motion through the gentle sweepings to and fro of innumerable butterflies. as the sun descended lower and lower. yet beautiful and peaceful all things. The trees were dark in color.

white flakes of the bark of the sycamore flakes which. while the sun sank of the rapidly to rest. their they yield up own ? is it. exhausting their substance unto dissolution ? What the wasting tree is to the water that imbibes its shade. their existence." continued I. little by little. a quick imagi- — nation might have converted into any thing while I thus mused. as these trees render up shadow after shadow. it appeared to one of those very Fays about whom me it pleased. " The revolution which has just been made by the Fay. . I and urged it with the mere While within the influence of the lingering sunbeams. dazzling. in a singularly fragile canoe. and eddying currents careered round and round the island.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY. phantom of an oar. with half-shut eyes. rendering unto God. who remain from the haunt of the few gentle Fays —or do up I 543 Are these green tombs theirs ? mankind yield their sweet lives as In dying. ever island were enchanted. not the may life " Fay be to the death which engulfs it ? As I thus mused. do they not rather waste away mournfully. bearing upon their bosom large. Slowly she glided along. " this the wreck of the race. in their multiform positions upon the water." said This is to myself. her attitude seemed indicative of joy but sorrow deformed it as she passed within the shade. — that the form of had been pondering made its way slowly into the darkness from out the She stood erect light at the western end of the island. and at length rounded the islet — and re-entered the region of light. growing thus blacker by what it preys upon.

for I did not fail to see into the shade. and more indistinct each passage into the gloom. there while and it at . and at each issuing was more sorrow about her person. and far fainter. and became absorbed into its blackness. and less of elastic joy.THE ISLAND OF THE FAY." And again the boat appeared. the Fay. which became black. making its blackness more black. whelmed in a shadow more when the sun had utterly de- darker shade. and the Fay . again and again she made the circuit of the island. She floated again from and into the gloom (which deepened moand mently). grew feebler. She has floated through her winter and through her summer. but about the attitude of the latter there was more of care and uncertainty. But at length. (while the sun rushed down to his slumbers). went disconsolately with her boat into the region of the parted. as she her. again her shadow fell from her into the ebony water. now the mere ghost of her former self. for darkness fell over all things. musingly. magical figure no more. there fell from her a into the light. ebony flood —and that she issued thence at say. And out the light. came . and all I I cannot beheld her . 544 " the cycle of the brief year of her life. her and was swallowed up in the shadow fell from dark water. She is is a year nearer unto death that.

was one of those piles of commingled gloom and grandeur which have so long frowned among the than in the fancy of Mrs.THE OVAL PORTRAIT. ments. Its Its walls were hung with tapestry and bedecked with manifold and multiform armorial trophies. to pass a night in the open air. less in fact all it It lay in a remote turret of the building. which de- pended from the walls not only in their main surfaces. together with an unusually great number of very spirited of rich golden arabesque. yet tattered and antique. rather than permit desperately wounded me. modern paintings in frames In these paintings. Radhad been temporarily and appearance very lately abandoned. decorations were rich. We established ourselves in one of the smallest and least sumptuously furnished apart- Appennines. but in very many nooks which the bizarre architecture of the chateau rendered necessary cipient delirium. not To cliffe. perhaps. interest . chateau into which THEmake my my valet had ventured to forcible entrance. so that I — in these paintings had caused me my in- to take deep bade Pedro to close the heavy shutters 545 . in condition.

I my eyes. rather than disturb my slumbering valet. long I read and devoutly. and which purported to and describe them. I wished all this done that I sleep. so shutting them. Rapidly and gloriously the hours flew by and the deep midnight came. I placed it so as its rays more fully upon the book. criticise — Long. devoutly I gazed. and the perusal of a small volume which had been found upon the pillow. to light the candelabrum which stood by the head it tongues of a tall of my bed. Why I did to my own perception. at least alternately to might resign myself. and then closed apparent even remained thus shut. time for thought deceived me — to I ran over in this was not But while mind my at first my lids reason for was an impulsive movement to gain to make sure that my vision had not It — calm and subdue my fancy for a more . 54-6 of the room —since — was already night. I glanced at the painting hurriedly. if not to the contemplation of these pictures. It was the portrait of a young girl just ripening before. into womanhood. The rays of the numerous candles (for there were to throw many) now fell within a niche of the hitherto been thrown into deep shade room which had by one of the bed- thus saw in vivid light a picture all unnoticed posts. The position of the candelabrum displeased me. and to throw open far and wide the fringed curtains of black velvet which enveloped the bed itself.THE OVAL PORTRAIT. But the action produced an effect altogether unanticipated. and outreaching my hand with difficulty.

with my vision riveted upon the portrait. and even the ends of the radiant hair melted imperceptibly vague yet deep shadow which formed the background of the whole. The .THE OVAL PORTRAIT. The frame was oval. must have instantly dispelled such idea must have prevented even its momen- — tary entertainment. satI isfied with the true secret of its effect. I It technically termed a vignette manner of the favorite heads of Sully. half reclining. As a thing of art nothing into the could be more admirable than the painting itself. done in what is portrait. could it have been that my fancy. have already said. stealing over waking girl. That doubt I now saw aright I . I fell back within . But it could have been neither the execution of the work. upon that canthe dreamy stupor which was and to startle me at once into life. which had so suddenly and so vehemently moved me. much in the style arms. of son. nor the immortal beauty of the countenance. Least of all. had mistaken the head for that of a living perI saw at once that the peculiarities of the design. and of the frame. the vignetting. $47 sober and more certain gaze. richly gilded and filigreed in Moresque. for an hour perhaps. was that of a young was a mere head and shoulders. shaken from its half slumber. the bosom. In a very few again looked fixedly at the painting. At length. half sitting. I could not and would not for the first flashing of the candles vas had seemed to dissipate The moments my senses. remained. Thinking earnestly upon these points.

and loved. young fawn loving and cherishing all things hating only the Art which was her rival dreading only the pallet and . I there read the vague position. who became lost in reveries so that he would not see that the light which fell so ghastly in that . my and quaint words which follow " She was a maiden of rarest beauty. and obedient. and appalled me. and wild. at an abso- first startling. and sat meekly for But she was humble many weeks in the dark high turret-chamber where the light dripped upon the pale canvas only from overhead. which. : . With deep and reverent awe I replaced the candelabrum in its former The cause of deep agitation being thus shut from view. . I had found the spell of the picture in lute life-likeliness of expression. the painter. painter. and not more lovely than full of glee. . and from day to day. and moody man. Turning to the number which designated the oval portrait. . finally confounded. and not more lovely than all light and smiles. ble thing for this lady to hear the painter speak of his desire to portray even his young bride. I sought eagerly the volume which discussed the paintings and their histories. brushes and other untoward instruments which deprived It was thus a terri- her of the countenance of her lover. But he. and wedded the He. subdued.THE OVAL PORTRAIT. And he was a passionate. passionate. austere. which went on from hour to hour. 54^ the bed. and having already a bride in his Art she a maiden of rarest beauty. took glory in his work. and frolicsome as the full of glee studious. And evil was the hour when she : saw.

And tjie flame within then the brush was given. and aghast. But at length. and crying with a turned suddenly loud voice. This is indeed Life itself n She was dead ! to regard his beloved ' ' ! : — . tremulous and very pallid. he grew and then the . as of a mighty marvel. 549 lone turret withered the health and the spirits of his bride. and turned his eyes from the canvas rarely. who pined visibly to all but him. while he yet gazed. the tint was placed entranced before the work which he had stood painter wrought but in the next. weeks had passed. as the labor drew nearer to its confor the clusion. because she saw that the painter (who had high renown) took a fervid and burning pleasure still and wrought day and night to depict her who so loved him. save one brush upon the mouth and one tint upon the eye. uncomplainingly. painter had grown wild with the ardor of his work. And he would not see that the tints which he spread upon the canvas were drawn from the cheeks of her who And when many sat beside him. . And in sooth some who beheld the portrait spoke resemblance in low words. yet who grew daily more dispirited and in his task. of its whom he depicted so surpassingly well. there were admitted none into the turret his deep love for her . Yet she smiled on and on. the spirit of the lady again flickered up as the socket of the lamp. even to regard the countenance of his wife. and. and but little remained to do.THE OVAL PORTRAIT. for one moment. and a proof not less of the power of the painter than of weak.

Who then shall call thy conduct into question ? who blame thee for thy visionary hours. There are surely other worlds than this — other thoughts than the thoughts of the multitude — other speculations than the speculations of the sophist. by Henry King.~\ ! ! but as thou shouldst nificent meditation in that city of Venice —which is — — — be— squandering away a life of magdim visions. Bishop of and mysterious man ILL-FATED brilliancy of thine own ! —bewildered imagination. and in fallen the in own youth Again in fancy I behold not Once more thy form hath risen before me oh not as thou art in the cold valley and shadow the flames of thine ! thee! — Chichester. and the wide windows of whose Palladian palaces look down with a deep and bitter meaning upon the secrets of her silent waters. or denounce those occupations as a wast55o . wife. thine own a star-beloved Elysium of the sea. me Stay for To meet f Exequy on the death of his there ! I will not fail thee in that hollow vale.THE ASSIGNATION. Yes ! I repeat it —as thou shouldst be.

in one wild. and down the staircases of the Ducal feathered condor. turned all at once that and preternatural day. by way But as 'my gondola arrived opposite Grand Canal. the old Ducal Palace were dying fast of the Campanile lay silent of the canal San Marco. the beauty of woman. letting in the pitchy darkness beyond a feet . It is with a bring to mind the circum- I Yet stances of that meeting. should I I remember — ah ! how —the deep midnight. chance of recovery. Like some huge and sable- we were slowly drifting down toward the Bridge of Sighs. that whom fourth time the person of confused recollection that I forget ? met.THE A SSIGNA TION. Startled at the while the gondolier. Romance that was a night of unusual gloom. lost it shriek. The great clock of the Piazza had sounded the fifth hour of the Italian evenIt The square ing. deep gloom into a livid . for the third or I speak. I of the its was returning home from the Piazetta. and the Genius of stalked up and down the narrow canal. 55 I which were but the overflowings of thine everlasting energies? It was at Venice. a female voice from upon the night. recesses broke suddenly hysterical. ing away of life. Palace. mouth the and deserted. and the lights in away. the Bridge of Sighs. and we were consequently left to the guidance of the current which here sets from the greater into the smaller channel. I and long-continued sprang upon my slip his single oar. sound. beneath the covered archway there called the Ponte di Sospiri. when a thousand flambeaux flashing from the windows.

but the mid-summer and midnight was hot. and. bare and silvery feet the black mirror of marble beneath her. her life in first struggles to call She stood gleamed upon her name. in curls young hyacinth. and exhausting its little that fair child. A snowy-white and drapery seemed to be nearly the sole covering like those of the gauze-like to her delicate form . was seeking in vain upon the surface. who now. not as yet more than half loosened for the night from its ball-room array. treasure which abyss.THE ASSIGNATION. small. stirred even the folds of that raiment of air . and the mother of and only one. and no motion in the statuelike form itself. Her alone. clustered. already in the stream. the was to be found. stood a which none who then saw can have figure the adoration of all most lovely where — was the Marchesa Aphrodite Venice the gayest of the gay the ever since forgotten. many a stout swimmer. amid a shower of diamonds. round and round her classical head. 552 A child. The quiet waters had closed fallen placidly over their victim . was thinking in bitterness of heart upon her sweet caresses. and still. in Her hair. slipping from the arms of its own mother. deep beneath the murky water. and a few steps above the water. sullen. had from an upper window of the lofty structure into the deep and dim canal. all It — — were beautiful — but still the young wife of the old and intriguing Mentoni. Upon alas ! only within the the broad black marble flagstones at the entrance of the palace. although my own gondola was the only one in sight.

when beneath her lay stifling her own child ? Yon dark. multiplies the images of its innumerable woe which hand far-off places. is ? move from the upright position I had assumed upon first hearing the shriek. the Many close at steps above the Marchesa. stood. as at he gave directions for the recovery of his Stupefied and aghast. does not remember the eye. could there be in — — chamber window right opposite her shadows its — in its architect- — ivy-wreathed and solemn cornices that the Marchesa di Mentoni had not wondered at a thousand ure in its times before Nonsense ? such a time as that. Yet strange to say large lustrous eyes were not turned downward upon that — ! — — grave wherein her brightest hope lay buried but riveted in a widely different direction The prison of the Old ! — think. and within the arch of the water-gate. I niche. He was the Satyr-like figure of occasionally occupied in thrum- and seemed ennuye to the very death. then. I floated down . at ! —Who this. gloomy is. like a shattered sorrow. and sees in mirror. 553 very vapor which hung around it as the heavy marble her hangs around the Niobe. as with pale countenance and rigid limbs. full dress. yawns what.THE ASSIGNATION. ming a guitar. I had myself no power to intervals child. the stateliest building in all Venice Republic but how could that lady gaze so fixedly upon it. among them in that funereal gondola. and must have presented to the eyes of the agitated group a spectral and ominous appearance. in Mentoni himself. too.

in most energetic exertions. by the side of the Marchesa. with the sound whose name the greater part of Europe was then graceful person of a very of ringing. plunged headlong into the canal. and. his cloak. falling in folds about his feet. child . like Pliny's acanthus. But the Marchesa She receive her child she will press it to her heart ! she will cling to caresses. There seemed but to a little hope for the (how much less than for the mother !) but now. 554 All efforts proved in vain. pausing a moment upon the verge of the giddy As. No word will now spoke the deliverer. and borne it And the Marchesa it ! beautiful lip trembles ! . from the interior of that dark niche which has been already mentioned as forming a part of the Old Republican prison. instant afterward. and as fronting the lattice of the Marchesa." Yes! tears are gathering in those eyes and see the entire woman thrills throughout in — ! . are "soft and almost liquid. and smother arms have taken — stranger another's arms have taken afar off. unnoticed. tears are gathering her eyes those eyes which. stepped out within reach of the light. heavy with the drenching water. he stood with the still living and breath- upon the marble flagstones ing child within his grasp. and yielding Many of the the search were relaxing their gloomy sorrow. became unfastened. into the palace Her lip —her — it it with her from the away. in an descent. a figure muffled in a cloak.THE ASSIGNATION. discovered to the wonder-stricken spectators the young man. — — Alas ! its little another's form. and.

we behold sud- denly flushed over with a tide of ungovernable crimson and a slight shudder quivers about her delicate frame. or the him adieu ? murmurs of the water deceived me " thou hast conquered one hour after sunrise we shall meet so let — — it be . whom I now away recog- . she has neglected to enthral her tiny feet in their and utterly forgotten to throw over her Venetian shoulders that drapery which is their due. What other slippers. this left. possible reason could there have been for her so blushing? — — for the glance of those wild appealing eyes? for the unusual tumult of that throbbing bosom ? for the con- vulsive pressure of that trembling hand ? — —that hand which fell." she said. demand there is in the eager haste terror of a mother's heart.THE ASSIGNATION. 555 the soul. — " ! # * The tumult had * # * * subsided. the privacy of her own boudoir. . upon the hand of the stranger. as Mentoni turned into the palace. the lights had died within the palace. and the statue has started into life The ! pallor of the marble countenance. the swelling of the marble bosom. Why should that no answer— except and lady blush ! To having that. as a gentle air at Napoli about the rich silver lilies in the grass. and the stranger. accidentally. the very purity of the marble feet. What reason could there have been for the low —the singularly low tone of those un- meaning words which the lady uttered hurriedly in bidding " Thou hast conquered.

possession. black hair. of the stranger him by the world was this —the person of the stranger is — let still me call a stranger one of these subjects. He shook with inconceivable agitation. nizcd. and spoke of our former slight acquaintance in terms of great apparent cordiality. whose shadows varied from pure hazel to ineffort. and his eye glanced around in search I could not do less than offer him the serof a gondola. liquid eyes. There are some subjects upon which The person title. Having obtained an oar at the water-gate. 556 upon the flags. while he rapidly recovered his self- vice of . stood alone my own and he accepted the civility. — tense and brilliant jet — and a profusion of curling. from which a forehead of unusual breadth gleamed forth at intervals all light and ivory his were features — than which I have seen none more classically regular. one of those . we proceeded together to his residence. In height he might have been below rather than above the medium size although there were moments of intense : passion when his frame actually exparided and belied the The light. who to all I take pleasure in being minute. perhaps.THE ASSIGNATION. ex- cept. the marble ones of the Emperor Commodus. nevertheless. Yet his countenance was. figure evinced at the Bridge of Sighs. almost slender symmetry of his promised more of that ready activity which he assertion. wild. upon With the mouth and chin of a deity singular. full. than of that Herculean strength which he has been occasions of known to wield without an more dangerous emergency.

Although. he solicited me. I found myself accordingly at his Palazzo. it which all had no upon the predominant expression to be fastened memory a countenance seen and instantly for- settled . in what I thought an urgent manner. of the passion. which tower above the waters of the Grand Canal in the was shown up a broad winding of mosaics. to throw image upon the mirror of that face mirror-like. to call upon him very early the next morning. at any time. Not rapid passion failed. 557 men have seen at some period of their lives. I could not bring myself to believe that the wealth of any subject in Europe could have supplied the princely magnificence which burned and blazed around.THE ASSIGNATION. yet the room . Shortly after sunrise. as I say. I knew my acquaintance Report had terms which I had even to be wealthy. and have never afterward seen again. staircase I splendor burst through the opening door with an actual glare. retained no vestige never-ceasing that the spirit of each its own distinct —but that the mirror. but forgotten with a vague and desire of recalling it to mind. gotten. making me blind and dizzy with luxuriousness. into an apartment whose unparalleled vicinity of the Rialto. one of those huge structures of gloomy yet fantastic pomp. It had no peculiar. the sun had arisen. But as I gazed about me. when the passion had departed. spoken of his possessions in ventured to call terms of ridiculous exaggeration. Upon leaving him on the night of our adventure.

The eye — and rested upon none neither the grotesques of the Greek painters. Little attention had been paid to the decora of what is technically called keeping. together with multitudinous flaring and flickering tongues of emerald and The rays of the newly risen sun poured in violet fire. the beams of natural glory mingled at length fitfully with the artificial light. nor the wandered from object to object. liquid-looking cloth of Chili gold. Glancing to and fro. nor the huge carvings of untutored Egypt. formed each of a single pane of crimson-tinted glass. in a thousand reflections. from curtains which rolled from their cornices like cataracts of molten silver. was not to be discovered. tenance of friend. ha! ha! motioning —ha! me ha! ha!" to a seat as I —laughed the propri- entered the room. reeking up from strange convolute censers. .THE ASSIGNATION. as well as from an air judge from this circumof exhaustion in the coun- my he had not retired to bed was still brilliantly lighted up. melancholy music. In the architecture and embellishments of the chamber. and lay weltering in subdued masses upon a carpet of rich. 55 8 stance. room trembled whose origin Rich draperies in every part of the to the vibration of low. through windows. "Ha! etor. and throwing himself back at full-length upon an ottoman. the evident design had been to dazzle and astound. sculptures of the best Italian days. The senses were oppressed by mingled and conflicting perfumes. or to the proprieties of nationality. that I during the whole of the preceding night. upon the whole.

amazed. you remember. he resumed." singular alteration of voice to be merry at your expense. however. Also in the Sir ' Absurdities of characters ' of Ravisius Textor. or die. pletely ludicrous. with a " I have no right and manner. (here his tone of voice dropped to the very pardon me for my spirit of cordiality.) You appeared uncharitable laughter. " 559 see/' said he. so utterly astonished. socle. Besides. eh." continued list Do he. my dear sir. You might well have been Europe cannot produce any thing so my little regal cabinet. among a chaos of scarcely visible is ruins.THE ASSIGNATION. this. were a thousand temples and shrines to a They at Sparta thousand different divinities. at Sparta. there who came to the is a long same magnificent end. Now. you know. upon which are still legible the let- are undoubtedly part of TEAASMA. My fine as other apartments are by . that a some things man must are so com- laugh. to the west of the citadel. perceiving that I could not I immediately reconcile myself to the biense'ance of so singular a welcome. How exceedingly strange all the that the altar of Laughter should have survived others ! But in the present instance. with my magnificence ? But pardon me. —"I see you are astonished statues — my —my pictures at my apartment originality of — at my conception in architecture and upholstery! absolutely drunk. ters is a kind of AAEM. musingly. laughing must be the most glorious of all — To die glorious deaths ! — Thomas More a very fine man was Sir Thomas More Sir Thomas More died laughing. I say. "that at now Sparta (which Palseochori).

" said he. great . and from Cimabue to the present hour. This same order is —mere ultras of fashionable better than fashion — is it Yet not? — but to be seen to become the rage that is. as this. besides myself and my valet. They chamber such ceuvres of the here. Madonna della Pieta ? " " my It is Guido's nature. you are the only human I being. unknown little Here. since " they have been bedizened as you see ! bowed acknowledgment — for the overpowering and music. and men. nation. with all of this the enthusiasm of had been poring intently over its sur- .THE ASSIGNATION. by whose very names the perspicacity of the academies has left to silence and to me. fitting tapestry for a 1 too. however. ever. " here are paintings from the Greeks to Cimabue. turning abruptly as he spoke. with those who could afford it at the cost of their entire patrithis has mony. against any such profaWith one exception. my appreciation I in sense of splendor and of might have construed into a compliment. are chosen. as Many deference to the opinions of Virtu. $6o no means of the insipidity." he resumed. Here. in words. arising and leaning on my arm as what " I he sauntered around the apartment. unfinished designs you with are how- all. are some chef-d see. have guarded. What think you. who has been admitted within the mysteries of these imperial precincts. celebrated in their day. together with perfume the unexpected eccentricity of his address and manner. prevented me from expressing. for I own " ! —" what think you I said.

and all the right. I think. Was ! it — not Socrates who said that the statuary found his statue in the block of marble Then Michael Angelo was — couplet 1 Non ha 1* original in his ottimo artista alcun concetto Che un marmo It by no means ? solo in se non circunscriva. the quintessence Give me the Canova of all affectation. full felt fully applicable to define that peculiarity of spirit which Nor can I better seemed to place . or should be remarked. thoughtfully. it. there be no can is a doubt of it blind fool too. who cannot behold the boasted inspiration of I cannot help I cannot pity me help the Apollo — ! preferring the Antinous. that. copy ! — that I — am. without being at once precisely able to determine in what such difference consists. we are always aware of a difference from the bearing of the vulgar.THE A SSIGNA TION. and in the coquetry of that right arm lies. are restorations. Allowing the remark to have applied in its outward demeanor of my acquaintance. ! ! ful Venus? — the Venus the of — Medici?— she diminutive head and the gilded hair? of Part of the the left arm [here his voice dropped so as to be heard with difficulty]. I force to the on that eventful morning. in the manner of the true gentleman. have obtained it ? she is undoubtedly in painting what the Venus is in sculpture. 56 1 — " It is Guido's own how could you passing loveliness.' " has been. The Apollo." " " Ha " said the Venus ? the beautihe. still more his moral temperament and character.

although tainted with impurity. as either in if expectation of a visitor. pausing in the middle of a sentence commencement he had apparently whose forgotten. " The Orfeo me upon native Italian tragedy). 5^2 him so essentially apart from all than by calling a habit it of other thought. was a passage toward the end of the third sage of the most heart-stirring excitement It act —a —a pas- passage shall read which. however. through the mingled tone of levity and solemnity with which he rapidly descanted upon matters of little importance. in turning over a page of the poet It and scholar (the first Politian's beautiful tragedy. that. he seemed to be listening in the deepest attention. pervading even his most moments his human intense and actions trivial dalliance of beings. continual —and — in- inter- truding upon weaving itself with his very flashes of merriment like adders which writhe from out the eyes of the grinning — masks in the cornices around the temples of Persepolis. quently. too.THE ASSIGNATION. could hot help. no man without a thrill of novel emotion no woman without a — . which lay near an ottoman. and upon some occasions even filled me with alarm. I " discovered a passage underlined in pencil. a I certain air of trepidation action and in speech which appeared to —a degree of —an me nervous unction in unquiet excitability of manner at all times unaccountable. repeatedly observing. or to sounds momentary must have had Fre- which existence in his imagination alone. was during one of these reveries or pauses of apparent abstraction.

" Onward " but o'er the Past ! ! ! — (Dim gulf my Mute motionless — For alas The " !) ! alas ! hovering —aghast spirit with lies. diffi- . (Such language holds the solemn sea To the sands upon the shore. and.THE ASSIGNATION. By what Italian streams. No more — no more —no more. tree. The whole page was 563 blotted with fresh tears . Ah. love. written in a hand so very different from the pecul- my iar characters of culty in recognizing acquaintance. fountain and a shrine. And where thy footstep gleams In what ethereal dances. love. . For which A as his it I — my A All wreathed with fairy fruits and flowers And all the flowers were mine. sigh. ! me light of life is o'er.) Shall Or bloom the thunder-blasted the stricken eagle soar Now all And ! my hours are trances my nightly dreams . dream too bright to last Ah. starry Hope. that didst arise But to be overcast A voice from out the Future cries. that Thou wast own had some : that all to me. were the following English lines. upon the opposite interleaf. soul did pine green isle in the sea. all Are where the dark eye glances.

had been originally London. occasioned me no little amaze- tion." said he. " There is one painting. From Love to titled age and crime. of metropolis of Great Britain. I as well here course. if I mistake di not. so effectually as to conceal the word from a scrutinizing eye. to . this occa- remember that. I was too well aware of the extent of his acquirements.THE ASSIGNATION. and afterward It carefully overscored — not. when his answer.) that the person of whom I speak. gave me to understand that he tion. Where weeps the silver willow ! ! That these with which I me afforded were written — English a language had not believed their author acquainted lines little in — matter for surprise. however. without being aware . I particularly in- in London the Marchesa Mentoni (who for some years previous to her marriage had resided in that city). and from our misty clime. an Englishman. I must confess. that I had never visited the menmight have more than once heard. sioned in a me no little amazement former conversation with quired if he had at . giving credit to a report involving so many im- ****** probabilities. (without. 564 Alas ! for that accursed time They bore thee o'er the billow. for I well my any time met I say. friend. but in education. ment. and of the singular pleasure he took in concealing them from observabe astonished at any similar discovery but the place of date. was not only by birth. — And an unholy pillow From me.

fashioned in the same extraordinary . scarcely discernible in the billiant atmosphere seemed to pair of the encircle and enshrine her loveliness." he will stand " ! said at length. which a glance from the painting to the figure of my friend. which was beaming all over with smiles. But in the expression of the countenance. and the vigorous words of Chapman's Bussy D'Ambois. me which stood before in the delineation The same ethereal figure the preceding night upon the steps me once again. — " there 565 is still one painting which you have not seen. turning toward a table of richly enamelled and massive silver. Human of her art could have done no more superhuman beauty. My ." And throwing aside a drapery. alone visible.THE A SSIGNA TION. floated most delicately imagined wings. together with two large Etruscan vases. With her left downward she pointed to a curiously fashioned vase. fairy foot. upon which were a few goblets fantastically stained. he discovered a full-length portrait of the Marchesa Aphrodite. stood before anomaly !) that fitful stain of melancholy which will ever be found inseparable from the perfection of the beautiful. barely touched the earth and. there still lurked (incomprehensible of the Ducal Palace. my of notice of the tragedy. quivered fell instinctively upon my lips: " He is up There like a Roman statue He Till Death hath made him marble ! " Come. Her right arm lay folded over her bosom. One small.

It is ring with the first but what matters hour it ? after sunrise let us drink ! " : — indeed early Let us pour out an it is yon solemn sun which these gaudy lamps and " And having made me censers are so eager to subdue in him a he in rapid succession swallowed bumper. 5 66 model as that in the foreground of the portrait. as he held up to the rich light of a censer one of the magnificent vases "to dream has — been the business of myself. I have therefore framed for you see. I it is The In the heart of You behold have erected a better? true." he —but let us indeed early. soul. my ." he continued. my life. my spirit is writhing in fire. as a cherub with a heavy golden hammer made the apartment drink. as Venice could around you. resuming the tone of his desultory conversation. " To dream. ments.THE ASSIGNATION. and especially of time. Like these arabesque censers. Yet the effect is incongruous to the timid alone. a medly chastity of Ionia of architectural embellishis offended by antediluvian and the sphynxes of Egypt are outstretched upon carpets of gold. pledge offering to ! several goblets of the wine. are the bugbears which terrify plation of the magnificent." he continued. and the delirium of this scene is fashioning me for the wilder . Proprieties of place. devices. " I to be with what supposed Johannisberger. musingly. It is early said. mankind from the contem- Once I was myself a decorist but that sublimation of folly has palled All this is now the fitter for my upon purpose. "let us drink! and filled Come. abruptly. a bower of dreams.

in a words. he looked upwards. and . beautiful Aphrodite ! Bewildered. the incoherent My mistress — my mistress — Poisoned — " Oh." head to his bosom.THE ASSIGNATION. beautiful — oh. poisoned " emotion. and faltered voice choking with out. and a full loud knock at the door rapidly succeeded. and seemed to listen to a sound which I could not hear. erecting his frame. confessing the power of the wine. I was hastening to anticipate a second disturbance. when a page of Mentoni's household burst into the room. I ! ! ! I flew to the ottoman. bent his rapidly departing. and endeavored to arouse the sleeper to a sense of the startling intelligence. quick step was now heard upon the staircase. But his limbs were rigid — his lips were livid — his lately beaming eyes were riveted in death." In the next instant. and ejaculated the lines of the Bishop of Chichester: 1 ' Stay for me there ! I will not fail To meet thee in that hollow vale. he threw himself at A length upon an ottoman. I staggered back toward the table my hand fell upon a cracked and — blackened goblet — and a consciousness terrible truth flashed suddenly over my of the entire soul. visions of that land of real 567 dreams whither I am now He here paused abruptly. At length.

it One of his eyes reblue eye. many can tell say it me was He insult. first the idea entered haunted me day and I my night. eye life it How. my blood ran cold was sembled that of a vulture and so by degrees was the sense of am — how healthily how things in hell. loved had never wronged me. I think yes. He had never For his gold I had no desire. Now this is the point. in then. Whenever to take the ^ how heaven and Passion there was none.THE TELL-TALE HEART. story. the earth. his eye ! over it. and thus rid myself of the for ever. with a film upon me. very dreadfully nervous I had been and am but why will you say that I mad? The disease had sharpened my senses not TRUE! — destroyed not dulled them. am hearing acute. all things in the you the whole Object there was none. the old man. Madmen . I made up my mind man. given Above all Hearken! and observe It is impossible to brain — it fell this ! —a pale —very gradually— of the old . You 563 fancy me mad. I I mad? calmly I heard I heard . —nervous—very. . but once conceived.

. I put in a dark la ntern. not disturb the old man's might an hour to place my whole head within thrust very slowly. to suspect that every night. just looked in upon him while he slept. night —but I . you would have laughed to see head. I could see him as he lay upon madman have been when my head was so wise as well in the room. I turned the latch of his door and — And then. And — nights every night just at mid- long found the eye always closed and so it was impossible to do the work for it was not the old man who vexed me. and inquiring how he had passed the night. should have seen how wisely I proceeded with what — caution — with what foresight — with what went to work dissimulation I was never kinder to the old man than I ! during the whole week before I killed him. when the^day went boldly into the chamber.THE TELL-TALE LIE ART. all ! no closed. You nothing. so that thrust in my how cunningly I It took me this ? ! And in it — then. closed. so cautiously—cau— undid just so much undid the lantern cautiously tiously (for the hinges creaked) that a single thin ray fell this I did for seven I it upon the vulture eye. broke. 569 know But you should have seen me. when I had made opened it oh. I . I — ! I the opening so far that Ha would a his bed. so that sleep. And every morning. and then I moved it slowly very. And every night. but his Evil Eye. so gently an opening sufficient for my head. twelve. at old man. light Oh. I So you see he would have been a very profound indeed. about midnight. and spoke courageously to him. I — oh. calling him by name in a hearty tone. shone out.

and was when my thumb slipped upon I old had man sprang up there I in about to open the lantern. through fear of robbers. and in the meantime I did not still kept quite did not move a hear him lie He was down. Many a night. steadily. my head in. little by little. and I kept pushing it on steadily. in the extent of A was more than usually cautious watch's minute hand moves more I Never before that night had — powers of my own my feelings scarcely contain my sagacity. no. . hearklistening ening to the death watches in the wall.THE TELL-TALE HEART. for he Now you may His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness. just at midnight. of triumph. — it It from the bottom of the soul when overcharged with awe. I knew the sound well. the tin fastening. no ! I was not a groan of pain or