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ITTO PD425/06 Rev. 1 (I)
Production and Utilization Technology
for Sustainable Development of Eaglewood (Gaharu)
in Indonesia


by : Irnayuli R. Sitepu, Erdy Santoso, Sulistyo A. Siran, and Maman Turjaman



ITTO PD425/06 Rev. 1 (I)
Production and Utilization Technology
for Sustainable Development of Eaglewood (Gaharu)
in Indonesia


by : Irnayuli R. Sitepu, Erdy Santoso, Sulistyo A. Siran, and Maman Turjaman



Irnayuli R. Sitepu, Erdy Santoso, Sulistyo A. Siran, and
Maman Turjaman

Institution’s full name, address :

R&D Centre for Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation; Jalan Gunung
Batu No. 5 Bogor, Indonesia; e-mail :

The place and date the report :
was issued

Bogor, July 1, 2011.


Copyright @ 2011


This Proceeding is a part of Program ITTO PD425/06 Rev. 1 (I) :
Production and Utilization Technology for Sustainable Development of
Gaharu (Gaharu) in Indonesia
Published by


Indonesia’s Work Programme for 2011 ITTO PD425/06 Rev.1 (I)
R&D Centre for Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation
Jalan Gunung Batu No. 5 Bogor, Indonesia
Phone :62-251-8633234
E-mail :




Cover by



Project number


PD425/06 Rev. 1 (I)

Host Government



Name of the Executing


Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA)

Project Coordinator

Dr. Ir. Maman Turjaman, DEA

Starting date of the project


May 1, 2008

Duration of the project


36 months


forests are now receiving more and more attention from international society because profound appreciation on the function of forest has increased over the years. and that technology intervention plays a major role in the process. People who live surrounding the forests are the ones who are affected directly from the rapid depletion of gaharu because their livelihood depends on the forest. the Ministry of Forestry. It is thus timely to promote sustainable production of gaharu as an important strategy for conserving natural gaharu tree species. Gaharu is also considered the world’s most valuable incence with even higher price for high quality gaharu. More importantly. and concurrently fulfilling the demand for gaharu products from cultivation. Technology for accelerating gaharu production is intensively studied and several gaharu cultivation plots have been established in several locations in Indonesia. A key message of this book is to stimulate an understanding that the future of gaharu relies solely on sustainable production of gaharu and habitat conservation. It is our aim to alleviate poverty of particularly forest community by providing simple technology for gaharu production as source of income and to stimulate cultivation of gaharu plants as their valuable backbone commodity. Due to its multiuses. thus the forest habitats. the forests have become the assets that contribute significantly to the country’s income. and as the consequences. Adi Susmianto Head. The objective of this book is to give thorough information concerned with gaharu. and summarize the findings of the state-of-the-art research on gaharu.1 (I): “ Production and Utilization Technology for Sustainable Development of Eaglewood (Gaharu) in Indonesia” is targeting to achieve the goals. forest is seen a lot as as environmental service provider nowadays. some important gaharu-producing trees under a serious degradation. Indonesia iii . Natural habitat of gaharu suffers from uncontrolled exploitation. Indonesia is the world’s third largest area of tropical forest. Forests are no longer seen as a place for timber production only. but also for many non-timber forest products. With today’s international focus on climate change. R & D Centre for Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation FORDA. being endowed with nearly 90 million hectares under forest cover.PREFACE The importance of gaharu (eaglewood or aloewood or jingkoh or oudh) for many users has long been recognized. This project of ITTO PD425/06 Rev. demand for gaharu products continues to increase significantly and may cause rapid depletion of gaharu trees in the wilds. On the other hand.


.......................... 24 5............... INTRODUCTION... 3 3...... cuttings and tissue culture...... 16 3....................LIST OF CONTENTS PREFACE................................ 15 3......................................................................................63 v ......................................2 Deliberate tree drilling and chemical injection..............................................59 ANNEX............................................................1 Propagation using seeds................. EXIT STRATEGY.................................. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAHARU....2 Inoculation of beneficial microbial to promoted plant growth..................vii LIST OF FIGURE.................................. 51 8..................................4 Soil characteristics............................................iii LIST OF CONTENTS............... 23 4.......... 16 3...........3 Pest and Disease ................... 23 4.........................................3 Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum....................................... 15 3.............................. v LIST OF TABLE....................................................... CONCLUDING REMARKS............................ ix 1 2.......................................................................................................................2 Master Plans............................................. 19 4................... 31 6........................................................1 The Role of Institution....................... GAHARU BIOINDUCTION TECHNOLOGY................................................... 51 8.. KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU....... 23 4...1 Deliberate tree wounding using mechanical tools.................. 7............................................................................................................................................ 57 GAHARU................... GAHARU PRODUCTS AND TRADING............................. REFERENCES...................... CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF 49 8......... 39 1........ 53 9............ SILVICULTURE OF GAHARU PLANT.................................................................................................................................................................................

Table 1. Scientific names, synonyms, common names of Aquilaria and Gyrinops
and distribution..................................................................................................3
Table 2. Pests and Diseases of gaharu plants in several locations in Indonesia...........16
Table 3. Soil physical characteristics of three gaharu plantation sites
in Java Island, Indonesia..................................................................................20
Table 4. Soil chemical characteristics of three gaharu plantation sites
in Java Island, Indonesia..................................................................................20
Table 5. Fungi isolated from infected tree identified based on their morphological
characteristics and experiments related with the fungal inoculation ..............24
Table 6. Experimental plot of gaharu trees induction by deliberate tree drilling
and Fusarium spp. injection in several locations across Indonesia.................26
Table 7. Molecular identification of 36 strains of gaharu-inducing fungi
collected from 17 provinces in Indonesia........................................................29
Table 8. Phenol compounds present in the induced gaharu products .........................34
Table 9. Classification of gaharu quality in Samarinda (East Kalimantan).....................41
Table 10. Criteria and classification of gaharu quality.....................................................42
Table 11. Selling price of gaharu in markets of Samarinda, in East Kalimantan.............42
Table 12. Classification of gaharu quality according to Indonesian National
Standard (SNI)..................................................................................................43
Table 13. Development of quota and realization related to the eagle wood
export from Indonesia......................................................................................45
Table 14. Several institutions/stakeholder who will carry out the exit strategy
following the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev. 1 (I) project.............................................52
Table 15. Exit strategy based on activities of gaharu development at
the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev.1 (I).........................................................................52


Figure 1. Seeds of gaharu. (1-2): Aquilaria malaccensis; (3-4): Gyrinops versteegii........5
Figure 2. Gaharu trees.....................................................................................................6
Figure 3. Flowering phenology of Aquilaria spp. in natural forest, plantation and
Botanical Garden (a) A. malaccensis and A. microcarpa in West Kalimantan;
(b) A. microcarpa in East Kalimantan; (c) A. malaccensis, A. microcarpa,
and A. beccariana in Botanical Garden; (d) A. crassna, A. malaccensis
and A. microcarpa in plantation, Bogor; (e) A. filarial in plantation, Bogor;
(f) A. hirta in plantation, Bogor (Source: Suhartono and Newton, 2001)..........7
Figure 4. (1): Aquilaria malaccensis La,. 1. twig, 2 flower, 3. longitudinal section of
flower, 4. fruit, 5. longitudinal section of fruit. (Source: Plant Resources of
South East Asia 19) and (2): Gyrinops ladermannii.
a- branchlet habit;
b- flower bud (left), opened flower (right); c- seed dorsal view (left), ventral
view (right); d- dehisced fruit emerging from lateral slit of floral tube with
one seed hanging out on funicle; Herbarium specimen Zich 315, CANB
Accession Number 531408. Botanical illustration : Sharyn Wragg. (Zich
and Compton 2001 in Dunn et al., 2003)........................................................12
Figure 5. Silviculture of gaharu. (1-2): Propagation by cuttings with KOFFCO
system; (3): Effect of inoculation with beneficial microbes for promoting
growth; (4): Gaharu plantation........................................................................18
Figure 6. Pests and disease of gaharu trees. (1): Leaf eater Heortia vitessoides;
(2): Stem Borer; (3): Colony of ants, the predator of H. vitessoides: (4):
Hearth-rot fungi..............................................................................................19
Figure 7. An illustration of induction procedure for stimulation of gaharu formation.
(1): Tree drilling to make about 5 mm diameter hole with 25 cm space in
between holes; (2-3): one ml of liquid inoculum is injected with a syringe;
(4): one month after inoculation, the efficiency of induction is observed by
peeling a tree bark to observe the disease symptom (Source: http://www.
Figure 8. Technology of fungal induction to stimulate gaharu production.
(1): Bamboo stagger for climbing tree for inoculation; (2): Drilling the tree
and making holes for inoculation; (3): Fusarium sp., gaharu-inducing
fungi grown on agar plate; (4): Wood coloration on stem tissue, an
indication of resin production.........................................................................28
Figure 9. Harvesting procedure of gaharu product from deliberate tree injection
with fungal inoculant. (1): Initial symptom of gaharu formation on stem;
(2): Felling of tree; (3-7): Cutting away tissue to obtain the resinous parts;
(8): Residue of trees that is used for distillation of oil.....................................29


... Structures of compound from gaharu oil............33 Figure 12.... (2): Gaharu from deliberate inoculation with isolate from West Kalimantan................................ (2): C19H18O5. (6): C1H14O3............... (3): Natural gaharu of Gorontalo origin.......... 2002)................47 Figure 17....................... (2-7): 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones.....46 Figure 16.....36 Figure 13..................................... Chromatogram revealing constituents in 6-month old induced gaharu...... (c) Teri and (d) Kemedangan...... (b) Kacangan .47 Figure 18...... Major constituent genkwanin 5-O-b-primeveroside compound that caused mild laxative effect in mice (Source: Hara et al.37 Figure 14......... Several pieces of gaharu still in logs which are ready for export... (4) Figure 1................................... .......... (4): Gaharu from deliberate inoculation with isolate from Gorontalo (Source: Santoso et al...54 x .. (1): Natural gaharu of West Kalimantan origin.........................48 Figure 19. ............................ Other gaharu products...........38 Figure 15............... flidersiachromone....... unpublished data). 2008)...... flidersiachromone........ Gaharu products............................................................................32 Figure 11............. (3): C1H14O4... Compound (1): 2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone.................... and (7): C18H16O4 (Source: Konishi et al.......... Gaharu classes of quality: (a) Tanggung.......... Chemical structures of 6 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones and an unkown 2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone (1)...........................Figure 10.......... (5): dihydroxyl derivative of 2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone............ (4): 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(4hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone.......... Chemical content of gaharu originated from natural process and artificial induction.. Flow-scheme regarding the exit strategy of gaharu development that will be conducted by the Research Team of FORDA.............

Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. However. gaharu hunters usually cut down the whole trees to find the resin and this practice has diminished gaharu population in the wilds and consequently has led gaharuproducing tree species under a threat of extinction. This excessive hunting activity has caused significant reduction of wild gaharu stocks within a short period of time.. Indonesia. Two mostly known genera are Aquilaria and Gyrinops that are native to Southeast Asia with Indonesia. range from incense for religious and traditional ceremonies. Major harvesting of gaharu was recorded between the 1980s and early 1990s in East Kalimantan caused by high demand for gaharu and was due to diminishing supply from countries like Vietnam and Cambodia (Barden et al. Papua New Guinea (Gunn et al. The resin compound of gaharu is highly commercial. Appendix II to prevent this species from extinction. Laos and Papua New Guinea being the main producing countries. May River and Ama villages in West Sepik. or oudh) has long been appreciated for its multipurpose uses. In Egypt and Japan. In India and Cambodia.49 (TRAFFIC. has not been able to meet the quota because it has become more difficult to collect gaharu from its natural habitat because they are dissapearing. 1998 was the first officially recorded year for gaharu discovery and harvesting in Yapsiei.1 INTRODUCTION Gaharu (agarwood. and yet. Harvesting of gaharu in these countries involve professional and traditional collectors. jinkoh. Natural forests have been the main resource for gaharu collection for many years. Thailand. Gaharu is the only tree in the Eastern myth that has been descended to Man from Eden garden (Duke. 2007). and Singapore being the central trade country (Persoon.. in particular. Appendix II. 2007). for a much faster process. Due to a significant increase in gaharu demand and high prices of gaharu. Cambodia. In November 1994. only ten years later. The occurrence of thisso-called the wood of the gods has been strongly surrounded by myths and history. 2003). Traditional wisdom combined with scientific knowledge have 1 .2001 in Gunn et al.. CITES regulates the permitted quota for gaharu export in order to sustain gaharu existence. Professional collectors sponsored by Chinese and bogus trades were sometimes dropped by helicopters to hunt for gaharu (World Wide Fund for Nature. Gaharu use is mentioned in the Old Testament as ‘aloe’ or ‘ahaloth’ in Psalm 45:8. efforts have taken places to implement technology for stimulating gaharu production artificially. 2008). CoP13 Prop. eaglewood. medicine and ornamental functions in many countries. aloeswood. perfume. it is used for traditional and religious ceremony. Resin impregnated in the heartwood a number of gaharu-producing species is due to fungal infection. Vietnam. gaharu was used to embalm dead bodies. was initially listed in CITES (the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2003). However. continual excessive gaharu exploitations have then put two genera Aquilaria and Gyrinops in CITES. 1999). Similar activity also occurred in Papua after gaharu hunters landed in 1996 that has led to an ending of gaharu harvesting from its natural habitat (Persoon. Malaysia. 2004) listed 24 species of the genus Aquilaria and seven species of the genus of Gyrinops.

This book provides a general overview of gaharu with specific reference to Indonesia as one of the most important country for gaharu production. 2 . Because the future of gaharu is dependent upon conservation and sustainable production management strategies.1 (I): Production and Utilization Technology for Sustainable Development of Eaglewood (Gaharu) in Indonesia. emphasis is given to research and development of induction technology for sustainable production of gaharu which is the main target of ITTO PD 425/06 REV.been implemented with numerous approaches to find the most efficient gaharu induction technology that will be able to fulfill the demand and at the same time conserve the remnants in the wilds.

49 (2004) recorded 24 species belong to the genus Aquilaria and 7 species belong to the genus of Gyrinops (Table 1). synonyms. G. rarely in swampy forest 1 Aquilaria beccariana van Aquilaria cumingiana (Decne) Ridley Tiegh. TRAFFIC PC12 Doc. Belitung. These trees naturally occur in at least 12 countries: Bangladesh. This PNG gaharu species was firstly found and harvested in approximately 1998 for its resinous wood in the Yapsiei. var. caudate.. Riau. karas or sigi-sigi (Bugis).3. Indonesia. Malaysia. garu tanduk (Kalimantan). 2004). Palembang and Lampung). Pahang. 2002). Sumatra (Sijunjung. ledermannii. Gyrinopsis grandifolia Quis.8. podocarpus. Cambodia. garu. mengkaras putih (Sumatra). from the lowland up Johore). filaria and Gyrinops versteegii are found in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and the only species. . within the family of Thymelaeaceae (Order: Myrtales and Class: Magnoliopsida). Butan. Aquilariella borneensis Boerl Tengkaras (Madura). Gaharu.. No. engkaras (Dayak).kayu Malay Peninsula Grow on hill slopes. Table 1. reported there are 12 species belonging to the genus Aquilaria and 8 species belonging to the genus Gyrinops. Vietnam and Papua New Guinea (Barden et al. kumbil. Aquilaria moszkowskii Gilg. Later report by Gunn et al. Thailand. ledermannii is from Papua New Guinea (PNG. The first reported taxonomic work determined the species as Gyrinops ledermannii. gumbil. Scientific names. G. Lao PRD. TRAFFICCITES-CoP13 Prop. common names of Aquilaria and Gyrinops and distribution Scientific Name Synonims Common Names Distribution Area Ecosystem Extend from peninsular Malaysia to Sumatra Common in Borneo Found Primary forest from the low land up to 825 m. in Gunn et al.2 KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU Aquilaria and Gyrinops are the two most important gaharu-producing genera. Aquilariella microcara van Tiegh. (2004) however suggested five of the eight species Gyrinops.. 3 . hepang (Bangka). walla found in Sri Langka. G. 2004). parviflora Airy Shaw. the other seven are distributed east of the Wallace Line which is a transitional biogeographical zone that marks Asia zone to the west and Australian zone to the east. Chamdan. Compton (2002) reported three gaharu-producing species originated from Papua Island. Aquilaria grandifolia Domke. have been found in New Guinea island: G. Bangka and throughout Borneo. forest up to 200 m. Aquilariella borneensis van Tiegh. to 300 m East Sumatra (Senamaninik). G. Singapore. sahare (Madura) (Trengganu. A. tulang (Madura) Grows on lowland Malay Peninsula. Myanmar. Lingga islands. There are slight differences in reports on the number of species within each genus. audate. verstegii. njabak (Malaysia) 2 Aquilaria hirta Ridl. chamdan. salicifolia and G. Philippines. Gaharu. and Ama Villages in West Sepik (Gunn et al. 2004). 3 Aquilaria microcarpa Baill. May River. Two species. Except G. On the other hand Ding Hou (1960 in Gunn et al.

- - Philippines (?). Pittosporum filarium Oken. Huang - - China   . 4 Scientific Name Synonims Common Names Distribution Area Ecosystem 4 Aquilaria cumingiana (Decne) Ridl.. dalakit (S. - - India (Khasia).L. binukat (Ak. Hall. - - Moluccas   18 Aquilaria moszkowskii Gilg - - Sumatra   19 Aquilaria tomentosa Gilg - - New Guinea   20 Aqularia bailonii Pierre ex Lecomte - - Cambodia   21 Aquilaria sinensis Merr. 11 Aquilaria rostrata Ridl. about 1700 m. _audate_e Quis. up Mollucas. 17 Aquilaria secundana D.. bòkuin (Morotai). lason (Ceram)..C.). - - China. Decaisnella cumingiana O. pamaluian (Bag. and Moluccas (Morotai and Halmahera) 5 Aquilaria audate (Oken) Merr. Luzon: Cagayan Province in primary forest at low and medium altitudes.Bis. giba kalo (Halmahera) South Borneo (Sampit region). kasjik (Tehid)..Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide No.f.f. Aquilaria tomentosa Gilg. Pittosporum ferrugineum var. Gyrinopsis brachyantha Merr. filarium DC.J. Gyrinopsis bracyantha Merr. Guinea 6 Aquilaria brachyantha (Merr.).   12 Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lecomte - - Cochinchina and Cambodia   13 Aquilaria banaense Phamhoang Ho - - Viet Nam   14 Aquilaria khasiana H. about 1300 m. bago (Mbo). - - Malay Peninsula (Pahang.   22 Aquilaria apiculata Merr. malowassi (Uliansers) Philippines. Gunung Tahan).). Cortex filarius Rumph.).. Philippines (common). Gyrinopsis acuminate Merr. 7 Aquilaria urdanetensis (Elmer) Hall Gyrinopsis urdanetensis Elmer 8 Aquilaria citrinaecarpa (Elmer) Hall. Aquilaria filaria (Oken) Merr. in lowland forest. Bis. magwalen (Sub. Pubescens Elm..) Hall.   24 Aquilaria yunnanensis S. butlo (Neg.K. palisan (Tagalog). Alahan. 10 Aquilaria parvifolia (Quis.C.) Quis. Ur daneta in the mossy forest on exposed ridges. magaan.. Agé (Sorong). West New to 130 m.. Agododan (Mbo) Mindanao on moist compact soil of forested ridges. A. Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne.) Ding Hou - - Luzon on forested slopes at 1000 m. Gyrinopsis pubifolia Quis. - - Philippines (Mindanao)   23 Aquilaria acuminate (Merr. Gyrinopsis decemcostata Hall. Gyrinopsis brachyantha Merr. makolan (Mbo) Mindanao: Mt. Mangod.   15 Aquilaria subintegra Ding Hou - - Thailand   16 Aquilaria grandiflora Bth.). - - China. Gyrinopsis cumingiana var.   - in primary forest at low and medium altitudes.f Gyrinopsis citrinaecarpa Elmer 9 Aquilaria apiculata Elmer - - Mindanao: Bukidnon in dry and mossy province forest at 1100-1800 m.

at 0-200 m. New Guinea (Sidai.49. North Celebes (Minahasa) and West New Guinea. Sumba). Gyrinops ladermanii (non Donke) Merr & Perry West New Guinea (Ramoi.) Baill   Buru and Halmahera in rain-forest 27 Gyrinops decipiens Ding Hou - - Central Celebes in rainforest.. 100 m. Flores. lowland up to 900 m. from lowland up to 750m. Pfingst) at slope in dense virgin forest. Aquilaria versteegii Hall. Aquilaria versteegii Hall.. Monep. Niwawur (Source: TRAFFIC-CoP13 Prop. Kokkoree (Asmat) Aquilaria podicarpus Hall. Seeds of gaharu. ruhu wama (Sumba). This species closely related to Gyrinops podocarpus which also found in West New Guinea. Idenburg) in primary forest. Sorong. 2004) Figure 1. (Wavatoli. Lachnolepis moluccana Miq.f. foot of the mountain. 300 m 30 Gyrinops _audate (Gilg) Domke Brachythalamus versteegii Gilg. Aquilaria moluccana Hall. 29 Gyrinops salicifolia Ridl.f. (1-2): Aquilaria malaccensis. (3-4): Gyrinops versteegii. 26 Gyrinops moluccana (Miq.. Arfak) at primary forest 5-20 m 31 Gyrinops podocarpus (Gilg. Sumbawa. 5 . - - Western New Guinea (Utakwa.) Domke Brachythalamus podocarpus Gilg. Ketemun (Lombok). Domke Branchythalamus versteegii Gilg.. Nabire) in fringing rainforest. seke (Flores) Lesser Sunda This species scattered from the Islands (Lombok.f. Mt.) Koord. 28 Gyrinops ledermanii Domke - - New Guinea (Sepik R.KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU  No. Scientific Name Synonims Common Names Distribution Area Ecosystem 25 Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg) Gyrinops wala (non Gaertn. Mt. Palarahi).

hirta. Kalimantan. (2004) reported the range of gaharu occurrence is about latitude 27°N to 10°N30’S and longitude 75°E to 149°E. September and December in Bogor Botanical Garden. microcarpa are of six Aquilaria species native to Indonesia (Ding Hou. the tree spread to the southern part of Sumatra. Suhartono and Newton (2001) who observed reproductive ecology of Aquilaria spp. September-October in East Kalimantan. Gunn et al.500 mm/year with 14-28ºC (Prosea. A. crassna occur along the trunk (cauliflory) (Suhartono and Newton. A. In 1991. crasna. A. and April to December in plantation area about 2 km north of Bogor (Figure 3) (Suhartono and Newton. These six species are primarily found in lowland and upland Sumatra. From here. were around June-July in West Kalimantan. gaharu tree was found in Kayan Mentarang National Park. but it tossed the seeds to the surrounding ground (Prosea. A. Generally. Gaharu-producing species is characterized by small flower similar to that of jasmine and the fruit is bitter (Figure 1). beccariana.500 – 6. 1999). The most important genus. Aquilaria malaccensis. A. Flowers are 50 to 10 mm long. Maluku and Papua (Suhartono and Newton. Generally. but a few flowers of A. the onset 6 . 2001). Aquilaria is typical of understorey species (Figure 2). Kalimantan and Papua. Sumatra. Gaharu is commonly found in primary and secondary forest at 850m above sea level (asl) with 1. East Kalimantan. 1960 in Suhartono and Newton. 1999).Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Figure 2. Gaharu tree was firstly introduced by Arabic in Aceh. Gaharu trees. 2001). in 1997-1998 reported that flowering and fruiting of Aquilaria spp. flowers grew on terminal branches among the foliage. 2001). 2001). filarial. The fruit does not fall when it is ripe.

2001). (b) A. Seeds of Aquilaria had no dormancy (recalcitrant) and will germinate soon after seed maturation. Flowering season in plantation area. malaccensis and A. microcarpa in East Kalimantan. crassna. Upon ripening. malaccensis > 40 cm dbh (diameter breast height) declines. In natural forest. (d) A. microcarpa. filarial in plantation. 1960 in Suhartono and Newton. seed production of A. fruits of Aquilaria spp. malaccensis and A. malaccensis and A. microcarpa produced more seeds than larger and older ones. plantation and Botanical Garden (a) A. It was estimated that this species of 20-60 cm dbh produced less seeds than A. 2001). Figure 3. Bogor (Source: Suhartono and Newton. malaccensis. microcarpa. Flowering season in Botanical Garden occurs between September and December. and the seeds are hanging on thin threads for about one hour before the threads break and the seeds are scattered (CIFOR. Below is specific description of species belonging to mostly the genera Aquilaria and Gyrinops as well as other less important gaharu-producing species. 1. Flowering phenology of Aquilaria spp. A. in natural forest. 2 km north of Bogor occurs April to December (Suhartono and Newton. 7 . (c) A. beccariana in Botanical Garden.900 and 13. Seeds start to germinate 15 day after sowing (Suhartono and Newton. split loculicidally in half from the apex. hirta in plantation. 2001). 1996 and Ding Hou. while in Botanical Garden trees of 10-30 cm dbh showed to produce more seeds than those of comparable size grown in natural forest. (e) A. A.270 seeds/tree. (f) A. Aquilaria malaccensis Lam Aquilaria malaccensis is one of the most important gaharu-producing tree. Bogor. Flowers are green to dirty yellow. microcarpa in West Kalimantan. Bogor. Further Suhartono and Newton (2001) noted that smaller trees of A. 2001). between 3. microcarpa in plantation. 2001).KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU  of flowering to produce seed takes about three months in plantation area (Suhartono and Newton. and A.

Aquilaria crassna is found widely in Thailand (Nobuchi and Siripatanadilok. Fruit is green in color. respectively. Seed is blackish brown incolor. In general. 2001). In Indonesia. Moluccas and Papua. 2.280 seeds/ tree (Suhartono and Newton. Mature fruits have blackish brown colour and they should be collected directly from the tree (Suhartono and Newton. dark and heavy. Burma. seeds germinate 9 – 15 days after sowing and this species had the highest germination success (92%) compared with the other 5 species (Suhartono and Newton. At the age of 5-6 years.000 mm. Flowering season in plantation area. Flowers hermaphroditic. In general. Season in Botanical Garden occurs between September and December. 2001). Malaysia. leathery exocarp with fine hairs. The Vietnamese government has enlisted A. 4 cm long and 2.5 kg of seed during good seed years. Sulawesi. wood is white. Inflorescens a terminal or axillary umber. Without resin. egg-shaped capsule. 2 km north of Bogor occurs April to December. Leaves are characterized by alternate. crassna as endangered (Burfield. Bangka.260 and 19. flowering and fruiting season is twice a year. Jambi. 2001). Young bark is light brown with fine hairs. Botanical description Aquilaria malaccensis reaches up to 20 – 40 m tall and 60 cm in diameter. Seasons for flowering and fruiting are dry season. b.5 cm wide. 2001). 2 km north of Bogor occurs April to December (Suhartono and Newton. 3. however resinous wood is hard. In natural forest. It was estimated that this species of 20-60 cm dbh produced between 13. older bark is smooth and whitish in color. it is found mainly in Sumatra (Sibolangit. Flowering season in plantation area. 2001). and medium size tree is reported to produce about 1. the tree starts flowering and fruiting. seeds germinate 9 – 15 days after sowing (Suhartono and Newton. Aquilaria microcarpa Flowers are white to yellow in color. Riau and South Sumatra). mainly in lowland and on hillsides at altitude of 200-750m asl. The seasons are July-August and March-April for flowering which have mature fruits in November-December and July-August. 2004). Aquilaria malaccensis has been found in primary and secondary forests. 8 . In Sumatra. Aquilaria crassna This species is the most widely known gaharu species from Indochina (Adelina.5 cm wide and 6-8 cm long with 12-16 pairs of veins. 2003). 3-3. fragrant and yellowish green or white (Figure 4). 1991). ovoid. There are two seeds per fruit. elliptic or lanceolate. up to 5 mm long. light and soft. There are approximately 1.500 seeds per kg. Distribution and Habitat Aquilaria malaccensis has been found in India. and densely covered with red-brown hair.000-4. Phillipines and Indonesia. Kalimantan.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide a. seed production > 50 cm dbh declines. while in Botanical Garden trees of 10-<40 cm dbh showed to produce more seeds than those of comparable size grown in natural forest. It grows well in sandy soils and areas having Koeppen climate type A-B with temperatures of 14-32ºC and annual rainfall of 2.

2007). Aquilaria hirta Flowers are white in color. Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg. In Sumba. Flowering season in plantation area. 2001). Sumba. numerous. seeds germinate 9 – 15 days after sowing and this species had the lowest germination rate (53%) compared with the other 5 species (Suhartono and Newton. 1-10 cm diameter. nerves and veins similar. in East Alor. lanceolate. petiole. and the soil around the seedlings was mulched with rice straw and sprinkled well with water.5-1 cm narrow-acuminate. this species grows as shrub. 24-46 pairs. Flores. shinning and dark green above. Seeds start to germinate 9 day after sowing (Suhartono and Newton.2-5.) Oken. (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. this plant was planted in field with Erytrina sp. These plants grow in secondary and primary forests with high humidity. 8. Maranthes corymbosa Bl.. it grows as trees. Eugenia spp..2 cm. b. 1-4m height. Flowering season in plantation area. Flowering season in Botanical Garden occurs between September and December. versteegii grows on the hillside (400-800m above sea level) ranging from Tartar village (Doro Tambiung Mountain) in West Sumbawa to Lambu village (Doro Saboke Mountain) in East Sumbawa. 7. Aquilaria beccariana Flowers are green to yellowish in color. etc. called Seke. base cuneate. 2 km north of Bogor occurs during rainy season in January.) is found in eastern part of Indonesia: Sumbawa. seeds germinate 9 – 15 days after (Suhartono and Newton.. pubescent. it was not in flowering yet. bark gryish. on the nerves and veins beneath.. 2 km north of Bogor occurs all year around. 6. In general. this plant grows on brown.KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU  4. West Sumba. Calophyllum spp. apex up to 0. 2007). the plant still young. Garcinia sp. In Sumbawa. Distribution and Habitat Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke a. Young branchlets pubescent. slightly oblique and parallel. pubescent. 9 . In general. and Papua (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. Lombok.. In Alor. In Sumbawa the description of the shrub was 1-4m height. 1-10 cm diameter. dull and light green in beneath. with Ficus sp.. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous. glabrescent or glabrous.. short. Schleichera oleosa (Lour. Sterculia foetida L. G. 3-6 mm. while in Flores Island.. thin humus soil found in primary forest in Riwuta and on the foot of Meja Mountain. Aquilaria filaria Flowers are white to yellowish green in color. Botanical description In Sumbawa and Alor Island. 2001). 2001).7-15 by 2. 5. elliptic-oblong.

bark gray. shinning and dark green above. caruncle 5 mm. 6x(5-7)mm. 25-30 cm diameter. base caudate (0. Flowering and Fruiting season on July-August. and in mountains in North Luwu in South Celebes (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. Flower like club. rounded and thick on the apex of pedicle. pedicelus 1-3 mm. 3-5 mm. Character: tree. slightly oblique and parallel. b. bark gray.3 cm. Fruits yellow or orange. calyx lobe 1. pedicle 2-5 mm. glabrescent or glabrous. Seed ovoid.8-1. or obovate-oblong. calyx tube pubescent outside. 2-2¾ by 1-1½ cm. Tuwulu village. dull and light green in beneath. Inflorescent axilar or terminal on the short branchlet in the axilar. elevation visible on below and obscure on above. shortly acuminate to the apex. brachtea opposite on the base of pedicelus. apex up to 2 cm narrow-acuminate. attenuate to the base. glabrous to pubescent. Gyrinops decipiens was also found in Kulawi. 2 m up to 17 m height. Seed planocovex. 8. Gyrinops decipiens Ding Hou a.. light to dark gray. slightly obovoid or ellipsoid. Fruit ovoid-oblong. Distribution and habitat This plant was found in primary forest with thin humus on the side and the top of the Ganda Dewatan mountain in Buttu Ada and Salusampe. vena 23-30 pairs. below pubescent scattered on the vena. 9 by 6 mm. emerges on the base to mid of calyx lobe. on the nerves and veins beneath. Botanical description Shrub to tree. the Ulu Karosa river. pubescent.5-23. the Tapusaang mountain in Karama village. base cuneate. Salubaka and Tampakura villages. base cuneate. pubescent. petiole short.5-17. microphylla Mulyaningsih & Yamada var. elliptic-oblong. pubescent. and the Kapusaan mountain and the Tunggumanu mountain in Karosa in West Celebes. Mamuju. Leaves subcoriaceous relative small. Young branchlets pubescent. 2007). Mulyaningsih and Yamada (2007) divided this plant into two varieties.e. 3-5 mm. on the nerves and veins beneath. Gaharu beringin or Gyrinops decipiens var. glabrescent or glabrous. base acuteacuminate. nerves and veins similar. numerous. umbel. petiole 3-5 mm. consisting of 1-6 flowers. above glabrous. ovateoblong. Gaharu beringin is produced during the decay process 10 . Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous. slightly oblique and parallel. nerves and veins similar. i. apex up to 2 cm narrow.0 cm long). with a caruncle-like appendage at the base. In West Sumba. or obovate-oblong. lanceolate. 1-2 seeds each fruit. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceus. Young branchlets pubescent. shinning and dark green above.5x2. 8-15 by 1½-5 cm. elliptic-oblong. fissured bark deep.5x1 m. dull and light green in beneath. two locus.5 cm. 23-39 pairs. gaharu beringin and gaharu cabut. shrub or tree of this species is found. ovate-oblong. nov. shining on both surfaces.52. ± 2 mm thick. Vena parallel. pubescent. diameter 3 cm up to 30cm. 7. Plano convex. 1-1.6-4. numerous. color orange when fruit mature. petiole short.5x 2. 2 m up to 25 m height. 4-6x2 mm long. Branchlet fissure shallow to deep. lanceolate 7.8 cm. 8-15 by 1½-5 cm.5x0.366 acuminate. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide In Flores the the tree is found to have 10-17½ m height. Mamasa. a crescent. Stipes 7 mm. diameter 3 cm up to 40 cm. pubescent. pubescent. elliptic-oblong.6-6. Tembok Jerman and Lengke mountains around the Towuti Lake in Central Celebes.

slightly visible beneath. obscure above. up to 2 m. Botanical description Slender shrub. Gyrinops salicifolia Ridl. obtuse. Botanical description Leave subcoriaceous. Branchlet light brown.0-6. 1½-10 by / -1 cm. Base acute-cuneate. nerves spread. Papua (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. Calyx tube cylinders. wrinkled to transversal. This plant was cultivated by a person as decoration plant. Leaves sparsely pubescent on the midrib and sometimes on the nerves and veins beneath. irregular. Character: Shrub. Habitat and distribution Gyrinops ladermannii resembles G. Inflorescentia pseudo lateral or terminal. Jayapura. North Luwu (South Celebes) and Tampalopo and Tampakura villages. the angle of leave and ranchlet is larger (Figure 4). salicifolia. inside obtuse. 1 oblong. outside acute. elliptic-oblong. Since 2003. ascending face to tip. more weigh. It was found on a hill in Maribau village. tomentose. sessile. 6½-12 kali (1½) 2½-5 cm. Branchlet has darker color. 11 . nerves and veins similar and equally strong. 10. 1 lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. one abortion. 2007). Calyx lobe ovate. pubescent scattered on vein and midrib beneath and glabrous above. 3/5 x ½ mm. but it grows as shrub of small trees with 7-10 m high and 13-15 cm in diameter. Gaharu from Sentani and Jayapura was taken from this hill (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. 14. visible. 3-5 mm. 9. b. base cuneate apex acuminate 5 and pointed. gaharu forming in whole wood tissue of plant. a. curve. 50-200 m above sea level. 9 mm long (included caruncle 3 mm). vena 36-39 pairs. petiole ⅓-½ mm.5-23. Leaves chartaceous. because of its good canopy and leaves. b. This plant grows in secondary forest with Callophylum sp. consisted of 2-3 flowers. macrophylla Mulyaningsih & Yamada var. apex acuminate to caudate. pedicellus thin. Papua. pubescent. villous. on lime soil with thin humus. Gaharu cabut or Gyrinops decipiens var. 1-1¼ x / mm. Seed 2 or 1. Petaloid square. Stamen sessile. villous. nov. 13 mm long. Maepi and Lere.5x6. 2007). The leave is broader. obovate-oblong to lanceolate. Sentani. Habitat and distribution Gyrinops salicifolia grew in Dosay village. and the wood is harder. 1½-2 kali ½ mm. Mamasa (West Celebes) cultivated this species. Fruit pyriform 1¾ x ⅓ cm (included stipe 3 mm and apex 5 up to 4 mm acuminate or caudate). pannose. Gyrinops ladermannii Domke a. dense. Sentani.KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU  in specific wood. diameter 1½ mm.8 cm. pubescent. fissured bark shallow. in some villages such as Dara.

Mappi (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. 4. It grows in primary forest in the swamp. petaloid appendages transverse oblong. ventral view (right). dull beneath and shining above. d. Branchlets grayish. Seeds ovoid. longitudinal section of flower. 12-18 flowers. Leaves chartaceous. longitudinal section of fruit. 5 mm included caruncle 1 mm. b. elliptic-oblong.flower bud (left). 2 / cm included 5 mm stipes. Mappi and Boven Digul and Merauke. fruit. Inflorescences axillary or on the terminal of short branches. 12 . calyx lobes oblong.. (Source: Plant Resources of South East Asia 19) and (2): Gyrinops ladermannii. peduncle 2-8 mm. apex up to 1½ cm. CANB Accession Number 531408. the most common soil type is sandy clay over clay. 1 mm long. Flowers c. obscure above.branchlet habit. West Papua. 2003). a. base cuneate.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Figure 4. ovate-oblong. 11. nerves and veins scarcely distinguishable.) Domke a. 6-13 by 1½-4 cm.dehisced fruit emerging from lateral slit of floral tube with one seed hanging out on funicle. Fruit protunding from the flower. ½ mm long. opened flower (right). Flowering and fruiting season on August-September. 3. 1. petiole ± 3 mm. 2007). Botanical illustration : Sharyn Wragg. Herbarium specimen Zich 315. Cultivation was found in Aboge and Ecy village. c. glabrous. style very short. 3-4 mm long. 5 mm pedicelled 5-7 mm.seed dorsal view (left). (Zich and Compton 2001 in Dunn et al. floral tube copular. two locus with 2 seeds. slightly longer than the appendages. densely pillose. pubescent. c. 2 flower. parallel.. stigma capitate. rarely lanceolate. (1): Aquilaria malaccensis La. b. stamen subsessile. numerous. apex acuminate c. 1 contricted from the base to apex. Habitat and distribution Gyrinops caudate was found in Agat. among the sago plant. 5 apex acuminate. 5-20 m above the sea. rhombicus-oblong. 5. whitish pubescent and glabrescent. acuminate. visible beneath. Gyrinops caudate (Gilg. twig. District Assue. Ovary ovoid. Botanical description Shrub or tree up to 17 m by 36 cm.

13 . glabrescent. b. Gaharu from Wikstroemia androsaemifolia. Habitat and distribution This plant distributes in Papua New Guinea and was cultivated in Yomdory village Biak Papua. in dry state light-greenish. very rarely obtuse. glabrous. rarely sparsely hairy on the lower surface and especially on the nerves and veins of young leaves. The bark was used to create bilums (traditional woven carrying bags) in the upper Sepik. light brown or greenish-brown to brownish and shining on the upper surface. elevated below and slightly depressed above. 2007). pale greenish. Branches terete. The smoke can irritate eyes (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. known as male gaharu or red gaharu is less preferable because of its spicy smell and the smoke irritates eyes (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. c. The gaharu is used as a mixture in the making of joystick and for craft (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. glabrous. obliquely spreading towards the margin and the curved upward. veins almost as distinct as the nerves. Phaleria nisdai Kanehira i. Excoecaria agallocha L. Phaleria microcarpa Phaleria microcarpa was found in Papua with local name ‘gaharu puk-puk’. elliptic or ovate-oblong.KNOWING SPECIES THAT PRODUCE GAHARU  12. e. This species is also called gaharu buaya and less preferable because the fragrance is not good. nerves 8-11 pairs. ii. West Celebes and in some villages around the Towuti Lake in Central Celebes. reddish brown. 1¾-5½(8-) by ¾-2½(-4) cm. Papua (Mulyaningsih and Yamada. Mamasa. Phaleria capitata Jack Phaleria capitata grows in Kapusaan Puncak and Tiga Puluh Puncak Mountains. 2007). young branchlets slightly flattened at the nodes. bitter and unpleasant fragrant when burnt. It produced smoky. This plant can be found along beach and composes mangroves in Somau Island. Less important gaharu species a. Leaves papery. Distribution and habitat This species is found in primary forest in Meja Mountain. (Euphorbiaceae) Exocoecaria agallocha is called gaharu buaya (crocodile gaharu) because its gaharu production smells like fired wood and less fragrance. obscure above. loosely reticulate beneath. apex acute to narrow-acute. light-yellowishgreen or light-brown and dull on the under surface. 2007). axillary buds densely covered with golden-coloured hairs. Wikstroemia androsaemifolia Decne i. Botanical description Shrub. d. 2007). petiole ± 2mm. base acute. The price is usually low and the product is used for mixing material of joystick (hio) or incense. It does not have commercial value. densely appressed pubescent.

decendent. 14 . stamens. usually 2 fruits opposite each peduncle. peduncles 6-8 mm. Floral tube gradually enlarged towards the top. papillate. ovary. 1½ cm. 1½ cm. 3-4½ by 5-6½ cm. In side. one peduncle each nodes. Floral tube c. nerves 5-9 pairs. yellow when ripe. apex acuminate and narrow c. ovate-oblong. 10-12 flowers. appendages petaloid. calyx lobes oblong or ovale 4 by 2 mm glabercent on the both surfaces. 2½ by ½ mm opposite. veins reticulate. Seeds subglobous c. umbelliform. Leaves lanceolate. small bracts at the base. involucral bracts 2. Botanical description Shrub c. obscure above. 8½-14 by 2½-4 cm. Fruit obovate slightly compressed and constricted from the base to apex. styles exerted up to 6 mm. persistent or caudocous when anthesis. two locus usually with 2 seeds. glabrous outside. elevation. beneath distinct. glabercent on the both surfaces. 2 by 1½ cm slightly compressed. Inflorescences terminal and or at a long axils of branchlets. 2 m. dull beneath. base cuneate. branchlets reddish-brown.ii. oblong.

and 1. 96. Gaharu can be propagated from seeds and cuttings. malaccensis was studied by Tientum in 1995.1 Propagation using seeds. But addition of 0. This chapter provides silvicultural practice for gaharu plant. A study by Subiakto et al. on the other hand can be collected from underneath their mother trees. Tissue culture of A. The author found that survival rate of A. Research conducted by R & D Centre for Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation. Gaharu seeds.5 micromol/L NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) elongated the buds in another 7 weeks. Study on vegetative propagation by using cuttings was done by adopting by KOFFCO (Komatsu-Forda Fog Cooling) System (Figure 5). (2005) on MS medium supplemented with 1. crassna grown on Woody Plant Medium with and without auxin. crassna and A. is recalcitrant and its germination is affected by storage periods and conditions.e. intensified research on a broader aspects of gaharu has just begun in the last ten years. Germination was further declining to 24% if the seeds were stored in refrigerator at 4°C for 8 weeks. In vitro propagation of Aquilaria agalocha by He et al. (2009) found that the best growth media and watering interval for gaharu shoots cuttings were mixtures of coconut dust and paddy husk of 1 : 1 ratio. i. however.7% of the roots grew up two weeks later. respectively.3 SILVICULTURE OF GAHARU PLANT Although gaharu has been known since ancient times. Shoots of A. and twice a week of watering. 69%.5 mg/l IBA stimulated the highest rooting percentage. Using this system. propagation from seeds is still much cheaper than cuttings because seeds stocks are still abundant in the field and can be harvested every year from mother trees in the field. cuttings and tissue culture Seeds of gaharu are collected while they are still hanging on their mother trees because gaharu fruits crack and throw their seeds before they fall to the ground. To date. Seedlings. FORDA of the Ministry of Forestry found that propagation of gaharu plants is not difficult. However. 15 . Plantlets were rooted on 1/2 MS medium after being immersed in 5 micromol/L NAA for 48 h. All plantlets that survived acclimatization grew well in the pots. produced roots. 2.3 micromol/L BA+0. These treatments showed the highest rooting percentage. One of these aspects is silviculture of gaharu. (2009) revealed that germination percentage of non-stored seeds (direct seeding) was 82% and down to 42% after being stored for 8 weeks at room temperature. Subiakto et al. 3.3 shoots 2 cm in length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. crassna plantlets was 90% after transplantation to the field.3 micromol/L BA (6-benzylaminopurine) generated many shoot buds in the first 7 weeks. cultivation of gaharu plantation in a large scale has a high risk of pest and disease attack.

probably due to interaction with soil microflora (Sitepu et al. microcarpa. diameter and biomass dry weight). West Nusa Tenggara + 11. Table 2.    Heart rot Gyrinops sp. Bogor.    Heortia vitessoides Gyrinops sp.. five months after inoculation.7%. Among the Glomus spp. Gyrinops sp. Lombok. Inoculation of AMF. Banten +++ 4. Banten + 13. unpublished data) 16 .      Heortia vitessoides A. in in the nursery. +++: severe (Source: Santoso et al.      Heortia vitessoides A. Burkholderia sp. Figure 6).. A. West Nusa Tenggara + 12. Glomus clarum and Gigaspora decipiens. CK28 (IAA-producing bacteria). West Java + 3. 2006).    Mildew A.    Mildew A. Effect of inoculation was no longer observed after seedlings were transplanted to the fields. Bali + 10. Percentage of height increase over non-inoculated control seedlings ranges from 12. West Java A. 3. microcarpa Pulau Laut.. malaccensis Sukabumi. microcarpa. Pests and Diseases of gaharu plants in several locations in Indonesia Pests Host Location Damage intensity Pest 1. beccariana West Kalimantan ++ 7.    Stem borer Gyrinops sp. Bodok. microcarpa Carita. Lombok. No. survival rate. microcarpa Carita.      Heortia vitessoides Gyrinops sp. Two PGPR. and nitrogen (70-153%) and phosphorus (135-360%) concentrations (Turjaman et al. Central Bangka ++ 5.      Heortia vitessoides A.      Heortia vitessoides A. Glomus fasciculatum is the most dominant followed by Glomus aggregatum. South Kalimantan + 14.      Heortia vitessoides A. West Nusa Tenggara + Disease Notes: Damage intensity: +: weak. and Chromobacterium sp. Further studies revealed that AMF and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) promoted early growth of gaharu seedlings.3 Pest and Disease Gaharu plants cultivated in a large scale is prone to pest and disease attack. microcarpa Kandangan and Barabai. A.      Heortia vitessoides A. CK8 (mycorrhization helper bacteria) accelerated height growth of Aquilaria sp. malaccensis. They isolated different AMF but found that Glomus is the dominant genus. plant growth (height. West Kalimantan ++ 6. South Kalimantan + 8. 2009). + 2.      Heortia vitessoides A. Some important pests and diseases have been found attacking several locations of gaharu plantations in Indonesia with various level of attack (Table 2. under greenhouse conditions (Figure 5). filaria.. Growth acceleration was indicated by percentage of AM colonization up to 93%. increased growth of 180 days old A.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide 3. malaccensis. North Sulawesi + 9.2 to 38. Tamuli and Boruah observed the association of arbuscular mycrorrhizal fungi (AMF) with gaharu tree in Jorhat district of the Brahmaputra Valley. ++: medium. malaccensis. crassna.      Stem borer Gyrinops sp.2 Inoculation of beneficial microbial to promoted plant growth In 2002.

The caterpillars of this species are pale green with a broad knobbly black line along each side. Hongkong. Cultivators of gaharu plants need to be aware and familiarized themselves with pest and disease of gaharu plants.1 (I) project in collaboration with R&D Centre for Forest Conservation and Rehabilitation. A biological control approach was also studied by using ants. Banten Province. Malino. (2010) investigated pest management strategy to control the population of H. The hindwings are white with a broad black margin. Pers. The adults have a striking pattern on the forewings of black on pale yellow. The wingspan is about 3 cms. has caused severe damage to many gaharu plantations in Indonesia in the past three years. The pest (previously Tyspana vitessoides). and Lombok. vitessoides. Kandangan. This pest has also been reported to have distributed in Fiji. Barabai.). 2010). 17 . WWW page).SILVICULTURE OF GAHARU PLANT Pest and Disease The most important pest found to date is identified as Heortia vitessoides Moore (Odontiinae. and about 20 trees died because of recurring attack on newly emerging leaves. and North Queensland (Austtralia) (Herbison-Evams and Crossley. Comm. like tiles on a roof (Herbison-Evams and Crossley. and take appropriate control action to prevent from severe loss. to local forestry offices at the provincial level. The eggs are yellowish-green.e. The caterpillars drop on silk threads if disturbed. The moths have a yellow and black banded abdomen. the caterpillars descend and pupate in the soil. South Kalimantan Province. many of the trees defoliated. reached 100%. When mature. East Kalimantan Province. They are laid in an overlapping cluster. and are flattened. Thailand. The caterpillars live in a group in a shelter made by joining a number of leaves together with silk. FORDA of the Ministry of Forestry. and South Sumatra (Erdy Santoso. In 2008. Their head is brown. Crambidae) (Irianto et al. This study found that application of a mixture of systemic and contact insecticides with addition of leaf fertilizer and plant sticker effectively controlled high population of the pest. predator of the pest. Bodok. Carita. WWW page).. West Nusa Tenggara Province. Bali Province. This experiment is still underway but seems encouraging. in Forest Area with Specific Purposes (Kawasan Hutan dengan Tujuan Khusus. Sanggau. Socialization of pest and disease management has been done by PD 425/06 REV. A study by Irianto et al. gaharu plant growers and general stakeholders. the percentage of pest attack in gaharu plantation in KHDTK. West Kalimantan Province. i. KHDTK) Carita. that build a nest on gaharu trees and keep the plant protected from the pest.

(1-2): Propagation by cuttings with KOFFCO system. (3): Effect of inoculation with beneficial microbes for promoting growth. Page | 37 18 .Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Figure 5. Silviculture of gaharu. (3): Effect of inoculation with beneficial microbes for promoting growth. Silviculture of gaharu. (4): Gaharu plantation. (4): Gaharu plantation. Figure 4. (1-2): Propagation by cuttings with KOFFCO system.

A study by Paoli et al. The characteristic of soil is specific and has an effect on vegetation composition above the soil.1. low to high temperature (20-32oC). and high rainfall (> 1500 mm/year). topography. pH of about 4. (2001) found that gaharu tree of Aquilaria malaccensis has a wide distribution suggesting it could be cultivated on many soil types.8%) and low toxic element (Table 3 and 4). and time.2%-78. vitessoides: (4): Hearth-rot fungi. (1): Leaf eater Heortia vitessoides.SILVICULTURE OF GAHARU PLANT Soil characteristics Figure 6. (3): Colony of ants. the predator of H.4 Soil characteristics Soil is important ecosystem element that influences the growth of gaharu plant. Soil is originated from the process of rock decay and the process is influenced by climate. It is important to know the characteristics of soil that is suitable for gaharu plant. The study indicated that gaharu grew quite favorably in flat to undulating landscape. 19 . hard soil texture (clay). Pratiwi et al. very low to high base saturation (1. (2): Stem Borer. (2009) analyzed physical and chemical characteristics of soil in three gaharu plantation sites. Pests and disease of gaharu trees. soil organisms. 3.5-5. especially upland marginal soil. fast drainage.

48 85.35 (H) 14.40 (Md.84 0.07 (Md.96 0.75 (Source: Pratiwi et al.94 (VH) 10.50 (L) 4.86 64..) 0.) 35.78 62.99 (Md.22 (L) 13.03 (L) 1.52 (L) K 0.) 0.58 (H) 0.43 30 66.9 0.75 (VL) 16.98 Clay 5.18 (L) 0.22 (L) Na 0.48 (H) 39.90(VL) 3.7 (VL) 1.60 (L) 5. Depth (cm) Soil physical characteristics of three gaharu plantation sites in Java Island.85 66.71 (H) 0.32 (Md.70 (L) 4.17 (L) 5.97 30 0. Banten Value Category Kampung Tugu.11 (L) 13.) 0.77(L) 40.) 1.33 Clay 12.51 Clay Clay 57.09 Clay 26.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Table 3.52 (VH) 10. Indonesia Physical characteristics Carita.33 9.) Mg 1.55 6.17 (L) 0.10 (L) 4.43 (L) 1.71 (VL) 1.35 81.14 (L) 0.01 (VL) 1.20 (VL) 1.) 0.44 (Md.49 Sand 8.03 (L) 2. Bogor Value Category Value Category Texture ( %) 0-30 30-60 > 60 Sand 8.57 79.36 (Md.69 84.51 (L) 0.05 (VH) PBray (ppm) 1.99 63.03 (L) 41.20 (VL) 3. Bogor Carita.09 (Md.49 (VL) 14.07 (VH) 36.01 5.11(L) 1.1 Clay 8.84 (VH) 63.93 0.44 (Md.08 (VL) 0.70 (VL) 1.20 (L) 0.49 (VL) 1.40(VL) 4.19 (Md.16 (L) 0. Chemical characteristics Soil chemical characteristics of three gaharu plantation sites in Java Island.9 0.) 15.88 (Md.09 0 0.22 (L) 0.30 (VL) 1.54 9. Sukabumi Dramaga.10 (L) 5.60 (L) 2.15 (L) 0.64 (H) 10.37 Clay Silt 36.21 68. Sukabumi Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Horizon 3 (0-30 cm) (30-60 cm) (> 60 cm) Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Horizon 3 (0-30 cm) (30-60 cm) (> 60 cm) Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Horizon 3 (0-30 cm) (30-60 cm) (> 60 cm) pH H2O 1:1 4.13 (L) 0.26 (L) 0.56 (H) 78.) 1.13 11.) 0.70 (VL) NH4OAc pH 7 (me/100 gr) Ca 5.9 Clay Clay 69.75 (L) 0.49 (VL) .99 68.60 (L) Corg (%) 1. Banten Kampung Tugu.70 (Md.29 (Md.78 12.15 Sand 6.70 (VL) 3. Indonesia Dramaga.) 0.01 (L) Ntotal (%) 0.27 (VL) 69.) 16.50 (L) 4.33 Silt 25.) 1.) 1.) 16.53 (L) 0.1 Clay 11.11 (L) 0.73 Clay 66.43 (Md.99 (H) 14.60 (L) 4.86 60 0.14 (L) 0.45 67.) 1.87 0.59 60 63.95 Silt 22.68 (Md.83 Bulk density Porosity (%) 0 65.61 (Md.86 (H) KTK KB (%) 20 17. 2009) Table 4.31 (Md.08 68.26 (L) 0.00 (VL) 16.12(L) 0.30 (L) 0.21 (L) 0.98 (H) 16.15(L) 0.60 (L) 4.26 (Md.) 46.59 Clay 18.

6 88. H: high.36 (L) 2. Sukabumi Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Horizon 3 (0-30 cm) (30-60 cm) (> 60 cm) Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Horizon 3 (0-30 cm) (30-60 cm) (> 60 cm) Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Horizon 3 (0-30 cm) (30-60 cm) (> 60 cm) KCl (me/100 gr) Al 3.64 2.4 17 22.88 5.08 16.56 1.42 (ppm) Fe 2.64 1.2 1.2 28.04 0.56 Mn 85. Bogor Carita.40 (L) 0.52 0.32 Cu 3.36 Notes: VL: very low.45 0.44 2.40 (L) 0. Md: Medium (Source: Pratiwi et al.28 3 2.33 0.72 (VL) 4.3 0. VH: very high.52 1.53 6.04 1.12 26.05 N HCl 5.SILVICULTURE OF GAHARU PLANT Soil characteristics Chemical characteristics Dramaga.49 0.. Banten Kampung Tugu.76 (VL) 2.4 1.48 1.3 6.72 1 1.6 2.76 (VL) 0.24 4.48 17. L: low.41 0.68 1.12 1.36 0.90 (VL) H 0.16 (VL) 4.84 (L) 7.01 79.44 Zn 5. 2009) 21 .4 1.8 1.8 1.36 0.


Pojanagaroon and Kaewrak investigated various mechanical methods in stimulating gaharu formation including making a holes with screws. physical and chemical. 23 . However. Thailand. Approach in these studies is generally done by wounding trees deliberately with different treatments to induce gaharu formation. This finding has gained appreciation and has been considered as one of the most successful finding (Persoon. the tree produces resin. the gaharu produced by this method was reported to only yielded pale fragrant and small percentage of essential oil. and bark removal with hatchets.2 Deliberate tree drilling and chemical injection This effort involves drilling of trees and keeping the wound open by placing a small piece of plastic pipe in those holes followed by a chemical injection to stimulate tree defense mechanism that produces resin. this treatment yielded gaharu. however gaharu yielded from this treatment is generally of inferior quality and cannot meet the desired market demand (Persoon. wounding using chisels. 2003). Blanchette stated that this artificial induction could yield gaharu ten times faster than natural formation (WWW page: http://forestpathology. Dr. for example Imnai village people (Yapsiei) that deliberately wounded gaharu trees in an attempt to stimulate gaharu production reported that they were able to harvest gaharu of B and C grades. Only in the last few decades that more scientific approaches have been conducted. The first is phloem cells form callus and the second. This treatment causes tree to respond in two defense mechanisms. 2007). coafes. Scientists with assistance from the locals have tried to understand the mechanism involved in the formation of gaharu and conduct research based on their understanding. 2007). muddy water enters the tree through the wound is responsible for gaharu production. The study found that methods of injury had influence in gaharu formation and was determined by seasonal changes. including China. gaharu hunters in Papua New Guinea. a wood pathologist from the University of Minnesota who together with local farmers and Buddhist monks. It will take many years before high quality gaharu is formed. and Cambodia. 4. Experiments involve laboratory works and setting-up demonstration plots have been established in some countries. Indonesia. 4. They developed experimental plots to stimulate the production of gaharu and after years of trials. three years after this treatment (Gunn et al.4 GAHARU BIOINDUCTION TECHNOLOGY There are many beliefs on how gaharu is formed and these views have strongly been wrapped in myth and history.1 Deliberate tree wounding using mechanical tools Wounding gaharu tree using blade or hammering of nails into the trunks has been used widely in the past. The first project of this effort was initiated in Vietnam under a supervision from Prof. Robert Blanchette. should callus formation is Some extensive researches and their findings are detailed in this chapter. rainy season accelerated gaharu formation faster than dry season. However.umn.. They believe that following this wounding.

3 Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum The formation of gaharu is a result of plant defense mechanism towards fungal attacks by producing resinous compounds as secondary metabolite. 2005a) Sadopal (1960 in Burfield.     Cladosporium sp. Work stopped and no later work yielded positive results 3. which involves trials of numerous methods to treat the trees. Krissana Panasin company in Chantaburi. 2005a) Fusarium solani Botryodiplodia Theobromae Philophora parasitica 5. 2005a) Stopped in 1931 due to inoculum contamination Sagopal (1959 in Burfield. The development of gaharu in this country has been intensive because of the rapid decrease in gaharu supply from the nature. Many scientists have been passionately trying to understand the cascade process of this tree-fungi interaction in producing gaharu. Similar project has been established in Merauke. An emphasis is given for induction technology developed by Forestry Research and Development Agency and a thorough information is presented at the later part of this section. Indonesia by a Catholic Church and in Papua New Guinea. 2005a) Obtained result but. Activity Author Formation of gaharu Bose (1934 in Burfield. Southeast Thailand has established gaharu plantation of several hundred hectares. 2005a) Showed conflicting results Varma (1977 in Burfield. some experiments conducted in Indonesia for gaharu induction are presented. Fungi isolated from infected tree identified based on their morphological characteristics and experiments related with the fungal inoculation Host isolated A. parasitica Phialophora parasitica was frequently associated with better quality portions of gaharu Gaharu formation rarely occurred in trees under 25 years old. Burfield (2005a). . The finding of novel technology to accelerate gaharu formation based on this mechanism continues to sprout and research has become more intensive. In their natural habitat. In this section. 2005a) The causative infective agent for standing trees Jaluddin (1977 in Burfield.     Pencillium citrinum Further investigation of gaharu formation by fungus A.      24 Cytosphaera mangiferae Died. Isolation of various fungi from infected trees have been widely reported (Table 5). conducted similar experiment and establish gaharu plantation. Fungi 1. agallocha 2. 2005a) Ascribed spiral cavitation of the tracheid walls of the wood of A. agallocha to P. trees were destroyed. 2005a) Gibson (1977 in Burfield. Prospecting the deliberate tree infection by fungus Battcaharrya (1952 in Burfield. Table 5. No. 4. (1976 in Burfield. 2005a) Rahman (1980 in Burfield.     Epicoccum granulatum 4. and formation followed injury to the tree. for example following wind or storm damage Hawksworth et al. Papua. Thailand being a large producers and consumers of gaharu traditionally.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Another country. the process of resin accumulation as the result of tree-pathogen battle may take many years and the longer the process takes place the more expensive and highly valuable the resin is.     Torula sp. agallocha Aspergillus tamari Aspergillus spp.

Laboratory of Forest and Nature Conservation R&D Center. Trang and Pattarung. from Java. in Pekanbaru. agallocha rhizosphere Penicillium sp. A combination of 2% sugar solution. (2000 in Burfield.     Fusarium oxysporum A. Pithomyces sp. Nakhon Ratchasima. Spiculostibella sp. Biology Tropical (BIOTROP) reported the use of stressing agent on a tree prior to fungal injection accelerated the formation of gaharu. Activity Author Tamuli et al. Cercosporella sp. and terpenoids contents were independent criteria in determining gaharu quality (Yunita. fragrance level. 7.     Botryodiplodia theobromae Curvularia lunata Aquilaria spp. lateritum could be isolated and cultured in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and that the fungi could form gaharu after 2-month injection to 4-year-old trees. Have successfully infected gaharuAgustini et al. theobromae. Artificial induction of five-seven year old Gyrinops versteegii trees in Mataram on Lombok Island and twelve Aquilaria spp. (2006) producing trees in the field and yielded gaharu products Colonies were deposited in cultures with the FORDA CC. Chaetomium spirale Cladosporium sp. and Pestalotia sp. including Fusarium trifosfrium has been described by Tabata et al. The results showed that gaharu was observed around the drilled sites but uninoculated trees also formed gaharu. 2009). that colony growth occurred 2005a) Colonies were deposited in cultures with the MTCC. (1999 in Burfield. were parasitic and others were saprophytic.     Fusarium xylaroides Aquilaria spp. A study by a group of researcher in Laboratory of Biotechnology. Trichoderma sp.GAHARU BIOINDUCTION TECHNOLOGY Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum No. Chaetum globosum Kunze 8. Rhizopus sp. (2003). Agriculture Faculty. Thailand. oxysporum. F. Indonesia Fusarium solani Cylindrocarpon 9. Fungi Host isolated 6. Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR). 2005a) Tamuli et al. Mollucas. Indonesia conducted inoculation of fungi for stimulation of gaharu production. Phialogeniculata sp. C. Subansenee et al. A. Trad. Chanthaburi. lunata. 2005a) A. agallocha seeds Fusarium sp.     Aspergillus sp. Kalimantan. Ministry of Forestry. and methyl jasmonate was reported to produce gaharu of kemedangan quality class IV and that wood discoloration. Acremonium sp. Chandigarh Fusarium spp. 25 . Krabi. agallocha Schlect. Mataram University. in Thailand Isolation of fungi from tropical rain forest in Rayong. Epicoccum sp. Four species: B. Sumatra Fusarium tricinctum Succeeded in inoculating healthy wooden blocks so Tamuli et al. The group found that F. Sumatra by drilling eight 10 cm deep by 1cm wide holes and inoculating with five Fusarium spp. (1985) Fusarium oxysporum Pestalotia sp. (2000a in Burfield.

malaccensis grown in Sempaja arboretum. Experimental plot of gaharu trees induction by deliberate tree drilling and Fusarium spp. Kandangan and Barabai. microcarpa 50 8. comm. A. Flores. Bangka A. i. North Sumatra A. Seram. Location Gaharu tree species Number of trees induced 1. This preliminary study showed that the formation of gaharu was improved by the addition of palm sugar and lubricant. A. microcarpa 300 5. but only in the last ten years that the activities have become more intensive (Table 6). Molluca Aquilaria cummingiana 150 (Source: Santoso et al. West Kalimantan A. Banten A. malaccensis 50 3. This closing process of the injection hole is important in stimulating the formation of gaharu 2. Inoculant is delivered in the form of liquid by injection with a syringe of about 1 ml per hole 26 . Muaro. pers. 7.. microcarpa. microcarpa. Ministry of Forestry has started since 1984.e. fungal strain type. have revealed important aspects that determine the successful of gaharu formation by artificial induction. East Nusa Tenggara Gyrinops versteegii 100 11. Intensive studies for several years have confirmed efficient gaharu inducing methods (Figure 6. injection in several locations across Indonesia No. unpublished data) Novel findings by Santoso et al. malaccensis. Bahorok. into 9-year-old A. and Phytium sp.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Research and development of artificial induction technology of gaharu in Forestry Research and Development Agency. on a total of 300 trees of 8-year-old A. Injection hole is of small size of about 3 mm in diameter. Before injection.). microcarpa 800 7. The institution also collaborated with Provincial Forestry Institute in Kalimantan by injecting Fusarium sp. F. West Nusa Tenggara Gyrinops versteegii 200 10. The infected part of stem is fragrant when it was burnt confirming that gaharu was formed. malaccensis. and growing media for delivering the fungi. gaharu formation was indicated by stem cracking and the skin was easily torn. F. as follows: 1. palm sugar and lubricant were added and mixed with the fungi. laseritium. After three months. Table 6. microcarpa 160 2. Fusarium oxysporum. West Sumatra A. Carita. The first trial for artificial induction was located in Sebadu Village. Bali Gyrinops versteegii 50 9. Jambi A. South Kalimantan A. not long after inoculants injection. A. methods of injection. bulbigenium. beccariana 200 6.. The holes will be closed naturally by the plant. West Kalimantan. and 8). Bodok. Indonesia by injecting five fungal-producing gaharu: Botryodiplodia sp. malaccensis 200 4. The three Fusarium species formed larger area of gaharu on the infected trees (Santoso.

An illusstration of induction proccedure for(2-3): stim mulation gliquid inoculum forma 465. (4): one month after inoculation. the Gaharu product harvested after three years of induction using this method was classified as tanggung a grade higher than kemedangan. Type of fungal strain determines the gaharu formed. Figure 7. peeling a tree ba ark to obs serve the disease symptom (Source: http://www. the efficciency of ind duction is symptom http://www.jpg. so screening of efficient strain using few samples in several locations to confirm its efficiency is essential prior to establishing large demonstration plots 4. An illustration of induction procedure for stimulation of gaharu formation.trubus-online. grade A-B . (2 2-3): one ml of liquid of induction is observed by peeling a tree bark to observe the disease inocculum is injeccted with a (Source: s syringe.GAHARU BIOINDUCTION TECHNOLOGY Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum 3. The quality of gaharu formed becomes higher with longer incubation time. one mlofofgaharu injected with a Tre ee drilling 25 cm space in between holes. Spaces in between holes should be wide enough (about 25 cm apart) to prevent from overlapping of vertical disease development from each other’s hole 5. the efficiency to make m about 5 mm diame eter hole with h 25 cm spa ace in betwe een obse erved by media/ (1): Tree drilling to make about 5 mm diameter hole with Figu ure 6. while gaharu harvested from shorter incubation period was considered as kemedangan grade A-B. (4): one month after a inoculattion.jpg 27 .

(3): Fusarium sp. (2): Drilling the tree and making holes for inoculation. gaharu-inducing fungi grown on agar plate. (1): Bamboo stagger for climbing tree for inoculation. an indication of resin production. ..Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Figure 8. 28 Technology of fungal induction to stimulate gaharu production. (4): Wood coloration on stem tissue.

Table 7. Identification was conducted in the Laboratory of Forest Microbiology. (8): Residue of trees that is used for distillation of oil. Molecular identification of 36 strains of gaharu-inducing fungi collected from 17 provinces in Indonesia Isolate Number Origin (Province) Molecular identification 1 FORDACC506 North Sumatra Fusarium solani 2 FORDACC509 Gorontalo Fusarium solani 3 FORDACC503 West Sumatra Fusarium solani 4 FORDACC512 Papua Fusarium solani 29 . Harvesting procedure of gaharu product from deliberate tree injection with fungal inoculant. (3-7): Cutting away tissue to obtain the resinous parts.GAHARU BIOINDUCTION TECHNOLOGY Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum Figure 9. No. Most isolates identified were members of Fusarium solani species complex.. in preparation for publication). (2): Felling of tree. (1): Initial symptom of gaharu formation on stem. originated from East Kalimantan showed high similarity to Fusarium oxysporum (Table 5). FORDA using FUS1 and FUS2 primers that enabled amplification of up to 460-bp fragment. thirty six fungi from infected gaharu trees from 17 provinces in Indonesia have been isolated and subsequently identified by means of 28S rRNA partial gene sequencing (Sitepu et al. only one isolate. FORDACC-02375. This study highlighted a rapid molecular identification protocol for gaharu-inducing fungi over the conventional measure. In search for gaharu-inducing fungi.

15 FORDACC2379 Molucca Fusarium solani 16 FORDACC511 West Nusa Tenggara Fusarium solani 17 FORDACC2370 Bangka Belitung Fusarium solani 18 FORDACC517 Bangka Belitung Fusarium solani 19 FORDACC513 Papua Fusarium solani 20 FORDACC519 West Java Fusarium falciforme 21 FORDACC2375 East Kalimantan Fusarium oxysporum 22 FORDACC520 West Java Fusarium solani f. Isolate Number Origin (Province) Molecular identification 5 FORDACC500 Jambi Fusarium solani 6 FORDACC501 West Sumatra Fusarium solani 7 FORDACC510 Molucca Fusarium solani 8 FORDACC497 Central Kalimantan Fusarium solani 9 FORDACC499 West Kalimantan Fusarium solani 10 FORDACC2372 East Nusa Tenggara Fusarium solani 11 FORDACC504 Riau Fusarium solani 12 FORDACC514 Papua Fusarium solani 13 FORDACC502 West Sumatra Fusarium ambrosium 14 FORDACC515 East Nusa Tenggara Fusarium sp. batatas 27 FORDACC498 Central Kalimantan Fusarium solani 28 FORDACC2369 West Sumatra Fusarium ambrosium 29 FORDACC495 South Kalimantan Fusarium solani 30 FORDACC2373 West Nusa Tenggara Fusarium solani f. 30 . batatas 23 FORDACC518 Babel Fusarium solani f.. 33 FORDACC505 North Sumatra Fusarium solani 34 FORDACC496 South Kalimantan Fusarium solani f. batatas 35 FORDACC516 Babel Fusarium solani 36 FORDACC2378 West Java Fusarium solani Note: FORDA CC: Forestry Research and Development Agency Culture Collection (Source: Sitepu et al.No. in preparation for publication). batatas 24 FORDACC2371 Babel Fusarium solani 25 FORDACC2377 West Java Fusarium solani 26 FORDACC507 Lampung Fusarium solani f. batatas 31 FORDACC2374 East Kalimantan Fusarium solani 32 FORDACC508 Bengkulu Fusarium sp.

agallocha) and type B (in A. dihydrokaranone 2..e. and oxo-agarospirol 5.4%.6% dan oxo-agarospirol 3. Another constituent of gaharu was also revealed. Most of the compounds in gaharu are identified as sesquiterpenoid group. oxo-agarospirol as the main constituent at gaharu type B (Burfield 2005b). i. but rather it is deposited in the wood tissues of trees. sesquiterpenes and chromones. agarospirol 4. jinkohol 5.. 31 . which is easily volatile (Ishihara et al. Elucidation of structures of many kinds of 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone and their derivative compounds have been thoroughly investigated by Japanese scientist and his group (Figure 9.7%.. called as type B to differentiate it from the type A of A. Research conducted by Nakanishi succeeded in characterizing jinkohol (2β-hydroxy(+)-prezizane) in gaharu originated from Indonesia. Gaharu type A contained β-agarofuran 0.2%. One of the fragrantsmelling compounds in gaharu was first identified by Bhattacharyya dan Jain as agarol. Japanese scientists isolated and characterized many sesquiterpenes from two gaharu types. This resin belongs to sesquiterpene group.8%. malaccensis and the second. Many studies have revealed two major constituents of gaharu.6%. as the main source of the fragrant. white in color. Sapwood gaharu exemplifies as merely unexuded resin. This resin deposit renders the wood with loose fibers and white color becoming solidly compact.. In Burfield (2005b). jinkoh-eremol 4.4%.2%.5 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAHARU Gaharu is a resinous wood and it is the resin that determines the quality of gaharu. and fragrant in smell. i.7%. an oxygenated chromone derivative. it was stated that Yoneda managed to identify the main sesquiterpene that existed in gaharu type A (in A.e. 1962).0%.) (Konishi et al.2%.6%. 2002). nor-ketoagarofuran 0. categorized as mono-hydroxy compunds (Prema and Bhattacharyya. in gaharu type B were identified compounds comprising α-agarofuran(-)10-epi-γ-eudesmol 6.. followed by isolations of two new chromone derivatives in 1989 and 1990 by Chinese scientists. malaccensis). Twenty years later. kusunol 3. 2002). About 50 years ago. 2002). jinko-eremol 3. This team also found two new sesquiterpene compounds in Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.9%.1%. Meanwhile. kusunol 2. comprising jincoheremol dan jincohol II. 1991). “kanankoh” (in Japanese) (Konishi et al. and isolated alpha-agarofuran and (-)-10-epigamma-eudesmol. through benzene extraction. presumably originated from A. jinkohol II 5. the chemical content of fragrant gaharu was isolated by Indian chemists from Aquilaria agallocha ROXB and they characterized several sesquiterpenes (Konishi et al. agallocha Roxb. agarospirol 7. from Indonesia. the first.

(2005) isolated novel chromone derivatives from gaharu.3-epoxy butane (0. Compound (1): 2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone. 2002). Results regarding the analysis of GCMS (gas chromatography – mass spectrometry) on 6-month old induced-gaharu brought out 9 chemical constituents.3%). Yagura et al.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Figure 10. B(2): (C18H16O5).. sinensis. Oxirane. flidersiachromone. (3): C1H14O4. 2008). Chemical structures of 6 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones and an unkown 2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone (1). flidersiachromone. 32 . (2-7): 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones.5%) dan 1.2 benzene dicarboxylix acid (9%) (Figure 10) (Wiyono.6%). of which only 4 constituents were identifiable that comprised 4-hydroxy-4-3thyl-2-pentanone (5. C(3): C18H16O6 . and (7): C18H16O4 (Source: Konishi et al. (2): C19H18O5. The three compounds were characterized as diepoxy tetrahydrochromones have not been reported from natural gaharu product. i. 2. Oxidoagarochromone with molecular formula of A (1) (C17H14O4). produced by intentionally wounding A. crassna and A. (4): 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone. 2-butoxy ethanol (70. (5): dihydroxyl derivative of 2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone. (6): C1H14O3.e.

0 27. results of GCMS analysis on the induced gaharu products Further. such6). 2-butoxy ethanol (70.5 Figure 10. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAHARU Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum Oxirane.0 12. Chromatogram revealing constituents in 6-month old induced gaharu Further.89%). The veratrol itself is constituent of lignin) through ferulic acid intermediate (Waluyo et al. by fourGaharu Fusarium spp.0 0. taken orally if the LD is 5000 mg/kg Results of identification on gaharu resin indicated the presence of caryophene Recent study revealed distinct chemical compositions and its relative concentration compounds thatwoods typify the constituents which usually exists in clove of four gaharu frommain A. group (Table Scrutinizing there were 16that phenol compounds that to high and 86). Analysis using leaves. in (Aquilaria Aquilaria sinensis) is well in known as an incense in the oriental region such as Thailand. The veratrol itself is evolved from phenol compounds that undergo hydrolysis into catechol.2 benzene dicarboxylix acid (9%) (Figure 10) (Wiyono. unpublished The GCMS analysis study revealed chemical data). which further Results of identification on gaharu resin indicated theinto presence of caryophene compounds that typifyofthe main constituents for eugenol which usually in clove to through a sequence complex mechanisms.5 1.0 2.5%) dan 1. microcarpa that was artificially induced 11). Likewise.3-epoxy butane (0.5 15.5 3. in press). compounds evolved from guaiacol (main constituent comprised a feromoneugenol compound effective forare termites. microcarpa that for waseugenol artificially induced by four Fusarium spp. in from Tamiang medicine. whereby transformed to veratrol. itand seems that there has process. Taiwan.. copaene compounds that can function as essential oil and are rather toxic to be of and lignin) through ferulic acid intermediate (Waluyo et al.0 32.000) TIC 4. gaharuainduced by Fusarium sp. as comprised a feromon compound effective for but termites.0 2.e. compared theischemical contents of gaharu formed by natural process andRecent by artificial induction (Santosodistinct et al. from four different localities in Indonesia (Novriyanti et al..constituents were identifiable that comprised 4-hydroxy-4-3thyl-2-pentanone (5. pyrolysis and Cambodia.. Analysis using GCMS revealed Fusarium sp.0 22. it seems that there has occurred a sequence (series) of secondary metabolite group (Table Scrutinizing that ofTable 6. i. and copaene compounds that can function as essential oil and are rather Further study done by the same group of scientists at FORDA of the Ministry of toxic to be Indonesia taken orally if the LD 5000 mg/kg Forestry.3%). In gaharu resin were also identified cembren compounds (diterpenoid) that veratrol.5 Chromatogram revealing constituents in 6-month old induced gaharu Figure 11. 2. Gaharu leaves are drunk as a health tea in Thailand and Taiwan. In gaharu resin were also identified cembren compounds (diterpenoid) that GCMS pyrolysis revealed that Fusarium sp.47%). palustrol compound from Molluca had the highest total concentration of odorant compounds (12. is iseugenol veratrol that function as perfumes and medicine. whereby those two compounds are not encountered in regular sequence (series) of secondary metabolite process. 2011).and which furthercompounds through a sequence of complex mechanisms.0 17. a palustrol compound as antitusive. Kreb cycle.5 2. such as the evolving/release of wood. and that is used as digestive tradisional press). as the evolving/release iseugenol veratrol compounds thatoccurred function a as perfumes and medicine. evolved from phenol compounds that undergo hydrolysis catechol.6%). 2008).0 1. is exists transformed leaves. 5. (x100. from Tamiang Layang. from four different localities Indonesia (Novriyanti et al..5 4.crassna.. i. phenols as low that Table 6. andbelong 8 phenols as lowgroup.5 0. 2011).5 30. Central Kalimantan had the highest confirmed constituent (12.0 3. Likewise.0 7.e. compositions and itsshowed relative differences in chemical contents of gaharu harvested from these two processes (Figure concentration of four gaharu woods from A. Charateristic 57 33 .5 20. eugenol compounds are evolved from guaiacol (main those two compounds are not encountered in regular wood.5 10. results of GCMS analysis on the induced gaharu products originated from originated Dramaga and Carita2each comprising 2 sample trees revealed that Dramagafrom and Carita each comprising sample trees revealed that there were 16 phenol compounds belong to high group.5 25. Kreb cycle. antitusive.

19 17 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one. but little is known about the pharmacological effects of agarwood leaves (Kakino et al.methylpyrocathecol 0.57 Remarks: Relative concentration in percentage (%). 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy.09 22 Jasmolin II (CAS) cyclopropane carboxylic acid.87 7 Caffeine 0.(CAS) guaiacol 12 phenol. Table 8. 1.66 9 phenol.44 2.40 Total 2.88 1.38 0. 2-methoxy-4-propyl.89 3.16 24 1.19 2 1. H0D10 = sample tree with code-numbered 10.4-benzenediol/hydroquinone 8.93 6 phenol. 2-methoxy. 2-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl).39 0.01 0.4-benzenediol. No. growing in Carita.92 15 phenol.(CAS) 2-methylchromone 1. 2010).11 4. Source : Novriyanti (2008) 34 . 2-methoxy.99 0. Phenol compounds present in the induced gaharu products Compound name High total of phenolic H0C18 H0D7 Low total of phenolic H0C14 H0D10 1 benzene.(CAS) hydroquinone.86 10 phenol.12 1.2-benzenediol.07 4 1.(CAS) Hqmme 6.18 11 phenol.3-benzenediol.47 0. 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl). 3.2-dimethoxy. Phytochemical research has been carried out on the trunk and resin of agarwood.88 3.10 0. 4-ethyl.96 1.(CAS) vanilin 0.2-benzenediol (CAS) pyrocathecol 3. H0C14 = sample tree with code-number 14.43 2.4.(CAS) 6-hydroxy-2-methylchromone 0. 3-methyl. growing in Carita.19 8 phenol.94 3 1. growing in Dramaga.45 39.(CAS) 5-propylguaiacol 0. 6-hydroxy-2-methyl. 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-(CAS) homovanillic acid 0.64 1.95 0. 2-methoxy 0.(CAS) 3.69 19.5-trimethoxy (CAS) antiarol 0.56 0.56 21 Capcaisin 0.(CAS) eugenol 14 Phenol.23 3.85 1.19 40.56 1..(CAS) 4-ethylresorcinol 1. 2-ethoxy.70 20 benzeneacetic acid.38 0.69 16 quinic acid 5. H0D7 = sample tree with code-numbered 7.14 5 1.53 4.(E) (CAS) (E)isoeugenol 13 phenol.(CAS) guethol 4. 4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxy-(CAS) coniferil alkohol 4. H0C18 = sample tree with code-number 18. trees with high total of phenolic compounds are presumed as the resistant trees.20 0.78 22. 3-(3-methoxy- 0.(CAS) veratrol 0.36 6. trees with low lotal of phenolic compounds are presumed as the vulnerable trees.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide sesquiterpenes and chromone derivates have been isolated from agarwood and some of these have sedative analgesic effects. 4-ethyl-2-methoxy (CAS) pethylguaiacol 1. growing in Dramaga.22 23 octanoic acid (CAS) caprylic acid 0.91 10.10 19 benzaldehyde.41 0.23 18 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one. 2-methyl. 4-methoxy.97 0.

(1) (2) CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAHARU Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum 35 .

(4) Figure 1. (1): Natural (3) Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide . (4): Gaharu from deliberate inoculation with isolate from Gorontalo (Source: Santoso et al. Figure 12. (3): Natural gaharu of Gorontalo origin. (2): Gaharu from deliberate inoculation with isolate from West Kalimantan.. Chemical content of gaharu originated from natural process and artificial induction. unpublished data).36 (4) gaharu of West Kalimantan origin.

(4R. i. gaharu may affect central nervous system. aromatherapy is allowed for clinical use in syndromes. The composition of volatile compounds in gaharu oil varies. SPME-GC analysis revealed the composition in the gas phase. and sample of Vietnam made contained 61. Spontaneous vapor administration system applied using 400µl of gaharu oil showed that these two oil types gave similar sedative activity although the main component of each oil was different (Takemoto et al. 2008). A sesquiterpene characterized as spirovetivane-type sesquiterpene. caused an induction effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in vitro neuronal cells of rat (Ueda et al.1% benzylacetone. In the United Stated.96%. Oral administration of acetone leaf extracts of Aquilaria sinenses gave a mild laxative effect in mice. During the aromatherapy. a-gurjunene for 15. GC analyses revealed volatile mass in a liquid extract. 2008). as follows: benzylacetone was accounted for only 0.e. 2006). 37 .5% a-gurjunene and 24.. especially for psychosomatic disease caused by stress. 2008). but it did not cause diarrhea as a severe side effect and the main constituent that contributed to this effect was characterized as genkwanin 5-O-b-primeveroside (Figure 13) (Hara et al.3% of the whole oil (Figure 12).. such as Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Takemoto et al. leaves have been reported to have laxative effect..7% (+)-calarene as the main volatile components.7R)-1(10)-spirovetiven -11-ol2-one at a concentration of 100µg/ml. volatile compound is inhaled and it is important to know its pharmacological activity. Structures of compound from gaharu oil When used as sedative.CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAHARU Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum Gaharu oil for use in aromatherapy has attracted more and more attention nowadays.1% and (+)-calarene for 17. Other part of gaharu tree. Takemoto et al.. by SPME-GCMS to characterize their volatile compounds. as follows: sample originated from Hong Kong market contained 47. Figure 13. (2008) examined two types of gaharu oil. from a Hong Kong market and originated in Vietnam.5R.

. 2008).Figure 14. 38 . Major constituent genkwanin 5-O-b-primeveroside compound that caused mild laxative effect in mice (Source: Hara et al.

This delicate process determines both the amount and quality of oil produced. Korea and Taiwan. In Taiwan. Gaharu incense and perfumes are used as a skin daub for embalming. and (c) cut flowers of artificially propagated plants. In Arab. A practical analysis of its chemical content is also highly difficult for practical implementation at the trading sites. The powder which remains after distillation can be used for low grade incense making. gaharu is used make beads and bracelets (Persoon. gaharu is used as wine ingredient in Chu-yeh Ching and Vo ka Py. An 80 year old tree could yield 6-9 kg of gaharu oil. for instance. the source of large amount of gaharu stocks for trading are still illegal and a practical technique to identify its origin 39 . In these countries also. while the wood fiber is used for ropemaking.6 GAHARU PRODUCTS AND TRADING Today. With the exception of large solid pieces of gaharu which are traded as individual pieces. which is immersed in water and left to ferment over time. CITES also regulates all parts and derivatives of Aquilaria spp. (b) seedling or tissue cultures obtained in vitro. transported in sterile containers. oil and powder (Figure 14 and 15). Gyrinops spp. the condensed water and oil are captured in a container where the oil floats on top of the water. A much lower yield of 1 kg oil/tree was also reported. It is estimated that for the production of one litre of oil 100 to 150 kilos of gaharu is necessary. and to give fragrant to soap and shampoo.000 to US$80. medicinal wine and various other products. Varieties of gaharu products continue to blossom in particular. Although CITES has regulated species protected to prevent from extinction. the range of gaharu products seems endless from raw materials to various by-products. appreciated as ‘natural art’. This process can be repeated once or twice depending on the quality of the water and the costs of the distillation process. in solid or liquid media. Most of the resinous woods is processed and formed into chips.000 per litre.6 kg oil/tree. 2007). The oil is also used in the production of traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. although another report in India suggested yield of 2-7 – 3. however demand high quality gaharu to be further processed. Soap and hand body lotion from gaharu oil have also emerged for beautifying skins. countries with long tradition of gaharu. Grading quality based on botanical description and its origin is not in place. The unscented wood of gaharu has been used in Assam for papermaking. In Japan. Then the material is transferred to distillation kettles and steamed. the essential oil of gaharu is the most expensive oil which can be ten times more expensive than sandalwood oil. solid heartwood of gaharu is crafted to form beautiful sculptures. spores and pollen (including pollinia). The water is removed and the oil is tapped. Most gaharu traders estimate the quality of gaharu organoleptically. in countries where gaharu has been appreciated for many years traditionally and historically. A range of capacity in oil production per tree was reported in Cropwatch (2005). After heating. The oil is extracted from the gaharu through distillation. most of the wood is ground into very small pieces or powder. The price of high quality oil can be as much as US$50. Oil is used in the production of perfume as fixative and other cosmetics. and Gonystylus spp. Japan and Arab.. and it also includes: (a) seeds.

body lotion. Because of its fragrant aroma. Because not all gaharu producing plants contain gaharu. jinkohon-eremol. asthma. at present.000. there are many protuberances and curved parts along the stem and branches of the tree.. such as: noroxoagarofuran. fragrant producing substance for rooms and bodies. gaharu has social. and medicines. TBC.000. Traditionally. and stimulator of nerve works and digestion. bead rosary. diseases which should be treated with antibiotics. kusunol. liver. so there will be no mistake of cutting trees which do not contain gaharu. various countries utilize gaharu as fragrance producing materials (perfumery) and cosmetics.000. gastric and kidney inflammation. cosmetics and preservatives for various kinds of accessory.per kilogram. At present. and tumors) which are still in the process of clinical tests. Increase in gaharu trade since the last three decades creates scarcity in the production of gubal gaharu from nature. The characteristics of gaharu producing plants which contain gaharu are among other things: leaves have yellow color and are shed.-).-). nor-ketoaaga-rofuran. anti microbes. cancer. In China. According to some information.-. gaharu has been used as raw materials for industry of perfumery. cultural and economic value which is considerably high. Susilo (2003) explained further that there are 17 kinds of substance occurring in gaharu. the knowledge and technique of estimating gaharu contents in gaharu producing plants which are infected with gaharu forming fungi. There are several important substances contained in gubal gaharu. namely (-agarofuran. (-agarofuran. After those characteristics are found. jinkohol II and oxo-aga-rospirol. followed in terms of rank with that of Tanggung quality with average price per kilogram of Rp 20. Besides that. hepatitis. tumor and stress. jinkohol.000. rheumatism. and the bark is dry and brittle and if pulled is easily broken.000. (-)-10-epi-y-eudesmol. gaharu price with super quality in local markets of Samarinda.. 3. cancer. asthma. aroma therapy. p-methoxybenzylaceton..Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide is urgently needed. tree crown is small and thin. wounding test is performed on the tree stem by using axe or 40 . It is suggested that DNA sequence markers and DNA fragment markers are the solution to prevent illegal trades (Cropwatch. soap. gaharu is utilized among other things in the form of incense for religious and ritual purposes.000. cosmetic materials and simple medicine.000. agarospirol. kidney disturbances. and Suloan quality (Rp75.000. agarospirol.000. Rp 4. dihydrokaranone. and that of Kemedangan quality (Rp 1. with the development of science and technology of industry. utilization of gaharu has developed extensively for among other things perfumery.4 –dihydroxy-dihydro-agarufuran. Besides that. gaharu is utilized as medicine for stomach ache. tree branches are many and broken. and aquillochin. malaria. cosmetics.and Rp 50. need to be mastered. Gaharu with its specific aroma is used by people in the middle-east as materials for fragrance products. Tarakan. gubal gaharu is traded as elite commodity for industry of perfumery.000. There is also development of industry of gaharu utilization as raw materials for herbal medicine (to cure stress. 2005). and Nunukan (East Kalimantan) reached between Rp 40. Therefore. Oiler (without year) in Suhartono and Mardiastuti (2003) stated that there are 31 chemical elements contained in gaharu and the main chemical constitutents are 2-(2-(4 methoxyphenyl)ethil)chromone (27%) and 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone (15%). particularly by novice harvesters.000. and medicinal materials which possess properties as anti asthma. chinese joss stick.

and gaharu harvesters in determining gaharu quality classes. it is hoped that this quality standard could serve as reference for gaharu business people. Table 9. Other technique which is practiced in communities of Dayak Kenyah and Dayak Punan in East Kalimantan is by slicing and cutting the woody parts of gaharu producing plants which are infected by disease.000/tolak (1 tolak = 12 cc). Classification of gaharu quality in East Kalimantan. puncut or pahat. gaharu products which are originated from nature are marketed in the form of lumps. With the fact that national standard for gaharu quality (SNI 01-5009. In general. Price of gaharu oil in Jakarta market is Rp 750.GAHARU PRODUCTS AND TRADING Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum machette. teri. gaharu quality could be categorized into six classes of quality. The technique of gaharu oil distillation could be conducted with two systems. East Kalimantan (Siran and Turjaman. No. namely super. kemedangan. specifically in Samarinda town and the surrounding areas has not been uniform (Table 8) and the determination of the quality is conducted visually. the wood chips are burnt to learn whether there is discharge of aromatic fragrance which is typical of gaharu. this kind of technique to harvest gaharu is called servis. In Sumatra and Kalimantan. Samarinda 2. Muara Kaman 3. and cincangan and each quality class is classified further into several sub-classes of quality. Gaharu producing tree which has been confirmed to contain gaharu is felled and subsequently cut into several segments and split to have its gaharu taken out. To get more assurance. Muara Wahau Super A Super B Tanggung Super king Super A Super AB Tanggung isi Tanggung kosong Kacangan Teri Kemedangan Cincangan Kacangan A Kacangan B Kacangan C Teri A Teri B Teri C Teri kulit A Teri kulit B Kemedangan A Kemedangan B Kemedangan community Kacangan isi Kacangan kosong Teri isi Teri kulit Sudokan Serbuk Kacangan A Kacangan B Teri A Teri B Serbuk Kacangan isi Kacangan kosong Teri Super Teri Laying Source : Forestry Research Institute. Wood segments which contain gaharu are afterwards collected and the wood parts are gradually separated from gaharu by using small knife or concave chisel. Samarinda. Table 7 and Table 8 present criteria and classification of gaharu quality. tanggung. collecting traders.1-1999) has been determined. Up to now. namely hot steaming and vapor pressure. But there are also products in the form distilled oil products. Location Classification of gaharu quality in Samarinda (East Kalimantan) Quality Classification Super 1. kacangan. up to the middle of the stem. Variability and unclear determination of the quality create differing selling prices for the same class of quality. 2010) 41 . This technique is called tubuk. Kota Bangun Super A Super B 4.

3 Kacangan Gaharu has black color and sometimes is mixed with brown color. is dense and hard. glossy and very smelly. Kacangan A 7 500 000 Kacangan B 5 000 000 Kacangan C 2 500 000 Teri A 1 000 000 Teri B 750 000 Teri C 500 000 Teri Kulit A 300 000 Teri Kulit B 250 000 Kemedangan A 100 000 Kemedangan B 75 000 Kemedangan C 50 000 4. Tanggung 10 000 000 3. 2 Tanggung Gaharu has brown and black color. Price (Rp / kg) 6. There is no mixture with wood fiber. Table 11. followed in terms of rank. in East Kalimantan No Quality classes 1. is in the form of grains as large as peanut or with diameter of around 2 mm. the inner part is hollow. whose inner part is not hollow. Selling price of gaharu in markets of Samarinda. Teri Gaharu has black color which is sometimes mixed with brown color. is mixed with wood. Gaharu with lowest quality has the price of around Rp 25 000 per kg. sometimes is mixed with wood fiber and has intermediate size. 5 Kemedangan Wood which contains sap of gaharu 6 Cincangan Small segments of wood from gaharu separation Source: Forestry Research and Development Agency of Kalimantan (Siran and Turjaman. 4. and generally is used as raw materials of distillation to produce gaharu oil.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Table 10. is mixed with wood. with tanggung quality with average price of Rp 10 000 000. Criteria and classification of gaharu quality No Classification Criteria 1 Super Gaharu has intense black color. hard.. 2010) Based on market information in Samarinda (Table 9) gaharu price with super quality could reach Rp 30 000 000 per kg. 2006 . or with diameter of around 1 mm. 5. is dense. Super King 30 000 000 Super 20 000 000 Super AB 15 000 000 2.per kg. Gaharu is in the form of chunks or grains with large size. Visual appearance of several samples of gaharu could be seen in Figure 16. Suloan Source: Forestry Research and Development Agency of 42 25 000 Kalimantan. is in the form of grains smaller and thinner than peanut seed.

1386/ BSN-I/HK. Classification of gaharu quality categorizes the quality into gubal gaharu.1-1999. there are descriptions on definition of gaharu.1-1999. terminology. Each quality class is further categorized into several sub-classes on the basis of size. marked with its black color or blackish interspersed with brown color. requirements for passing the test and requirements for marking / labeling. coarse fiber and soft wood. symbols and abbreviations being used. kemedangan. color. Abu gaharu is wood powder which constitute the remnants from separation of gaharu from wood. which posses content of damar wangi with weak aroma. classification. quality requirements. there has been decision on National Standard of gaharu quality with the following title and number: Gaharu SNI 01-5009. what it means with kemedangan is wood which is originated from trees or part of gaharu producing trees. testing technique.GAHARU PRODUCTS AND TRADING Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum On the basis of Decree of Chief of National Standardization Agency (BSN) No. fiber. weight and the appearing aroma when being burnt. Classification of gaharu quality according to Indonesian National Standard (SNI) No Classification of quality Equivalence with quality standard in the markets Color Content of damar wangi Smell / odor / aroma (being burnt) A Gubal 1 Primary quality Super Homogeneous black high Strong 2 Quality I Super AB Brownish black sufficient Strong 3 Quality II Sabah Super Brownish black moderate Rather strong B Kemedangan 1 Quality I Tanggung A Blackish brown high Rather strong 2 Quality II Sabah I Brown with black stripes sufficient Rather strong 3 Quality III Tanggung AB Brown with thin white stripes moderate Rather strong 4 Quality IV Tanggung C Brownish with thin white stripes moderate Rather strong 5 Quality V Kemedangan I Brownish with broad white strips moderate Rather strong 6 Quality VI Kemedangan II Grayish white with thin black stripes insufficient Not strong enough 7 Quality VII Kemedangan III Grayish white insuffficient Not strong enough C Abu gaharu cincangan Black 1 Primary quality high Strong 2 Quality I moderate Moderate 3 Quality II insufficient Insufficient 43 . with strong aroma. According to SNI 01-5009.71/ 09/99. sample collection. content of damar wangi. harvesting technique. Classification of gaharu quality according to Indonesian National Standard could be seen in Table 10. and abu gaharu. what it means with gubal gaharu is wood which is originated from trees or part of gaharu producing trees. specification. marked by its color which ranges from grayish white to brownish. Table 12. In this standard. On the other hand.

e. Since the number of enterprise actors. lotion. Gaharu as traded in Indonesia consists of 3 kinds. western part of Indonesia. face cleaner. and gaharu with species of Gyrinops sp. Due to the technology development. 8 in 1999 and the Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES). It is presumed that a lot of gaharu is traded illegally from Sumatera through Riau to Singapore and Malaysia. These places. The marketing of gaharu domestically occurs due to the relation between the gaharu suppliers and the recipient towns/centers. microcrapa. there are a lot of parties involved in gaharu trade. Several problems as frequently encountered in the field are among others difficulty in determining species/kinds of gaharu. its procurement from the nature or cultivation (breeding). hio. Viewed from the business/enterpriser actors. i. Therefore. Maluku. Therefore. then there is a trend among them to press or bring down the gaharu price. mosquito repellents. until ultimately the consumers. in group. polishing agent. which implies the market controlled by the buyers. and in determining the 44 . and domestic distribution. whitening-cream. due to high anti-oxidant content in those leaves. Sulawesi. Papua. added to this. quota determination. either individually. such as oil. the collecting traders sell the commodity to larger trader (exporter) in the provincial capital. gaharu from Papua. and Gyrinops sp. Even. such as Sumatera (including) Riau also serves significantly as the gaharu suppliers. and Maluku with the species of Aquilaria filaria. The marketing of gaharu which signifies as one of the ways of flora and fauna uses is regulated in accordance with the Government Decree No. the gaharu as traded inside Indonesia (domestic) currently is not only limited to chip shapes or pieces with variety of classes. thereby being hunted a lot by consumers. i. soap. its standard and qualities. either in Indonesia or abroad. the uses of gaharu in general should follows its stages and regulations. transportation for the domestic distribution as well as for distribution abroad/overseas. transportation. and West Nusa Tenggara. Sulawesi. Moreover. there have been developed the leaves from the species Aquilaria sp. since they determine the price as well as qualities of gaharu. or in institution. The domestic marketing of gaharu begins from the procurement activities. gaharu becomes prime commodity and affords high-commercial value. and drugs for therapy aroma. Afterwards. the trade of gaharu as produced naturally in Indonesia since a long time ago has placed a foothold more on the ecology distribution of those gaharu species.e. as the ingredients for tea beverages. When thoroughly scrutinized. are easily accessible thereby assisting themselves a lot as gaharu suppliers to Jakarta. the feature of gaharu marketing Indonesia is more suitable regarded as monopoly market. such as gaharu seekers and collecting traders in the upstream (forest or village around the forests) are greater to those of middle-scale or large-scale traders who stay in the regency or province capitols. East Nusa Tenggara. but also already oriented to its derivative products. although situated on the western part of Indonesia. Traditionally.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Process of gaharu marketing in various places in Indonesia starts from the activity of gaharu harvesters who sell the gaharu they collected in the field to collecting traders in the village or in the subdsitrict. the places serving as gaharu suppliers comprise Kalimantan. gaharu originated from Sumatera and Kalimntan with the species of Aquilaria malccensis and A. In the world of gaharu trade. until this occasion. as produced a lot in Nusa Tenggara.

On the other hand. During the last three years. the gaharu products as traded abroad follows the tastes of consumers. malaccensis could not satisfy its quota. thereby giving impression as if luxurious and highly artistic. from the color and aroma. The overall value of that gaharu prices not less than Rp. one of the gaharu-yielding tree species may become extinct rapidly. filaria. Meanwhile. are regulated in their trades by the international trade convention. malaccensis. 45 . and therefore such species such as A. the CITES. where previously its inventories were unnoticed. much of it was still buried far below the swamps there. microcarpa. amount of gaharu in quota and realization as exported is presented in the following (Table 11). super A and AB) is commonly marketed to Middle East countries.filaria Gyrinops sp. According to the ASGARIN (Association of Indonesia’s Gaharu Enterprises). Further. in 2008 the export realization for those three species could satisfy 100% of their predetermined quota. R = Realization.GAHARU PRODUCTS AND TRADING Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum prices which are appropriate thereby bringing benefits to both parties. Development of quota and realization related to the eagle wood export from Indonesia Years Species of gaharu-yielding trees A. for examples. used as raw material for the manufacture of perfumes and for ritual ceremony in shapes such as hio. Due to these concerns. In the last several years. filaria. the gaharu products are difficult to differentiate based on its host-tree origins. malaccensis as much as almost 6 folds. and therapy aroma. superking. In Figure 17 can be seen several pieces of gaharu still in logs which are ready for export.e. i.. for the species of A.e. Gaharu in logs inside which its content is only a little is used as ornaments placed on a room. gaharu with medium qualities and lower is exported more to South Asia countries. in 2009 there was a sharp increase in export quota for A. filarial there was a 7-fold increase in its export quota. there have been trends that the consumers from Taiwan imported gaharu in log shape. it is also difficult for the common people or the early traders to tell difference between various gaharu products. fragrances. and even for Gyrinops sp. 600 million. while even for A. consumers and producers. According to a particular source. Likewise. and Gyrinops sp. A. i. 2007 30 000 (Q) 23 709 (R) 76 000 (Q) 76 000 (R) 24 000 (Q) 8 000 (R) 2008 30 000 (Q) 30 000 (R) 65 000 (Q) 65 000 (R) 25 000 (Q) 25 000 (R) 2009 173 250 (Q) 74 890 (R) 455 000 (Q) 326 882 (R) Note : Q = quota. Physically. Table 13. that situation occurred because new potency was found. while the export realization for A. through the quota system. its export realization could only meet 30% of its predetermined quota. malaccensis A. filarial in Papua. makmul. etc. Gaharu with super qualities (i. used as materials for religious ceremony.e. A. provided a little with the carving technology. The above table shows that the quota of gaharu export in 2007 from those three species was only met by the species A.

and Japan. Those two countries become the place or the main destination for gaharu export from Indonesia and also from South East Asia. and a part to Middle East. Meanwhile. Gaharu products.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide The ASGARIN stated that the centers of world gaharu trade regarded as very important are situated at Singapore and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Figure 15. China. In Singapore the gaharu that enters is sorted and packaged. and then re-exported to India. Taiwan. Hong Kong. such as Vietnam and Cambodia. the gaharu that enters Saudi Arabia is distributed again to other surrounding countries. and a part exported to England and France. 46 .

GAHARU PRODUCTS AND TRADING Deliberate tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum Figure 16. Other gaharu products Figure 17. (c) Teri and (d) Kemedangan. 47 . (b) Kacangan . Gaharu classes of quality: (a) Tanggung.

Several pieces of gaharu still in logs which are ready for export.Figure 18. 48 .

exploitation continued and extended to the protected national park area. However. 2004). This national park covers a total area of 100. 49 . forest exploitation. Since the production rates of seeds and germination rates are high. Gaharu was first harvested exclusively from near villages where trees were abundant. lowland granite. 2008. while the supplies from the wilds have become scarce. alluvial bench. Indonesia and the surrounding area (Paoli et al. however when the trees have become rare. The unsustainable way of harvesting of gaharu by collectors and the diminishing trees in their natural habitat have placed two genera of gaharu.49. it is potential for producing planting stock for commercial scale.49. www page). The capacity of seeds to disperse is limited. With only 20 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) which was below the estimated 35 cm dbh. only infected trees were cut down and harvested for gaharu. 2001). Appendix II as threatened genera according to the IUCN Red List in order to sustain gaharu producing species in their natural habitat. Rapid depletion of A. When collectors are hunting for gaharu. lowland sandstone. 2004). malaccensis was removed from the park. therefore a high density of trees may be established as seed orchards. regeneration of Aquilaria was highly variable among forest types and appeared highest in lowland standstone and lowland granite forest (Paoli et al. 2004). In less than 5 years. Gaharu is hunted intensively by collectors due to high value of gaharu and significantly increased demand. the density of A. In this forest also. swamp. malaccensis in was low but the species was widely distributed in six forest types: freshwater. CoP13 Prop. Collectors of gaharu reported that it has become more difficult to find gaharu compared to previous years (TRAFFIC.7 CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF GAHARU In their natural habitat.000 ha of a diverse mosaic tropical rain forest type. Aquilaria and Gyrinops in CITES. forest fire also contribute to the disappearance of gaharu-producing trees in a relatively short time (TRAFFIC. In order to sustain gaharu production as well as the existence of gaharu-producing trees. collectors would cut down also healthy plants regardless the low quality of gaharu (TRAFFIC. CoP13 Prop.49. Botanics Garden Conservation International listed recommendation of essential efforts to secure and conserve the remaining wild populations of gaharu-producing species that included. they will harvest the whole tree without considering the species of the tree (TRAFFIC. Other concurrent activities: land clearing. gaharu is harvested by felling trees and cutting away uninfected tissue to obtain the resinous wood. malaccensis was recorded in Gunung Palung National Park. At the time of survey. placed the species at high risk of extinction because the tree has not reached maturity. and lower montane. the scientists reported that most A.49. West Kalimantan.. CoP13 Prop. as follows (Gratzfeld and Tan. 2004).. 2001). CoP13 Prop. Suhartono and Newton (2001) suggested increasing cultivation of gaharu in plantations. In the past.

in community managed protected areas). traders. aiming to enhance 1): conservation of remaining wild populations of gaharu producing tree species (e. Improve capacity building and intensify training related with gaharu conservation and sustainable production that may include integrated ex. 2. 50 . government and conservation agencies. Strengthen institutional cooperation and coordination. 2): ex situ propagation of critically endangered species in village nurseries. local botanic gardens. and 3): subsequent reintroduction into the wild. Establish practical conservation and sustainable production in demonstration projects.1. botanic gardens and businesses need to take part in this action.and in situ species recovery programs. Various stakeholders including local collectors..g. processors. etc. silviculture and management practices 3. Many local community livelihoods depend on the wilds for harvesting gaharu and serious implementation of conservation and sustainable production practices will help to provide a complementary approach to harvesting wild trees and to relieve pressure on the remaining highly threatened gaharu-producing species.

which assist the distribution (spreading) of gaharu-tree seeds. West Nusa Tenggara. Research results on the field revealed that the distribution of natural gaharu trees is assistad by mammalian creatures such as squirrels and forest mice.8 EXIT STRATEGY 8.1 (1) found out gaharu-planting pattern done by the farmers who intercrop gaharu tress between rubber trees or oil-palm trees. farmers are asked to make inventories on the nature shrubs that exist around their host trees which can be used as seed sources. This daily revenue is regarded as the fixed daily income of the famers. private sectors. Most of the farmers around the forests have not yet known the shape of fruits and seeds of gaharu trees. among others gaharu research. East Nusa Tenggara. The FORDA serves as a central institution that has put on the move the activities of gaharu development by initiating the formation of the so-called Indonesia’s Gaharu Forum (IGF). and the gaharuyielding trees as planted serve as the long-termed investment. 51 . At present. The Exit Strategy that will be initiated incorporates the technology transfer and establishment of “gaharu center” at the Institute for Forestry Research (IFR) in Mataram (West Nusa Tenggara). The gaharu-inoculum availability which is practical.1 (1) project are presented in Table 12. and cheap implies that the technology products must reach the user hand. the Mataram’s IFR will focus on endemic species of Gyrinops spp. The uprooting of gaharu-tree seeds still becomes the basis in the regeneration of gaharu-yielding trees. The production of gaharu resulting from the cultivation that will be sustainable through the bio-inducement technology is determined by the availability of gaharu inoculum. which will be developed in Bali. and gaharu farmers. At the center of natural gaharu-yielding trees. there have been found such trees but it is uncertain whether or not they contain gaharu sapwood. In the future. They have prepared laboratory facilities and capable-human resources. Results of visits to several locations of natural-gaharu centers turned out that the knowledge of famers in gaharutree cultivation is still limited. Results of survey conducted by the research team of the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev. the Institute for Forestry Research has been asked to assist the inoculum production in the gaharuyielding centers. and communicating with Forestry Services at the levels of consecutively privince/regency. In the near future. the farmers obtained benefits from rubber harvest worth in price more than Rp. In the initial sage. efficient. The planting (cultivation) of gaharu trees as intercropped with rubber trees provides the favorable combined benefits for the related farmers. 20. The main key to the gaharu development is that intensity of cultivation and planting of gaharu-yielding tress should be socialized extensively in order that the availability of gaharu-yielding trees in the future becomes sustainable.000 per kg (of rubber).1 The Role of Institution Several institutions and stakeholders who possibly will participate in activities of gaharu development following the ITTO PD 425/06 Rev. and fungi for local-gaharu formation. This institute owns the core researches about NonTimber Forest Products (NTFPs). The distribution of gaharu trees as so far naturally scattered in Sumatera and Kalimantan is often encountered growing between the rubber trees owned by the community.

Indonesia’s Gaharu Forum Coordination among stakeholders and preparing action plans for gaharu development IGF will prepare data base of gaharu tree plantation for each regency in Indonesia 3. as many as 600 gaharu trees will be induced.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide Table 14. b.1 (I) No. Exit strategy based on activities of gaharu development at the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev. They have conducted cooperation with private sectors to induce 3. c.1 (I). Regency of Kandangan/Barabai (South Kalimantan) • Agreement on the cooperation between gaharu-enterprise group (called Nanda Agribiz) and 44 members of farmer group who own over 400 trees which have been induced by the fungi Fusarium spp. • The FORDA owns 300 trees which have been induced by the fungi Fusarium spp. 1 (I) project No Institution Exit strategy Activities 1. 52 . Sanggau (Kalbar) • The farmer group who has owned over 200 gaharu-yielding trees which have been induced. the exit strategy should deserve a thorough response or follow-up based on specific activities which have been done in three years. and concurrently the FORDA will prepare the gaharu inoculum together with the training. Several institutions/stakeholder who will carry out the exit strategy following the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev. The forest farmer-group will manage and take care of gaharu-yielding trees. Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA) • Continuing strategy research on gaharu development • Arranging and organizing the master plans • Encouraging PHKA/LIPI (Forest Protection and Nature Conservation/ Indonesia’s Scientific Authority) to formulate special policies on gaharu resulting from the cultivation • Allocation of research funds • Empowerment of Forestry Research Institute 2. Forestry Services at Make action plans for gaharu plantation and inoculation program Province/Regency levels Preparing gaharu seeds and inoculum from the regionalgovernment budget 4. which has been endorsed to manage 24-hectare area of gaharu-yielding trees. Forest area for special purposes at Carita (Province of Banten) • Cooperation between farmer groups and FORDA . In 2011. Private sectors Cooperation regarding the investment in bio-inducement activities with farmer groups Preparing capital for bioinducement activities and planting of gaharu seeds 5. Activities Exit Strategy 1. Preparing the demonstration plot a. as follows (Table 13): Table 15. The observation is conducted each year to measure the qualities of gaharu as formed.500 trees. Farmer groups Extending the planting activities with particular patterns Preparing gaharu-yielding trees Scrutinizing the proposal of ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev.

it is needed to conduct research with different bio-physic environments. 4. and finally this ends up with finding the superior (exotic) clone. The realization of training in gaharu-inoculation technology The FRI of Mataram is ready to continue the training for farmer groups in areas of West Nusa Tenggara. Therefore. will be continued and trial-tested at the gaharu-yielding trees in several gaharu-production centers. 2. this institute has owned over 180 gaharu trees already induced with the fungi Fusarium spp. 8.2 Master Plans Activities regarding the development on the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev. The ASGARIN (Indonesia’s Gaharu Enterprisers) will recommend its members in adopting this technology. 3.. particularly the leaf-eating larvae. In activities of the ITTO’s PD 425/06 Rev. Development on the gaharu-inoculation techniques which is effective and efficient The inoculation techniques have been adopted by several stakeholders in regencies and forest farmer groups. Aspects about the grading of gaharu with the standard based on gaharu aroma are different for particular species and isolat origin. Lombok island (West Nusa Tenggara) • The Forestry Research Institute in Mataram focuses on research dealing with non-wood forest products (NWFP). and also research has been conducted to deal with those larvae using predators of red-colored ants and microbes. Tree breeding (improvement) that represents the test on the clone resulting from the combination of species and isolat should deserve a continuation using the so-called genetic-gain trial-test to look into the species as well as the isolat that afford the best qualities. Divisions of investment and research services will continue socializing the inoculation technology for several provinces. Number of gaharu trees to be induced will increase. Development on inoculum which affords prospect for large-scale endeavor FORDA will conduct technology transfer to several Forestry Research Institutes (FRI). The laboratory of forest microbiology (under the Center for Research and Development on Forest Conservation and Rehabiliation) has collected 54 isolats of fungi Fusarium spp. 5. As of this occasion. since the have already prepared laboratory facilities and capable-human resources. which nowadays comprises 54 isolats. and ex-situ conservation using representative genetic matter obtained from several populations which are separately designed between populations as an attempt to save them from extinction. Activities Exit Strategy d. and so far only 8 isolats which have been trial-tested in the field. the FRI of Mataram will be ready to accept this input technology. 1 (I). as addressed in organizing the Master Plan for Research and Development (R & D) on gaharu commodity.EXIT STRATEGY Master Plans No. and concurrently to support the breeding programs. In the early stage. which differ from one another. there has been initiated the potency of pests that attack the gaharu-yielding tree species. The FORDA researchers have supervised these activities.1 (I) has aroused some research ideas that deserves responses and follows-up. from the entire Indonesia. Selection of effective inoculum The development on the selection of isolat Fusarium spp. Several related R & D’s which have not yet been conducted and are urgently needed comprise among others analysis on genetic variability using DNA analysis. it is essential to conduct research to answer the 53 . In addition. in cooperation pattern with farmer groups.

Multidisciplinary research on gaharu products beginning from the upstream until downstream should start right away. under the condition that the induced-gaharu should be synthesized in mass amount and continual manner. Flow-scheme regarding the exit strategy of gaharu development that will be conducted by the Research Team of FORDA. Standardization of product qualities comprising gaharu chips deserves a thorough determination. The strategy of research and development on gaharu is presented in the schemes as follows (Figure 18). The organizing 54 . drugs. This research intends to yield gaharu products with high qualities. and culture aspects of the community • Institution • Policies genetic gain trial Superior clone Penelitian: •SNI (Indonesia’s National Standard) •Insitution •Marketing •Policies Research : • SNI (Indonesia’s National Standard) • Instittution • Yield (Recovery) • Active Substancesf • Marketing • Policies Post-harvest gaharu industry Figure 19. Besides. thereby not causing the loss to farmers. in which the markets take very-great interest. They will accept the induced-gaharu for grocery-scale (in tons of weight) with competitive prices. The FORDA has planned to realize the Organizing-Team for Master Plans regarding Research and Development on the sustainable Gaharu in Indonesia. Genetics matter sources (demonstration plot/community) Plot Ex-Situ Conservation 54 Isolats at RDCFCR DNA Analysis clone test on the combination of species and isolat Research: • Bio-physic environments • Social. by scrutinizing in depth the chemical compounds that are formed based on biochemical analysis. Judging from the visit by the research team to Singapore and Taiwan. cosmetics. soap. economy.Fragrant Wood Gaharu: When The Wild Can No Longer Provide interaction between genetic factors and environments (breeding/improvement). the key active substance that brings about gaharu aroma needs thorough identification particularly when linked to the derivative products such as oil. etc. The integrated research as such refers to finding superior (exotic) gaharu and the responsive fungi that trigger (induce) gaharu formation. it tuned out that the gaharu samples that resulted from the inducement as implemented by the farmers using the technology developed by the FORDA could be accepted by markets.

and traders/merchant). The marketing aspects as turned out cover locals (trade traffic in the province. clone of exotic tree species and superior isolat. The Master Plans should be elaborated in “action plan” that exemplifies the research proposals submitted to obtain finances which are adequate and with multi-years conduct. and post-harvest processing. and their marketing. wood chemistry. regional (trade traffic between provinces. The arranging of the master plans is depicted in the plan roadmap for gaharu research and development in the period 2011. forest microbiology. inducement technology which is selective and effective). collector. seeds (vegetative and generative). married system). and drugs. forest-soil science. biotechnology (DNA analysis for genetic variability. and marketing that includes market intelligence and export (overseas-trade traffic). The products as developed include technology (patent rights).2025. tree breeding (improvement). processors. The technologies as developed comprise the improvement (breeding) of gaharu-yielding trees. and forest pests and diseases. gaharu products that are yielded. collectors.EXIT STRATEGY Master Plans team has the members from the multidiscipline sciences such as sylviculture. This roadmap is based on multi-years research and should be supported by technology. gaharu oil. harvesting farmers. harvesting farmers. cosmetics. 55 . trader/merchants). gaharu inoculum (optimum inoculum dosage). processor. gaharu-sapwood products.


the forests and the local community to support their livelihoods. Cultivation of a higher density of gaharu plants is an alternative for accelerating gaharu production and appears to be the key to sustain production and conserve remnants in the wilds. Gaharu major market is international and it is valued per unit weight. and this needs participation from all gaharu stakeholders that conduct daily interaction. practical knowledge in the management strategy of sustainable gaharu production shall be returned to its original place. DNA fingerprinting has become more advanced and may contribute to minimize illegal trade. 57 . Cultivation of gaharu is a promising alternative for planting higher density of plants that can be induced to produce gaharu. the opportunity to promote sustainable gaharu production from cultivation is high because gaharu is a renewable product. many gaharu products are still illegally in the trading sites. Nevertheless. Although the stocks of natural gaharu are diminishing. Scientific facts from recent advances in induction technology are promising in stimulating gaharu production and may contribute to the significantly high demand-supply gap. However. Commission of CITES has regulated gaharu trade with central target to prevent extinction of wild gaharu stocks.9 CONCLUDING REMARKS Gaharu never fail to position itself as extremely profitable products.

58 .

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ANNEX 63 .


Annex 1. Flowering and fruiting seasons of Aquilaria malaccensis 65 .

microcarpa 66 .Annex 2. Flowering and fruting season of A.

Flowering and fruiting season of Gyrinops versteegii 67 .Annex 3.