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Of The

Consumers' Cooperative Movement
in the U. S. A.



Published by The Cooperative League of U. S. A.
167 West 12th Street, New York City




Consumers Book Cooperative .........................................................................................................
62, 94
Consumers Cannot Depend on Government Price Controls ....................................
Accountants Recommend Program to Meet Crisis ......................................................
......... 149
............... 155 Consumers Cooperative Association
......................................................... 24, 62, 87, 124, 220
Act Now or Regret Later ............................................................................................................
.................. 164 Consumers Cooperatives Associa
ted .......................................................................................... 62, 220
AE's Letters to Minanlabain, a review ........................................................................
..................... 240 Consumers Cooperatives in the North
Aiken, Senator George D. ............................................................................................................
Central States, a review ....................................... 190
...... 70, 126 Consumers Cooperative Services ..................
Alanne, V. S. ......................................................................................................................._
.......................................................................................... 142
55 Consumers Cooperative Stations ....................................
Amalgamated Cooperative Apartments ........................................................................
.......................................................................... 62
..................... 142 Consumers Incarnate the Public Welfare
American Cooperative Crusade ..........................................................................................
..................................................................... 206
......................... 163 Cooperative Distributors ..................
Annual All-American Tour of Cooperatives ..................................................................
120, 183 Cooperative Plenty, a review .................................... .......................................................................... 125
Architectural Modernization, Plans Laid For ......................................................
................................................................................. 239
........................ 158 Cooperative Terminal, Inc. ..................
......................................................................................................... 166
Arnold, Mary E. ..............................................................................................................................
.................... 51 Cooperation, a Christian Mode of Industry
Arnold, Thurman ..............................................................................................................................
, a review ............................................................ 223
.................. 70 Cooperation at Home and Abroad, a
review ................................................................................. 144
Articles on Cooperatives, Recent ..........................................................................................
.................. 28 Co-ops are Comin', The, a review ..................
As I Remember ..............................................................................................................................
....................................................................................... 218
..................... 50 Co-ops in the Crisis ....................................
...................................................................................................... 220
Augustus, E. K. ..............................................................................................................................
..................... 234 Co-op Week .....*..........................„.................
Council for Cooperative Business Training ........................................................................ 31, 6l
......... 126
Covey, Esther ................................................................................................................................................
......... 218
Baker, Jacob ................................................................................................................................................
............ 80 Cowden, Howard A. ........................................................................................................................... 182,
Belloc, Hilaire ................................................................................................................................................
......... 127 Credit Union National Association ......................................................................................................
Bennett, J. L. ..........................................................................................................._
200 Curry, James ................................................................_........................................................................................
Bergengren, Roy F. ..............................................................................................................................
............ 223
Bingham, Alfred ..............................................................................................................................
..................... 71
Bolin, J. H. ................................................................................................................................................
............... 69
Bowen, E. R. .............................................................................................................................................
Debt and Disaster ..............................................................................................................................
.................. 73
Bowman, LeRoy E. ..............................................................................................................................
............... 19 Declaration of Cooperation ........................................................................................................................ 210
Boyle, George ................................................................................................................................................
......... 191 Democracy's Second Chance, a review ................................................................................................ 191
Brandies, Louis D. ..............................................................................................................................
...... 98, 214 Douthit, Davis ......................................................................................................................................................
Brouckere, Professor Louis de ..........................................................................................
........................ 134 Drury, James C. ................................................................................................................................................... 144
Buy in Co-ops ................................................................................................................................................
......... 201

Calkins, Gilman ..............................................................................................................................
Call to Peace and Plenty ............................................................................................................
Campbell, Wallace J. ..............................................................................................................................
Campus Cooperative, The Evolution of a ........................................................................
Capitol Letters ........................................................................... 57, 92, 141, 153,
172, 189,
Carson, John ....................................... 57, 92, 141, 153, 172, 189, 206,
214, 223,
Central Cooperative Wholesale ............................................................... 31, 54,
125, 142,
Central States Cooperatives ............................................................................................................
Challenge to Cooperative Accountants ........................................................................
Character Building and Cooperatives ..........................................................................................
Cheel, Mabel .........................................................................
Church and Cooperatives ............................................................................................................
Circle Pines Center ........................................................................................................................
9, 122,
Coady, Dr. M. M. ........................................................................................................................
16, 71,
Coerr, Janet ................................................................................................................................................
Cohn, Hyman ..............................................................................................................................
Consumer Distribution Corporation .......................................................................................... 117,




Eastern Cooperative Recreation School ........................................................................
..... 122,
Eastern Cooperative Wholesale ..........................................................................................
............ 31,
Economic Organization of Freedom, The ........................................................................
Educate for Democratic Economic Action ........................................................................
Education-Recreation-Publicity Institute ........................................................................
Edwards, Ellen .......................................................................................... 29, 59, 156,
187, 205,
Emporia Cooperative Association, The Down and Up Of ....................................
Estes Park Co-op Camp ............................................................................................................


Farnsworth, Ruth Broan ............................................................................................................
Fay, C. R. .....................................................................^
Films ................................................................................................................._
13, 218,
Film Cooperative Society, Timmins ..........................................................................................
Finland Solved the Farm Tenancy Problem, How ......................................................
Form Letters, Here's an Idea on ..........................................................................................
Foundation of Civilization ............................................................................................................
Fowler, Bertram B. ..............................................................................................................................





Fox, Glenn S. ................._...._................-...._
Friends of Rochdale Institute ..................................................................................................................... 208
From Consumer to Crude .......................................................................................................................

Getting Your News Across—Here's an Idea for ........................................................................
Giles, Richard ....................................................................................._^
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins ...........................................................................................................................
Give Cooperation the Radiance It Deserves ....................................................................................
Gjores, Axel .........._......._...............^
Get Grocery Minded .......................................................................................................................................
Go Into Groceries Faster .................................................................................................................................
Goss, A. S. .............................................................................^
Group Health Association, Minneapolis ..........................................................................................
Group Health Association, D. of C. ...................................................................................................
Group Health Cooperative .....................................................................................................................
Groves, Harold M. .............................................................................................................................................
Grundtvig of Denmark .................................................................................................................................


Kagawa, Toyohiko ............................................................................................................................................. 131
Kenyon, Dorothy ..............................................;................................................................................................. 14
Kreiner, Viola Jo .......................................................................................................................................... 9, 219
Kress, Andrew J. ................................................................................................................................................ 143
Labor and Cooperatives ................................................................................. 30, 61, 126, 142,
Lau 1 of the Organization and Operation of Cooperatives, a review ........................
Let's Drive for Modern Co-ops ...............................................................................................................
Let's Get the Cooperative Movement Together ...........................................................................
Lehner, Anthony ....................................................................................................................................... 31,
Lehtin, Laurie L. ...................................................................................................................................................
Lincoln, Murray D. ................................................................................................................................. 93,
Ligutti, Msgr. Luigi ..........................................................................................................................................
Local Cooperative Organization Managers ....................................................................................
Locke, John ........T...................................................................................._..............................................................
Long, Mary Coover .............................................................................................................................................
Lull, Dr. H. G. ....._......._.................._......._


Hackman, Vera R. .........................................................................................................................................
Halonen, George ...........................................................................................................................................
Hamilton, Peter ........_........................._.................................................^
Harris, Frank .........................._......._...™^^
Hedberg, Anders ............................................................................................................................................
Highlights of 1940, Cooperative ............................................................................................................
Hill, Gladys ...,,.......................................................................^
Holmes, John Haynes .....................................................................................................................................
How Balance Prices and Income ............................................................................................................
How Co-ops Grow ........_................_.................................._.............-.............-.............-.-.......-..............--.
Hull, I. H. ............................................................................^
Hutchinson, Carl „........................_......._.................................._...............................-........-............-..-........•••



MacMillan, Mary ................................................................................................................................................
Marketing, Consumer Co-ops Go Into ................................................................................................
Maurin, Peter ,......................................................................................................................_................................
McGowan, Rev. R. A. .......................................................................................................................................
McLanahan, Jack .................................................................................................................. 8, 27, 140,
Measuring Stick for a Cooperative Oil Co. ....................................................................................
Metzger, T. Warren ..........................................................................................................................................
Midland Cooperative Wholesale ................................................................................................... 31,
Miller, Joseph Dana ..........................................................................................................................................
Morale of Democracy, a review ...............................................................................................................
Morgan, Joy Elmer .............................................................................................................................................
Myers, James ..........................o................................................................................................................................


Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association ............................................................... 94,
I.L.O. Carries On, Cooperative Division Of ..............................................................................
Introduction to the Cooperative Movement, a review ............................................................
Insurance, Cooperative, Should be Organized How ...............................................................
Invest in Co-ops ......................._................-..........-..........-................-..........-............-.-----—-•••--—
Invest your Money in Cooperative Properties ..............................................................................




Nationwide Co-op Drive ..............................................................................................................................
National Cooperatives ................................................................................................... 61, 93, 124,
National Cooperative Recreation School ..................................................................... 60, 90,
National Cooperative Womens Guild Notes .................................................................................
New Books and Pamphlets Received ................................................... 15, 63, 127, 160,
Niemela, Waldemar ..........................................................................................................................................
Northwest Cooperative Society ...............................................................................................................


'"'•Her' in College Co-op ................................................................................................................................... 8 5
<~'e~re, Anders ...................................................................................................................................................... 66
C^'-io Farm Bureau Cooperative Association ......................................................... 93, 142, 221
^bio Farm Bureau Insurance Services ........................................................................... 11, 61, 124
Ohio O^'ers Complete Cooperative Investment Program ................................................... 234


Jackson, J. Hampden ........_......................._......_.............-..........-...............................-.—.-.....-..--»......
Join a Co-op ........................................................................................................-...............—....-.............-.-....
Jones, E. Stanley ............................................................................................................... 66, 70, 129,
Justice Louis D. Brandeis, Counsel for the Consumer .........................................................


............................................ ............................................................................................................................................. Selvig............................................... 196 Ownership.................................... J........................................................................... a review ......................... ....... Skomorowsky.......... George .............................................................. 143....................... Whitney........................................... Shipe.............................................................................. Wright......:... 123....................... With the Co-op Caravan ................. 124.. Trail to Co-op Fun................ 124....................... Refineries.................................................. The Cooperative League................................................................................ Edgar J............................................................................................................................. Review of International Cooperation ................................................. 14...... New York ...._............................................... Mrs..................................... Warbasse................................ 91 Youth League....................... 117 ............. 30..................... Frank Lloyd ........................................................ Webb........................... Elliot ......................INDEX INDEX PAGE One Day in the Life of a Cooperator .......... Ralph ........................................................................... Recreation—A Vital Part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive .................... Robert L. _....................................................................................... Twenty-five Years Ago and Now ................................................................................. Social Reconstruction and Cooperation ...................................... Ruf.............. Colston E...................... Cooperation and the ..................................................................................................................................................... 143................................. George .........^ Who is Responsible in a Co-op ................................................................................. Womens Guilds Plan Greater Activity ......................................... Ross...... Recreation Notes ................................ .................................................................................... 14 Organization of the Nationwide Co-op Drive ............................................................................. Rev.............. Socialist Trend as Affecting the Cooperative Movement...................................................... The Cooperative Consumer............ Edward ................ 61 V Voorhis........................................ 59................... A ............... Times..................................................................... a review .................................................................... a review .................................... Henry A................................... 91......... .............................................................. 130........ Eleanor ........................................................... Refinery................................................................. Profit Motive and the Common Good .................... Rev............... 61.......................................................:......................................................................................................... Publicity and Education Committee .................................... E.............. Rochdale Institute ....... Song Book.................................................................. Beatrice ..... Roosevelt.............................. William J.....................„ Rural Electric Cooperatives ......... Reviews .....:............ Pioneer Cooperator............. Cooperative.. Palo Alto Cooperative .............................................. 174................................................................................................................ 144........................... 14........ What's News with the Co-ops ................................................................................................... 126............................................................................................... A.............................................. Quotations 190 31 126 58 94 70 72 136 62 158 8 .... Price Boom Is On ............................................................................ What Cooperatives Should Do Under ............... 95................................................................. Spencer....................................................................................................................... Orrin ................. .......................................................... 62............................................. Training Lay Leaders—Here's an Idea for .............. Snyder............................................................ Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Association .......... 182 Organized Labor and Consumer Cooperation............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Cooperative ............................................................................ Consumers Cooperative ............................................. Torma......................................................................................... Warne.......................................................................................................... ............ Swedish Cooperator in the Government......... 93......................................................... Dr........ Congressman Jerry ..... a review ........................................ A .... 146 R Rawe.............................. Boris ..................................................... Three Forms of .................................................................... Train Employes to be Practical Idealists ................................................................................. Albert ................................... Northern States Cooperative .. 223............................................................................ J................. 124....................................... 142 Your Work is Prized ...................................... War Time Conditions............................................................ Tichenor.................................................................... ........................................... 163 175 26 52 164 142 31 203 82 183 157 146 Youth Councils... 37..................................... 223 208 31 127 71 203 66 133 14 16 Southeastern Cooperative Education Association .......................................... 39................................. 191 205 238 122 30 142 85 127 133 239 208 70 239 136 11 180 Schmiedeler............................ What We Ought to Know About Credit Unions.................................. Anne .......... 190...................................................................................................................................... 31. 30.. Summer Opportunities in Cooperatives ........................... Rees.................... Smith..................................................... 101......... 71............................................................... Twenty-fifth Anniversary Celebrations .......................................................................................................................... Progressive Education Association ...... reprint of May............................. 29......................................... 151 41 37 175 70 207 138 204 186 95 48 U United Cooperative Society....................................................................... E...... Skillin.......................... State.................................................................................................... The .................................................................................................... PAGE 142 56 137 143 212 Teaching Cooperation at Pine Mountain ................................ Farm Bureau ............................................................ a review ...................... Rev.................................................^ Restoration of Property................................................................................ 130 w Wallace................................................................................................. James P.. Paying Patronage Returns—Here's an Idea for ................................................................................. Israel ..................._...................................................................:....................................................... Recreation Training Opportunities ......................... 1914 issue ..................................................................... First Twenty-five Years Of ............................................................... 10......................................................................................................................... 126..................... Pacific Supply Cooperative .... Russell............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................................... Dr.................................................. Publicity—Here's an Idea on ......................................................................... ......................................................... John C. F.... Maynard .... 100 Packel.

Warren Metzger January 1941 lATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS .Build Cooperatives Stronger and Faster Follow These Successful Examples Let s Get The Cooperative Movement Together Davis Douthit Here's An Idea on Publicity Jack McLanahan Circle Pines Center Viola Jo Kreiner Cooperative Highlights of 1940 Wallace J. Campbell Dorothy Kenyan and T.

in voluntary association. Washington Hoosier Farmer Indiana Farm Bureau Coop.. Eastern Cooperative League 7218 So. whereby the people. N.. at the same time to train and instruct cooperators and to instill in them a sense of individual and collective responsibility. DISTRICT LEAGUES 135 Kent Ave. Co-op Review Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. N.) PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY tor a dollar. Build Cooperatives Stronger! Stronger recreationally... Penn. 111." This was the unsolicited advice of a New York Cooperator. Fauquet urges. The Producer-Consumer Amarillo.. Associated Cooperatives. C. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. 84th St. DIVISIONS: Medical Bureau. under the Act of March 3. Cal. Millard. Cal. Midland Cooperator Midland Cooperative Wholesale Minneapolis. Pacific N. Cal.L. "I want fifteen copies to give to members of the board of our co-op" said the president of a flourishing midwest co-op food store.00 a year. G. Consumers Cooperative Association Readers Observer 118E. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need.. New York City 726 Jackson Place N.. December 19. Inc. Texas Consumers' Cooperatives Associated Cooperative Consumer N.W. Pacific Supply Cooperative Penn. l6St. Y. Associate Editor. 167 West 12 St. N. Ass'n Hitrrrsburg. Cooperator Walla Walla. ' CONSUMERS' COOPERATION Mail your order to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street.. as well as to learn together. R. and to manifest to those who are ignorant about it what are its principles and methods. 1941 Ten Cents BUILD COOPERATIVES STRONGER AND FASTER This is an enduring cooperative slogan for 1941 and the future. Chicago 167 West 12th Street. Wash.N. for it gives a clear concise picture of the four cornerstones of cooperation and the major problems and accomplishments of the American coop eratives today. 372—40th Street. "In our opinion every cooperator should study the Congress Issue of Con sumers' Cooperation. City. It is the Economic American Dream—it is economic liberty. N. Cooperative Distributors The Recreation Kit Delaware. So. Y. 1790 Broadway. . and bank together. 1917. N. member of the Executive Committee of the International Coopera tive Alliance and former Director of the Cooperative Division of the International Labor Office. C. clubs in the East as the basis for their January discussions. N.. Mo. Special prices on larger quantiti is a bargain at 25c. Consumers Book Cooperative Consumers Defender 116E. Indianapolis. in these words: "Two tasks are imperative: within the Movement—to administer the enterprises with diligence and also some inventive spirit. National Cooperatives. Wisconsin The Bridge Volume XXVII.N. Wallace J.. Chicago National Cooperative Women's Guild Carrollton. AFFILIATED REGIONAL COOPERATIVES Address Publication Name Superior. D. The Eastern Cooperative League has prepared an advisory council study out-1 OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT line based on the Congress issue which will be used by a hundred co-op study. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Ohio Farm Bureau News Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Auditing Bureau. buy together. Wisconsin Cooperative Builder Central Cooperative Wholesale 2301 S. Cal. N. N. C. Michigan Farmers' Union Herald Farmers' Union Central Exchange St. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Chicago The Round Table Central States Cooperatives. Minn.S. We must persuade others faster to become active members. Bklyn Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Ohio Farm Bureau News Columbus. by the elimination of credit and by increased capital and reserves. Design Service. Inc. so that every cooperative association will mean to its members a pleasurable place to play together. at the Post Office at New York. 28St. Paul. Ohio Michigan Farm News Farm Bureau Services Lansing. it is economic fraternity.Y. Every Cooperative and every Cooperator should adopt this as their principal motto. by greater efficiency of operations and diversity of lines. Build Cooperatives Faster! Cooperators hold the key to the door of economic democracy. Bowen.C. Minn.. 1 879. Y. Y. Kansas City. Inc. Hoover St. Price $1. Y.S. Washington. Associated Cooperatives. and the goal towards which it leads mankind. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. Association Indianapolis.A. 167 West 12th St. Stronger financially. Society 227 E.W. This 64-page report of the 12th Biennial Congress of The Cooperative League of the U. Columbus. Stronger commer cially. Editor. 167 West 12 St. it is economic equality. Georgia Southeastern Cooperative Education Ass'n FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Madison." An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Brooklyn. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. Cooperator 135 Kent Ave. Y. Stronger educationally. I JANUARY. Order your extra copies today while they are still available."THE CONGRESS ISSUE IS A MASTERPIECE t So said a prominent educator after reading the November-December Special Congress Issue of Consumers' Cooperation. C. Ohio Cooperative Recreation Service E. E. by member discussion groups and employee and directors schools.. Campbell. C. 167 West 12 St. 608 South Dearborn. Ind. Fauquet. Chicago. Y. Rochdale Institute. Ind. "BUILD COOPERATIVES STRONGER AND FASTER. It summarizes the double challenge of Cooperation to members and employees. Grange Cooperative News Grange Cooperative Wholesale Seattle. New York City THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. Oakland. No. It is expressed by Dr." No greater or more permanent goal was ever set before the Cooperative Movement. outside the Movement—to give Cooperation the radiance that it deserves. Los Angeles. Five copies for quantities.A. We must "give Cooperation the radiance it deserves" as Dr. Y. United Cooperatives. Y. N.

Write their Educational Departments. Write them for a copy. care of The Cooperative League. Business and Finance. but also to constantly investigate other projects which might be adopted. Washington. second Five Year Plan by democratic discussion. Minneapolis. Midland Co-op Wholesale and Consumers Cooper Contracts with their employees. Racine Consumers Coopera Central Co-op Wholesale. Write their Educational Departments. Write the Co-op and Labor Committee of the Cooperative League. Recreational Education in care of The Cooperative League. The Consumers' Cooperative Purchasing Movement in the United States has Floodwood. Central Co-op Wholesale. Minnesota. Minnesota. Write their Educational Departments. Write their Educational Departments. Midland and Eastern Co-op Wholesales Harrisburg. Schenectady. has developed its Write their Education Departments. Write the Co-op and Labor Committee of then handling Groceries. thing they desire in the fields of recreation. I Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. as well as speeding up the process through increasing national contacts between regional and commodity fieldmen. education. Central Cooperative Wholesale. Midland Follow These Co-op Wholesale. folder "Trends in Cooperative Architecture. Contact your State Administration." Write the Cooperative League for rental prices. Pennsylvania. D. Central Co-op Wholesale. Consumers Every local and regional cooperative Board of Directors should divide itself Cooperative Association. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n. North Kansas City. Some States have good Consumers' Cooperative Incorporation Laws. for illustrations and information. Write them for their folder Central Co-op Wholesale and Farmers Union Cooperative Education Service "Second Five Year Plan. Consumers Cooperative can be altogether complete and we are only including illustrations of some of the Association and Central States Cooperatives. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n. we are and Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n hold regional Employee Training listing here some of the major examples of successful cooperative pioneering in the Schools. Write them. Midland Co-op Wholesale. Cooperative League. Write Consumer Distribution Corporation. local representatives. Instruction. Write them for their have organized junior Groups. even though we are Bureau Cooperative Ass'n have Educational Fieldmen in every district. conducts a 1 2 Weeks Co-op Forum sponsored by the now reached the place where successful illustrations have been developed in many Community Adult Evening School. Local cooperatives in Cambridge. Konsum. Wise.. D. Midland Co-op Wholesale. Evanston. Consumers Coopei Minneapolis and St. Wisconsin.C. Eastern Co-op Wholesale and Central Co-op Wholesale into three major committees: Education. Massachusetts. Write The Cooperative League. fields. and others have modernized their stores into Self-Service are actively promoting Cooperative Recreation. Successful Examples in BUSINESS Actr/j Cooperative Services. and others have Union fives. fields of Education. The Ohio Farm Bureau Co-op Ass'n. Write theB ciation and others are handling Building Materials and Coal. New York. 420 Lexington Avenue. better known examples to stimulate investigation in each field by every other Write the National Women's Guild. Write them. 111. Write the The States of Wisconsin. Eastern Co-op Wholesale. there is still too much time lag in adopting successful Midland Co-op Wholesale. Racine." conduct summer Cooperative Youth Courses. Paul have a Twin-City Co-op-Labor Council. business and finance. Central Co-op Wholesale and the Ohio Farm methods elsewhere after the initial pioneering has been done.The Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Association issues a Weekly Neivs Service to local papers. The Michigan State Federation of Labor has appointed a Committee on Co Follow These operatives. tive. Business. However. 1941 .. f FOLLOW THESE SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLES! I t 2 Consumers' Cooperatioi January. cooperative. Write their Educational Depart be not only to supervise the present activities of the cooperative in each of these ments for samples of their discussion outlines. During the week more than 100 radio broadcasts are made and have Co-op Book Stores. It goes without saying that no such list Central Co-op Wholesale. Write the Cooperative Society for Food Markets. and Finance. has an Architectural Depart Central Co-op Wholesale and Farmers Union Cooperative Education Service ment which is modernizing store buildings and equipment. There is no necessary limit until the members both distribute and produce for themselves cooperatively every Ass'n conduct Directors and Employees Circuit Schools. Consumers Cooperative Association. Administration. the Farmers Union To help every local and regional cooperative to profit by the successful examples Central Exchange. Consumers Cooperative Association. have organized Women's Guilds. Superior. By Central Co-op Wholesale and the Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative subdividing the work. Eastern Co-op Wholesale of other cooperatives and to speed up the process of duplication everywhere. whose duties should are organizing their members into Study Circles. Midland Co-op Wholesale. The State of Wisconsin has a Co-op Week officially designated by the State • Local co-ops in Washington. Minnesota and North Dakota have developed pro Cooperative League for a copy of the Department of Labor Bulletin with the grams to Teach Cooperation in the Schools. fields. more rapid progress can be made. Write their Educational Departments as to their programs. Write the State Departments of Public text of all State Laws and for a copy of the new District of Columbia Cooperative Law. Write their Educational Departments. Montana. and Great Falls. Co-op and Labor Committee of the Cooperative League. groups patterning after these examples. New York. and urban fields. Central States Cooperatives and Eastern Co-op Wholesale have Successful Examples in EDUCATIONAL Activities Youth Leagues. Superior. Write Central Cooperative Wholesale. Further rapid development of the movement is primarily a matter of other Wisconsin for a copy of their program." Central Co-op Wholesale and Central States Cooperatives have Co-op Parks.. C. hundreds of cooperative meetings are held. Eastern Cooperative Wholesale has a colored film "Consumers Serve Them Much pioneering has been done during the past two decades in both the rural selves.

Write them. Write them. Write them. Elkhorn. Cooperative leaders have. Follow These Successful Examples in FINANCE Activities Waukegan. has yet to ring the bell as a genuinely na tional movement. New York City has eight Cooperative Cafeterias.C. 1941 Davis Douthit. Indiana. each a movement unto itself. Write them. Uniform dues to support educa tional and legislative activities have been agreed upon." If the former. Write them. time's "a-wastin" ". the more rapid progress we can make. "You Can Lead a Horse to Water" Important strides have been taken nev ertheless. Wisconsin. A "truly national" movement is an alltogether movement. Group Medicine is developing in a number of places. Such a move ment must have. Consumers Cooperative Association is actively promoting Cash Terms on both farm and home supplies. The regional leaders (who are also national leaders) appear to find it advis able to keep a wary eye on each other to see that no tricks are pulled which might affect their own special provinces. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. and Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperatives and others own Fertilizer Factories. Write them. and he really should have only one locomotive to attend to. St. unites 18 local co operatives for recreation. un less they're more interested in playing train than in getting somewhere. and all of which are headed. These are some suggestions for action. democratic control from the bottom up. It is becoming trite to say that the most effective brake on the consumer coopera tive movement has been the failure to get together. Write them. and finally. The more we can learn from others. It is a temptation to say that this hen picture is much like the one ob tained by looking at what is known as the national cooperative movement today. Will they drink. Build Cooperatives Faster! Follow these Successful Examples. Virginia. one might say. New York City. Consumers Cooperatives Association and United Cooperatives own Paint Plants. Write Consumers Coopera tive Services. Write them. for these are blitz krieg days. Local cooperatives in Minneapolis. Creamery and Meat Packing Plants. Yet. Consumers Cooperative Association and Farmers Union Central Exchange. Paul and New York have Cooperative Housing Associations for individual homes and apartments. such coordination is absolutely essential. it was shouted right out loud by the rankand-file delegates themselves. in large part. of course. Write them. Their success should encourage others. Write The Cooperative League. and the stream may. Cooperatives in Washington. none of which is bigger or more important than the whole. of sprawling. 1790 Broadway. before long. Write them. led them selves to the headwaters of a truly national stream. in terlocking directorates and a common blueprint for the future. though still separate organi zations. education and business activities. "LET'S GET TOGETHER!" It was implied by some speakers. 433 West 21st Street. 111. I F ever cooperative leaders received a mandate to set about collecting and tying together the various loose ends of the cooperative movement in this country. trusts and monopoly fascism. have organized Cooperative Properties to own and rent land and buildings. Illinois. a sort of rural "dead-end kid. going off in all directions at once. Write them. The Range Cooperative Federation. and thereby avoid the trial and error method. It consists. The pas sengers must have the right to decide where and how they want to go and what engineer they want to take them there. or will they kick up their heels and gallop each for his own pasture ? The answer to this question is tremendously important. True. really ought to let their engineer run the train. News Editor Midland Cooperator mine whether consumer cooperation ma tures in this country. Waukegan. Write them. The Cooperative Trading Company. Consumers Cooperative Association owns a Grease Plant and Oil Wells. the League and National Cooperatives. now have the same address. Write them. American coopera tion. Iowa and Minnesota and other States have Cooperative Burial Associations. Central Co-op Wholesale and Midland Co-op Wholesale publish Year Books. or whether it is des tined to wind up in the barnyard. It consists of parts or units. $ Consumers' Cooperatict I January. Gets Picture of Hen with Head Off Too many cooperators. and other cooperatives require each member to own a minimum number of shares before receiving dividends. Central Co-op Wholesale and Midland Co-op Wholesale have organized Finance Associations. Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association owns Chick Hatcheries. D. Write them. but the association is somewhat polite and uneasy. saturated with literature based on 1844 theology—prechain and pre-monopoly—give all their attention to democratic control from the bottom up. but no coordination from the top down. owns local Bakery. Write the Bureau of Cooperative Medicine. toward getting the movement together. to cooperate. Consumers Cooperative Association and Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperatives own Petroleum Refineries. none whatever to coordination from the top down. But this "truly national" movement also must have management coordination from the top down. provincial cooperatives. Its top has no power to coordinate the some what spasmodic jerkings and twitchings down below. for a common destination. A just-beheaded hen has plenty of democratic control from the bottom up. . Midland Co-op Wholesale is using a Condensed Comparative Balance Sheet to help build capital. Write them. despite local and regional headway. are building up Loan Capital.I LET'S GET THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT TOGETHER! Ohio. Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association has a Co-op Bank. like the cars of a train. be sucked dry by the whirl of events. It may deter- Learn from Others Experience There are just two ways to learn—from your own or others' experience. touched upon by others. Madison. not one for each car. these co operatives do associate together education ally in the League and for occasional joint buying purposes in National Cooperatives. Minnesota. if the cooperative technique is to survive chains. New York. they got it at the 12th biennial congress of The Cooperative League in Chicago last October. Write The Cooperative League.. The passengers.

subject to no unifying authority. They had "mass appeal. A unified central authority. why not add one and one and get ONE? And so on. Now it's all very well. or coordination. new because it marks a distinction between competitive capitalism and corporate capitalism. for it applies to the United States as well as to Britain. proposes the merging of the chief factories of the English Co operative Wholesale and its Scottish coun terpart. Bigness. then. publicity. which found that most members of urban co-ops belong because the CO-OP label tells the whole truth. or centraliza- The Sales Management survey." In an important series of "Plan for the Future" articles in the English Coopera tive Neii's." put it this way: "A movement which consists of a large number of completely autonomous units. big-capital fields. Worley of the Co operative Press. how much more im perative it is that cooperators in this country read the handwriting on the wall. never have. like their competitors. explains why co-ops don't have more members than they do. the American cooperative move ment needs desperately to get together. in insurance." Proposes Merger of Two Wholesales A most significant cooperative wartime development has been the increasing amount of agitation for drastic overhaul ing of the British cooperative machinery to give the movement a united front. to be writing about a genuinely national move ment and saying that cooperative leaders January. Poll members of Swedish or British co-ops. going it more or less alone without enough capital. You can shout the virtues of cooperation as a new way of life at people until you're blue in the face. pool their money and brains. finance. revealed a "unanimous recognition of the urgent need for co operative reconstitution. but in the end most of the people will still be folks and they'll still belong to the co-op only when and if they think they can save money or get better stuff by doing so. in their important research volume. Co-ops With No "M. And it is only through centralization and coordination of capital and purchas ing power and management brains on as large a scale as possible—locally. If the cooperative movement shrinks jrom the inescapable challenge of the new Cor-* porate State tendencies. cannot effectively work out a common will or apply that common will to the prosecu tion of its aims. Co-ops Challenged by New Capitalism "This country. but it's quite another thing to "rare back" and pass such a miracle. answerable to a united coop erative democracy." O J J O The conventions. in brief. weakness and inefficiency of the present set-up of separate national educational and business federations. J. a director of the Scottish whole sale. purchasing power and efficient man agement were necessary to successful com petition. and he urges coordinated manage ment of the British movement by "some body whose decision should be final and binding. reported the Coop erative News. "is passing through what I regard as another indus trial revolution which threatens to en trench the new capitalism. . region ally. union of retail co-ops. of course. and it's ten to one a big majority will say they are cooperators. One statement at the second convention in support of the Barnes plan is especially noteworthy. It was made by J. and you save money there. "m. Perhaps the most cooperators can do is to keep right on repeating and repeating that the miracle just must be passed. would become one of the most powerful influences in the state. or else— and to keep drumming away on the tune that if only we did have more coordination and unity this American cooperative move ment would be going places nationally in groceries. not because cooperation is a "new way of life" or "the label tells the whole truth." They have what lone wolf co operatives. union of wholesale co-ops. ought to drown their professional jeal ousies and personal ambitions in a sea of unselfish cooperation.A. W." but simply because the co-op stores are nice looking. gasoline.. bound to no common policy even as trading units. to make it possible for folks to do those things. tires and other com modities. on a coordinated educational program." Now if a movement as huge and wellfounded as the British is finding it urgent ly necessary to coordinate and centralize its government and operations to meet modern conditions. cooperative member of parliament. They have. Alfred Barnes. coordinate their opera tions and develop efficiency and expertness in serving the public.American cooperatives have succeeded best so far in lines such as petroleum products and fertilizer and feed. 1941 Consumers' Cooperation \ Warns Against Wreck of Whole Train ." Have Little Chance . shrinking retail margins.A similar weakness. if one large wholesale can serve the people better than two medium-sized ones. its progress will' be arrested and the movement will be gradually merged into statutory schemes for industrial rationalization and in thai process will lose its identity and au tonomy." But cooperatives. and president of the Congress of the Cooperative Union. capable of directing economic policy so as to ensure the widest distribution of those benefits which modern civilization and the modern technique of production should enable all to enjoy. too." These articles aroused such enthusiasm that they were followed up with two na tional conventions organized by the Co operative News to discuss and promote the proposals. They never will until they. This. will never. And they must go into production if they expect to do a halfway decent job of controlling quality and costs. nationally—that co-ops are likely. Gallagher. in creasingly stiff competition from vast in dustrial aggregations of capital and the en croachments of American Fascism are apt to strip the movement of the mass appeal it now has and wreck the whole co-op train. afflicts the British movement. And he proposes replacement of what he calls the present "happy-go-lucky" cooperative methods of operation and government with a genuine Cooperative Union having the authority (1) to enforce decisions of policy democratically arrived at. Most People Still Remain Folks It might help. may be more significant for its indication that few members belong be cause they save money. "Union Now" ought to be the slogan of the day for co-ops as well as for nations. Very well. Cer tain it is that as cooperatives plunge into production they're going to need all the national coordination of purchasing power and management they can get. have not been! generated on a wide scale where margins were narrow and where considerable cap ital.a. in the small-margin. it is possible. on a coordinated distri bution program. where the retail margins have been large. recreation and in Lord knows how many other categories at least 100 per cent faster than it is going now. Yes. in this country or elsewhere. CarrSaunders and other British economists. and (2) to "accomplish its economic purpose without becoming involved in a mass of sterile controversies about local parochial ism and the individual interests of persons and societies. Co-ops exist to serve the people. "Con sumer Cooperation in Great Britain. It needs to get together on a coordinated in surance program. inside and out." he said. it is now being re alized. to point out that if the cooperative movement doesn't develop some sturdy. they have good stuff. on a coordinated finance program.. on a coordinated pro duction program. points out the clumsiness. Coop eratives in such fields required no great amount of efficient management or capital. and they saved their members money. centralized machinery pretty danged soon. In such fields—and their num ber is increasing swiftly — cooperatives lacking those necessary qualities have been unable to develop mass appeal and they have not flourished. educa tion.

In both cases they and the co-op had been there longer than two years. It is sometimes better to write up the news and give it to a local manager or member. united movement from the top down. Some papers have even been persuaded to set aside a column or part of a page in each issue for news of the co-op. Institutes on cooperative recreation. the Board of Direc tors met a few days ago. and coopera tive living the goal. Out of this pioneering venture has grown the Circle Pines Center Associa tion. If yours is a regional. and to lay plans for the coming season. The National Park Service camp which accommodates 120 people may again be rented. and for the elevation of the American standard of living. and you know these humans. If yours is a local. which is kept open for winter sports and which was reconditioned last summer by members of a Friends' Service Work Camp. "Don't the co-ops believe in telling the public what they are doing?" Whether they do or not seems to depend on the particular co-op being referred to.A. Michigan. where "learning by doing" was the watch-word. This unique recreational and cooperative ven ture started three years ago when a few far-sighted members of the Central States Cooperative League dared to gamble the rental of one of the National Park Service camps for a summer vacation and educa tional center. and labor relations will also be offered. Suffice it to say that in Lower Central Michigan is a cooperative camp that is challenging many a firm be liever in cooperation and many a disillu sioned Thomas to a realization that the cooperative way of life means more than activity in the field of economics. In getting your story to the papers in regular news releases or in contributed articles here are a few things to remember: 1. then. for the exten sion of American freedom and democracy. 1941 Viola Jo Kreiner their farm house. Nevertheless. is an appeal to Amer ican cooperative leaders to achieve re gional and national unity in these unpre dictable times by building as quickly as possible regional and national organiza tions with enough authority. With a little thought others will come to mind. Busy editors don't like to take time to rewrite and may assign your contribution to the wastebasket. Send in news—not personals or fea ture articles—unless you know the paper will accept them. with its educational and economic gears meshing in a single-pur posed mechanism-of-the-people. You can find plenty to write about. HERE'S AN IDEA—ON PUBLICITY Jack McLanahan T WICE within the week I've heard people stand up in a co-op meeting and ask why it was that they had not heard about the cooperative in that community. A sep arate children's camp will be maintained. All machinery requires human care and operation. Con struction work will begin on central camp buildings and many cooperators whose society has a group membership will start the erection of their own cabins and lodges. derived dem ocratically from the bottom up. and a cooperative youth work camp will be carried on. Those who send news releases will often cover a story such as the Cooperative League Congress and leave space at the end for adding names of those who have attended as delegates from that particular l locality. Perhaps it is time to reveal it to a waiting world. Write the news with a general inter I est slant to appeal to as large a number of people as possible. People read the daily papers and they are perhaps impressed by what they read much-more than we realize. an intelligently coordinated coop erative movement. 2. At 'January. Ohio Farm Bureau Co-op sends out news releases every week to all papers in the state. Of course. do not in themselves. 3. A third man put it this way. Unite Before It's Too Late This article. two or three pages of well written concise articles that can be lifted in toto by an editor of a mind to print such items. sends out news releases every week. Circle Pines Center is one of the significant cooperative developments in America. apologized for by its friends. to do preliminary clean-up work. the national magazine and the re gional papers for such news and then keep your eyes on the alert for the things in your own community that ought to be set down in black and type. management. other things being equal. send in articles of your activities as often as there is something worth reporting. Be brief and be certain that the article is well written. Here are some ideas that are being used to get news about cooperatives in the press. send news releases regularly. Many local co-ops have realized the value of getting news into print and regu larly write up accounts of interesting meet ings and happenings to send to their local papers. Co-ops should not overlook the possibilities. These persons may have a right Consumers' Cooperation of way with the local paper not open to an outsider. of course. Truly we have hid our light under a bushel. Compared to the clever and imag inative methods employed by competitive private business the co-ops are not even a voice crying in the wilderness. 4. It makes a reality of the belief that out of democractic action and creative group "re-creation" will grow the Good Life. set up to satisfy the need for family vacations at a cost available to working people. The season passed with people from a dozen states coming to learn that here was a camp operated by the people. a Rochdale cooperative that has purchased a 283 acre farm on Stewart Lake at Cloverdale. Cooperative leaders have "within their own hands" the power to make consumer cooperation a tremendous influence in the life of the country "in our time. In the face of a new year it is a good time to resolve that we are going to get our story before the public. This news service now goes to over 500 papers and writers. hand-to-mouth existence. There is hardly a single paper in a community with a co-op oil station that would not have carried an article on the CCA refinery and oil wells if properly presented. creeds. The Cooperative League of the U. local people can hand in personals with good results. spell efficiency. scorned and derided by its rivals. . world shaking cooperative events are in the making. It upholds our faith in the ultimate triumph of democracy. where elbows could be rubbed with people of all races.tion. Midland Co-op does the same thing. 5. education. not as a regular ser vice but whenever there is news of a na ture that might be accepted by the local press. Enthusiastic mem bers from several states are building this property into their ideal of a cooperative vacation camp and educational center. to coordi nate the management and operation of a strong. and stations of life. Use names of people concerned. Oak lumber taken from the wood land and the natural fieldstone from the property will be used for construction purposes. but the point is that co-ops in general haven't made a real effort to tell people about their commodities and their organi zation. Follow Consumers Coopera tion. would be the most powerful agency we can think of for the defense of America. From the viewpoint of recreation. Indications are that again the Friends' Service Committee (Quaker) will set up a work camp to assist in the building of the project." They also have the power to doom it to a piffling. From three states they came to cut wood. CIRCLE PINES CENTER HPO catch the spirit and significance of 1 Circle Pines Center in the space of a short column is an assignment too great for this writer.S.

000 a year premium income. c the costs of goods by eliminating one exti profit and increase efficiency by producinj at peak capacity for a known demand More important than these factors. Central States Cooperatives. Thei to assure a constant source of supply. co-ops in Indiana opened a $330.000-tona-day coal mine in Drummeheller. how ever. Indiana. During the year Minnesota and Wiscon sin cooperatives established Cooperative Insurance Services." Bt tween these three moves the co-ops secure enough oil to reopen the refinery. marking the first step on the part of co-ops in the Western Hemisphere into coal mining. drastically that the refinery had to shii down for lack of oil. established by the late Edward A. Two new-organizations. Nine hundred thousand farm ers were members of 2. were merged into a unit organ ization. Regina. Campbell Counsel of the Bituminous Coal Commi. Buying organizations are responsible for 17. Indiana. At its 12th Biennial Congress held in Chicago in October. 1941 the co-op label as the consumer coopera tives led the field in introducing govern ment ABC grade labeling. for a temporary supply of crude and protested to the Governor of Kansa on behalf of the 56. Cooperative insurance reported remark able progress. New York and a few southern states built five co-op fertilizer factories and in Ohio alone saved the farmers $700.000. the coop erative member may reasonably expect better quality.000 co-op mem bers and their friends took part in dedi cation ceremonies. Pennsyl vania. Already three coop erative banks or finance associations have been established by regional cooperatives. It is safe to say. Co-ops Move Into Production The big news of the year.000 patron-members. Filene. pro viding auto. Saskatche wan and Washington state were built or enlarged during the year. however. sion and previously secretary to the late Senator James Couzens. that the year was marked by a concerted drive toward cooperative production of goods distrib uted through cooperatives. that the ground work was laid for the eventual financial independence of the movement through the operation of cooperative finance asso ciations. Many new commodities were put under Consumers' Cooperatic January. reviewed their progress from a $10. Greater Organization Strength For The Cooperative League.000 business in 1926 to its present $10. Midland Co-op Wholesale and local cooperatives in those two states to coordinate the life and auto insurance program carried on by Cooperators Life and the Cooperative Insurance Mutual. the Southeastern Cooperative Education Association and Associated Cooperatives of Southern Cali fornia were admitted to membership in The League and since that time the Asso ciated Cooperatives of Northern Califor nia have applied for membership. The Farm Bureau Coop erative Insurance Services. the first c op oil refinery in the U. 25. A modern paint plant in Alliance. Chicago. 1940 was marked by a concerted drive for modernization of old stores and opening of new "kitchen clean" self-service coop eratives in the East and Middlewest. Rural Electric Cooperatives.S. In May. backed by Central Co operative Wholesale.000 on their fertilizer purchases. The cooperatives' accomplishment in reducing artificially maintained price lev els in fertilizer may be rated as a first evi dence of their power as American trust busters. made arrangement with friendly private oil companies. Al berta.000 consumer members in 11 states. moving into coal production. At the co-op congress steps were taken toward the creation of a National Coop erative Finance Association which will act as a financial clearing house for the co operative movement. By producing goods for use the coop eratives enlarge their field of service.000 co-op members L the state against the "squeeze play. 1940. the year marked the close of the first quarter cen tury of organized cooperative activity. making a scientific survey of the cooperative movement sent research men into 15 typi cal eastern cities to ask co-op members why they joined and maintained their loy alty to cooperatives. former Consumer's 10 Wallace J. that important steps were taken to modernize and stand ardize co-op food stores.000 refinery at Mt. Co operatives were aided in this venture by technical assistance from Consumer Dis tribution Corporation.2 per cent of all farm co-op business.649 associations. an $850. Wisconsin a new co op printing plant started its presses roll ing. fi whom the co-ops had been good cui tomers. Kansas. Ohio. During the 1939-1940 fiscal year cooperative purchases of farm supplies totaled $448. pur chased a substantial interest in a 1. Vernon. Feed and flour mills in Pennsylvania. The League's membership was reported as 1. "Coopera tives can be depended upon to tell the whole truth about merchandise. The movement into finance should give the cooperatives greater strength and fi nancial independence. of course. life and fire insurance for 380. Indiana and in July the Consumers Cooperative Refineries. Saskatchewan com pleted a modern quarter-million dollar re finery to supplement its other plant. John Carson. Cooperatives in Ohio. The first of January. was the very dramatic progress of the co operatives in producing goods for distrib ution through the retail and wholesale cc ops already established. Sales Management magazine.C." Next in importance co-op members rated "Even where there is no money saving. in July. Ten days later privai profit oil interests were responsible fo: cutting the co-op's source of crude oil.000.000. and that the democracy of the movement was made more effective by the expansion of the discussion group method of cooperative education. A dozen mills factories and refineries and a coal mire were built or purchased during the y and the world's first consumer cooperate oil wells began production. In Superior. is the fact that productive enterpris assures the cooperatives a constant ane dependable source of supply. th cooperatives bought an interest in an o lease and started drilling for oil. was chosen t head the office. During the year the Central States Cooperative League and The Cooperative Wholesale. By K year's end. began op erations. Wisconsin. set up with the assistance of long term loans from the Rural Electrification Administra tion were reported to be handling 92 per cent of the new develop11 . Inc. Central Coopera tive Wholesale at Superior. Eighty-eight per cent checked as vitally important. Early in May. Ohio was built to sup ply an already sizeable business in co-op paints. five co-op oil wells were i production — making a complete cycle distribution and production without profit.001 plant at Phillipsburg. Canadian co ops. Streamlining Grocery Distribution In the field of grocery distribution." Co-op Farm Supply Purchases Gain 23 Million Cooperative purchasing of farm sup plies j umped $23. Another milestone in The League's his tory was the opening of a Research and Information office in Washington.. This gives the Mid west co-ops a "food laboratory" to sup plement the work of the first co-op testing kitchen established two years ago by East ern Cooperative Wholesale in Brooklyn.000 to build additional pipe line into adjoining fields. Columbus.115.000—an all time high. Minnesota.000 ahead of its volume for the previous year according to statistics just released by the Farm Credit Administration.COOPERATIVE HIGHLIGHTS OF 1940 D URING the past year the pine trees have been growing so rapidly it is hard to see the forest. D. set up an architectural service for design ing new stores and opened a testing kitch en to check the quality of goods packed under the co-op label. But the co-ops vote $42. Wisconsin.

Benson Y. Paul. James Myers Cooperation Between Producers and Consumers. Walpersonnel. Mary E.250. Landis Among the new motion pictures on the cooperative movement completed during the year were: Consumers Serve Them selves. Oklahoma. At the end of the year more than 600 co-ops with 483. St. members of Amalgamated Cooperative Apartments in New York City voted to erect a new build ing consisting entirely of small apartments. Washington. Wisconsinr-jo^ion. Wtfradio news services carried stories on the consin. James P. Superior. Senator-elect George D. annuai meetings of cooperative Elk City. The average cost of a co-op burial was re ported to be $166 as compared with an average of $363 per burial in private profit mortuaries. George Russell (AE) The Story of Tompkinsville. made up of representatives o t jnation Thomas dependent o reatlon ln Cooperatives for the first time. while Midland and CCA ran shorMSpecial correspondents to cover it and courses. bringing their membership up to 2. Ohio Farm Bureau Co-ops ra Congress. Centr lfUblished during the year were the first States Cooperatives (Circle Pines Campitffo books published by The Cooperative and Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative A[ 'eague: Consumers' Cooperatio|jaiiuary> 1941 Cooperation and Nationality. year. terest in all sections of the country i More than sixty important magazines recreation.S. Frank Shilston All Join Hands. St.000 men American Farm Bureau Federation. Madison and Nova Scotia completed about a hundred new houses.wholesales took time to sing and folk versity of Georgia. Produced by the Harmon Foundation and The Cooperative League. candidates for presidential nomTraining. Arnold Other new books included: ABC of Cooperation. began to discover the values or advisory councils were in action at th of group play in building the cooperative close of the year. Aiken. in Highlight of Congress publicity was a promptu dramatics and folk dancing we: special broadcast over the Columbia made a part of the Cooperative Congra Broadcasting network immediately folprogram. the National adult education programs reaching an Grange. R. John Eastern Cooperative Wholesale. Oliver. Inspired by the results accom: Among the important national organplished by the Ohio Farm Bureau Co Jzations which gave or renewed their enoperative Association. Bowen and Murray D. the anlege and in the Texas Panhandle. Midland Co-o.C. the Farmers Union and the other 800 study clubs with 10. Bureau of Labor Statis tics. Bergengren Belgian Rural Cooperation. Warbasse Organized Labor and Consumer Co operation. akeady housing 638 families. The project. reported its most successfu lace. wvey anc[ Business Week published arthe National Cooperative Recreatio ades about the cooperative movement School reached a high of 125 studentij regional recreation conferences were con New Books and Pamphlets ducted by Midland Cooperative WhoL Among the new books on cooperatives sale. Chicago and Boston sent fall. Central Cooperative Whole Association.000.000 miles of power lines. book stores. in cooperatio. Consumer Distribution Corp. ^ork. Eastern Cooperative League and th American Federation of Labor. Bakken Credit Unions of North America.000 new co-op credit unions were organized during the year. Rochdale Institute. will thereby make its fourth addition since it was founded in 1927. Ross My Story by Paddy the Cope Manual for Cooperative Food Stores. the Uni.000 members were operating well over 200. and Traveling the Middle Way in Stceden. thus reflecting the growing ii lowing the Congress. movement were the National Education Wholesale. Robert Taft. Among the pamphlets published were: The Socialistic Trend As Affecting the Cooperative Movement. according to a study made by the U. Lincoln Report of the NBA Committee on Cooperatives New Plans for Medical Service. Institute. Evidence of this interest i from Readers Digest to New Republic to shown in many ways—the enrollment i t. testing kitchen and model store. Metropolitan newspapers in their first employee training school thijNew York. Among them rapidly increasing demand for traine were: Vice-president-elect Henry A. St. Burton K. Cooperative burial associations in five midwestern states served more than 30. E . Eastern Cooperative League. 13 . At the end of the year cooperative health associations were in operation in New York.000 fami way ot Melies were meeting regularly in thes' Cooperation in the Spotlight groups. fnual congress of the National Recreation Cooperative Education and Recreation 'Association had a special session on RecCooperative democracy . More than 8.000. Congress California cooperatives launched simil Of Industrial Organizations. Wheeler. Eva J. Bu reau of Cooperative Medicine What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions. Norman sumer Distribution Corporation and w Thomas and others. Gerald Rich ardson Cooperation to the Finnish. Dr.000 members through 40 societies. Paul. Maxwell Stewart Come On. a 6-reel movie in color. Greenbelt. laundry services.Congressmen Jerry Voorhis and James C with the Council for Cooperative Busine. At the year's end. eating clubs. Many bers. including a two-reel unit on Consumers Coopera tion in Su'eden. the Consumers Co1 dorsement of the consumer cooperative operative Association. produced by the Eastern Coopera tive Wholesale and Consumer Distribu tion Corporation describing the co-op wholesale.000 and boosting their capital to above $200. Almost 2. intensive cooperative education. In th ™d loxcal cooperatives from California to state of Ohio alone 667 discussion grout. Henry H. Other Cooperative Services Grow Cooperative housing associations in Minneapolis. Anthony Lehner Credit Unions. individuals in the field of political action Employee education. 12 Maryland. Washington State Col|dance as part of their program. The Pacific Coast League of Student Coopera tives and the Midwest Federation of Campus Co-ops increased their activity and worked in closer cooperation with the movement as a whole.. D. Central Co-op Wholesale ranjgress the major press associations and ten-week training school in Superior. Student co-ops on 160 campuses con tinued to expand—organizing new hous ing associations. More rural homes have been electrified by co-ops in the last five years than were supplied power by all agencies in the previous fifty years. credit unions and medi cal associations on their campuses. Federal Council of Churches. Cotj Bricker. Let's Play. spurred on by th endorsed the movement. The Peoples Banks.ment under the REA program. Roy F. A new Central League of Student Cooperatives including campus co-ops from North Dakota to Texas was formed during the annual meeting of CCA in North Kansas City in November. sale. Ellen Edwards and Jac Plauche A Manual on the Church and Coop eratives. graduated its sixth class o! During the Cooperative League Contrainees. I wrote feature stories on the Congress For the first time group singing. Youth camps and institutes wd several trade journals and other magazines run by half a dozen regionals. Louis.

Organized labor. He traces the creeping paralysis of stateism. Superior. by Harry Slattery. step by step. Dr. New York. Every sentence de serves mental parsing and close analysis. by Msgr. published by the author. N. opaque conditions here and abroad.. Midland Cooperative Whole sale and affiliated cooperatives. as lie phrases it. 1941 I Consumers All. not only in its idealistic aspects but also as a plain matter of dollars and cents.50 Credit Union North America. Madison. But. 15c. Then you will have a better idea of Cooperation as a practical ideal—not to be con fused with the reactionary theories of socialism that lead us away from democracy. Warbasse. 10<! Second Five Year Plan. New York. looking ahead. Rawe. 10<f New Plans of Medical Service. Bergengren.. And a good and challenging state ment to our friends in the labor movement it certainly is.J. Mo. Available through The Coop erative League. Minneapolis. the trade-unions have shown a keen understand ing of the business problems involved and.75 Rosscommon. New York. Development and Operation of Cooperative Hatcheries.50 Society in the Making. they jump from limb to limb and from tree to tree as one socialistic. Luigi G. North Kansas City. Bakken. Myers points out. This is a brochure to which only less thought must be put into the reading than the author has put into the writing. Harper & Bros. All this and more Dr. by John Chamberlain. by Donald F. Wash ington. Chicago.80 Consumer Representation in the New Deal...00 Making Consumer Education Effective. Its relation to the labor movement is described in terms that should be helpful to cooperators as well as to labor. Let us all there fore go forward together. Central Coopera tive Wholesale. New York. says Dr. as Dr. . Row. Wis. Stanford Educational Confer ence. Association Press. Bureau of Co operative Medicine. Ostergaard.. War basse may also be expecting the impossible from Cooperation—but as between some doc trine of crass materialism and the doctrine of the Golden Rule we must reject the former— always. Milwaukee. by Dr. Willett. Simon and Schuster." The severest critics of this contention will be those who have followed.25 Rural America Lights Up. Bruce Publishing Co. $2. Chatterjee. Myers. New York. 15 . Ross. by John W. Behind the Bricks and Mortar. as Dr. 15(S People Who Have Made a Difference. $1. $2. New York. Myers is careful to point out. .50 The Problem of Cooperative Medicine. Published by International Coopera tive Alliance. The book concludes on a note of challenge. D. believe the state must ever be doing more and more for its people. . by Max well Stewart. Ch XII. by Clarence E. the encroaching powers of the state in these rapidly recurring periods of depression.75 Do You Know Labor? by James Myers. two-fisted statement that "Cooperatio^ is the opposite of Socialism. Bruce Pub lishing Co. and this is Socialism in effect..New York. Published by The Cooperative League of the U. most recently. we have a definite. $2. has found one means of raising living standards. by Roy F.00 January. New York. 111.. New York. by Persia Campbell. Warbasse's latest. says the author. $1.00 Marketing Cooperatives. Associa tion Press. $4. by Joseph Gaer. the trade-union. As they expect miracles from the power of the state. $2. Myers points out in his plea to labor to join forces with American cooperators in our great self-help movement. Na tional Home Library Foundation. The labor movement in this coun try needs to know much more about the coop erative movement. by Anthony Lehner. by James Myers. Evanston. makes each dollar in the pay-envelope go further by giving us better merchandise at lower cost. dispassionate. as he points out.C. Like squir rels. $3.00 * * * LATEST PAMPHLETS RECEIVED Credit Unions: The People's Banks.. Labor gives lip-service to the idea of consumer co operation but as yet has shown little inclina tion to do more than talk about it. logical reason ing of the author. Friendship Press.00. This booklet is addressed not to cooperatives but to labor.. . if not in pure theory. II will stand it. At the same time. 40 pages. by Lutz. $2. Peterson and Co.C. Milwaukee. It needs to know it. by Robert L. Dr Warbasse remains constant.00 Getting A Living.50 Trails to the New America. Clark & Co. if you will. "if the organized consumers do not prevent it. by V.REVIEWS ORGANIZED LABOR AND CONSUMER COOPERA TION. 1940-194). Lippincott & Co. paper bound. without fear. ex periment "turns sour" for their ideals.00 Cooperation the Master Key in Universal Prob lems. Ginn & Co.S. Ohio. Blankertz. Group Life. The) believe that an expanding political state can save democracy. 25(S Tomorrow in the Making. by Eva J. * * * WITH SECTIONS ON COOPERATIVES Rural Roads to Security. WARREN METZGER THE SOCIALISTIC TREND As AFFECTING THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT. Columbia University Press. by Henry H. European cooperatives have adopted the policy of giving their cooperative employees better working conditions than are given their competitors in ordinary business. New York. renders a signal service to the Cooperative Movement in America. What is Midland? Midland Cooperative Whole sale. 10(S What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions. $1. from the dreary. Invitation to Labor. Another and very much more po tent device for expanding pay-envelopes lies ready at hand in the cooperative movement which. $1. the Scandinavian coun tries and. Co lumbia. Lovejoy." And thus we go. Harrisburg. Viking Press. (or Socialism in effect) and Coopera don. Consumers Cooperative Association.. Mo. Penn. $4. Stephens College. New York. Yellow Springs. Harcourt. or fascistic. Public Affairs Committee. The Cooperative Way. the device only skims the surface of the problem. labor and coopera tors alike. Missouri.00 So You're Going to College. Wis. Organization. $1. 15c." On this premise the Doctor builds an argument that will be hard to answer in as coolly logical manner. N. Kansas City. The Ronald Press. 167 West 12th Street. by M. The cooperative idea has shown amazing vi tality in this countiy in the last decade. Carrick & Evans.75 Problems of American Democracy. 50 $ Into Abundance.68 Introductory Sociology.. New York. sees more and more government ownership and dominatio:. New York. "the conflict of the future—between a growing stateism. Warbasse believes through Cooperation the people should be do ing more and more for themselves. Likewise in this growing conflict. All branches of labor support it. Myers stresses most in this connection no one will be likely to quarrel with him. Tereshtenko. Works Projects Administra tion. Sutherland and Julian Woodward. —T. Minneapolis and Milwaukee. New York City. The. and all its damage to democratic rights. Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n. $3. The cooperative movement is described from its humble beginnings among the Rochdale weavers (sweated workers every one of them) down to the amazing developments of the last few years in England. $1. LATEST BOOKS RECEIVED This brochure. New York. $2. National Home Library Foundation. Random House. wt accept the calm. For while men cannot live on bread alone they also cannot live without it. by Horace Kidger. Inc... as we cooperators know. Marsden. An drews and Carl A.. Dr. New York. And here will come. $1. 25(S Consumers Cooperation Under the Nazi Re gime. Once and for all.. J. Southern Publishers. If it is the practicality of our ideas that Dr. New York. Proceed ings.. Wait until you can read it in the crisp air and warm sunshine of clear thought. Consumers Cooperative Associa tion. toward totolitarianism.A. Simkhovitch. Macmillan Company. by Mary K. by John N. $2. New York. $1. If you can't di vorce yourself for the moment from the under- Consumers' Cooperation (Available through The Cooperative League) ON COOPERATIVES Cooperation to the Finnish. Minneapolis. by Soren K. by Ezra Young. here. Minn. Foote and Stanton. Minn. 32 pages.50 The City of Man. let us assume the role of missionaries and see to it' that this booklet gets everywhere into labor's hands. $3-25 The American Stakes. D. A Declaration on World De mocracy issued by Herbert Agar and others. Schulte Press. as a final challenge of our own. Washing ton. New York. S. $1. $1. It must be read in a sense of d" tachment. if you can't gain a broader vision than that of the moment—don't read it awhile. Published by The Cooperativt League of the USA. Her ring. Institute for Consumer Education. McGraw Hill. Dr. Indianapolis. 2nd National Conference. Ed. Brace & Co. by Lemuel Call Barnes. Warbasse doesn't. Ugutti and John C. $2. 1940 Yearbook. That device has proved highly effective in putting more dollars in the payenvelope of trade-unionists. Inc. by Jacob Baker. 14 And. James P.00 Leadership for Rural Life..00 Social Education. Mimir. Photographs. —DOROTHY KENYON Current of war hysteria.00 Belgian Rural Cooperation. Dr. Charles Alien Smart. Indiana Farm Bu reau Cooperative Association. by Dwight Sanderson. and is the one effective organized force to-day that is mov ing the world away from Socialism. Midland Cooperative Wholesale. New York. and. New York. New York. have been careful not to "kill the goose that lays the golden eggs" by exces sive demands.

..........02 !....... additional showings........' Consumer Cooperation... „ ........... 16 mu..75 1... .. produced by the Harmon Foundation' Unit I........... • <-... Edited by Alta May Calkins.... Trilling.....20 The Spider Web.« ... Hall and. dances........ Kenneth Gould.. EHis Cowling . Cooley .... 3-act play.........-........ 2 reels. It is excellent to use whenever cooperators get together.... ".... Building a Brave New World .. 2 reels......20 All Join Hands.......50 color and $1. 16 FILMS Traveling the Middle Way In Sweden. silent...10 f Leaflets to Aid You: Cooperatives—They Form a Gigantic Democratic Business..........000 Business With 2.........50. 16 mu. $1.. My Story. ....Co-ops Erbes.. "The Lord Helps Those —Who Help KM* Other. P..... 2 reels..........„) "When Miiiiklnil IN \VlllliiK. 9 00 AOO 1......... J2......... 05 .. Jacks 1..15 Education Through Recreation.... $4... songs..CO-OP SONG BOOK This song book..... Red-White-andBlue.......... Ohio........50 per week..." n 10 mm... Cooperative Recreation. Peace. his co-ops3 in Japan............. „ Let's Play................ Fnrrn.' A gricultural Cooperatives....50 per day. Cox. two spinning games. Richard Giles....25 on .. Learn About Consumers Cooperation Sure Way is the Quick Way . con tains a selection of old American tunes. blart add! tional color' Bhowings> $2. Heyliger .on-A Way „..... son.. Kental: Each of four above $3 per day.." 1(! mm.. TT ....„ ....2« ..... The Consumers Cooperative as a Dlstrlbutlve Agency... Pathfinder ....... two reel filiL.. ........ High school and college.. Printers' iuk ....15 The Answer........ Watkms..... black and white. $f> per week..° r°* ** ....2(1 Stimulate Consumption Instead of Subsidizing Scarcity Cooperatives and Character Building Dr........-« .. Cooperat...... . William Moore ...... „ *................ Kodacrome. Orrin Shipe February 1941 I ..000..... ames.. Answering Your Questions About the Co-operative ..... ....25 _ .................' Bertram"BTFowIer !o3 Campus Co-ops.. • Textbooks on Cooperation „„ „... 19"x28" Bfue_ 5 for $1 . By and For the People.. J......w • Student Cooperatives American Students and the Cooperative Movement 02 Co-ops on the'Campus........ .................. Play ...... -...." a new 2UI reel...... Burley .... available from Cooperative Recreation ervice.. $2 peri day... .. 19"x28" Mulberry.000............ Unit in. Co-ops in Ireland . by Paddy the Cope.... silent film on the Amalgamated! Cooperative Houses in New York City.................. Eberhart and Nicholas............... high school text..... 1 Saw a People Rising From the Dead..............„. 19"x28"......—..000 Customers...... ... 19"x28"... A Kagawa Day wlth reel................ „... $3. 05 ... What Cooperation Means to a De pression Sick America..... Warbasse......ced by the Harmon Foundation' Excellent photography.. 5 for $1 ...... Bowman From Consumer to Crude—Cooperation All the Way Ten Things Which Cooperatives Should Do Under War Time Conditions Here's an Idea Jack McLanahan Cooperative Recreation Notes Ellen Edwards What We Ought to Know About Credit Unions: A Review J....00 d.. Co-op Edition ... Frank Shilston ... ...... special edition .. J................*.... patriotic songs.......... and European and American folk songs. and white. Michael Shadid...2« ...... silent. one chapter on cooperatives ... S. A $600..... I "A H»«He Without » Landlord.... sileu S^S ^es^a.. it is published by the Cooperative Recreation Service and available through the Cooperative League for lOc.. Windows on the World.50 • CarHifrativf Rrrreati™ • cooperative Kecreation The Consumer Josephine Johnson....... 5 for $1 ...50 2.2S. $13...... film of the NOTI. two chapters on consumer cooperatives ................ LeRoy E.................. ........ Land of Sweden. Carl Hutchinson... Ellis Cowling ..... . shows how cooperators on tte eastern seaboard are providing themselv*. Union of Church and Economics is Dramatized Kapid Progress........ showing how cooperation is taught in tlii schools of France................. What Attracts Members to the Co operative Store Movement ... "ClaHpliiR IliiiulM.......... . Edwards and Plauchfi .—...asH.. L.... quality CO-OP products. • Burns Rnrris Jenkms Tonkins (Special) ^np^inn iresh The Brave Years: Wm.. —————————— CO-OP LITERATURE ^ Novels and Biography UVi-sli fturron............... Buy Co-op......*» . which was prepared for use at the Cooperative Congress..^'^^^ Frani-e. T ......05 Two One Act Plays.......... songs of social meaning... The Burden of Credit .00 3............ .......... How a Consumers Cooperative Difers From Ordinary Business ............. 16 Mini.. Fun for All... ....... Orin E..... Negro spirituals. Cooperative Principles. „ ............................... Delaware... .. Harold Fey .„.. Scotla' a<jult education and cooperative pro gmln 1>ro<J.......... Unit II.. Rev. a PuppetConsumed. 16 mn andKaKawu.......... ....... 5 for $1 . Debate Handbook When You Buy. Printers Ink Monthly ... 19"x28" „ tjreen... TT .... silent......... Ellis Cowling ..80 3..................... Midland Co-op Wholesale ...... 16 mm.... reprinted from The Annals . T............ Red-White-and-BIue........ with tested.... 05 Cooperatives and Peace Cooperatives and Peace. „ .. .. | _. Consumer Ownership—Of......50 for each additional showing or $10 per week.. Cooperative Ownership....90 1.......... A Doctor for the People.....20 f Consumers' Cooperation! NATIONAL MAGA7INE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS' ..... P...... Consumers Serve Themselves..... 1 reel................ ... 1'. Rental pei| u"lt: $5 .. Kn-Trfhnt wPe rtah *' ...50 List of recreational materials.... . ..." a new 3 reel. Official British lextbook ..-r t.. Organize Cooperatives........... Ignatius W...... 3-act play............. Heveal Jr...« • • Cooperation.....

Associated Cooperatives. City. C. Wisconsin The Bridge Volume XXVII. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing." The evidence of success is here. Penn. The Cooperative Reporter. Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative News Seattle. DIVISIONS: Auditing Bureau. Cal. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. A cooperative store has the precious ingredient of business which no An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Pacific N. 1879.| operation will be a special number. in voluntary association. 111. Paul. 16 St. 167 West 12th St.Y. Minn. Readers Observer Consumers Book Cooperative 116 E. Kansas City. Y. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis. N. 84th St. Michigan Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Herald St. Y. Y. 167 West 12 St. Price $1. Bowen. Co-op Review Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop.. to find an association that does not have to be almost driven to subscribe to the wider ideals of the cooperative movement. late president of the Cooperative Wholesale Society of England. December 19. N. dipping into the past and laying out a partial ! blueprint for the future. Ind. under the Act of March 3. "Instead of searching for facts in their field. Y. Texas The Producer-Consumer Consumers' Cooperatives Associated 27 Coenties Slip. N. N. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. We urge you to place your order n ow for extra copies of the March issue* or for subscriptions to Consumers' Cooperation. Y. 1790 Broadway. with a view to extending the range of their services as quickly as possible. Cooperate Pacific Supply Cooperative Penn. Georgia Southeastern Coop. 1917.. . Y. Y. Ind. Association Indianapolis.. COOPERATION OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE -PLENTY • DEMOCRACY Mail your order to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street.." As America turns into a new period of its economic history. it seems.S. Minn. Wisconsin Cooperative Builder Central Cooperative Wholesale 2301 S. Education Ass'n Indianapolis. Margins in farm supply lines into which the cooperative movement has entered are declining as a result of cooperative competi tion. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins.. Cooperative Consumer Consumers Cooperative Association Amarillo. C. New York City 726 Jackson Place N. It is necessary to broaden the base of cooperatives with home supply lines to insure economic success for the future. N. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Name Address Publication 372—40th St. Washington Grange Cooperative Wholesale Hoosier Farmer Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. for the farm. Chicago The Round Table Central States Cooperatives. by looking back over a quarter of a century of organized Cooperative education and looking forward to the job of post-war reconstruction. Southeastern Cooperator Carrollton. Rochdale Institute.. R. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Ohio Farm Bureau News Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co Columbus. Wash. The bogy of chain store efficiency is cracked. C. Entered as Seecond Class Matter.. No. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. Campbell.A. N. Cal. So. United Cooperatives. that feeding human stomachs cooperatively is more important than feeding animal and tractor stomachs cooperatively? The consumer need is here. 167 West 12 St. 1941 Ten Cents GET GROCERY MINDED! When will every cooperative leader answer the expressed and unexpressed demand of the members to get into groceries? When will we all answer the chal lenge of Sir William Dudley. National Cooperatives. 227 E.W. Society Associated Cooperatives. Medical Bureau. Inc. New York City THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn.1i 25 YEARS OF COOPERATION f CONSUMERS' On March 18th the Cooperative League will celebrate its 25th birthday. Associate Editor. 167 West 12 St. N. Inc. New Age Living Los Angeles Superior. C. Wallace J. N. N. challenges leaders to lead out in these words. 2 FEBRUARY. Ohio The Recreation Kit Cooperative Recreation Service 135 Kent Ave. Design Service. 608 South Dearborn.. 5 71/2%. Inc. Oakland Cooportunity 7 218 S. Millard. i In recognition of this 25th Anniversary. Consumers Defender Cooperative Distributors Delaware.. Chicago National Cooperative Women's Guild Walla Walla. Washington.C.. 27 months for $2. Fortune magazine gave these figures for one year of the distribution of farmer purchases: for the farmer. $1 per year. published by the Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. Hoover St. Midland Cooperative Wholesale Chicago. Market basket test pur chases show that cooperative stores can and do equal chain store prices and give higher quality. The statistics show that even farmers buy more food than any other commodity. FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Madison. Mo.00 a year. N. the March issue of Consumers' Co. the Cooperative Movement is destined to an important position of leadership. Editor. whereby the people. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative League 135 Kent Ave. The economic requirement is here.. Ass'n Harrisburg. The Harvard study proved that even in their early stages cooperative stores have been able to equal chain stores in percentage of expense. N. E.W.. "Nothing is so powerful as an idea whose time has come. Y. It is the exception and not the rule. The member demand is here. at the Post Office at New York. D. Bklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Ohio Farm Bureau News Columbus. Chicago 167 West 12th Street. C. cooperatives are inclined to hold back until forced by an impatient minority to take some forward step..

from unselfishness. In the meantime. made up of "weasel" words. But no free government can do it and continue to be free. Finance started the scarcity program by high interest rates. It is these that furnish the most fruitful basis for consideration. Only then can we have plenty— 18 never so long as we permit finance and industry to be owned by a few middle men for their own profits. First and of greatest significance is the question: is character building essentially a function of consumers' cooperation? To maintain that the movement is a business and the job of building charac ter belongs to other agencies. LeRoy E.F. a brief survey of the movement may reveal limitations which should be stim uli to efforts to supplement its operation. unless and until a cooperative economic democracy is built alongside them. Kansas City. even the essential identity. 1941 Dr. our institutions perfect. nor con ducive to harmonious thinking. by opening a modern food-store at Rome. Government is made up of citizens. the government should base its relief program for all groups on the principle of stimulating consumption instead of restricting pro duction. because I do not be lieve definition important here. but parity of scarcity. I shall not Consumers' Cooperation February. To separate business methods from goodness. Either a brighter democratic age or a darker dictatorial age is ahead of us. until these voluntary democratic producers and consumers cooperatives can take over. therefore. Speed the organization of farmers marketing cooperatives and labor unions! Speed the organization of consumers cooperatives in every field of industry and finance! This is the road to plenty. It may be well to admit. When Henry A. We must build an automatic method of mass distribution to match our automatic machines of mass produc tion. and in order to know where we should im prove. A whenever one speaks of an organiza tion with which he is identified. instead of continuing to borrow the excess savings away and paying interest on them. Agriculture then followed in line by reducing production. Economics is made up of pro ducers and consumers. educational and political democracy will never be retained in Amer ica and still further developed. Other regionals should "do likewise. We have reached the age of producer groupism. of the loyalty of consumer ownership which results in mass automatic distribution to equal modern automatic production. is to pre clude any real opportunity to build char acter. It's high time for the government to encourage consumption rather than reducing production. Now the Great G. Industry fol lowed by high prices. inheritances and profits is the most important function the government could perform to stimulate con sumption. will meet across the table and bargain with themselves. The two greatest mistakes in government policy in recent years are in encouraging price fixing at higher levels and in borrowing instead of taxing. can control economic producers in a free society. N. and we are the ones who will decide which it will be in America. Consumers (who are the same farmers and workers) must become the owners of finance and industry. It could not do otherwise. All too slowly are cooperatives going into groceries. as well as animal feed. We must take off the brakes and dig out the sand in the gears by which profits slow up production. Y. We must accept the possibilities of power production to provide plenty for all. nor can economics control government. and labor and agriculture increasingly lose out. not political citizens. is starting to answer the unexpressed and expressed demand of their members for cooperatively purchased and processed food. then the end is Statism. Finance. Scarcity policies result in scarcity production. of Ithaca." In time of war or preparation for war this temptation is stronger. went to Washington eight years ago he said that the government was going to take hold of the heads of this four horse producer team and keep them in line. It's time to act now! Why should not urban cooperatives be formed more rapidly where none exist and follow the proven methods and achieve the possible results which others are doing ? Superior has pioneered the way. Our country is the best in the world. Bowman attempt to define it. industry. but it is still the same old battle with the same old results. N. There may be gaps in the practices of coopera tives that should be filled by adoption of other or changed practices. to make every effort to reduce consumers prices and second. We must release our power machines from the hands of finance-capital which operates them to produce profits for the few and poverty for the many. that while there are many ways in which cooperation builds char acter. Means and ends are always the same. labor and agriculture are fighting out a battle as groups instead of individuals. our Vice-President. Pro ducers are basically farmers and workers. Taxation of excess incomes. We should be objective and criti cal of ourselves. Y. at the outset.L. The two things most necessary are. Then represen tatives of farmers and workers. Now all four great producer groups are following a scarcity instead of an abundance program. it is in the direct connection. Nothing happens to the character of those people who only in home. Only economic con sumers. or church. Government cannot control economics in a free society. For. to find in it the elements of virtue and to assume that competing or parallel organizations are "not so good. cooperators should be on their guard right now not "to claim virtue for coop eration merely because it is their organ ization. of practical day by day affairs and ethical considera tions that character depends. The basic trouble in America is that consumers have not recognized their potential power and organized to deal directly with the producer groups. Wallace." Religious. Midland. by other activities that will round out its character forming potentialities. Labor followed by immigration quotas and other restrictions. or school are instructed to deal justly with their fellowmen. as it has largely done thus far. Chicago and Brooklyn have followed. It may have been true in by19 li . and from ideals. And with what result? Not parity of plenty. There are several generally accepted attributes of human beings which are affected di rectly and vitally by cooperative prac tices. COOPERATIVES AND CHARACTER BUILDING ""THERE is always the temptation. If citizens attempt to take control of producer groups. Character grows in exercise of important functions. first.chain store can ever achieve. to tax away the excess savings from the few. This is the next and final step for democracy. Finance and industry continue to increase their percentage of ownership. in order to know the truth which is in itself a satisfaction. •* 1 STIMULATE CONSUMPTION INSTEAD OF SUBSIDIZING SCARCITY We must turn our faces toward abundance. Why should not every farm supply cooperative appoint a committee to investigate the addition of home supplies to their lines. not plenty. What Is Character Building? "Character building" is a loose phrase. and who regard busi ness transactions outside the moral realm. is to rele gate these flowers of the human spirit to the vacuum of abstract considerations. Hence. organized as producers and consumers.

becomes entrenched. too. There to the members the amount of democraq that the advocates of the cooperative is a social. all ccoperators should be ruthless in telling the truth about the degree of democracy they possess. Sometimes the leader sacrifices much and is rewarded little. it detracts from character. Practically there are but two conclusions to come to: (1) to build character. however. The farmer cooperators and the town cooperators hardFebruary. however. I speak of middle-class cooperatives which are suc cessful and satisfied. are these mem bers responding merely to the opportuni ty to get things more cheaply than from competitive enterprises. it is of the essence of cooperative business. Weed Out Prejudice There are cooperatives in which one kind of people predominate. | It is actually teaching them to want the truth. In face to face contact one was just or unjust. hard facts about cosmetics. a business transaction that seems impersonal may be. Here. political persuasions. several questions present themselves. is to be untrue to the highest challenge of the movement. the usual development of a local cooperative (which I am not ad versely criticizing here). But are we? Do we believe in this principle? To answer one can say without fear of contradiction that the effect of cooperative experience is broadening. Is There Morality in Buying Cheaper? In the matter of grading and labeling. is it ethical to deflate their expansive expectations and make them conscious of the cold. whereas the community contains many other kinds who would profit from membership even more than those who belong. than individual attitudes toward individuals. no matter what type of business we may be in. The emphasis has been rightly on "one-manone-vote. but also a smugness that is bad. to say nothing about coop erating in the big venture. the effort has come from the leaders in the movement. take away many of the incen that cooperative education is carried to tives of cheating and exploitation. But. and lack of ini tiative on the part of those who might become more important leaders. The rela tionship of leader and group is contrac tual in nature. Those who are Does Cooperation Foster Honesty? solely or chiefly motivated by the latter The principles of cooperative organ desire surely are not being bettered ethi ization and control. The usual dis Learn to Demand Democracy Do the leaders in the cooperatives give honesty of advertising fails to have any purpose in a cooperative enterprise. Nevertheless the inescapable fact remains that the cooperative movement is given more credit for democratic organization than it deserves. How incon sistent and destructive of its own aim would be a system of production and dis tribution that ignored or destroyed char acter building in its own operations. beginning with a few and spreading to their friends. fearful. to that extent the prin members own the business obviously it ciples and practices of the movement hast is to their own interests to tell all the an uplifting influence on the members. We are all one family. Double-Edged Sword of Leadership Is the cooperative movement rigidly honest in one other particular. not to say in the world. One of our essential principles concerns neutrality. too. It is in the realm of consumption that life is enjoyed or suffered. and shuts off the chance of others in the local group there is surely going to be resentment. 1941 ly understand each other in some essen tial points. Much more might be said in high control as the statement of our prin gone days that personal relations were the important channels of ethics. Furthermore. unselfishness and even patriotism. The awful thought pops up. The first is: do consumers want to know the truth ? Are not some of them better satisfied. the question is not one of satisfying the consumer demands in the matter of com modities alone. Further. the welfare of us all depends on the business transacted in the country as a whole. The fact is the modern world demands a positive reach ing across racial and other barriers in economic relations that is inadequately furnished by local cooperatives.praise of cooperatives as a wholesome chan nel of business relations between equals. is quite often conducive of a closeness of understanding that is fine. it is building character. But today. Lately I have heard. if carried out con cally by "buying co-op. Such a situation is stultifying. that is get more of what they want for their money. The whole effort at grading and labeling is as much character build ing as it is a business effort to satisfy demands from cooperative consumers. and (2) building character in cooperators in any given enterprise is necessary in the sense of using every means constantly to make the organiza tion democratic. no. on the other hand. And pretending is not building character. and usu ally is. democratic flavor to a coop erative that fosters a spirit of loyalty and movement say they do? Do the members demand and practice as much democrats fair play among the members. Character building is no side line to the aims and operations of a cooperative. after it has all been said. and to what extent. while workers are being exploited in another part of town. To try once and sit back defeated because the members in other organizations have become habituated to the goose step. It is educating them. Virtue consists in doing the things which in their results bring most good to most people. human kindness. even though money never is mentioned." To the extent sistently. and in the other social group ings where consumption is on a less phy sical basis." but there needs to be a much more conscious and concerted effort to think through the problem of leadership. If a leader or a manager stays too long. But we are not free of preju dice. even fellowship. are part of the area of con sumption). I would like to dig deeper. truth about the quality of goods or ser vices they sell themselves. that we are not as neutral as we pretend. races. and it is: to what extent are the prin ciples of cooperation the appeal to mem bers of local cooperatives. if they are told in glam orous advertisements of glories that ac tually do not reside in the articles they purchase? If there are consumers of that kind. all faiths. cooperative business interests are to be served by the extension of group consciousness in cooperative members. It is easy to see that virtue and its opposite are of first importance in the family where we consume the elementals. And the effect on char acter of getting more praise than is due is negative. altho they vary greatly. Some leaders are not growing 21 . Perhaps that is the way it must come. If the each member. Therefore. It is primarily an ethical one. appreciation of common interests. Character building is needed in the extension of understand ing. fraught with more significance of virtue. tolerance. We run co operative businesses in order to consume goods and services and social contacts (for they. it takes time for democracy to develop in any group. 20 Consumers' Cooperation ciples would indicate? The answer is ob vious: in most cooperatives. of cooperatives. for example? The answer is that in this respect the cooperative move ment is not merely giving to consumers just what they want. It is not nec essary to give in any greater detail what a moments' critical thought will bring to the mind of any competent observer about smugness and prejudice within co operatives. Sometimes a leader. That much could be taken for grant ed. Usually in the long view. that of the reward given the leader? This is a two-edged sword. even in the coopera tive movement. But it raises the next question as to character building. In other words. if we are improving we can not be criticized too severely. without great sur prise. not character building. we produce and exchange in order to live the best lives possible in the realms where character counts most. suspicious and exclusive in the attitude of their members toward Jews. and in so doing.

a chance to show ability for many who are silent in meet ings—these and other emotional responses are stirred. it is already melting in this early stage some of the finest metal of our democratic ideals: But we could give co22 operation the place it deserves and build for the day when normal relations again must be established. Usually the meeting can be hu manized a great deal. The important points in any meeting should be few. interesting give-and-take between people. Instead of a long and dry presentation of figures or a set of facts. that helps spread things and ser vices to those who need them. We need to change our lives that they may count for the things) that are important. One human proclivity organizations learn to use to connect members with the Does Cooperation Affect the Human organization is the universal desire to eat. even a bit of romance for some. A prominent organizer and educator replies to the question: what is needed most to get cooperators back of their or ganizations. The exhibitionism of most leaders is insatiable. It is easy. the effects on people. These are days that demand courage. Cooperators are taking their or ganization too casually. We should be relating what we do to the crisis we are in. a square dance. If they could be gotten across to all the audience it would lift the interest in almost every organization. or an original song. In substance I am saying that coopera tors cannot now live up to the demands on them from the times in which we live unless they do two things. The deepest feelings and the universal appreciations have been the best impulses of artists to create in song. we should be single in our ef forts. not just being dominated. these and other things for which Ameri cans organize hundreds of good but in-| effective organizations that clutter ur communities. It is too often a store when' it should be a community force driving ati the establishment of a dynamic democ racy in the face of totalitarian threats. as well as widely distributed. and the facts and figures brought in to feed this give-andtake. the finest formulations of the spirit. per haps all. is necessary. To take advantage of thest a meeting. than a meeting wholly devoted to reports and speeches. we should be devoted. It adds to such appreciation. interested^ prelude to an important development in in each other. if ever spect that competitive business fails most' cooperation builds character. too. culture. but how he relates his acts and himself to others. The second is to concentrate our social. recreation. rather than the words we hear. In our movement we have the form. Not to do so in the light of what is happening in America and in Europe may mean that they will be changed for us. the social. Even the wise old timers have gain a hold on its members. the creative. a poem said in unison. it always works. Everyone open practically all the avenues of ap. or congreConsumers' Cooperation February. It is for this reason that coop eration must include expressions of the kind mentioned if it is attempting to affect at all deeply the individuals who form its membership. or a graph of any kind. Graphic material is social. na tional vision. and all the! say that a feeling of equality and uni opportunities of associating the membeiJ versal. At a din To the cooperative on the other hand isi ner everyone is served the same. Is the Social Drive of Cooperation Intense Enough? Ethical evaluation of a person can be made not alone by seeing what he is. of an object that is common for discussion. sculpture. Today cooperation faces the greatest responsibility it has ever seen in this country. or to extend cooperation driven closer into their in its influence widely and permanently. held up before a crowd gives a feeling of oneness. discussion could be induced among all the members as to what they want in the matter in hand. Side of People or Just Do Business? To eat together is not pampering the dis For any organization or institution to interested. in its national significance. all the people it affects. After there has been a feeling of common response. it most selves by a meeting at a meal than is necessary that the organization relate. or a diagram. use more people. interest more of the audience and go deeper into the feel ings. that teaches an understanding of the whole economic process that has been stretched out and specialized beyond the imagination of 95% of those it serves. social or aesthetic expressions than by mere talk. drama. 23 . i I am urging less devotion to inconse-J quential organizations. daring. discussion. it is enjoyable. One of the two or three is the cooperative. these should be built into the movement. initiative. dances. that returns its benefits to the many consumers and not the few owners. dance. preciation of economic advantages of co operation. They could listen to them selves make speeches forever and think the world was being led onward and up ward so long as they talk. of something they all can look at together. Give-and-take should be the ideal. contacts and our dispersed activities ici two or three rather than a score of organ I izations. Many if not most people. that trains individuals in democ racy. by the same meeting in straight back itself closely to human or social drives ofi chairs in rows. Perhaps it is wise to say that universal response on a basis of equality is the essential condition to be achieved before character can be built. Sociability. in prose or in poetry. It is in this re-j Is this character building? It is. cooperation is of vital mo ment—NOW! We can't stop war per haps. For them to take the place of beauty in our lives that they deserve it will be necessary that they be formulated out of living experiences involving thought and feeling of us all. by saying: (1) Get people waked up. 1941 gational reading. painting. then the individuals will more freely take the ini tiative in discussion. are stirred more deeply by active. We should be intense. spread the leadership. We should be showing that in the philosophy. in games. and the expressive response. (2) Get them working to gether. So. a Punch and Judy illustration might be more effective. but discussed by every man. and more to co-| operation. The reason is that a chart. Every one will get the satisfaction of others responding to him. There is more development of cooperative character in them and surely in the membership when speeches are few and short. Many will think immediately of the meeting. believe it or not. maybe a picture. woman and child in the movement. active response is the best possible as active. dra matics. interacting persons. singing of wellknown songs. To do so takes cour age. for it is con completely and makes its most farcical structed out of the responses we make efforts to remedy its defect. responds. For this reason community opportunities in no sense lessens the ap singing is often resorted to. that stabilizes business in a world in which crazy depressions follow cock-eyed peri ods of prosperity. and when discussion is led well and is participated in generally. he will be recognized by simply taking part. with scientific charts and research experts. For their inner ethical development often times a change. Creation— Even a Dash of Romance In the active. in committee activity or in work in the business. there will be a play of many of the wishes of people. Friendliness. It is impossible to build character except through vital. Noth ing could be better then than an active game. the logic. It is the one unquestioned an swer to the need for a business system that is sound. even a disappointing one. the economic results. Action. with a movement. One is to have! the bearing of cooperation on national economics and national politics explained and discussed. Everybody will count as one. in short. Any experienced leader will proach to people as humans. A character in their position any longer. the economic interest.

transportation. Practical re sults alone should determine the answer. etc. We also add. 1938 the organization of a cooperative trucking service hauling from refinery to wholesale and retail cooperatives.. "I would like to exile the man who would set limits to what we can do. the immediate necessity is to grow large enough in every line to become an effective yardstick. COOPERATION ALL THE WAY FROM CONSUMER TO CRUDE . who knows? There should be no theoretical limit. Why set any limit? Let time and not theory determine. A prominent cooperative leader said recently in an executive session that cooperatives should perform the maximum number of practical operations on a commodity. At kst it can be said in America. 'Thus far can we go and no farther. marking out some petty enterprise as the limit. in warehousing. The commodities into which cooperatives enter should be decided upon only after careful research into margins. 1940 the drilling of the cooperative oil wells. But the consumer story must be told in reverse—the steps were from (1) retailing to (2) trucking to (3) refining to (4) pipe-lining to (5) production. The widest margin and simplest and bulkiest form of consumption commodities should be the first. in processing. He illustrated this in farm products by discussing the possible savings from the producer to the consumer in marketing. Who can say where the limit should be? Of course. of this true far-reaching event. in distribution. We feel like George Russell. How much of the total volume shall cooperatives do.. . Even now many cooperators and others are only beginning to grasp the significance .. But then? Well. in transportation. that while a hundred years of history show that consumers can go all the way cooperatively in the distribution. We hasten to say. 1940 the flow of crude in a cooperatively owned pipe line. the consumers cooperative movement has gone all the way—from raw material production. that producers generally fail in the long run when they try to go all the way to the consumer in agricultural commodities—they must let the consumer come and meet them part way. who would take the crown and sceptre from the human will and say.. I N THE saga of cooperative history in America it will be recorded that Con sumers Cooperative Association of North Kansas City pioneered the road in petroleum products all the way from consumer to crude. R E T A I I I N C P I PI N C 24 Consumers' Cooperation. when someone says the cooperative movement should only do some certain per centage. The moral of the story we started out to tell is—now we will in time have a yardstick of costs all the way in petroleum products from crude production to petroleum consumption—the end results of which are beyond comprehension today. 1940 the starting of the cooperative refinery. the organization of the cooperative wholesale owned by retail cooperatives which in turn were owned by consumers. is constantly asked. in containers. lest there be unwise conclusions drawn. the same hundred years show that consumers largely fail when they try to go all the way in agricultural commodities—agricultural producers must come part way and meet the' consumers to achieve the greatest success in lower prices for consumers and higher pay for producers. What this will mean in the long future as others follow down the same road is scarcely imaginable. to make the record complete and accurate. h February. to trucking to retail cooperatives. processing and production of industrial com modities. to processing." In Finland cooperative distribution has reached 36% and has been gradually absorbing private-profit business at the rate of 1% per year. and here shall our life be stayed'. The log of the CCA cooperative ship records the following dates: 1929. This was the great decision that transformed the cooperative purchasing movement from failure to success when it entered into feed and fertilizer and petroleum products after the war. 1941 25 I . to transportation to the processing plant. to retail distribution to consumer members.

.. A coopera tive is alive only when it is growing. You realize that a form letter must ring the bell. Cooperatives cannot go wrong in following them at all times.... Have you told us how we might make your store better. A coopera tive business institution should not endeavor to be also a credit institv tion. And surely the inequalities among the people in our own com munity must cause suffering to one who is preaching the Christian faith. 10. Decrease Expenses. Dear Minister: As times grow harder and the world is torn by war.. The store manager will be glad to February. However... Dear Union Member: The national labor organizations have officially en dorsed the consumer cooperative move ment and encouraged union members to support the movement... A large per centage of the savings made by a co operative should be retained. along comes the occasion when it is your responsibility to turn out such a letter. Churches everywhere are begin ning to realize the necessity of sup porting some movement.. And the best news of all is the fact that there is a real co operative food store in. Decrease Investments. and make it all that you wish it to be? .. Come down to the store and look around. 1941 jack help you and to answer questions you have. Efficient op eration requires a constant increas ingly rapid turnover of inventories or a reduction in percentage to vol ume. Economy in op erations is not a matter of under payment of employees. You 27 . and then should continue to be increased still further to provide for the financing of additional new services.. rather than paid out in patronage returns.. members should educate themselves to save and put their budgets on a cash basis as rapidly as possible..... . 2.. After several hours. Care should be exercised in making additional investments in facilities at excessive ly high prices to prevent later heavy depreciation... Increases in inventory values should be set up as reserves against possible future declines. you come up with a letter... Increased edu cation of both present and prospec tive members is necessary to build strong cooperatives.. but it is not checked against experience. . There is no other investment equally as sound today as investment in a cooperative. . Increase Reserves. you could just use the one that seemed to meet your needs. they apply—war or no war. but of elim ination of waste and unnecessary ex penses and the increased efficiency of everyone's efforts. New services should be added as rapidly as pos sible. .. Consumers' Cooperation HERE'S AN IDEA — ON FORM LETTERS H AS it ever been your job to sit down and try to write out a form letter? Sooner or later every co-op makes use of them. when it is your turn to draw up such a letter.. .... J While these recommendations are urged | for war-time conditions. There is already a cooperative store organ ized on the Rochdale principles in .. Decrease Receivables. and other coun tries found that they could benefit by owning their own businesses. No cooperative is fully free so long as it is in debt. Wouldn't it be a good idea to make a collection of form letters you know have been successful. with every employee and every member soliciting new members as they meet them. .. Membership drives should not only be put on at periodic times.. Where credit is necessary it should be provided by a separate co operative credit association... The capital of a cooperative should be increased until the cooperative is out of debt and the members are full owners. If every stock holder will make it his business to buy at least one-half of his grocery needs at his own store.. . we all wonder just what may be a solution to it all.. You can only hope it will do the job. Increase Capital. your local Coopera tive is an integral part of a better fu ture—help it grow! Dear Housewife: Isn't it confusing to try to decide what brand or label of canned goods to take from among the many different kinds in a modern gro cery store? How is the consumer to know what is inside the can ? .. Below are listed excerpts taken from successful form letters: Dear School Teacher: We are taking the liberty of sending you the enclosed literature on Consumers' Cooperation... Increase Services. To New Members: We wish to wel come you as a new member of our Cooperative Association and we hope that you will not only enjoy the prod ucts in our store.. 6... both in order to better serve the mem bers. Announcing an annual meeting: An other year has come and with it many problems that need our attention. .. You sit down to make a draft. They may be retained in the form of general reserves to provide against emergencies. Now.. 8..TEN THINGS WHICH COOPERATIVES SHOULD DO UNDER WAR-TIME CONDITIONS 1. after thorough investigation. You scratch your head. try to remember a point here and there that you thought was good. 7. Decrease Inventories. One per cent of the volume of a local cooperative is recommended by the Directors of The 26 Cooperative League for education and recreation. Increase Education. In view of the interest in and support of this movement by the National Ed ucation Association we believe you will find the subject of interest... Then... The Swedes say that cooperatives should neither give nor accept credit. 9. ....S.. The best way to provide the necessary funds is to ap propriate a definite percentage of volume monthly as a part of current operating expenses. It may be good.. 5. and as patrons equity re serves to more rapidly supply addi tional capital. Such letters make it possible to handle many situations quickly and easily and there is a clear cut place for them in publicity and edu cational work. They bought feed and fertilizer together to save money. Increase Membership.. Decrease Payables.. . .. Why not drop in some time soon to see what the people are actually doing for themselves? Dear Farmer: A long time ago the farmers in the U... . . Now is the time to begin working for prac tical social ideals.. and also to offset the constantly reducing margins on the older lines handled.. . perhaps late into the early morning. go over all the past experiences you've had. but will get the same pleasure as we do in building up the whole cooperative movement. A coopera tive cannot gamble on the stock mar ket—it should not gamble on the commodity market... . the premises will have to be expanded in a few months. for everything from collecting bills to interesting the housewife in buy ing co-op groceries. 3.... 4...... but every day should be new member day. ..

September. headed by Chairman Jim Wagner was chosen to meet frequently. "Co-op Head Sees Movement Replacing Economic System" AMERICAN MAGAZINE. parties. skating.000. "Beating the High Cost of Living. November. 1938" October. singing. 1940. The school is sponsored by the District Education Committee of the Northern States Cooperative Youth League and will include instruction in folk games. January 24-26. 1941. A picture of the group doing "Bow Belinda" makes a striking cover. William Girdner of Palo Alto. November. 1940." Edgar I Snow SOCIAL FORUM. 1941 Ellen Edwards March 1-3. "Cooperation —Nothing New. "The Cooperative Study Group. and European and American folk dances. 1941. "Built by Cooption." Richard Giles PROTESTANT DIGEST. and that both education and action can be best developed through the spirit of group understanding resulting from playing cooperatively. * * * An enthusiastic crowd of one hundred and thirty attended the first party given by the Consumers Cooperative Society of Leonia." Warren C. Ohio.000 Business With 2. "China's Blitzbuilder." Janet Coerr CATHOLIC RURAL LIFE BULLETIN. October. November. is now working on a one-act play portraying the need for consumer co operation. 1940. What do you think? (Complete copies of the form letters men tioned above may be had by writing Jack McLanahan. "Cooperatives Push New Construc tion" PM. 1940. 1941. November 1. 1940. plan programs and arrange for engagements to be filled from week to week. 1940. The last week-end of the old year. February. August. "A $600. Wisconsin. headed the confer ence. February 1941. "Co-op Units More Active' RECREATION NEWS NOTES Two regional recreation conferences were held recently by former students of the National Recreation School." John Hallinan SOCIAL PROGRESS." Lewis S. should make a collection of form letters. "Miners Build Homes." Jesse Bryan Summary of Cooperative Business for the Year appeared in: The New York Times. February 8. Co-ops Shun 'Isms'" PRINTERS' INK. "China's Guerrilla In dustry. "Co-ops Organize Financing Unit" CANADIAN FORUM. "Co-ops are Con crete.. "Co-ops—They MectM in Chicago" I WELCOME NEWS.) RECENT ARTICLES ON COOPERATIVES ADVERTISING AGE. October 12. 1939" November. 29 . 1940." Michael Evans FREE AMERICA. 1940. "North Woods Miracle. A group of fifteen." an editorial PUBLIC AFFAIRS." H. 1940. 1940. short plays.probably have many questions in your mind about the movement and about our local association. Consequently the group has chosen for one of its jobs during the coming year the leadership and training of other groups interested in folk dancing and other forms of coop erative recreation. "Their Own Juice." Bertram B. New York." a reprint of "North Woods Miracle. December 31. One or more skiing parties are planned under the leadership of Larry Collins. In Ohio. singing." Dr. "Haywood and Cooperation. 1940. and one cooperator. October-November." Wallace J. 1940. "Youth Finds a Way to Get What It Wants. October." Richard Deverall CHINESE RECORDER. "When the Rains Come. 1940. B. under the direction of the Play Co-op. 1940. 1940. "Union of Church and Economics is Dramatized as Co ops Reveal Rapid Progress" PRINTERS' INK MONTHLY. Fowler SATURDAY EVENING POST. * * * The February issue of the OHIO FARM BUREAU NEWS features an ar ticle on the Washington County (Ohio) Youth Council. December. co op skits. Cost-Cutting U. "The Outlook for 1941. "Consumers' Coopera tives. January 5. In San Francisco the chief recreational interest is in folk dancing and plans are being made for a Fun Co-op "for the sole purpose of dispensing recre ation with the Twin Pine label. Midland fieldman and members of the board of the National Recreation School. 1940. Fowler TIDE. Tichenor COLLIERS. Platt NEW REPUBLIC. January 9. "Co-ops Give Worker Freedom and Security." an editorial OPPORTUNITY. We are enclos ing a pamphlet. December 14. reports that the recreation commit tee will be available to work out programs with local societies." Jennings Perry COLUMBIA. "Cooperative Business Flourished in 1940" Netv York World Telegram. Games. that only through mutual education can that cooperative action be effective. October 21." an editorial MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW. November 16. Midland Cooperative Whole sale. "Maine Line to Recovery." Bertram B. Mayo READERS' DIGEST. were enjoyed by the group. 1941. "Cooperatives in Canada. "Making the Democracy of Private Ownership Work. Mrs. August. and "Let's Do Something About Housing. 25 former students gathered for "fun and frolic" at Marion." John F. acting as a clearing house. Stoyan. "China's Guerrilla Industry. 1940. 1940. "Are the Co-ops Getting Anywhere?" George H. C. the group will be kept busy.000. Then when a co-op is faced with the problem of writing a form letter the collection could be re ferred to and the proper form selected No doubt changes would have to be made." George Boyle CORONET. Chester Gra ham. a Cooperative Recreation School is planned for the week-end of Consumers' Cooperation! February.( ty safe that the chief components of the' form letter were tested and would fill the bill. Coggswell BUSINESS WEEK. October. sift out the poor ones. 1940. "Consumers Cooperatives. Frank Shilston and Wilbur Leathermen. October 9. Bogardus SURVEY GRAPHIC. "Miracle of Men of Antigonish" INDUSTRIAL WORKER." Mary Ellicott Arnold SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL RESEARCH. 30 students in Minnesota and Wisconsin and others in that area interested in recreation got to gether for a week-end of folk dancing. October. Smythe CHRISTIAN CENTURY. July. Associated Coopera tives is now represented by the first co op basketball team to invade Northern California. au thor of a three-act play on the Rochdale Weavers. games. skiing. 1941. 1939" NATIONAL PETROLEUM NEWS. crafts and dramatics as well as an opportunity to discuss recreation problems. Benton. 1940. New Jersey late last month. 1940. October 18. "Cooperation Marches. 1940. Minnesota. but the local co-op could feel pret. 1940. January 2. Campbell FRIDAY. musicals and movies has been set up by the Associated Cooperatives of Northern California. October 7." A folk dance party will be held February 15. "Operations of Co operative Burial Associations. 1940. 1940. * * * A recreation committee fired with zeal to promote folk dancing. January. 1940. John Affolter. dramatics and discussion at Osceloa. October 25.S. 1940. Judging by demands from various organizations in the county. Minneapolis. December. educational director for the Madi son Cooperative Council and Frank Shils ton. Rewi Alley. * * * To meet the increasing demand and interest in cooperative recreational activi ties throughout the Central Cooperative Wholesale area. ." Helen Buckler PM'S WEEKLY. dances." Justus Ebert JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL WORKERS AND OP ERATORS. "Quiet Mir acles. Possibly the League. athletic teams. and make the rest available." from The American February. chair man." P. Midland fieldman and director of the National Recreational School will be the instructors. November. November. . 1940. B.000 Owners. The group unanimously decided to hold similar week-ends in the future and a volunteer committee was set up to work out plans. "The Coopera tive Movement in Newfoundland. 1941." Cornelius King 28 PARENTS' MAGAZINE. "Producer-" Consumer Economics. After many discussions the group decided that coop erative action is the best way to solve the serious problems facing them and their fellow citizens. There are more than 70 young people active in the Council. "Coopera tives and Christian Missions. Plans are also under way for a play-writing contest. "Why Discussion Groups?" Alva H. 1940. 1940. "Fast Grow ing. July-August. 1941. October 1940. Emory S. September.

clerks and directors gathered at the headquarters of Consumers Cooperative Association in North Kansas City. ORRIN SHIPE..6% in 1939. Here is a pamphlet which fills a longfelt need. an increase of $457. Y. Exchange opened for business February 5. conventions renewed their endorsement of consumer cooperation. will open its spring term. N. A seventh co-op oil well supplying crude oil for the co-op refinery "came in" January 26. Saskatchewan took a revolutionary step forward at its annual meeting in De cember when the co-op voted to post its own prices for petroleum products dis regarding those posted by the major com panies. Wisconsin.000 to make its store into a streamlined super market. to explain to them how it operates and to make them understand they share in the responsibility of managing it.536 in 1940 including grocery sales amounting to $246. supplying technical assistance and tem porary financial aid." The writer of "What We Ought to Know About Credit Unions" strongly recommends that Credit Unions should (1) Set aside a portion of their earnings and allocate them to an educational fund which should be used to acquaint the members and others thoroughly with the services and benefits of their Credit Union.000 co-ops and individuals. It paid interest dividends totaling $13. Governor Heil declared: "In these days of strain. L. Conn. how they operate. Wis. Consumer Cooperative Refineries at Regina. Pa. This pamphlet. Eastern Cooperative Wholesale report ed an increase of business of 45% over 1939 booming forward to a record busi ness of $1. Missouri with labor. and Duluth. REVIEWS WHAT WE OUGHT To KNOW ABOUT CREDIT UNIONS. Can Credit Unions operate successfully among Farm Supply Co operatives? Lehner not only brings out all the pros and cons but cites concrete examples and figures to substantiate his definite statement.S. Central Cooperative Wholesale re ported a business of $3. and what they can do to help people to help themselves. and C. Staten Island. New Jersey and the Co-op Trad ing Association in Harlem.426. Kansas ended its first fiscal year in the black although it had been in opera tion only six months of the fiscal year. fear.. Co-op stores must be leaders in their communities. During the fall. Consumers Cooperative Association and North Da kota Farmers Union. Weymouth-Braintree. Ohio. D. em ployee training schools were opened at Midland Co-op Wholesale.650. Port Washington. February 24. there is greater need than ever for our people to consider ways and means of working together. Phila delphia." Farm-Labor-Cooperation The Third Biennial Educational Con ference of labor-farmer-cooperative groups meeting in Madison. have opened full-time cooperative food stores or moved from small stores into large ones.. Seventy-two cooperative grocery mana gers. Educational Director Credit Union National Association 31 .C. Berkeley and Palo Alto.. New York City opened new produce and dairy de partments.I. vice-president of Consumer Distribution Corporation told the co-op grocery managers. Penn sylvania.492. F.. I. The move is designed to eliminate the inequities of the present price struc ture controlled by the old line companies." New Service Stations Among the co-op self-service stations built by cooperators in important cities 30 in the last few months were the Konsum Service Station in Washington. farm and co operative representatives participating. Consumer Distribution Cor poration and Eastern Cooperative Whole sale are working with local cooperators.2% of the light oils distributed in the county was handled by cooperatives. February. —J. A report on oil distribution in the state of Minnesota prepared by the Division of Agricultural Economics and Agri cultural Extension of the University of Minnesota showed that the volume by gal lons of light oils handled by cooperatives in the state of Minnesota has tripled in the last seven years and that the co-op percentage of oil handled in the state had Consumers' Cooperation grown from 6. Idaho in December to handle the rapidly growing business of the six-year-old co-op whole sale serving 60 co-ops in the Northwest ern states. Janu ary 27-28 to discuss modernizing grocery stores.WHAT'S NEWS WITH THE CO-OPS I On the New Store Front During the last six weeks co-op store modernization has been moving rapidly in the Eastern Co-op Wholesale area. Read ing. Rochdale Institute.658 in 1940. Shortly after the first of the year. and co-ops in Berkeley. which was one of the first farmer organizations to realize that credit unions are ideally geared to serve the farmer. Institutes and Training Schools Central Cooperative Wholesale's ten week employee training school this fall was followed by the first employee train ing institute to be sponsored by the Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. Evans. and now has 45 credit unions with a mem bership of over 5. Department of Education. Co-ops at Madison and Ridgewood." In issuing the proclama tion. Oil The cooperative refinery at Phillipsburg. Heil of Wisconsin issued a proclamation designating Febru ary 17-21 inclusive as "Wisconsin Coop erative Week. lOc. 1 941 "Credit Unions among farmers can and do junction successfully whenever we really want to make them junction.000. In Rome. "Co-op Week" Governor Julius P. In Superior. Washing ton opened new branch warehouses in Portland. New York.O. Since the grocery depart ment was launched in mid 1939 no com parable grocery figures are available. national training school in consumer co operation working with the Council for Cooperative Business Training. Record Business! Midland Cooperative Wholesale re ported an all-time high volume of $4.34%. It is written by a man who knows what credit unions are. although written particularly for rural cooperative groups.Kanabec County reported that 69. and the observa tions he made while connected with the Indi ana Farm Bureau. Herbert E. Mass. the A. The Maynard Cooperative Society appropriated $50. California co-ops moved to larger. more modern stores. new self-service stores were opened as Central Cooperative Wholesale launched a drive for ten stream-lined stores by April.555. I. 194l's first Institute on Organized Labor and Consumer Coop eration is being held in North Kansas City. Business volume not including groceries showed an in crease of 11%.1% in 1933 to 10. be especially useful to rural groups which need credit union service just as badly as the urban industrial worker. "We shouldn't tolerate a third rate co-op store imitating the methods of fourth rate com petition. by Anthony Lehner.F. Labor and Cooperatives As we go to press. Minn. however. Co operative societies in Hempstead.A. of L. Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. New Warehouses The Pacific Supply Cooperative with headquarters at Walla Walla. It will. Oregon and Pocatello. He writes with the intimate knowledge of an active credit union member.000 or 13. contains much information which will profit everyone to read. L. Available through The Co operative League of the U. Mid City. (2) Credit Unions should affiliate with their State League and the Credit Union National Association. In answer to the question.000 to 7.L. California and Colum bus. and Rockeville. January 17-18 demanded that facts about the co operative movement should be taught more widely in Wisconsin schools and urged that more courses and institutes on cooperatives be held in major educational institutions. the first co-op food store sponsored by the Cooperative G.883. misunderstanding and conflict. Harrisburg.

... silent film on the Amalgamated Cooperative Houses in New York City. Peter Hamilton.._.. Red-White-and-Blue............ Agricultural Cooperatives......02 Co-ops on the Campus.._ Brickbats and Boomerangs..10 List of recreational materials.......... Consumers Serve Themselves. CO-OP LITERATURE • Novels and Biography Fresh Furrow: Burris Jenkins ...................000 Business With 2............. P...... Eberhart and Nicholas....... 2 reels... Red-White-andBlue. Jr...... 18 silent.....50 Fun for All. 32 i Per Leaflets to Aid You: Copy ........................25 Cooperatives and Peace Cooperatives and Peace.... .......... .. Rental p«i unit: color.............................. 3...._„____ A $600...05 Campus Co-op News Letter .....03 Campus Co-ops........................ Jacks 1....21 Buy Co-op........... Warbasse...... James P..50 per day.............._...25 Let's Play....... add! tional showings......... By and For the People.. 2 reels...... black and white...... Kodacrome........ Harold Fey ...... ......... high school text......... 19"x28".........50.. S...... two spinning games......... Tuna Emerges (Credit Unions)....... "A IlouHe Without a Landlord..... McGowan.......... Credit Union North America............ Ignatius W........... two reel film. available from Cooperative Recreation Service....... Heyliger .............20 The Spider Web....... 16 mm........__._... .. Printers' Ink ....... 2 reels....10 ..... ............. Carl Hutchinson.. 1.. E............. Credit Unions: The People's Banks.. Midland Co-op Wholesale . .... one chapter on coop eratives ............. What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions. r Consumers' Cooperation MARCH. Cox..... A Day With Kaeawa......... by Paddy the Cope........... High school and college....... Max well Stewart .... What Attracts Members to the Co operative Store Movement.!lf T additional showings... H... Ohio..00 2. 1..... 3-act play.......... "When Mankind !• Willing... "The Lord Help* Thole —Who Help Bull O«Jie». songs.. Land of Sweden...........„..—......... A.....50 My Story. silem three-reel film.......03 Cooperative Becreation. film of the Notil Scotia adult education and cooperative pro I gram........ 19"x28" Green..... .... 5 for $1 ." a 10 mm......._............. Rev............0(1 The Consumers Cooperative as a Distribu tive Agency..... Ellis Cowling .....10 1... 3 reel........... Rev........ Kagawa and his co-ops in Japan... H.... .... $2. Burley ...... ... 19"x28" Mulberry.50 • Cooperative Recreation Consumed.. J1....15 All Join Hands..1940 INDEX An index of CONSUMERS' CO OPERATION for 1940 will be sent to subscribers free on request..........00 The Brave Years: Wm. Rental: Each of four above $3 per day....__ OPERATION FILMS Traveling the Middle Way In Sweden............... P.. Printers Ink Monthly . Mabel Cheel...0(1 How a Consumers Cooperative Difers From Ordinary Business ... Anthony Lehner . Co-ops in Ireland ......... Orin E....... Learn About Consumers Cooperation Sure Way is the Quick Way .. What Cooperation Means to a De pression Sick America.. ................................15 The Answer.. from Sales Management .....-. ?2 pe* f day.. John son......... 1941 NATIONAL JAMES PETER WARBASSE TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY ISSUE 25 YEARS OF COOPERATION. Frank Shilston .........25 • Textbooks on Cooperation Consumers' Cooperatives..... Fowler .......... ~" ' 5 for $1 ... Building a Brave New World................ produced by the Harmon Foundation! Excellent photography............" a new 8 reel...... $6 per week......20 Education Through Becreation....... Bertram B......50 per week.............. 1 reel... 19"x28".... 19"x28" Blue.................. J...................._..... a Puppet Play ....... J..............__....... L... Edwards and Plauchi ..... Waldemar Niemela........ Josephine Consumer The Johnson......... 3... Ellls Cowling ._.... silent......... I Saw a People Rising From the Dead........." a new 2U reel. Debate Handbook . Quality CO-OP products. silent. 16 mm.. special edition . Bo wen ..... Ellis Cowling ......50 color and $1.. $4........................ Warbasse AS I REMEMBER. MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS .... • Credit Unions Credit TJiiions. produced by the Harmon Foundath Unit I............ .........75 A Doctor tor the People..... Kenneth Oould... games.. $3......90 When You Buy.....05 Two One Act Flayi......_....05 .. 3-act play..21 Consumer Ownership—Of._. Delaware. Michael Shadid......... with English title*........ R... Hall and Watkins... .. .—..... dances. Tor each additional showing or $10 per week.... bind and white.. Unit in.......... Frank O'llara ._. $5....... .... allowing how cooperation !• taught in tin schools of France..... Mary Arnold.........80 Cooperation.... Official British Textbook . 5 for $1 ......... .. Unit II 1 Consumer Cooperation... William Moore .. 2..... I. S...........1 ....... Hull.....000 Customers..0.. R.._........ 0 for $1 ...... Answering Your Questions About the Co-operative ... $13........... Union of Church and Economics is Dramatized as Co-ops Reveal Rapid Progress.....0(1 • Student Cooperatives American Students and the Cooperative Movement ... $2.. reprinted from The Annals ....... Cooley .. "CluMpliig Ilandd.. Eoy Bersengren ......" 16 mm.................................. The Burden of Credit ..... Richard Giles... Mary Coover Long... George Ticheiior .. Roy Bergengren .... wholesales and factories If France..... 2.... Cooperation—A Way of Peace....... shows how cooperators on tl« eastern seaboard are providing themselveil with tested..000. Colston Warne...000................... 5 for $1 ..2fl Cooperative Ownership.... Julia E._.. Co-op Edition ...1 POSTBBS DOCTOR * Organize Cooperatives. 3. Goss............. 16 mm......_. P......... two chapters on consumer cooperatives .. 18 mm........... Erbes...E...... A...... of coop erative stores............... Trilling...... 3 Cooperative Principles........_._..._.........____........00 Windows on the World.. 1....

Bklyn Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Ohio Farm Bureau News Columbus. last island settled. We also salute those American cooperators whose still earlier pioneering efforts laid the groundwork on which the League was started. Bowen. 1879. Editor. United Cooperatives. No.00 a year. Between these old seas. Ass'n Harrisburg. Y. Chicago National Cooperative Women's Guild Pacific N. on this well-known ground. Minn. 167 West 12th St. Association Indianapolis. 608 South Dearborn. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis.. E.. 3 MARCH. or have other members of your co-op sul scribe. Send a subscription for a friend. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. Cooperative Distributors The Recreation Kit Delaware. Wisconsin Central Cooperative Wholesale 2301 S. N. N.. Ne*/ Age Living 7218 S. Today. Still must explorers voyage hardy hearted. under the Act of March 3. Y. irst saw the So it was! For our national magazine Consumers' Cooperation f light of day in May 1914 almost two years before The Cooperative League m formally organized. Hoover St. Last league of water sailed. C. OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OFTHE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT In keeping with this occasion Consumers' Cooperation bursts forth with new cover format and with sixteen extra pages under its belt. 27 months for $2. Carrollton. N. Rochdale Institute. The world is wide as always. C. Consumers Cooperative Association The Producer-Consumer Amarillo.Like the Blooming of a Rose 1 CONSUMERS' COOPERATION "The beginning of The League did not occur per saltern. Warbasse when he described the first days of organized consumer cooperative education under the guidance of The Cooperative League of the USA. 167 West 12th Street. National Cooperatives. Auditing Bureau. Ind. Y. 1916. Los Angeles Cooperative Builder Superior. But. whereby the people. Wisconsin Credit Union National Association The Bridge Volume XXVII. we also challenge the Pioneers of the future to struggle on in the unfinished task of freedom. much as we of today honor those who laid the groundwork for a national organization of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement in the United States (of whom many. 1917.. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Publication Address Name 372—40th St. Washington.C. Paul. But "the Light knows the need. N. Y. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. it seems that they are even being discarded in many countries.A. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Readers Observer Consumers Book Cooperative Consumers Defender 116 E. Design Service. N. Inc. 16 St. While we are celebrating." An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement." thus wrote Dr. I THE ROCHDALE PIONEERS SALUTE THE AMERICAN PIONEERS Today we of the present generation of cooperators. City. C. Kansas City. Chicago 726 Jackson Place N. salute the American Pioneers who formally organized the Cooperative League 2 5 years ago on March 18. and Plenty Has been discovered but is not yet charted. R. happily. Welch said in the New Republic: "There is much space still to explore and conquer. Minn. And if your own subscription is about to expire. Society FRATERNAL MEMBERS Madison. Inc. Washington Grange Cooperative Wholesale Hoosier Farmer Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. in voluntary association. Millard. Oakland Cooportunity Associated Cooperatives.. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Ohio Farm Bureau News Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co Columbus. N. Y. Texas Consumers' Cooperatives Associated 27 Coenties Slip.. 167 West 12 St. Y. though the economic and political clouds may seem at times to hide it. and the way. Penn.. Wash.. N. Ohio Cooperative Recreation Service 135 Kent Ave. since the pioneering spirit goes marching on. 167 West 12 St. So. Mo. it may not be amiss to imagine that the Rochdale Pioneers today salute the American Pioneers with even greater joy. Wallace J.. Education Ass'n Indianapolis.. are still among us). renew // today so you not miss an issue of the Consumers' Cooperation—$1 per year. D. 84th St. Cooperator Walla Walla. Y. Ind.S. Associated Cooperatives. Y. we are moved to suggest that. 1941 Ten Cents . C.DEMOCRACY Send your subscriptions today to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF THE USA New York City 167 West 12th Street THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. Cal. 111. Yet the dreams of the Rochdale Pioneers and our own American Pioneers are far from being realized. Price $1. at the Post Office at New York. December 19. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative League The Cooperator 135 Kent Ave.. C. Peace is a country yet unknown. but is somethirL more like the blooming of a rose. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. Campbell. Associate Editor. Cal. Michigan Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Herald St. . N. 167 West 12 St. New York City DIVISIONS: Medical Bureau." And the Light never fails to draw the souls and minds of men on toward the truth. Georgia Southeastern Cooperator Southeastern Coop. as Marie de L. Inc. So while we salute the Pioneers of the past. Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative News Seattle.Y. PEACE • PLENTY.W. Midland Cooperative Wholesale Chicago. Co-op Review Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. N. 227 E. Cooperative Consumer N. The Magazine bids its younga brother a happy 25th Anniversary and takes a couple of extra bows itself. Pacific Supply Cooperative Penn. N. and as always Wider than the world is round. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing. Chicago The Round Table Central States Coopeiatives...W. 1790 Broadway.

." Today we are in the midst of the third great American crisis. We perpetuate the old educational fallacy that abstract knowledge is sure to transfer economic picture as they should. We might as well try to teach piano by lecture. which will drop out of tK the common man to transfer these abstract doctrines into concrete actions. should be the "salt of the earth" in clearly explaining the reaTomorrow. A can Crisis. ll to ** set lorun forth general general fgoals.t .• i t j . "we believe our churches should study the coop form to the same producer as a consumer. t no. . There is no permanent half-way stopping place. .'i . Merii free economy must be self-regulated and self-contained—not dependent on a political government. forget the problems of the present.^ T* j j n i . M -S. we cannd ernment." Yet if he really knew. •. and in advocating the ^us elements of a cooperative also learned the lesson that an economic system cannot be half regulated and hall __. If such is done." "When a people become imbecile they place themselves in the hand: The people of the world are becoming skeptical of such generalities. So leaders speak vaguely because they have not yet thought their way cloths. Today we have reached the third step of supplying Money.015. A gov So challenged Thomas Paine during the Revolutionary War in "The A. to the realm of practical life. . ™™ all fthe. says in his book. sTh°uting jf over-bracking the whip of legal prosecution by declared that a government and an economy in a democracy are creatures of S'^ ^ t '^ffr K ^ ^ u" Defense Commission c • . Just now we are concernedjilestt cooperators allow themselves to be free. It asks only the right to develop free from government interference." It IS is I'CLCS!*"y necessary « Yesterday it was said that "A nation cannot continue half slavd and half free. Today we are in the process of demonstrating that "a nation cannot be half at war and half at peace. erative commonwealth.. nment ke regulation v omy. . pillow cases.i . The following editorials are according!." The Special Peace issue of CONSUMERS COOPERA TION.metf ernment regulated economy is on the greased toboggan toward dictatorship. I r ° We repeat the profound observation of Dr.. We expect both the political government and profit business. the result is dictatorship. For the producer to get finished cotton throu through to specific methods of action and can accordingly only express highpolitical government hands after it has passed through private-profit manufat sounding general goals. He can do so when he organizes t1 leader of Nova Scotia." President There is no other possible word to accurately describe our economic illiterao Roosevelt's annual message set as a goal "freedom from economic want. At their 1934 annual conference generalized goal resolu tions were adopted which read. T." In 1935 they had thought their way through to specific action and urged. stamps entitling them to cotton sheets. (2) Munitions.u • r • i -i-u t t"4' government might take over business—when it is all over it will be found free society. but I cannot express it. not democracy. That is what a Cooperative Economy would be. in return for not raising raw cotton.i r economy. tabl: he knew. Lt.. We preach and teach in the abstract. in payment f. nor can either contra . souls are being tried again today.. as perhaps never before.. . . One reason we do not have definite action is definite evidences of our mental aberration is illustrated by the application of th that definite thinking is lacking. It will either be all regulated by the political governmentt or all a free ecor. But there are more than one millio dollar keys punched in error in paying for the waste in the present political relic trated by two succeeding year's resolutions adopted by the annual conference of and profit system of getting raw products from the producer back in finishet the Northern Baptists. At times we hear some one say "I know what I stamp relief plan to cotton. directed toward these immediate problems. governiint intervention and we start again at the age old task of building a world of plenty may we havr leadj ^ ^torship.u . Neither can controli the other in a free society." That is what we are increasingly doing. i i. the famous adult-education cooperative-organization of mental economic illiteracy. Coady. u . want to say. The producer of raw cotton should deal direct witf himself as the consumer of finished cotton." that market raw cotton and purchase finished cotton cooperatively. turers and distributors hands... M. which will give to cotton planters. M. "we recommend to our churches that they study consumers co THERE ARE NO HALF-WAY STOPS ON A GREASED TOBOGGA1* operatives and credit unions. Then he will bypas "We must teach in specifics . "Masters of Their Own Destiny. They of the State. It does not lean on the gov This issue of the national magazine is largely given over to the history of T years of The Cooperative League. published in October 1939 immediately after war was declared in Europe COOPERATORS SHOULD NOT BE FOOLED recited the four steps leading to war as (1) Materials.. Philip Cabot of Boston W .i u. But in such trying times as these. is the heigk Dr.u 1 } to be little more permanently effective than Teddy Roosevelt s big stick._-. fooled . . but it is even more necessary to 1 advocate specific steps toward those goals. ..." than "silly.000."THESE ARE TIMES THAT TRY MEN'S SOULS" a free society. . . After you have read these few page^ you will then find many interesting pages from the history of the past 25 years "WE MUST TEACH IN SPECIFICS—" A group of British churchmen have published a joint letter advocating that "extreme inequality in wealth and possessions should be abolished... which 34 Consumers' Cooperate ^ 35 I . °i-^i ti a . (3) Monej 5y GOVERNMENT PRICE REGULATION and (4) Men. . ~ .„." The Pope's THE SILLINESS OF SUBSIDIZING SCARCITY Christmas eve prayer was for "victory over economic maladjustment.. he could express what not planting cotton.25.. . napkins and underclothing. ti i." It was explained as a clerical error when a cranberry farmer received a gw An outstanding evolution of thinking from generalities to specifics is illus ernment AAA check for $1. when the present worlds war insanity of destruction is ove<|i ^ Cooperators ^& o f m ^ ^ wQ[k . One of the latest and mos want specific action and results.

The prevalent educational idea was that of "learning by doing." "The Cooperative League —Its Aims and Principles. This has continued up to the present time. It examined into the causes of struction. Without a central place of information and lacking coordination. not competition. which we predid It was obvious that two essentials had . Its constitution was adopted not be discussing today Lease-Lend Preparedness. This was done regardless of whether they were members of The League or not." "Cooperation and Labor Organizations" and "Consumers' Cooperation during the War. we must learn that Coop failure. both as individual cooperators and as cooperatives recognizing them and by taking measures For. P. tive shares. After collecting information about the existing societies. industry. is the life of trade and be willing to cooperate. cooperative finance association. If the government did fix lower prices it could only do so by converting itself i into a dictatorship. He should havi left this to the cooperatives to take care of in time." "Dangers which Threaten the Cooperative Society. or than the NRA blue eagle's claws. Cooperators should develop a long memory and learn from the past failure of government to regulate prices in the interest of the consumer. Tools of Cooperation Among the first pamphlets published by The League were "The Cooperative Movement in America. As an illustration. labor and agriculture and keeping them in line. 1916. was then issued." "Why Cooperative Stores Fail" was published in 1918. As an illustration. make the same mistakes. and so fortl cooperative societies were discussed. They would be eliminated by normal competi tion. no mattei how bombastic may be the threats of prosecutions or taking over. that will fall and cannot be put together again. This follows the Locke theory of "government ringmaster. as well as secure from want. An Educational Secretary func tioned during the first twelve years. The Cooperative SAVE-SPEND COOPERATIVELY FOR SECURITY League was planned in 1915 to meet If the people of the world had learned to Save-Spend Cooperatively we woulilj these needs. oil stations. It first made a survey secure from war. to be met in order to create a cooperative will end with the same futile results. cafeterias. The reason is simple—when thei government tries to enter into price fixing it must always fix prices that will take care of the high cost producers. It developed contact with the ex isting cooperative societies. and as the government cannot do unless it takes over bulb manufacturers. When the Vice-President went to Washington he spoke of the government taking hold of the heads of finance. the next thing was to provide them with information about cooperation. unless they increase their ttl During the first twelve years of its serves and capital and decrease their receivables and payables to a far greatei existence. A Speakers Bureau provided lec turers. and perish from the same errors.' or the world-war's price decrees. There had been scattered coopera tive societies for more than a hundred years." The leaders in cooperative promotion organ ized cooperative societies with the view that the people would learn about coop eration by patronizing and running their society. Warbasse ly -by voluntary philanthropic contribu tions. Usually they made fatal mistakes. Lec ture courses on cooperation and schools for study were conducted. within a few miles of a society that had failed. French. coopera largely from the British. medical and burial associations. as they did in Sweden. the Attorney General. but under government regulation they get a lease on life by higher prices fixed by the government. Unfortunately we are apparentlji of existing societies in the United States not willing to learn as yet except in part through destruction—tather than con and developed the first roster of such * societies." as Kagawa said. has announced a suit against electric light bulb manufacturers. witness the Coal Law. "it is all so simple. The League was financed mostdegree. and for this reason The League has been recognized as the center of the best cooperative principles and practices and as the authoritative source of infor mation on cooperation. But no national federation had united them into a concerted movement. The second was unity." "The Distinc tion Between Consumers' and Producers' Cooperation. From the be ginning. Once more consumers are going to be milked by higher prices. The only way the government can really help the consumer is by promoting cooperative arid public ownership of non-profit yardsticks which will act as auto matic regulators of consumers prices. after this war is over. . taken erative credit unions.1 Consumers' Cooperatt 36 J. The pamphlets of The League were widely and freely distrib uted. not less. The first three books. cooperative banks.proved to be less effective than a toothpick in strength. First. We would already be secure-1 on March 18. A traveling ex hibit was sent across the country and in 37 . There was practically no cooperative edu cation. This dealt form phlet eration. there will be no end of Humpty-Dumpty cooperative for their correction. the societies which came into this federation were the soundest. The labor movement was brought into close rela tion with The League. as well as lean Education and Unity from following the course of the present ballyhooed efforts. and Ger coopen cooperatively—in money our spend to learn must we Third. The directors of most cooperative societies were aware of the Rochdale prin ciples. cooperative literature. We The biggest thing right now we need to learn is to mobilize our money coop gained strength out of these errors by eratively and get out of debt. These in time began to join The League. another society would start. rather than lower prices. If the govern ment does fix any prices it will be for the producers and not for the consumers. we must learn to save our money cooperatively—to mobilize our money in coopj and the history of cooperation. movement." But no political government can itself overcome "capitalist sabotage" and remain free. The failures of man tive stores. THE FIRST TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE B EFORE 1916. there was no integrated cooperative movement in the United States. 1941 cooperatives down on solid ground financially while there is yet time. Second with cooperative principles and methods. and failed. A voluminous literature in pam Yet. All government regulation of private business results in higher prices than would otherwise be the case. The first was education.on general cooperation published in America were written by the directors of The League. As "a watchman on the wall" we urge you to heed this warning and ge March." "How to Organ ize a Cooperative Society. the most progressive and the societies with the best understanding of cooperation. The consume* I pays more for coal since the law was put into effect.

This was the organized farmers. Grocery distribution steadily increased. and other student needs. They begin bj supplying to their members farm essen.000. Outside of The Cooperative League is . They now regulate the price 1938. The con stitution of The League has scarcely been changed since its adoption. The First Congress The first congress of The League was held in 1918. Since then a congress has been held every second year. . state medicine such as is developing in Europe. This is a national school for the training of cooperative executives and educators.000. delegates from 40 out of the 48 states were present. Its membership now is almost ex clusively regional federations. Progress in every departrnent of cooperation was reported. 000. tools. Student cooperatives have deBelgium. with 50. .erative wholesales of Medicine for its promotion. a federation of 450 with 500.500 societies had 750.000. thi Wholesale. in. The organiza tion is simple. g March. Its con gresses are composed of delegates from the constituent societies. National Cooperatives. number of ^^ whkh are it There are over 1 7)000 nuence consumer The mfal dectric so.u t ' . It was publishing two magazines — one for executives and teachers and one for the general membership — and was issu ing a News Bulletin to 275 newspapers. paint factories. Cooperative burial societies and ficient as well as expanding factor in the housing societies are expanding slowly. most of the societies conducted only gro cery stores. V many fields. with a yearly turnover of $100. Cooperative banking and insurance expanded. Moving pictures and radio are used for educational purposes. The ex pansion of cooperative health associations As examples of business expansion dur. . 1 and more recently in the manufacture of fuel oils and fine gasoline. But a new element was joining The League which in time was to change its character. Inc. are standardizing certain foods. As a result of this obstruction. These organizaIn 1936. laboratories of some of the wholesales 2.. The testing over a million.r. refinery with the seven oil wells which At the 1940 Congress of The League. the nationally organized medical profession in its powerful trail ° union is able to obstruct the advancement of this form of cooperative service. joined The League. It had published and was circulat ing 59 different pamphlets and leaflets.000 member societies was $200. veloped on the campuses of many colleges cost and in superior quality than were and universities for supplying housing. members and a turnover of $150. the Consumers Coopthe membership rose to 1.r.000 in 1940. and refineries.. Since March 1935. formed in 1 1933.498 societies erative Association. The year 1940 was characterized by the erection of additional cooperative factories. By 1932 the majority of members of The League were agricultural consumers' societies. The majority of societies in mem bership in The League are still agriciu.000 yearly. There are $100000.000.r. It follows new lines of education based on the idea that educa tion is a continuous process rather than an accomplishment. available in those countries. i j built 200. France and Scotland at lower. its business 45%.008 League experienced a decrease in business.000. The "prosperity" which had pre vailed had caused a decline of interest in cooperation among industrial workers. there was a membership of 450 38 societies with 160. and petroleum products. They have been highly successful in the production of lubricating oils. In 1940. and oil refineries.t. $200.f is s[ow Although there is much interest ing the past year: the Central Cooperative i n this subj ect and a Bureau of CooperaWholesale.000 individual mem creased jts turnover 29%. With the exception of a few credit societies and some with general stores. mills. A board of di rectors and an executive committee are the administrative bodies.Moving Into Production tural consumer societies.societies. When National Cooperatives.000. and as purchasers of farm sup plies were proceeding to cast their lot with the consumers' movement. Cooperative study groups are in action in all parts of the country. 1941 Cooperative League House 39 . fertilizer. the Eastern bers. they have *ir.000. It has built 92 miles of pipeline connecting .r. is the likelihood. it was 965.000 families.000.000. tials such as feed. One of these organizations during the past year has built a gasoline refinery with a dail. advanced national wholesale.r. Already among these societies are some large and efficient manufacturing plants for the pro-r duction of these commodities as well as flour mills. In 1928 The League was disturbed by communist dissension in some of its so cieties. and. and al Consumers' Cooperation though the need for cooperative medicine is very great.000 individual members. The State of Ohio has over 600 such groups. they have The total purchases of the commodity soshipped petroleum products to the coop. instead of voluntary cooperative medicine. is a federation of 14 regional Nearing the Million Mark wholesales which did a business of over $50.000.ful.. wth 200 societies. In 1934. and the turnover of the.000. By 1924. food.cieties in 1940 amounted to about $500. The League had 333 societies in membership. ^ haye madg electdc and „ ht le to 500. it was of fertilizer in several states. oil industry.000 worth of petroleum pro ' r ative banks (credit unions) ucts flowed through cooperative channels ^ 2^OQO members and assets of in 1940.1924 it was taken to the Congress of the International Cooperative Alliance in Belgium. the individual membership of tions are becoming dominant factors in the constituent societies was 704. and no wholesale in membership in The By 1935 the 1. Bulgaria.000. The League became a member of the Alliance in 1921. serving 140 societies.000 miles of lines. The League consists only of cooperative consumer societies which are conducted according to Rochdale prin ciples. National Training School Rochdale Institute was started by The League in 1937. They had discovered that they were con sumers.r.000 members. 000. and has had rep resentation on its Central Committee and has sent delegates to each international congress of the Alliance since that time. increased its turnover 15%. machinery. The greatest progress was that of the oil in dustry.r. In 1918 there were less than 100 societies in member ship.000 barrels of oil. capacity of 3. and a turnover of $15. Several thousand cooperaThe consumer cooperatives in the tive telephone societies are highly successUnited States now represent a highly ef.

Their club prospered and grew in membership. EMERSON P. to establish a world-wide industrial demo cracy. as did the Pioneers them selves. sored by Eastern Cooperative League I Together with Greece and Turkey and and a host of old-time cooperators. If there is one thing you can not learn from the text book. every political party. and a growing realization of its destiny to fade out and pass over into stateism. M. New York. writes into its platform endorsement of con sumer cooperation. Each year sees a huge cooperatives in the Chicago area. HARRIS. of significent events among the co-oper ative groups. and to attain cooperative democracy by the con sistent policy of building free and volun tary cooperative societies. bringing the five League will be special guests of honor. must have much to teach each other. D. the union of so cieties is being effected in an educational and promotional national organization. March 20 counting each as the head of a family. Within this league of societies is the na tional cooperative wholesale. COHN. Like the Swedish cooperative movement. Its ultimate purpose. with a growing consciousness of its own inefficiency in supplying human needs. ROSENTHAL. has gained a foothold in this A special dinner commemorating the country. West New York. League. And that hostility comes from the field of profit business. 25c. the great educational associations. in a small English mill town. each trav eling its solitary way. A 25th anniversary dinner. nevertheless. The Cooperative League resists any tendency toward an alliance with any political party. 7 p. each with its own experiences. James P.50. and this is especially true of those little details which vary with local conditions but which must. The hos tility against cooperation is due to its efficiency as a means of supplying human needs. the churches of all denominations. March 24 ment. total membership of the British co-oper I ative societies up . Not only is co-operation being 25th anniversary of The Cooperative discussed on all sides but here and there. appeal ing for the support of citizens. and the important social organizations openly en dorse and express approval of consumer cooperation. twenty-eight weavers out on strike got together in the tap room of a dingy tavern and organized themselves into a club. The ' increase in their numbers. In the eastern states alone there are' over a hundred such groups. good and bad. H. Co-operative prac tice can only be learned from many ex periences. Warbasse. if not yet the move Washington. Because of this neu trality. spon of the whole population. to heed. 1 Why. cooperators should get together. KRAUS MAY.. As a result of this political neutrality. The 1 at last we are beginning co operative idea.000 new members were enrolled last year. Abyssinia we have been slow to respond 25th Street branch of Consumers Co to the call of the Rochdale% Pioneers. Editor ^H Five cents a copy Subscription.••^^^^^••^••••••^^•^•^^^^^•^M The League lays emphasis on coopera tive education and upon adherence to Rochdale principles. In Great full Board of Directors of The Coopera. They were the famous weavers of Rochdale. 40 THE CO-OPERATIVE CONSUMER I ^^1 ^^R la Publishing Association. 1941 41 P . Their purpose — but that is an old story and nearly everybody knows it. it is co-operation. A. C.i Britain alone 116. small groups have organized. ALBERT SONNICHSEN. $1. and are trying out the idea in actual practice. honoring they now include more than one fourth Dr. mmittee: Provisional Executive Committee: MRS. March 18 by the path mapped out by the Roch An anniversary dinner sponsored by Central States Cooperatives and local • dale weavers. I ^^1 WILLIAM A. to three million. To Build a Free Society The Cooperative League of the United States is preparing itself to become the center of guidance and promotion in the evolution of the new economy toward which this country is moving. Forty thousand they number. It is in the hope of bringing tfiis about that The Co-operative Consumer is issued by a group of individuals devoted to the By publishing reports Rochdale idea. be overcome before success can be at tained. has not yet been accomplished. But there are to-day ten million people throughout the civilized countries of the 25th Anniversary Dinners world who believe that if eyer we are to obtain a higher social order. ignorant of wha't the other groups are doing or may have Surely these groups. New Jersey 567 Thirteenth Street. lust seventy years ago. It for no other reason than this : the exchange of experiences and ideas. to avoid stateism. and Mrs. The cooperative movement in the United States has won the respect and the approval of every organized ele ment in the country excepting the traders' and business interests which fear its com petition because of its efficiency. There is no official violation of the principle of neu trality.m. sponsored by the District of throughout the land. But operative Services. Stateism—the ex pansion of the state into a position of dominance over the individual and over property—is seen as the ultimate threat to cooperation. Published by The Co-operative Propaganda York. according to Washington sta* tistics. it must be Chicago. accomplished. Consumers' Cooperation March. 1914 No. by serving as a medium through which individuals may tell how Columbia Cooperative League. Treas.. The literature on the subject is scant enough at the best.. to circumvent autocracy. a year VOL.

That is especially necessary in this country. the co-operative store remains utterly insignificent. This is the work which The Co-pperative Consumer proposes to undertake. argument or no argument. the individual. carried on in factories owned and con trolled by the organized consumers. it accomplishes its purpose. Albert Sonnichsen led his readers into doing straight thinking. we hope to give each group the benefit of the experiences of all. But you cannot build without mortar. The present editor owes much to the first editor. Albert Sonnichsen. If co-operation is worth working for. that gives the worker the enthusiasm to continue building the dull foundations. to be learned by rote. by itself. John Ruskin says that the principal question in life is "What should a man die for?" He then adds that a business man is not presumed by society to die for anything. usually his gains amount to little more than a fair reward for very hard labor. then in the bonds of a wide spread organization. Without your direct sup port there can be no organ for the move ment. Our working capital must come from direct taxation. There are private corpor ations with profit sharing schemes. fruit packers' associations. a few of us who have! read half a dozen books or papers on i the subject. By that it must not bf> un derstood that we. and his style of writing was incisive. An open discussion will present the evidence on both sides . But there is yet a greater reason why the local groups should come together. to all the members of the movement. However. such as the establishment of a wholesale society. and hereby pays him his deep respects. What we want is to draw our blue prints. It is up to you. But on the other hand we cannot eli minate theory altogether. when we are all agreed on 4iow to attain it. Sonnichsen's book "Consumer's Cooperation" should be reprinted and kept in circulation indefinitely. To attempt these bigger enterprises without solidarity of organization would be futile. at least. through which we shall all lean together. whether it be how to establish a delivery system for a store or to organize a national union. We do not need teachers to hand us out a set of dogmas. It all comes down to a propaganda of education. it must reach up into the higher stratas of capitalist trade and industry. Such an organization will only be poss ible when we all have a common under standing of what our aim is. no matter how beneficial they may be to the actual participants. no matter how exaggerated its glories. discussion of theory does not mean a mere indulgence in visions. and it is perfectly legitimate to discuss the roof. Whether The Co-operative Consumer shall sink or float depends entirely on the support it gets from the rank and file of the movement. where countless forms of enter prise travel about under the name of co-operation. Lack of thought is • the only real obstacle that co-operation has to overcome. P • WHY? HOW? In using the word "Why" as the subject of the first editorial written for the national magazine. we shall not discuss. There is only one principle tha. But John Mitchell. The Co operative Consumer starts out with the assumption that these enterprises. It is his vision of the finished structure. If we devote so much time and pains to the management of our store. It is one of the clearest interpretations of the Move ment ever written. The theories it voices editorially may not all be sound. some may be absolut ely wrong. Before co-operation can influence economic conditions at all.and why they succeeded or failed. the majority shall then decide. it should not be the sole I business of a publication such as ours I to propound great theories. W. We are aware that there are thousands of sincere co-operators who will not agree with this view. Then there must be open discussion of the details of actual practice. When we say that the time is not ripe for a certain new development in our movement. He might well have also added the word "How. and that is the principle of democracy itself. stimulate thought on this one subject. Most of our i space must be devoted to reporting actual events that have some significence. Sbnnichsen's story of the life of John T. it must promise more than the reduction in price of a loaf of bread from five to four cents. it is only because we are undergoing the preliminary training that shall fit us for greater tasks beyond. discovered the answer—that by transferring over into the Cooperative Movement he had a cause worth dying for—the devel opment of an economy of plenty for all and peace on earth. though we are still only at work on the foundation walls. Theory will help us formulate our thoughts on what we are aiming at. Unity of purpose and a clear conception of fundamental principles is the mortar be tween our bricks. We are building up nothing less than a new industrial system. Mitchell was one of the strongest appeals ever written to private business men to transfer themselves over into the Cooperative Movement where they can truly serve the people. a former business man. building and loan associations. constitute a select group who are going to instruct the ignorant masses." since the magazine was started to answer both questions. the excep tional store that has accomplished so much has given all that it has to offer. Without its own independent source of supply. All we can do is to stir up the debate. Consumers' Cooperation I March. That stands. a co operative publication is the last that may hope for support from advertising. some instructive value. The dozen in dividuals behind the publication of this first number are in no financial position to sustain such an enterprise by them selves. do not represent the co-operation which shall benefit the whole people. rural batiks. "Why Poverty"?—"How Plenty"? Read this editorial and see how prophetic of the future it was. what we want is stimu lation of thought. he might better collect stamps. I Of course. The co-operator who believes that the co-operative store is an end in itself is wasting his time and energy. we only mean thereby that the brains of 42 the co-operators are not yet in a con dition to put such an enterprise through. By knowing OUT aim we shall also know how to distinguish the useless from the real. It is not the profits of the small retailer that weigh us down. Europe njay teach us. first through mutual intercourse. And of all the kinds and varieties of publications that apply for second class mailing privileges. without co-operative production. 1941 43 I . then called The Cooperative Consumer. as is already done abroad. This much. Theory is only another name for the engineers' blue prints. in 1914. The object of a blue print is to guide your work so that you limit your energies to the efforts th/it count. And here you have the chief reason why we must come together. but if it stimulates thought i and action.

N.. N. William Kraus. HARRIS. principles. A. Peter Hamil ton.. The constitution and by-laws for the society. The Co-operative League.. Wm. N. J. 567 Thirteenth Street. Editor Subscription. and Mr. at 384 Washington Avenue. of die too isolated to form themselves into magazine. as indicating more comprehensively its program. WM. rather than an organ ization of individuals. and Mrs. New Jersey Entered as second class matter July 21st. Taking all » co-operative societies. J. The brief story is reproduced herewith from Volume I. Hoboken. II What Co-operators Are Doing. 1916 The Co-operative League of America For three months The Co-operative Consumer has not been issued. to publish periodical and other 45 . An elelction of permanent officers' followed. J. N. Mrs. But unfortunately our local societies are too scattered to form an effective Union just at present. But we. > But scattered all over the country March 18. Ferdinand Foernsler. Hyman Cohn. (Mont. Charles F. Dr. Max Heidelberg-. a society of individual co-opera tors who propose to push a general campaign of propaganda until the so cieties shall be strong enough to under take it for themselves. Number 7. Marcn> 1941 as enthusiastic as the members of the societies. Published Monthly by The Consumers' Co-operative Union 490 Bergenline Avenue. secretary. W. those of us who believe the need for a centralized organization of the movement is the most pressing just at this time. (. keenly interested.Pat erson. Pres.J. Certainly it would have been more desirable to have organized a federa tion of local co-operative societies..1 clair. Subscription. West New York. Rufus Trimble. these individual's together. 1914 No. Editor. The story is irf Co-operation. April 24th. of the national magazine published in June. and so have created a true-to-type Co-oper ative Union. 1879 EMERSON P. but reproduced here from the April 1916 issue of Volume II. The organizers were: Dr. the dues which they could reasonably have been expected to contribute toward a working fund •would have been too insignificant to have paid the expenses of the most GREAT DAYS IN COOPERATIVE HISTORY > modest kind of a central office.. New Jersey. Number 2. similar to the British Co operative Union. Rosenthal. ROSENTHAL.. Kraus was elected business man ager and Albert Sonnichsen editor" ol The Co-operative Consumer. The result is the Co-operative League of America. most of whom are familiar to our readers as persons who have devoted much en ergy in the past for the cause and who have graduated through the experi ences of local organization. Ernst Rosenthal. N. James P. RUFUS TRIMBLE. J. N. Y. HARRIS.. deserve close. Isaac Roberts. that the Cooperaive League was organized.J. And even if they could have been The treasurer read a detailed report. 1914. consideration. Sec'y. 7. we have gathered together all our forces and resources and have made one strong and determined effort to push ahead. WM. Merkel. 1914. Treas. 21 VOL. at 394 First Street. Albert Sonnichsen. ' The certificate of incorporation was read and. have not been idle. was unanimously adopted. It was to utilize the strength of this element. which were approved by a general meeting.) was chosen president. Pres. Not un like the Germans at Verdun. The aim of the League is "to spread a knowledge of the history. The Co-operative League is. APRIL. J It was unanimously decided to change the name of the society to "Consumers' Co-operative Union". the number of subscriptions being especially encouraging. Walter Long. KRAUS. Hanifin. Brooklyn. A.. Among those present were representatives from Elizabeth. Margolin. purposes and methods of the Co-oper ative movement: to encourage the for mation of consumers' co-operative so cieties. Ne-v York City and Paterson. a year VOL.. Mrs. 25c. held on March 18. The purpose is to make it a federation of the store societies for propaganda.) treasurer. the^. Scott Perky. ROSENTHAL. Business Mgr. MRS. Harris.. RUFUS TRIMBLE. at the Post Office at Weehawken. (New York City). fective general propaganda. A. 1914 should be recorded in American Cooperative annals as the The local societies are too few 'and day when a small group of cooperators met and formally organized the Consumers too weak financially to support an ef Cooperative Union.are probably quite as numerous and quite 44 Consumers' Cooperation. A. and Mrs. K.. 1916 should be particularly recorded in American Cooperative are many individuals keenly interested annals as the date of the organization of The Cooperative League. there fore. ALBERT SONNICHSEN. N. Rufus Trimble. I No. organized on the 18th of last month. ALBERT SONNICHSEN. 25c. a year Five cents a copy EMERSON P. I Five cents a copy JUNE. Mr.. J. Louis Lavine. West New York. Sec. brought together. The third meeting of the organizers of the Consumers' Co-operative Union. after which it was unanimously decided that the society was justified in contin uing the publication of the Co-operative Consumer. Emerson P. after some few amendments. A. Business Mgr. A meeting of the new Board ol> Directors was held immediately aft«i adjournment of the general meeting. Warbasse. under the Act of March 3rd. N. J. West New York. KRAUS. which includes other forms of co-oper ative propaganda beside publishing literature. (Consumers' Co-operative Publishing Association) was called to order in the evening of April 24. A. MRS. in combination with the members of societies.. Emerson P. Treas.^m THE CO-OPERATIVE CONSUMER CO-OPERATIVE CONSUMER THE Published by The Consumers' Co-operative Union. Harris.

is as follows: The Co-operative Movement Before the War (Illustrated). individuals will soon find their enthusiasm evaporating. ammended or revis ed. to gether with twelve other members.50 forms of literature. Secretary. Em erson P. whose function it will be to carry outl all the activities initiated by the mem-l bers at the general meetings. C. The ten tative list of titles of publications to follow. It was unanimously decid ed that the League should call a gen eral convention of co-operators. The organizers feel that they have. is a true federation of the co-operative societies and unions of all the world. at which the constitution should be finally rati fied or. Hyman Cohn. their votes were taken away from them. however. in which individuals and co-operative societies are herded together. your society can never become a permanent success? Is the end of all your efforts to be only a miserable little five or six per cent. the ultimate success of the League is by no means assured. How to Organize a Co-operative Society. Isaac Roberts. In referendum voting. if need be. The Co-operative Movement in America. Active members will be entitled only to a sub scription to the official organ of the League . Meanwhile. while the transfer has not yet been made. The Destiny of the Co-operative Movement. As prac tically all the members of the old Con sumers' Co-operative Union are now members of the League. Aside from Executive Committee there is A Control Committee of three member whose business it will be to audit all the accounts of the organization and supervise the referendum elections. $100. 47 . just so soon as they can be persuaded to join. That depends entirely on the co-opera tive societies. The Co-operative Movement During the War. 1941 51 legal formalities will be undertaken at once. As for an official organ. Sticklers for democracy may object to this form of organization as being neither fish or fowl. national scope to the organization. to hold office until the convention. GENERAL MOVEMENT. no matter how many individuals may show their enthusiasium by joining. already there is enough money in the treasury to make a start. when the International Co-operative Alliance was organized. The officers of the league are a Pres ident. The dues of individual members will be: active members. Every effort will be made to give. to guide new ly-formed co-operative groups through the difficulties of their early organiza tion. of course. Scott Perky and Treasurer. Other societies in other countries began joining. The Distinction Between Consum ers' and Producers' Co-operative So cieties. to take* place some time next autum. the Executive Committee proposes to get the work proposed well on its feet. Warbasse. Dr. thus the balance of pow-j er remains in their hands. and quoted above. Co-operation and Labor Organiza tions. This was the example the organizers of the 46 THE CO-OPERATIVE CONSUMER THE CO-OPERATIVE CONSUMER League had in mind when they drafted 1 the constitution. or unions. however. ALL FOR EACH AND EACH FOR ALL.! the affiliated societies will have the bal-l ance of power. on a democratic basis. until finally the British Co-operative Union broke the ice by affiliating itself with the Alliance. William Kraus." The members also express the opin ion "that all propaganda for Co-opera tion should be carried on and finan cially supported by the co-operative societies themselves. The provisional officers elected were: President. to establish a central office to disseminate information and to serve as a medium for the exchange of ideas and experiences between co-operative societies. Albert Sonnichsen. Already the copy of some of the literature to be issued is in the hands of the printer. its membershin was composed largely of individuals. you are done for? You are frittering away your time and energy in trying to solve those ir ritating little problems that confront every isolated co-operative stbre. however. $1 a year. The March. A. There is only one solution to all those local troubles: ONE POWER FUL. experienced in the theory and practice of co-operation. gradually assuming full control. be lieving and hoping that you will finally overcome them. For all that. the I. the members of the affiliated societies 'have each one vote. Harris and Rufus Trimble. Secretary and Treasurer who. First of all will be published the Constiutution of the League in full and a leaflet explaining its aims. The dues of affiliated co-operative societies will be only five cents pen member per year. Peter Hamilton. the co-opera tive societies have one vote for ever) forty members. Twen ty years ago. such as exists in nearly every other country in the world. Members of the Executive Committee: Ferdinand Foernsler. a hybrid. And today. will comprise the Executive Committee. dividend on the purchases of your members? Don't you realize that in all other countries there was no real success until a co-operative union was estab lished? Don't you realize that the moment a chain store corporation decides to es tablish a branch in the next street. So cieties. as expressed in its Con stitution. Societies were reluctant to join for this reason. who represented noth ing but themselves. and especially the officers of such societies. to conduct such investigations as shall contribute to the knowledge necessary for the suc cessful operation of co-operative soci eties. in all parts of the country will be urged to join and make their voices felt in the affairs of the. But. to consider the work which the League proposes to undertake. League. as is done in other countries. iso lated." To bring this about all co-operative societies are urged to participate in the work of the League by affiliating themselves with it. so strong was the de sire to give a voice to future members Consumers' Cooperation' that at this first election several va cancies in the Executive Committee were left so that they might be filled by persons representing co-operation in other parts of the country. the applications for member ship so far received have been extreme ly encouraging. In fact. While the Treasurer has not yet is sued a report (only ten days having passed since the organization of the League). made every possible provision for a truly democratic government. however. it may be said that the two organizations are merged and that thus the Consumer becomes the official organ of the League. and to organize a staff of persons. Dangers Which Threaten the Co operative Society. To such persons it may be pointed out that the League has one of the most notable precedents in the history of the Co-operative movement. until the League shall de velop into a proper Co-operative Un ion. $10 a' year and life members. And while each in dividual member has only one vote in the affairs of the society. From the very beginning. Do you not realize that alone. the present i constitution has been adopted only pro visionally. prepared by the committee on literature. James P. WHICH SHALL STAND. The Co-operative Consumer will be taken over by the League as such. contributing members. Again we urge members of local co operative societies. Little by little the privileges of the Then individuals were restricted. Quite aside from the question of funds. if the societies show no interest in pushing for a general organization. contributing and life member-( ship will include all literature issued by the organization.

P. 26 years later the Cooperative Let goods were being chosen because the labels told CO-OP later gue is trying to persuade Americans to be oooperators. * * * * 26 years ago the first publication by the Cooperative LM. Walker. * * * * * * * * 48 Consumers' Cooperation 1 March. 26 years later the Treasurer reported that the League P«ated again and again the progress from discussion group. Btion in the same way. 25 years later R* H. Benjamin said. "The Swed consumers". A. national the in ago years 25 advocating cooperative recreation and said. 26 years ago in the national magazine. 25 years later the League bibliography ia-lquestion. 25 years later Consumers' Cooperative Association magazine was discussing the national the 26 years ago of Horth Kansas City reported that "Strictly oash trading was later cooperatives are so years 25 cooperatives. "In our 26 years ago the national magazine was trying to educate educational program we have answered the call for help from that "profit is not created by capital. 25 years ago in the national magazine. War Dr. * * * * * * * * f 25 years ago a writer in the national magazine urged. E. 1959"* fail. Wood°lub. Justice Brandeis "The best solution of our national troubles might be to make as speaking of chain store "misleaders". "from study circle. "How shall we 26 T^RS AGO AM) HOW and answered the question. to full food market". Warbasse. erative societies?" 26 years later the question is. sell had built. John H. editor of the national "Why not add insurance to groceries and so build powerful coop. profit the of decay corner fourth a as the Cooperative League included recreation * * * * stone of cooperation. leaflets. "This world is a hell these days. pamphlets. lo« by people by the heart strings} those who can be persuaded Its utter inadequacy goal. arbitrary overcharge which comes out of the pockets of the * * * * still 25 years ago the national magazine said that. God speed Cooperation I" 26 years later the present editor says. * * * * } the first time in it* history.* one in townmen and countrymen unite to want "I . magazine urged "Cooperative pronational the ago years 25 * * * * controlled by the organized oonand owned factories in faction I RUBW. same the saying ish associations are moving in the direction of the abolition * * * * of credit". magazine national the 26 years ago constituent societies shall amount to five cents per member pet* ««* said "with our oity cooperatives in the east there is reyear". Cowden desoribBriggs R. associations cooperative factories and to aake the cooperative principle the basis of a national ed the * * * * civilization". President. but is an Americans the town as readily as from the farm". to buybegin?" "" ' ~~" to cooperative society". 25 years ago Albert Sonniohsen. introduced. President. to «nall store. its gio are too few. the membership expanded rapidly". of failure put into effect at CCA on February 1. Dr.. etc. It is also necessary to hold then by their hearts". "we must get the system of profits and competitive old "The said." gates of hell are wide open today. is problem great the to solve machs. later years 25 death". 1941 49 . £5 years later system". *Hhen music and dancing were is due to the raging now conflict "The said. later years 25 * 8™110™11 movement. basse. 25 years later L. Build Cooperatives faster I" * * * * * * * * 26 years ago the national magazine published an article magazine. George quoted magazine national 25 years ago the and H. ^ the of dues "the said.President of the Illinois Federation of Labor answered the gue was announced.It is not enough to held people by their sto privilege has at last attained has led the world It revealed. of cataclysm a into Evidence was cited from Belgium..25 years ago the national magazine asked. "to lower prices and to raise pay". II. to had paid its own way out of dues of five cents per Bember for buying l«t>. 26 lyeare later Jacob Baker and Mark Starr answered the same queseludes hundreds of books. the truth. J. "Why the Labor Van Should Become a Cooperator". 25 years later the national magazine is thing. never almost they audited well * * * * * * * * 25 years ago the national magazine quoted George Russell. "The add groceries to insurance and farm supplies. "Why not nagasine said. 25 years quoted iraa all Irishmen oooperators". James F.

were the members of the Central Exchange. Fitohburg. and with him were Cedrio Long and Ilrs. all of a $23. enthusi asm and satisfaction to ne. That first meeting was a | very exciting one with the forceful expression of widely divergent opinions. Warbasse*s auspices at which a more mod erate temper was displayed and out of these came the definite organization of tot Cooperative League of America with Dr. There were others who played a no less important part. a lover of his fellci men. Some where between two and three hundred Cooperatives registered their existence at this central point. GOBS. and assist' ing Dr. with e good deal of practical experience. Few realize that in this change the budget has remained almost stationary. Then there was the question which threatened to split the movement. that we met at board meetings or who got up to argue questions at the biennial con gresses. among the farmers just two wholesales were represented: The Farmers' Union of Qnaha and Grange Wholesale of Washington State. The friendships made in New York and at the many district and national conven tions during those first six years. The League today. where he tried to chisel ideas out of the Finnish. Quinoy and Brooklyn in the East. In the early days of the League it was the same people. fSOO came from dues out of a $20.Albert Sonnichsen. Walker. Nordby. Blaha. Nor must we forget Ilrs. In 1921. essen tially a propaganda body. F. Warbasse. and the birth of the Cooperative I League in 1916 at the home of Dr. Emerson Harris. Communists or oooperators? It was foremost in every session until the famous meeting in Superior when we resolved our differenoss and there were only oooperators in the Cooperative Movement. My first work for the League included helping Scott Ferky. Jewish and Bohemian tongues. The Finnish names teemed strange to us from New York in those days.000 budget came from dues. UK selfish first secretary. (now Central Cooperative Wholesale) in the mid-West and around Ilaynard. The Bohemians of Dillonvale had many years of sound history behind them. While the progress mada in the early days was not so spectacular as in recent years. And. supported by many successful Cooperative societies. e crystal oleer thinker. Secretary and myself the original Treasurer. in listing and corresponding with many cooperative organizations. Herron and Woodcock. met in a great hall filled with new faces. Russian. so great were the faith. T. among whom were . at the little office room at 70 Fifth Avenue. Jacobson and Kazan were of a later day. From this beginning. the vision and the zeel of this leader in America of the great rev olutionary (evolutionary) economic movement making for true industrial democracy. a difficult question in those days. Except for the heavy crop of "fakes" then. com pletely representative League of today. The financing of the League. d (//^l^lft^W4t/t<&l First Treasurer Prior to the early days or the Cooperative League. and Mrs. year after year. are the most cherished possessions of my life. teaching the "princi ples". whose vision and careful leadership were responsible for the solid foundations laid that year. but an office to promote a know ledge of Consumers Cooperation. Perhaps. two Italian Cooperatives in Stafford Springs and Lawrence. and Hyman Cohn. was the Dootor. Parkins. labor agitators and direct actionists and a saving number of those who believed in the benefioient possib ilities in the gradual development of Consumer Cooperation. Warbasse as President. First were the Finns. Cooperative societies from all over the country were 'members" . who believed in putting principles into practice and who had had actual experience in organizing cooperatives. At that meeting in the doctor's library every shade of radical opinion i of the period seemed to be represented. when Albert Sonniohsen and Hyman Cohn and Rosenthal and Kraus met in a back room in the Bronx and dreamed of the Cooperative Movement that was to be. In 1940. 1941 51 . after all those years of struggle. and the contacts since then. Scott Ferky. Education.I* II AS I EElffiMBER j Twenty five years ago I received an invitation from Doctor I and Mrs. too many to be mentioned here. and its financial support was. energy and financial contribution of Dr. Working daily for the Cooperative Move ment with unity of purpose and realization of the magnitude and future value of our efforts. How to build the move ment. the League's magazine. Mr. But at every meeting. Some others like Otto Endres only came to meetings in the east and Cort. since deceased. with his burning convictions. Former Treasurer We have come a long way sinoe my husband Cedrio Long started to work in the Cooperative League office in 1921 as General Secretary. First Financial Secretary 50 Consumers' Cooperation March. before the World War. Hyman Cohn and Albert Sonnichsen were on the board of directors and the latter was the editor of the Cooperative . There is a still earlier day which should not be forgotten. the League has seen strong wholesales grow up. What did we talk about in those days? liuoh the same thing we hava discussed many times sinoe. with his thorough understanding of Cooperation and his business acumen. when the foundation stones of the llovemsnt were laid. and associating with people of principle brought great joy. Hew York City. coop erative societies were failing because there was no organization in the country'Ui which they could turn for information and help. Edberg. the central figure in every group. but without the Finns we could not hava built the movement.000 budget. the first person to greet us at every meeting. It is a source of great satisfaction to me that I was privileged to be one of its organizers. the League was not yet a federation. Hummivouri and Grandahl and Niemela. heard new voices talking the cooperative language. Warbasse in Brooklyn marked the r first effort to federate the existing societies and to organize an educational in stitution on a national scale. in the first instance. and Feter Hamilton. There were socialist! and syndicalists. His first job was track ing down fake cooperatives. who can forget Eskelf N. it was progress that proved the triumph of principle. A freak in those days was "Our Cafeteria" which white collar Americans had started in New York in 1920. Warbasse. whsn the little group who for so long had seen the vision of cooperation in the United States. and sitting through endless board meetings. This was when I became acquainted with the little group of twenty or thirty pioneers. But for many months there was a recurring deficit. /^\ * j. but I there were succeeding meetings under Dr. And from this beginning has sprung the self-supporting. regardless of distance. the backbone of the Movement lay with the foreign groups. centering around the "Central Exchange" of Superior. and has ex perienced having its control pass to cooperators themselves. always met by a cheque to cover from Dr. the meeting that many of us remember best was 1934 in Chicago. theoretically. In 1921. mak ing the cooperative path clearer for those who travelled it.OO per year! It had been set up through the per sonal vision. the name of which was afterward shortened to I "Cooperation".at dues of fl. Cooperation in new fields. analyzing cooperative failures. to e greater or less degree. Warriner. cooperators are still doing the same things. J. the ardent. Consumer. Then there was Liukku. Kurmi and Tenhunon and Halonen and Alanno. with enthusiasm for the cause. and realized that the dream of yesterday had become the great Cooperative Movement that we see today. no long er needs a good angel to meet deficits. but has become a permanent institution for the spread of the gospel of Cooperation and with every prospect of future growth and usefulness. and Ilrs. and Ilrs. were individuals imbued. In those days. Among these latter were Albert Sonnichsen. Warbasse. found new leaders pledged to carry on. I The immediate objective of the League was educational and statistical. who were true blue cooperatives and who were not. by dues from its members who. Also in the East were a half-dozen Jewish Coop erative Bakeries. Always there. Warbasse. Warbasse for an evening at their home to discuss | plans for the promulgation of the Cooperative Idea. Eskel Ronn. Italian.

were sufficiently impressive that it gave me a wholesome res pect for the organization which before that I had not understood or appreciated. Yet there were in the Middle-west and especially in Illinois a considerable number of seasoned organizations backed by miners and rallwaymen whose delegates were most active in League work. The League was too weak and too small to give enough help and guidance to curb the wide-spread development or guide them to a sounder growth. This was fought out on the issue of endorsing the Soviet Government. That must have been around 1916 or 1917. Bowen became secretary of the League. The pamphlet was issued that summer. Jack Walker of the Illinois Federation of Later and his rival. The Finnish and Bo hemian cooperatives are still going strong and prospering.the genuine enthusiasm of a considerable number of the leaders of organized labor who would do more than pass formal resolutions in favor of cooperatives. so most of them disappeared. L. To hasten the change. Jewish cooperative bakeries from New England and New York. / 52 I have had the opportunity of being associated with Coopera tive League activities since the Convention of 1917. Then. I arrived just were walking out of the meeting. By the vigorous action and sound leadership of Dr. are concerned chiefly with the struggle for finances to carry on the work. After the adoption of a uniform sys tem of membership dues the question of the League budget was solved. and New York under the aegis of the League. and Mr. Director Consumers' Cooperatio. On the rostrum the "old doctor". where the 1922 Convention was in progress. It was unfortunate that the understanding of Consumers' Cooperation was so feeble at that time. And my first considerable use of its material was in 1919. The League was financed by the Warbasses for many years. but I believe the foundations were soundly laid. Only Dr. McCarty of Nebraska Farmers Union. too. Great farmer cooperatives began to join the League and within a few years the membership had grown tremendously. and with the efforts made by some of the most successful cooperatives to inject political issues into the League councils. Dunoan MacDonald. Warbasse. for all the tremendous consumer interest went to waste. the League survived this trying period. Is it possible that in the now imminent upsurge of prices Labor will once more actively promote the enduring principles of consumers' cooperation? Former Director My first direct contact with the Cooperative League was made in the summer of 1922. an heroic figure among oooperators. they were anxious to use the funds of the cooperaand the prestige of the League for political purposes. This was a source of constant embarrassment to the member societies and probably to the Warbasses as well. I made a check up to find out how many of the old-timers were still active in the Movement. Cooperation in 1922 was weak. Eskel Ronn. They disregarded many of the Rochdale principles. that budget was finally realized. and. so in a few years failed completely. that the movement belonged to the worker or farmer no more than to the banker or lawyer. A good many copies of it were distribu ted that year and the next. At the 1917 Convention there were only a few cooperatives represented. I carried away three or four distinct impressions. things began to happen in a big way. At that meeting I met Dr. A number of influential people among the cooperators sincerely believed that the present capitalistic system was going to pieces and radical changes in our economic system were just around the corner. Those with labor affiliations appeared to predominate in the j_ 1922 convention. Warbasse and their associates. and of course had to use what the Cooperative League produced. Warbasse. Year after year attempts were made to raise at least a minimum budget to maintain an office with a secretary. that here was a place where men and women of every political faith or religious creed could join in working for the welfare of all. desperately weak.and to finance the venture'largely from miners union funds. had weakened or era* ed a large share of the movement. for out of it came the clear cut understanding that the League's ac tivities should be confined to serving the cause of Cooperation. They expected to get a cooperative going quickly. I am sure that it was an excell ent thing that this struggle came up in very definite form early in the life of the League. Many old-tim oooperators were convinced that a democratic movement such as cooperation should not accept contributions from individuals. beginning a year or two after my first contact. A few years after the League was organized. There was one particularly regrettable experience during this period of our cooperative history. I was writing a pamphlet on both consumers' and producers* coopera tion for the old national Catholic War Council. G. The Illinois coal miners started to organize large numbers of cooperatives. My early recollections are those of working out principles and fighting out issues the hard way. The high ideals and broad vision of these men . E. The strongest was one of the deep sincerity of purpose of Dr. Chicago. Cort. He took great pains to introduce me to the delegates anil to discuss with intimate knowledge the difficult problems with which the movement was then confronted. My earliest recollections as a board member. and Bohemian cooperatives from Ohio. Through the untiring efforts of Mary Arnold.the Cooperative League centers about a hotel ballroom on South Michigan Avenue in Chicago. Very few of the newly organized cooperatives of the post-war period survived. and Mrs. I was very much interested that some of the leaders who stayed while in sympathy with the communist political theories insisted that all such political ideas should be kept completely separated from the Cooperative Movement. Joe Blaha and myself were present. and they were most foreign groups: Finnish cooperatives from Mass achusetts. Director My earliest memory of the Cooperative League is of reading of its work. At the last Convention in Chicago. Secretary Long. It advocated both kinds of coopera tion and described how both kinds could be organized and what good they could do. It seems to me that the League is headed for a great future in this great na tion of great opportunities. S. that here we could all meet as con sumers on a common ground. and those politically minded were defeated. Cooperatives sprang up all over the country} unscrupulous adventurers took hold of the idea and began organizing cooperatives and collected high compensation for the work they did. There was a time for several years after the War when the League was constant ly in danger of falling under political influence. a strong consumer movement came into being to combat the high cost of living re sulting from the War. ~" " Former Director My first contact with the Cooperative League was at the Con our communist friends as gress in Superior.w My earliest recollection of. After Mr. Warbasse and Cedric Long. My first contact -was -with Cedrio Long. losing large sums of money. to set up a system of centrally-controlled food stores with a central wholesale warehouse.! March> 1941 53 . engaged then as now in the defense of o er«' cooperation as an all-inclusive way of life. Yet it possessed a force which it has since lost . were potent forces in mid-western cooperation. Many regional wholesales were started before there were enough cooperatives to support them. As I look back. Herron. The destructive downswing of prices of 1920. coupled with a widespread departure from Rochdale principles. including the premature wholesales which had been launched in Seattle. It was a real fight which bid fair at one time to disrupt the League.

and it remained for the farmers cooperatives to put new life into the League. The meeting was small but it was hopeful. which organization at that time was at the height of its development. The first unpleasant task before the Cincinnati convention was to oust the five delegates which came with credentials from the national Cooperative Association in Chicago. Organized 24 years ago. CENTRAL COOPERATIVE WHOLESALE. Louis. a catholic priest. Brockland of the central office of the united German Catholic societies. today is siill operating. Wisconsin. Significantly all these five delegates were employees of MCA. hardware. but whioh a few yeare later went out of existence. the Cincinnati convention actually held 10 sessions which meant a night session on each of the first three convention days. 1919. Evidently. only a year younger than the League. the union furnishing the necessary capital and all union members thus "automatically" becoming members of the local cooperative. headed by a man whom a friend of mine publicly said was "a retainer of plutocracy. the first abortive attempt to establish a cooperative wholesale on a na tional scale in the United States. Francis Xavier's College in Cincinnatti and with Mr. if not the most interesting of them all.My pamphlet had been preceded by a paragraph on consumers' cooperatives in the War Council's "Bishops' Program of Social Reconstruction. electrical appliances. And it is part of the transition from the memory of the old days to the actions of the present to record that I am now pushing consumers' representation in the defense industries and pushing also a bill for a commission to study unemployment and post-defense unemployment in which representation from the consumers' cooperatives will be included.14 3. automotive supplies. In the Spring of that year I started to work for the Central Cooperative Wholesale (then known as the Cooperative Central Exchange) «s thair first full-time educational director. Illinois. building materials. In those times the CLUSA was almost desperately trying to interest labor unioniets in the consumers cooperative movement. grinds coffee and grinds feed in its own factories. In my opinion. or we are all destroyed together. It took the convention three sessions to dispose of the matter and the discussions which are recorded in the printed pro. November 11-14. feed. The results of their pi oneering efforts and financial support are now in evi dence in the present membership of the League. It is interesting to note that among the 15 directors that were elected to the board of di ectors of the Cooperative League at the Cincinnati oonvention. Those were pioneering days in the move ment in this country. This idea was championed by delegates representing the Central States Cooperative Wiolesale Society of East St. Delegates at tending recent congresses of the CLUSA have had a picnic compared with those early conventions which were much more strenuous and sometimes rather stormy. We pay them sincere tribute on this anniversary celebration. including the manager. In the view of some more recent attempts to build cooperation in the United States "from the top down" with the inevitable failure of the attempt. Chosen as one of the three dele gates who represented the CCE at the second biennial convention of the Cooperative league held in Cincinnati.000 annual sales. I kept in touch with the work right along.names. The First Buildine One of my earliest contacts with and reminiseenses of the Cooperative League dates back to the year of 1920. but 16 years later that problem still lacked sat isfactory solution. In the new age that has to come. a New York organization. Central Cooperative Wholesale started in a pack ing box on September 9. four or five prominent labor lead ers and three managers of cooperative wholesales of whioh only one.841." blasted me for taking part in the Cincinnati meeting and called consumers' cooperation all sorts of . was in the vanguard of the change from an old and bad era into a new and good era. the Ohio cooperatives lacked a keen realisation of the importance of educational work.000. one is tempted to say that "history repeats itself. For example. having over $3. The CSCWS delegates also advocated the use of the "cost plus" system.oeedings of the convention make very interesting reading. Former Director 54 The Present Building Consumers' Cooperation March. For many years the members of this loyal cooperative group carried on almost lone handed the struggle to educate the American born citizens to the significance of Consumers' Cooperation.79 1918 105. Its progress is shown by these figures: Savings Volume $ 2.286. fuel. It bakes bread. The pamphlet I wrote was based upon it and included an account and advocacy of producers' cooperatives as well. Unfor tunately this Ohio Cooperative League never actually amounted to much more than • "peper organization". and actually get it functioning independently of the financial anfl moral support of a few prominent individuals. and failed to provide enough dues to enable the League to hire a full-time secretary. Sow CCW handles groceries. Consumers' cooperation. Of the 66 regular delegates taking part in the convention. These dele gates held a meeting of their own before the adjournment of the convention and decided to organize the first district league under the new constitution. most of whioh were urban societies. another unsound method whioh undoubtedly contributed to their failure. the most constructive task accomplished by the Cincinnati con vention was the adoption of a new constitution for the Cooperative League whioh permitted the organization of district Leagues as an integral part cf the Nationel League. nearly 40j{ oame from the Ohio cooperatives.192. 1 have attended nine consecutive bien nial conventions or congresses of the League (missing only the last one) but I still feel that the Cincinnati convention was one of the most interesting. for a period of 16 years.062. Warbasse at that convention and the close friendships' I struck up with Father Reiner of St. it was the League's first regional member. 1941 k 55 .93 $ 132. etc. more er less vigorously. During the four days. SUPERIOR THE FIRST REGIONAL MEMBER OF THE LEAGUE Cooperative history during the past 25 years must give an out standing place to the Central Cooperative Wholesale of Superior. The first national meeting I at tended was the Cincinnati meeting in 1922. clothing. then as now. I bad an opportunity to at tend my first League Congress. 1920. Ohio. there waa a United States senator.28 1940 The first lines handled were coffee and flour. 1917. petroleum products. consumers' cooperation has to have an important part. Since then." issued Lincoln's Birthday. the Central Cooperative Wholesale of Superior.883. The movement was often attached. Wisconsin. I remember par ticularly the work of Dr. After a year or so nothing was heard any more of that League and it remained for the CCE in Superior to organize in 1922 the first district league that actually got going and functioning." There were other delegates at the Cincinnati convention who advocated such un sound ideas as that of speeding up cooperative development by inducing labor unions to start cooperative stores.

same the The women of the United States are definitely imbued with demands. President. progress in behalf of consumers is less definite but some advances have been made. world. But quietly. Northern States. Mrs. eral Regional Guilds are sponsoring youth groups and children's summer regardless of the law and coal profits have moting discussion circles and aiding immeasurably in membership drives. contributing annual to its support and education over there. through sacrifice and enthusiasm. Suoh an event would be the greatest possible encouragement intrigue is more commonplace than it to those European Guilds which are at present facing tremendous diffir been in years. who The Regional Guilds coordinate and disseminate the activities of the local a year ago organized to fight the Act. Georgia Allbright. Char Men who have been most active in na lotte Strattcn. the pro moters and speculators. and affiliation with it is talk about "the impossibility of knowing when we become a little stronger numerically and financially. or followed. 1941 . Secretary. land. the further can we best how determine and plan to again States to get together concerning information abandoned their camps of Further have retail. On October 14. This plan will provide for cooperative management of housing projects which will be publicly owned but leased for a long period to the cooperative management.S. 1958. International Cooperative Congress. are Iowa. Movement. In this atmosphere. common the where world progressive and who long to see a peacefu} would extend the Bituminous which tions freedom". it seemed the organized forces in Congress might de feat their effort. and the cither members of the Executive Committee in Superior.S. no one can say. former Secretary. and the word "fol lowed" is used because the national or ganizations of real estate dealers. and would give a new impetus to the Guild Movement throughout to deal with specific matters in difficult gradual the satisfaction keenest the with followed have We the world. dustrial consumers and a few coal pro- 56 Consumers' Coopera^ March. wholesale and change. change" and tell of To portray the attitude of women cooperators of other countries. but normal Sw' spirit. have been satis fied.. and people of all lands will enjoy security Coal Act for two more years. four Regional Guilds . the "lack of leadership with a Women's Guild. affairs during the last thirty-five tional Co l Internationa the and Guild A friendly feeling exists between the National observers and earnest students. it is has culties. Waukegan and Chicago. had conferences with housing authorities in the defense set-up and went home satis fied and this only added to the worry of those who were interested in the con sumer and his housing.W. Treasurer. At present. Secretary . of internal war in gov our when Then practice. a step towards cooperative housing is being taken — the first constructive step yet taken by the government. was in Washington.A. guilds and in like manner the national Guild acts as a clearing house for the re and now they gional guilds and for those local guilds-and individuals thet are not affiliated have agreed to an armistice miners.the establishment of a permanent National Women's Co "C VERYTHING seems to be unimporoperative Guild. the act actually has ernment whole the uniting International Guild is a strong cooperative chain been effective for only a few months. A committee. 608 South Dear. The officers Mrs. Act the want with a regional. Maiju Viita. the first cf these was accomplished . cooperative women will stand strong and determined to build a new system of Society and outlaw oppression and poverty throughout How effective it would have been under the world. Likewise. 57 . future keen near years. Last October at the Women's Conference during the Congress cf the Cooperative League an executive committee was appointed from Racine. Only the cooperatives and some in Women's Cooperative Guild. that of the Waukegan Trading Company. the in for hoped operative Women's Guild. President. at the Congress of the Cooperative League of the USA. Mrs. Now is the opportune time for women throughout the United The distributors. in conjunction with the National Cooperative Recreation School. representing that specu lation group. it is recog nized that with the government putting millions upon millions of dollars in de fense housing.NATIONAL VJQMEE'S GUILD NOTES II- <tt Anne Spencer. It is well known that the housing authorities in the National Council of Defense and who are now advisers to the Office of Produc tion Management have not satisfied some divisional authorities in the national de fense organization. looking forward to th« establishment of a permanent national women's auxiliary of the Cooperative Move ment two years hence and affiliation afterwards with the International Cooperativi Women's Guild.a great number of individual guilds and individual persons throughout thi' which avoid the wofd "revolution" dis United States and Alaska have joined the National. how ever." conditions. have built up the European Movement expires on April 26th. Little groups in gov presentative Guild that could affiliate to the I. Illinois. but these who. a provisional national Women's Cooperative Guild was set up. with headquarters in Chicago.G. After a long period in the pest call with confidence upon American women to win the great of preparation. As this is written. This coming June the National Guild will conduct a Women's Institute at Amee. Vice-President. % The Cooperative League of the U. who Coal continued. American continent for cooperative ideals and departments. Address: National present time—everything but war and na Women's Cooperative Guild. are given: f "We hope very much that your national organization of Women's Guilds is definite purpose" and the rising tide of sufficiently advanced to justify the inauguration of a nationally premilitary authority. Cooperative Housing In the field of housing. and we shall have the great joy of welcoming the U. within the industry. in the Federal Works Agency and under the direction of John M. North ' *~* tant and trivial in Washington at the Chicago. a hearing has been agreed to and the door has been opened for a fight for amendments. Wright. John Carson Washington Representative The Cooperative League ducers demand amendments and a hear ing and for some time. This plan can be modified to provide for cooperative ownership.C. coal prices increased war with pro camps. a pattern is being estab lished. Ruth Mrs.A. Chicago. Southern Minnesota and Central what is going on" and in polite phrases States . We hope that ernment departments plot and scheme. Anne Spencer. has adopted a baby in Fin' dissipated much of the economic war . aret torn Street. The Act We know how great is the task in your vast country. a few excerpts cuss the "remarkable their concern over the complacency in from a message by Frau Emmy Freundlich. Cooperative the ideals and practice of the Women's Institute may be obtained by writing the Secretary of the National war. One of the older guilds. Carmody. to our circle shortly.Kansas City. In unity now willing to see it extended without there is strength. Coal producers. After four years of pioneering work by Mrs. I also wanted amendments to the Act. and cooperatives are interested: the cooperation which consumers' in interest women's American of quickening now that many of our national Guilds find themselves completely cut The Coal Situation off from their colleagues in other countries we need more than ever the help of women overseas to keep the Cooperative banner aloft and build Before committees of the House and for the future by strenuous efforts to rally to cur Movement all those there is now pending the resolu Senate.tional defense.

this entire activity is directed entirely along the old channels. when your co-op gets around to paying the returns this year. Fieldmen Wilbur Leatherman would be through an ad in the Ice/ and Carl Eck headed the conference which paper. The Northern States Cooperative Youth League held a successful recrea tion school the week-end of March 1-3 at from Trading at the ——————— Coop conferences are being held. non-members. presents ' or other articles.A similar conference was held thirty dollars will be distributed to pi. It certainly brings home the fact that the co-op "savings" stay at home in contrast to the "profits" in private business which leave the com munity. This idea was used recently in an eastern co-op and you can imagine the dramatic situation resulting. The problem. gan and Wisconsin. ference February 21-23 at New London. great movement. In addition to one and two weeks' schools. Bring out the fact that both the individual and the community enjoy a better standard of living because of the presence of a coop erative. A Recreation Leadership Conference to give intensive training to leaders and prospective leaders in group recreation Now here are some ideas that w. we know The best scholars diagnose the com you too wiu j oin the great Cooperative tions and tell you the "proletariat" :L Caravan of Consumers from all parts of the cities and on the farms have com(t our country that is now on the march— into power. c facts would be to make a giant facsimile whether they will be organized by guv. crafts. eight hundrel* »ique. they add. erative. clothing. and it brought home every day the value | ' of the co-op to all who came in the store. This may be in the form of more stock or it may be in actual cash. It is only right and proper that a co-op should pay such a return. Still another plan with a lot of merit is to pay patronage-returns in silver dol lars. sign board if one is maintained by the Co-op. Recreation. So. Another means of telling the peoplt Wisconsin. efforts to soften the bitterness company kept at home that would otherbetween the rival forces of organized If wise have gone to line the pockets of bor go on from day to day and the insic-J those who already have too much wealth. tive Wholesale held such a week-end conKansas City uses a check similar to this. of the patronage return check representernment and directed into stateism J' ing the savings of all patrons. This money and from Wall Street there are reports A is not hoarded by any individual. but on the other hand we should not swing the pendulum too far the other way and ignore it. other business people and the entire community. and Frank Shilston. both to the members who received the cartwheels and to the non-cooperators and business men who received these dollars in the process of trade and exchange.February 14-16 at the Co-op Hall at Camtrons December 12." er the consumers who make up the fni letariat will organize now to present i Another method to publicize the return democracy with power in the people. Chester Graham. community to buy food. as the main speaker. The program included instruction in crafts. 1941 59 . it's a different way of doing business In the Security and Exchange Commissi"but it is the cooperative way. This money you bridge. just as surely as jy our forefathers that veloped. were the high lights of the conference. Minnesota. If you will. dramatics. Make everyone con scious of the advantage of the co-op. The patronage return principle is one of the unique contributions of the coop erative movement to economic affairs. might employ in publicizing the priiK ciple that "a co-op pays you back Itprofits ' " On checks used to pay returns have this Consumers' Cooperation March. medical care and generally the so cial welfare of persons associated with defense activity—and gradually the de fense activity is being extended to reach into practically every home. that a new world has <fc. But as yet. One coop l erative placed such a check in their store some form. the war between the advocates of "scarcity" and the advocates of "abundance" and the battle for power continues but with a trend in favor of abundance. members.^^H Medicine A defense organization has been set up to deal with such questions as hospitalization. that the old age of capitalisa g0jng piaces _ making economic history has gone. We need to give it proper place in the cooperative system. headed the staff. In any case we've got something here and we ought to brinj home that fact to members and publi alike. numerous study club technique and a big banquet with Andrew Jensen. such as the National Cooperative Recreation School. In the Department of Labor and the defense or- ganization. If the year has been a good one the co-op will pay a patronage return. This is no break with old traditions and suggestions that cooperative action might be encouraged are only "received" as yet. Here are some excerpts from an a included folk games and dances. folk games and dances and singing. Such a facsimile might be painted on a hill board outside the store or on a larger HERE'S AN IDEA— FOR PAYING PATRONAGE RETURNS T HIS is annual meeting season. It is put less activity and less interest—a dyirj! right back into circulation in our home condition—in the fields of stock marie. One economist has gone so far as to declare it 58 to be the greatest economic discovery c the last 200 years. dramatize the event. "Two thousand. By all means study this speculation. Some argue that we have over emphasized the "divvy" and that is per haps true. Many co-ops are closing their books and calling members together to hear reports on the year's business. edu cational fieldman for the Midland Coop erative Wholesale." In another part of the died write "Do You Use Co-op Products?'1 District Nine of the Midland CooperaCooperative Refinery Association of Nor'. edu cational director for the Madison Coop erative Council. is whek( traveled the Oregon Trail 100 years ago. COOPERATIVE RECREATION NOTES Ellen Edwards T HE growing interest in recreation in the cooperative movement has created a need for well equipped group leaders and all over the country the cooperatives are meeting this need by training their own leaders. reports are that some progress is madt' Yes. It is a basic principle of the movement that the amount above cost of operation should be returned to the customer in proportion to patronage. secretary of the Midland board. instrucby the Kanawha Co-op Oil Company i tion in crafts and discussion circle techIowa. cooperators. War Between "Scarcity" and "Abundance" In the Department of Agriculture.

with emphasis on technique as well as
subjects was held March 8-9 at Saddle
River, New Jersey under the sponsorship
of the Play Co-op, New York. The sub
jects offered included metal crafts, weav
ing, paper bag puppets, games, folk danc
ing, dramatics and singing. The function
of each of these in a balanced recreation
'program was discussed. The staff was
drawn from the Leadership Group of the
Play Co-op, most of whom have been
students or on the staff of the National
Cooperative Recreational School.
The value of all of these training con
ferences is- reflected by the enthusiasm
for a recreation program which those at
tending take back to their local coopera
tives and by the demand for longer and
more intensive training.
area will be
Cooperators in the
interested in a series of five Folk Gath
erings to be held in that city, March 5,
12, 19 and 26 and April 2. "Singing
America" is the title of the first session to
be conducted by Augustus D. Zanzig of
the National Recreation Association and
a staff member of the National Coopera
tive Recreation School. Lynn Rohrbough, director of Cooperative Recreation
Service, Delaware, Ohio and editor of
the widely used "Handy" will conduct a
session on Traditional Games, March 12.
The meeting on March 19 will be on
"Recreation As An Art" and will be
led by Chester A. Graham, Cooperative
Council, Madison. Elizabeth Burchenal
will lead the group in Country Dances,
March 26 and John Jacob Niles will
have charge of the last session on Moun
tain Ballads. The emphasis of the entire
course is on songs and dances drawn from
various sections of America and is de
signed primarily for community leaders.
Taking their cue from the fact that
"since we are cooperators in theory we
should be cooperators in practice," the
Rural Youth of Lancaster County, Pa.,
are developing a leadership group to take
charge of the games and dances at their

monthly meeting and thus spread tb,
leadership. Other activities of this id
youth co-op include dramatics, crafts,
music club, a photography club, publia
tion of a monthly NEWZETTE and stud
and discussion groups. Their treasu
boasts a balance of $171.59!
Cooperators who have found fun at
fellowship in folk dancing will be inta
ested in a feature story in the magazir
section of the Sunday, February 23, Ni
York Times, entitled "Folk Dance B
by John Martin. "Everybody has a
for the expression of emotional energy]
some form, and nothing offers so easyai
cutlet as dancing,' he points out. "Itij
the primary form of play. . . . Wholi
hearted recreational activity is the tra
field of the folk dance."
The fifth annual National Cooperate
Recreation School will be held on til
campus of Iowa State College, Am.
Iowa, June 15 to 28. The program of
school is designed to provide intensi
training for recreation leadership. Sti
dents and prospective recreation leadt
are urged to hold those dates open ar
to write to Frank Shilston, director, or?
of Midland Cooperative Wholesale, 1%
Johnson Street, Minneapolis for men,
complete details. The full story of f
Recreation School, its instructors, tin
courses planned for this year, and t
philosophy that has made it an impoit.i
cornerstone of cooperation will be incluA
in the next issue of Consumers Coop&
New Kits
"Games We Like Best," Kit 52, a a.
lection of socialisers, quiet games, ad.'
games, games of skill and games for
dren. Edited by Lynn and Katherine R ;
bough. 25c.
"Children's Play," Kit 50, a valua '
collection of recreational activities for ch
dren including singing games, finp
painting, mask making, stunts, gio
games and folk songs. Published by i
Cooperative Recreation Service. 25c
Consumers' Cooperatk

Chicago—The grocery committee of Na
tional Cooperatives meeting here last
month voted to introduce a CO-OP
Green Label, a third grade line, to sup
plement the present Red Label, first, and
Blue Label, second, grade lines. The ad
dition of the Green Label will make it
possible to save from 15 to 20 per cent
on some canned goods thereby speeding
acceptance of the co-ops in lower income
brackets. The Green Label will not be the
lowest grade of commodities available but
will be the cheapest meeting uniform
specifications for wholesome, nutritious
canned goods.
The Green Label line will be intro
duced in August with the new pack of
tomatoes, green beans, peas and a few
other lines.
Maynard, Mass.—The first super market
in the this New England community was
opened here February 23rd when the
United Cooperative Society of Maynard
dedicated its new store, rebuilt and
equipped at a cost of $50,000. Dr. James
P. Warbasse, president of The Coopera
tive League, speaking at the dedication
praised the Maynard cooperators for their
modern, streamlined store but warned
them that "streamlining is not enough."
"A cooperative should radiate coopera
tion," he said. "A cooperative should have
something about it that distinguishes it
fiom ordinary private profit business. A
cooperative should merchandise ideas as
well as groceries."

than one hundred radio programs were
devoted to the cooperative movement and
its role in the American economy when
the State of Wisconsin celebrated its
fourth annual Cooperative Week, Febru
ary 17-21. One of the highlights of the
week was a broadcast from WIBA in
Madison by E. R. Bowen, general secre
tary of The Cooperative League and Roy
F. Bergengren, managing director of the
Credit Union National Association, on
"The Mutual Interdependence of Con
sumer, Credit and Sales Cooperatives."
.Professor Henry H. Bakken chaired the
Kansas City, Mo.—Two hundred labor
union, farm and cooperative leaders met
here February 7 and 8 to discuss the pos
sibilities of consumer cooperation as a
means of increasing the purchasing power
of America's wage earners. The Institute
on Organized Labor and Consumer Co
operation was jointly sponsored by the
Consumers Cooperative Association and
The Cooperative League.
Among the speakers were Jacob Baker,
former president of the United Federal
Workers; Roy Brewer, president of the
Nebraska State Federation of Labor; M.
R. Miller, secretary of the Missouri Far
mers Union; Dora Maxwell of the Credit
Union National Association; Howard A.
Cowden, president of Consumers Coop
erative Association and E. R. Bowen, gen
eral secretary of The Cooperative League.

Columbus, Ohio—Nearly 200,000 fami
lies in Ohio, both rural and urban, are
Dallas, Texas—A new regional consumer served by cooperatives organized under
cooperative was established here early the sponsorship of the Ohio Farm Bureau.
this year to supply cooperatives in this Auto, fire and life insurance, petroleum
aiea with petroleum products and related products, general farm supplies, farm ma
commodities and will later add electrical chinery, home supplies and equipment,
appliances and other commodities for use electrical appliances and low cost loans
on the farm and in the home as the de
are the goods and services handled. One
mand arises. The organization will be hundred and twenty-four retail service
known as Producers and Consumers Co
stores operated by 83 County Farm Bu
reau Cooperatives own the Farm- Bureau
Cooperative Association which handled
Madison, Wisconsin—The air over Wis
commodities in
consin crackled with Cooperation as more $7,500,000 worth of
March, 1941




1 940. The .Farm Bureau Cooperative In
surance Services serve nearly 400,000 pol
icy holder members in nine states and
the District of Columbia.

mantown Cooperative Association aw
Wallace J. Campbell, assistant secretaij
of The Cooperative League, were aL
members of the panel.

New York—An increased demand for
competent store clerks and managers in
the fast growing food stores, particularly
in the East, has coincided with the heavy
inroads the draft and defense program
are making on the labor market. As a re
sult the co-ops are hanging out the "help
wanted" sign.
Rochdale Institute will offer a three
months training program opening April
7th while the Council for Cooperative
Business Training has announced a
streamlined managers training course for
men and young women to be given in
New York April 7 to May 31 and a sum
mer course of eight weeks which will be
integrated with the Eastern Cooperative
League's summer institute at Amherst,

Boston—A bill has just been introduc
in the Massachusetts legislature appaiently designed to destroy the cooperativel,
The bill provides for a special tax of \
of 1% of the gross volume of all coop
eratives, but makes no provision for
similar tax on profit business. Tki
special tax would be in addition to ill
the regular taxes which cooperatives pi) LATEST BOOKS AND
on an equal footing with private busirp PAMPHLETS RECEIVED

Philadelphia, Pa.—The Progressive Edu
cation Association, meeting here for its
annual convention February 19-22 de
voted one session to a panel discussion of
"Education By and For Economic Coop
eration." H. G. Lull, chairman of the
National Education Association's Com
mittee on Cooperatives, told the dramatic
story of how the co-ops defeated an at
tempt by Standard Oil to cut off their re
finery's source of crude oil. S. R. Logan
of Winnetka, Illinois, Clyde R. Spitzner
of the Coatesville High School, Pennsyl
vania, and Dr. H. Emmet Brown of Lin
coln School, Teachers College, New York,
told how cooperatives were organized in
their schools to give the students a prac
tical demonstration in cooperation. Wil
liam Moore, chairman of the National
Committee on Student Cooperatives and
Gerald Fiedler, organizer of the Central
League of Campus Cooperatives told how
student co-ops are cutting the cost of edu
cation and serving as training grounds
for future cooperative leadership. An
thony Lehner, educational director of the
Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative
Association, Barbara Raines of the Ger62

payments toward membership. The total
sales volume for the past year was $101,064. This was an increase of $161,607
over the previous year.
Madison, Wisconsin — During 1940 a
total of 1,364 new credit unions were
formed bringing the number of credit
unions in the United States to 9,134. It is
estimated that there are now 2,500,000
members of credit unions with assets of
more than $200,000,000.


St. Paul, Minn.—The Group Health h (Available through The Cooperative League)
Law of the Organization and Operation of
sociation at its annual meeting here, Pel The
Cooperatives, b y Israel 1'ackel, Mathew Ben
ruary 15, voted to launch a program of
der and Company. Albany, N. Y.—$5.00.
of the Laws Pertaining to Coopera
medical care on a cooperative basis.
^ Abntracts
tion In the V nlted States, its Possessions
New York—The Consumers Book Coop
erative completed its fourth year of op
eration with a volume of business total
ling $71,076, a gain of $9,500 over th
previous year.
The Book Cooperative, which recendj
moved to 27 Coenties Slip, New Yori
City, serves individuals, cooperatives an!
libraries in all sections of the Uniteu
States and several foreign countries.
Amarillo, Texas — Consumers Coopera
tives Associated reported at their annml
meeting here February 18 that six net
local cooperatives have joined the organ
ization in the past year. The regional co
operative opened a' branch warehouse a!
Lubbock, Texas, adopted a five-year planfor expansion and reported a sales volume,
for the year totalling $223,751.
North Kansas City—Consumers Coop
erative Association reports that its busi
ness for the past six months has been
34% ahead of its business for the same|
period in 1940.
Oakland, California—Consumers Coop-[
erative Stations, operating three service
stations, an automobile repair shop, >»
paint and appliance store in the East Baj
area, closed the year with 230 fully paidi
members and 1,500 who have made parl|
Consumers' Cooperation

and Territories, b y Bernard Ostrolenk and
V. J. Tereshtenko, prepared with the assist
ance of the Cooperative Project. Federal
Works Agency, Works Projects Administra
tion, New York City. Mimeographed 350
pages, published by the W.P.A.—Free.
Cooperative Rural Electrification in the linited
States, by Udo Rail, published by the Divi
sion of Agricultural Cooperation, Pan Amer
ican I'nion, Washington, D.C.
The People's Year Book, 1941, a y earbook of
cooperative development throughout the
world, published by the Cooperative Whole
sale Society. Manchester. England.—Paper,
C5 cents, cloth. $1.00.

Subscribe to

National Magazine of the
Consumers Cooperative

$1 ... per year
27 months for $2

order thru

The Cooperative League
167 West 12th Street
New York City

March, 1941

"Introduction to Cooperatives," by Dr.
Andrew J. Kress. A book of readings
on the cooperative movement includ
ing selected excerpts from the im
portant writers and economists of
almost a century.
"Democracy's Second Chance — Land,
Liberty and Cooperatives," by George
Boyle, editor of The Maritime Cooperator. A brilliant presentatioa of
the need for increased property in the
hands of all the people, drawing from
the cooperative movement practical il
lustrations of the effect of property
and cooperation on the lives of the
Regular edition—$2.00
Special cooperative edition—$1.00
Order through

167 West 12th Street
New York City

The Battle for Asia, l>y E dgar Snow, including
much material on the Chinese Industrial Co
operatives, Random House. New York.—$8.75.
A Fair Deal to Ali Through the Cooperatives,
by John C. Rawe. S..T. (Reprinted from
America, February 15, 1!)41).—'A cents.
•PM' Reports Fast-Growing. Cost-Cutting U .S.
Co-ops Shun AH Isms (Reprint from PM,
January 5, 1941).—2 c ents.
Fundamentals of Consumer Cooperation, b y
V. S . Alanne (Seventh Revised Edition). Co
operative Publishing Association.—25 cents.
All Join Hands, b y Edwards, Smith (Revised
Edition), Eastern Cooperative League.—15c.
A Consumer's Economy and Its Rivals, b y Hor
ace Kallen (reprint from The Christian Cen
tury), Cooperative Recreation, Inc., Del
aware, Ohio.—5 cents.
Dure We Be Christians? b y Walter Rauschenliusch. The Rauschenbusch Fellowship of
Baptists.—10 cents.
1940 Year Book, Central Cooperative Wholesale,
Superior, Wisconsin.
Co-ops for the Small Farmer, F arm Security
Administration, Washington, D.C.
Answering y our Questions about the Coopera
tive. Central Cooperative Wholesale.—'2c.
Operations of Credit Unions, 1939, I '.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics.—Free.
How to Kead Cooperative Financial State
ments, l)y Merlin U. Miller and (ilenu S. Fox.
published by Consumers Cooperative Asso
ciation. North Kansas City.—10 cents.




Leaflets to Aid You:

• Novels and Biography
Fresh Furrow: Burrls Jenkins ......................
The Brave Years: Wm. Heyliger ..................
My Story, by Paddy the Cope, Co-ops in
Ireland ..................................................................
A Doctor for the People, Michael Shadld,
special edition ..................................................


• Textbooks on Cooperation
Consumers' Cooperatives, Julia E. John
son, Debate Handbook
When You Buy, Trilling, Eberhart and
Nicholas, High school and college, two
chapters on consumer cooperatives ..........
Cooperation, Hall and Watkins, Official
British Textbook ..............................................
The Consumers Cooperative as a Distribu
tive Agency, Orin E. Burley ........................
Windows on the World, Kenneth Gould,
high school text, one chapter on coop
eratives ................................................................



• Student Cooperatives
American Students and the Cooperative
Movement, Claude Shotts .............................. .02
Co-ops on the Campus, Bertram B. Fowler .03
Campus Co-ops, William Moore .................... .05
Campus Co-op News Letter ..............................


• Cooperatives and Peace
Cooperatives and Peace, Harold Fey .......... .05
Cooperation—A Way of Peace, J. P. Warbasse, Co-op Edition ...................................... .50

• Cooperative Recreation
Consumer Consumed, Josephine
Johnson, a Puppet Play ................................ .05
Cooperative Kecreation, Carl Hutchinson,
reprinted from The Annals .......................... .05
Cooperative Kecreation Songs, A. M. Calkins .10
Two One Act Plays, Ellis Cowling .............. .15
The Answer, 3-act play, Ellis Cowling ...... .20
The Spider Web, 3-act play, Ellis Cowling .25
let's Play, Frank Shilston .............................. .20
All Join Hands, Edwards and Smith .......... .15
Education Through Recreation, L. P. Jacks 1.50
Fun for All, two spinning games, Midland
Co-op Wholesale ................................................ .10
List of recreational materials, songs, dances,
games, available from Cooperative Kecreation
Service, Delaware, Ohio.

• Credit Unions
Credit Unions, Frank O'Hara ..........................
What You Ought to Know About Credit
Vnions, Anthony Lehner ..............................
Credit Unions: The People's Banks, Max
well Stewart ......................................................
Cuna Emerges (Credit Unions), Roy BerSengren ................................................................
Credit Union North America. Eoy Bergengren ........................................................................



How a Consumers Cooperative Dif
fers From Ordinary Business ........
I Saw a People Rising From the
Dead, Rev. Ignatius W. Cox, S. J.
Learn About Consumers Cooperation
Sure Way is the Quick Way ..............
The Burden of Credit ..............................
What Cooperation Means to a De
pression Sick America, Cooley ......
Answering Your Questions About
the Cooperative ......................................
What Attracts Members to the Co
operative Store Movement, from
Sales Management ................................
Building a Brave New World, George
Tichenor ....................................................
A $600,000,000 Business With 2,000,000
Customers, Richard Giles, Printers'
Ink Monthly ............................................
Union of Church and Economics is
Dramatized as Co-ops Reveal Rapid
Progress, P. H. Erbes, Jr., Printers'
Ink ..............................................................
Brickbats and Boomerangs, E. H.
Bowen ........................................................


.02 1
.02 1.1
.02 l.(
.03 fl


Traveling the Middle Way in Sweden, 16 urn
silent, produced by the Harmon Foundatlci
Unit I, Land of Sweden, 2 reels. Unit II
Consumer Cooperation, 2 reels. Unit 111
Agricultural Cooperatives, 2 reels. Rental pel
unit: color. $5; black and wfcite, $3; add.
tional showings, $2.50 color and $1.50, bli '
and white.
"The Lord Helps Those — Who Help El
Other," a new 3 reel, 1C mm. film of the
Scotia adult education and cooperative
gram, produced by the Harmon Founds—
Excellent photography. $4.50 per day, $2.1
additional showings, $13.50 per week.
Consumers Serve Themselves, 1 reel, 16
Kodacrome, shows how cooperators on
eastern seaboard are providing themsel'
with tested, quality CO-OP products. $2
day, $C per week.
"A House Without a Landlord," a new !..
reel, 1C mm. silent film on the Amalgamate
Cooperative Houses in New York City.
"Clasping Hands," 1C mm. silent, two reel
showing how cooperation is taught in tl
schools of France.
"When Mankind Is Willing," a 1C mm. sili
three-reel film, with English titles, of
erative stores, wholesales and factories
A Day With Kagawa, 3 reel, silent, 16
Kagawa and his co-ops in Japan.
Rental: Each of four above $3 per day, |1.J
for each additional showing or $10 per weel,



MAY 3 1941

Organize Cooperatives, 19"x28"
Green, 5 for $1 ..................................................
Cooperative Principles, 19"x28"
Blue, 5 for $1 ....................................................
Cooperative Ownership, 19"x28"
Mulberry, 5 for $1 ............................................
Consumer Ownership — Of. By and For
the People, 19"x28", Red-White-andBlue, 5 for $1 ....................................................
Buy Co-op, 19"x28", Red-White-and-Blue,
5 for $1 ................................................................
Marcli On. Democracy, 19"x28"
Red-White-and-Blue, 5 for $1 ....................

fNIVERSARY, Eleanor Roose 'elt, Thurman Arnold,
;e D. Aiken, Ei Stanlpyj^jjnes and others.

E. R. Bowen

Albert Rees

APRIL. 1941


Consumers' Cooperaticr






N. Wallace J. It is a simple summary by way of background to say thil Volume XXVII. Departments on genet sumer representative in Washington. . City. Mail your order to: M • I Ml MfMI THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street. Ten Cents APRIL. Price. Education. At least that's our goal and we are undertaking the experimi monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. Reviews of new pamphlets and books. December 19. Such a magazine «• quires a lot of work on the part of the editors. If it is supj CO-OP COMMENTS ported in three ways it will be continued: first with additional editorial and Abraham Lincoln once said that "The Lord must have loved the common tional assistance. Published It will win only with your individual support and the support of every regional E. Associate Editor. venture to suggest that there are some of cooperative endeavor. third with paid subscriptions. The big job of the Organization of the Movement] which has required so much time is on the way to culmination. Now let's put the resolutions into practice. Highlights of National and Intern "On a great many garments now being offered.00 a year. N. if other regionals will also follow throujta democracy are down the other. well as their regional directors and department heads are subscribers to the natiod Cooperative "yard-stick" regulation of prices succeeded in getting for Danish magazine.. Miss Harriet Elliott. Capitalism is digging its grave still deeper. Finance . And all for the same subscription price of $1. 1917. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need.$1. The Wool and Cotton Reporter says that Business." or "stimulated consumption by cooperative beginning of a large enough subscription list to do the necessary job of supportin| yard-stick methods?" Poverty and dictatorship are down one road—plenty and a worthy national magazine in the U.700 field representatives. We have worked PEACE.DEMOCRACY Business and Finance matters because of some vitally necessary things bein# quired until additional staff members could be financed. Will you do your part ? Entered as Seecond Class Matter.A. This is ft. Sometimes we will include a 16-page pamphlet as a center SK also might prepare to prevent being gyped by building cooperatives stronger tion.• An Experiment in Cooperative (~* f~\ K I C I I A A d D \>W IN J U /V\ IZ K Confidence COOPERATION Long have we dreamed of having in the United States the kind of a nation! magazine worthy of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. the wearing or service value to the tional News. says that the average family is gyped $45 per Organization and the four corner stones of Recreation. One of them is such a man as William Huuskonen. U. No.S. farmers 66 cents of the consumer's dollar. Editor. second with your contributions of news and views in every people. 1S79. the recrea tion job under way until Miss Edwards took over. people. Campbell.S. Campbell took over. Now tht OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT 1941 preliminary budget looks like such a possibility is ahead in a few months. The Directors of the Cooperative. he made so many of them. 1941 This is no apology. New York City under the Act of March 3. scarcity by political big-stick methods. We had to get the publicity job under way until year in overcharging and underweighing. operative. whereby the and carries the suggestions into action will receive in return far more than the in voluntary association. for which we have a number of unpublished manuscripts awaiting publicatii and faster. at the Post Office at New York. while cooperative "yard-sticks" lead to eventual to this effect. We have not had a special cditoieducational assistant on the national staff who could help to do the job. Of course he lives in the same but a supplement to the regional newspapers— that every cooperatirt Finland." Yet we. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. Three or four pages of action-stim' better.. Specifically the requirement is that ever)! regulation "big-stick" Political regional see to it that every one of its local cooperative managers and directors n of effort in getting for American farmers 42 cents of the consumer's dollar in 1940. Subscribe now. * * * * The March anniversary issue was the first sample of what you can antidpaKf possible illustrations makes which offset in Printed issue. political "big-sticks" lead League and of National Cooperatives at their recent meetings voted unanimouslj to eventual dictatorship in a nation.S. We say "as an experiment" truthfully. con lating editorials." Of course you contents of this issue. * * * * leader should read the national journal for the significant articles and ottiei has only succeeded after years prices farm of material which they get nowhere else. 4 doublea of publication the undertaking are we where point the to now are we sized magazine as an experiment. Y. All these are illustrated in tit1 consumer will not be much over half what it was several years ago. Carson took over. "uncommon" cooperators whom the Cooperative Movement should love a little We believe the first two requirements can be met in case the third is done the most. Furthermore. Minn. gyping is becoming bigger and double of art another This is Prepare to be gyped more! The gentle A new front cover with a good illustration. R. A Capitol-Letter from Washington. We will venture the statement any cooperative leader who reads a single one of the twelve monthly issues careful' An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement.A. year's subscription. who mortgaged his But the Movement must recognize that this is its national journal—that it is nfl farm on four different occasions to raise money for the Co-op. At least one leading general article.. Will American farmers choose "subsidized cooperative proposes to subscribe for their 1. One regional insurant economic as well as political democracy. In no other way can the job be done. 167 West 12th St. and the legislative job under waj until Mr.PLENTY. $1 per year. Y.A. Bowen.

. Leagues of Nations. Particular tribute is paid to the former editor. Here is a prose-poem by margins of saving up and to serve their members better. Coady says. covenants of peoples. the before * * * * to exploit the worker. "We try to sell Cooperj tion. 2.. Cooperatives constantly reduce their savings margins down as they should do. L." * * * * E. . scholar as well as a saint and has originated a style of writing which will go down price levels for all the people and bust the trusts is beginning to be demonstrated in history. The C. says in the 40th Anni versary number of Kooperatoren. A. .I." the under new something is This again. Again autocracy will challenge the political democracies that even now are shaken by internal revolution. If he ever honors you by calling. by power of cannon and shot and shell. It therefore invests the individual. says that "Co-ops are Goldenit is a good thing for the worker can be of any help to the worker Rule Price-Yardsticks. They must ' by acting as yard-sticks and forcing BE YOUR OWN BOSS accordingly constantly add on new lines with larger margins both to keep their From time to time we plan to print more poetry. " Consumers' Cooperation alone regards the to. man being and his needs as the basis of the whole economic system. for the new man would be a cooperative man. treat him like a saint and not like a tramp Movement today are the active-price policies being followed by Ohio and Indian as he might be assumed to be from his weather beaten face and clothes. as a method of presenting truth in the language of love in in America.Two of the things worth your special watching in the Consumers' Cooperativt Francis. . But if a worker cannot find 1. of L. I want a new spirit—that neuj spirit will be a cooperative spirit. Bowen. the fighting in * * * * James Moore. we also pay tribute to our con temporary "Land and Freedom" upon it's 40th Anniversary issue. a true prophet who could see so clearly into the future more than 20 years ago as to write: "Great God! We are the torch-bearers of an economic world-gospel! We bring balm for the healing of the nations. F. He is a in fertilizer and by Saskatchewan in petroleum.O. says. and let Cooperation sell Insurance and Commodities. a pinchbeck Hohenzollern or a real Napoleon. its driving fora and goal. new and better ways. boss." WE SALUTE THE 40th ANNIVERSARY NUMBER OF "LAND AND FREEDOM" While we are celebrating the 25th Anniversary of the Cooperative League and the 27th Anniversary of Consumers' Cooperation. The power of cooperatives to lowei. we predict. editor of Consumers' Cooperation says. The thing that is struggling to be born is a cooperative order. 2. it will be found that its chief contribution to human progress will be its exemplification of the policies to be avoided by nations who wish to improve their social conditions and its complete and triumphal refutation of the sophistries of Karl Marx and his followers. the fight to worker the help gas is all burned up—there's still something left in a cooperative tank—the patron join a Co-op and be his own boss. are veritable 'scraps of paper'. Cooperatives must deal with and accept all users of the products they handle into membership." "We venture the prediction that as the Bolshevist experiment de velops. We have taken the liberty of changing his word "Farming Commune" into the word "Co-op. in Sweden." to exploit himself in a Co-op. editor of the Ohio Cooperator. If rejected. and the A. C. editor of Eastern Cooperator. . a modern Tamerlane will seek to fatten. . Maurin is a modern St." CO-OP EDITORS SAY: 3. world missionary. All the great answers in the world are going in our direc tion—the direction of cooperation.F. up it filling starts which age dividend if it is a bad thing And 4. . "The guiding principle for the pres ent should be To make peace by the creation in himself of a new man out of both parties. Don'i ever hold a cooperative meeting without having cooperative books and pamphlets for sale." * * * * E. Cooperatives must constantly expand into additional lines to offset the re duction in margins in the older lines. .O." CO-OP LEADERS SAY: H \ Monsignor Luigi Ligutti says. Peter Maurin which appeared in The Catholic Worker." * * * * Dr.. But the worker must have a boss sun. The emergence of that new man would create peace." I Ralph Snyder. R. "Talk with your monej 1 for plenty and peace every time you buy or bank. M. Trading with patrons and not permittting them to be come members is undemocratic and violates the "Open Membership" principle of cooperatives. a message for the op pressed. with the supreme right of decision." ECONOMIC NECESSITY—NOT THEORY—DEMANDS THAT COOPERATIVES DO THESE SIX THINGS: 1. Cooperatives must not gamble on inventories. M.' .I. James Cummins. "Throw up the bulwarks of ownership. we might as well give up the Cooperative Movement. Cooperatives cannot eventually succeed in competition if they confine their trade to either rural or urban members when they handle com modities which both use. a lasting peace. a new Magna Charta of emancipation for mankind. Joseph Dana Miller. will over-ride the world. Again on dying democracies. let it repre' sent new ideas. . says that "After the a boss to fight. says. in his capacity as a consumer. "Unless the Cooperative Movement is soundlf founded on education. the and George Tichenor. editor of the Cooperative Consumer. 3. said "As I empty this vial of fuel from the new refinery into the old tank-wagon. Here is one of his prose-poems. Stanley Jones. president of the Wichita Bank for Cooperatives." * * * * Anders Oerne. more readable form. Again the Man on Horseback. former Secretary of the K. he can always boss. as they cannot gamble on 66 Consumers' Cooperate' April 67 . trickling through and permeating and modi fying the old structure. of F.

6... when ad why to buy. We are gradual ly. . We welcome the assistance of auditors as well as editors and educators and managers in converting cooperators to this fact.S.. forget the hopes. in 1919. learning this fact. Only a co-operative store is a meeting place and a visiting place.. trying to revive a dying economy. Our side kept saying in the press and in the Senate that this lease-lend bill is a bill to keep America out of war. For the language adopted for rV. Yet our writers and speakers admit that they deceive the people. We were in the war as deeply as now when we amended the neutrality law to keep out of the war in 1939.. DECEPTION WILL NOT BUILD DEMOCRACY How can we ever build a democracy on a barrage of duplicity by political and journalistic writers and speakers ? Do we have to be drugged and think that out o( the seed of deception the flower of truth will grow ? Democracy is dependent upon whole truth-telling more than upon any other foundation. promises and political deceptions of the past and provide direct means to meet whatever situation may arise.. A co-operative store. Cooperative employees do not make "sales talks" but "buying-talks. The only ray of hope is that today they are admitting it earlier and not after years as a part of the long history of the past." said. to get the women interested in the co-operative move ment. You never see whole families congregate at a co-operative elevator or co-operative oil station. Cooperatives must build capital faster by voting more of their savings to reserves and shares instead of paying them out in cash. as no other co-operative does. They have no right to gamble on Board of Trade fixed prices on com modities any more than they have to gamble on Stock Exchange fixed prices on their shares. The seed of jealousy." of" "' forming economic combinations and trade agreements which increasingly destroy widespread individual initiative and private ownership. GUEST EDITORIAL We are glad to be able to reproduce the following from the Nebraska Union Farmer. "I have been around a lot among co-operatives and co-operators in my 25 years' experience as an auditor. .shares. and to enable us to keep acquainted constantly with our neighbors and fellow co-operators. the seed of the deepseated hatred..cturately. 5. and it is my reasoned conclusion and firm conviction that no other kind of a co-operative is as effective as a co-operative store in bringing the people together. after a war fought on the slogan: "Make the World Safe for Democracy"—"Why.. just as mud as industry needs to and does employ purchasing agents.. Consumers have found that they need to or ganize and appoint purchasing agents to buy for them as a whole. . it is more than true that a coopera tive store handling household supplies as well as vocational supplies is the principal type of a cooperative as it becomes a cooperative community center. suggested definitions foi consideration and adoption in a cooperative dictionary. is the way to solve the world's problems. PURCHASING: Consumers' Cooperatives are the purchasing agents of thei ultimate consumer patron-members. my fellow citizens.. from time to time. Many words have been used by the present system as a smoke screen to disguise the fact that business practices were becoming the opposite of the original meaning of the terms being used. For example. after they have determined that war." Consumers' Cooperatioi Apn!> 1941 69 ." We should tell the whole truth while we can. 4. Profit business lives on debtcooperative business must be debt free. according to the needs of their employer consumers. "No other kind of a co-operative serves like a co-operative store. Consider these examples and tremble for our democracy unless and until we canj begin whole truth-telling. rather than selling to them. creating co-operative solidarity. "It has truthfully been said that we need co-operative stores." Herbert Agar—after quoting a description of the lease-lend bill as "not a bill to keep America out of war. in their corisi(lerecl judgment. and gives them frequent contacts with each other. H. or any woman—let me say is there any child here—who does not know that the seed of war in the modern world is industrial and commercial rivalry? The real reason that the war that we have just fin ished took place was that Germany was afraid her commercial rivals were 68 going to get the better of her. as a co-operative center and meeting place. There is great need that Consumers' Cooperation use and define its terras f. that we are in an undeclared war.has become . in this way.. written by J. They must pay back to themselves any interest on capital as well as any profits on purchases. or not to buy at all. "That is precisely what it is. Virgil Jordan—"It is the accepted custom and the normal man ners of modern government to conceal all important facts from the public or to lie about them. but not rapidly enough. ties the co-operators of the community together. the demand for the preservation." Arthur Krock in 1941—"The official dispositon (is) to look at the case squarely. The majority in a democracy have a perfect right to go to war if they so desire. Without minimizing in any way the significance of a cooperative oil station or elevator. Cooperatives and cooperators must mobilize their money cooperatively. Cooperatives must constantly improve their financial condition until thej achieve the goal of never giving nor accepting credit. To that end we will offer. . handling household supplies. morally and officially in the war. where. That's bunk!" Dr. Cooperative employees buy for the consumer-patron-members in front of the counter who are the owners and employers. in order to free themselves from monopoly financial control as well as monopoly industrial control. was hot commercial and industrial rivalry. President Wilson.. ai well as buy together cooperatively." William Alien White—"The enactment of the lease-lend bill puts the U. when business . We also need co-operative stores to serve as places for the everyday exchange of information and ideas. competitive age is not the vital language which will be used in the oncoming co operative age. but a bill to enable the President to fight an undeclared war against Germany. But it is fatal to democracy for a people to let their speakers and writers deceive them as to what they are doing. and the reason -why some nations went into the war against Germany was that they thought Germany would get the commercial advantage of them." They advise what. Increasing ownership rathci than immediate dividends should be the constant purpose of the movement.. Many words may be the same but their meaning will be largely revised. is there any man here. economically. . an auditor. . and keeping the community keyed up to a good co-operative pitch."monopoly-competition" "free-competition. . A COOPERATIVE DICTIONARY There is an insistent need of adopting and defining clearly the phraseology which the Cooperative Movement should use.

It has no religious. encroachment of autocratic Euro pean 'Isms'.Mrs.. Eleanor Roosevelt * /^xJ'^y' Elliier Morgan^fedltor Journal of the Nat'1 Ed. The "I look on the Cooperative Movement as the first great step toward fascist and nazl regimes destroy the soul of cooperation because a full cooperative order. in that it givei of the Cooperative League marks a each member a vote.Dr. regardless Of the milestone in the progress of one of the number of shares he owns. Edgar Schmledeler.Alfred Bjfngham.Thurman Arnold Assistant Attorne © Bachrach C OmmAn S« nSe "The Cooperative Movement offers a great oppor tunity to mobilize all the brains of mankind.___ 71 . Warunion or agrarian movement. Editor ''. Bachrach . most construc except for funds reinvested or used for tive economic reform movements.second quarter century period? Giant steps toward a cooperative economy powerful enough both to checkmate the dreadful abuses of American Individualistic capitalism and to forestall the. It is education. without which our democracy cannot hope to survive." . Finland and Sweden in the pre-war days. I hope not battles for bullets. © "If a vigorous cooperative movement and private business can function successfully side by side. economy. John 'iiAynes Holmes Minister Community Church "And the prospects for the.. we shall become masters for continued growth In the future for the coo of our own destiny. racial or A PIONEER COOPERATOR class barriers. When we learn to fight out our battles for brains "With the millions whom It has helped.. 'athollc unlv. E. Two years later he gave up his American cooperatives will rival in in surgical practice to devote his full time to cooperation and. Warbasse has always insisted except to wreck those into which the. organized in Dr. Editor French edition Review of national Cooperation. and resolve to serve It with an ever increased fidelity. Warbasse's Brooklyn It will be a long time before the j home. of America "The cooperative movement Is the ultimate democ racy and the hope of peace and brotherhood among men. His fluence those of Denmark.COMMENDATION'S FOR COOPERATIVES ON world. March 21.. " Is struggling now to be born In the world. Its savings.. have been able to do little with them. 1941 -Boris Skomorowsky. Stanli£$/Jones World Missionary 70 Consumers' Cooperate April. " General © Blackstoi eratlve movement. return at stated intervals. Let us take new courage as we behold the greatness of our cause. James P." . related fields. but it is not a trade The retirement of Dr. Working men and farm ers may gain by it. The Communist! into all who had contacts with It. 1911' ANNIVERSARY OF THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE "Cooperation holds within Itself the destinies of our race. Assoc. that consumers' cooperation is an im Red brethren had Intruded themselves. St. It Is basse this week from the presidency essentially democratic." Blank and Stoller "If your curves of growth continue as steeply up ward as they have been In recent years the coop eratives will soon represent America's biggest business. vigorous and youthful spirit animated probably do act as a brake against ex the organization and put enthusiasm tremes of doctrine. that fact Is In itself some assurance of a free competitive system. twenty-five years since the League was r to the consumers themselves. The cooperative order is the thing whlcl they overthrow democracy and abollsh^reedom o£ thought." "Rev.." . partial agency in this competitive From editorial The New York Times. world's most peaceful. Dr. OSB turer in Cooperative School Social Science." © "It seems to me that the cooperatives have a great field In the future. Alken © Bachrach "The cooperative movement cannot exist If It cannot think. They . Francis Xavler University George D.

Let me call your attention to the fact that Commodity Prices leveled out at about 146 from 1922 to 1929. to have any—to go on a cash basis—like the Swedes say. but are still in great danger from possible uncollectible cred its and declines in inventory values.FINANCE DEBT AND DISASTER Watch Credit. 1 woke up enough to open one But still. of them went broke and their exist One ence is even forgotten. and since we had ended "a war that was to end all wars". Commodity wholesales and retails today are far stronger to meet the war boom and after the war bust. which survived had to cut the Consumers' Cooperatio' April. Commodity Prices boomed during the war period of 1915 to 1920. Transfer the savings resulting from inventor. inventories and separate your savings resulting from price increases from your sav ings resulting from normal operations. Read also with care the article which follows this editorial under the titlei I "DEBT AND DISASTER". PREPARE NOW AGAINST FUTURI. Prices held tof about the same index figure from September to December 1939 and then because of the dragout of the war during the winter and the collapse of Franct in the summer they gradually fell until they reached only about" 6 per cent above September in August 1940. We shout the warning to cooperatives and cooperators. go up on account of the excess profits being taxed away. The 1920 boom and bust came at a time when cooperative purchasing wholesales were generally only Many in their early beginnings.' price increases to a special reserve against future declines in inventory prices. or about 50% above pre-war prices. PRICE DECLINES. Note also that the 1929 boom was in Stock Prices . Surplus factories. It's our. rather than production goods which turn over much more slowly and accord ingly cause far more disastrous results in a decline in prices. Prices of the 28 basic commodities jumped in three weeks during September 1939 mote' than 25 per cent. I should be happy if I could contribute some lessons from these first-hand ex periences to the Cooperative Move ment in order to protect it from the bust of Disaster which is sure to It follow the present boom in Debt.not Commodity 73 . inventories will fall in value. R. which proved to be sound reasoning. we also strongly urged cooperatives to double price their inventories at the close of that year. George Warren of Cornell University never accepted the theory of a permanent higher price level. The boom then ended with a bust. plateau of prosperity". Furthermore when prices eventually decline your receivables (if you have any) will be difficult to collect. "Neither give nor accept credit. Business and Prices !! BASIC COMMODITIES (INDEX FIGURES) THE PRICE BOOM IS ON! LOOK OUT! Ever since the declaration of war in Europe in September 1939 we have been| earnestly and insistently endeavoring to help cooperative managers. Note particularly that the 1920 boom was in Commodity Prices . Secondly. fortunate indeed today that our cooperative inventories are largely quick consumption goods. Cooperatives should PREPARE! PREPARE! The kind of preparation wean talking about should be increasingly clear. Since then they have been gradually rising again to 20 per cent above in the middle of February 1941 and from then on they jumped rapidly 12 per cent more to 32 per cent in a month's time from the middle of Feb ruary to the middle of March when this is written. is in the hope of doing so that I am writing this article. The way to prepare to meet such declines is to double price your. They will surely come eventually. We warned first against gambling in inventories. even though Commodity Prices went way up. The possibil ity of so doing will be determined by rcy ability to express these les sons clearly and by the willingness of cooperators to learn in part from others' experiences and not alone from their own trials and errors. 1 had to go through a second boom and bust in 1929 to get both eyes opened wide . The wholesale price index figure rose from 100 in the five year period from 1910-14. The way to prepare against uncollectible receivables is ncl. since no living eye. directors and members to prepare themselves to face the certain price boom and bust ahead. business with which I was connected the inventory losses were larger than all the net profits of the previous five years. which awakened ray mind to study into their causes." TAKE HEED! PREPARE NOW AGAINST THE BUST THAT IS SURE TO EVENTUALLY FOLLOW THE INCREASING BOOM IN PRICES. 1941 E. This was assumed to be a "permanent However. in other words at the prices prevailing on September 1st and on December 31st ad to-set up the difference in a reserve against future price declines. 72 Having been in business in 1920 and 1929 through two of the great est booms and busts in the history of America. When they do. which fooled the government statisticians so great ly that they largely discarded the 1910-14 index base of 100 and started a new 1926 base of 100. to 226 at the begin ning of 1920. job to be a watchman on the wall. surplus labor i and surplus inventories are now being rapidly absorbed and barring the miracle of a possible but doubtful early peace they will now continue to rise rapidly. Dr. person had gone through a war boom and bust. The index figure fell In the within one year to 138.not Stock Prices did not Stock Prices. Bowen value of its shares in half on account of the drastic decline in commodity prices. and accordingly Cornell University statistics continue to be based on 1910-14. since the war boom and bust may and probably will be even Ute are greater than after 1920.

of both booms and busts in Business and Prices. Johansson. I wrote an article warn ing the Cooperative Movement of April. and get a good discount. of in the "kindergarten stage of economics." When a bust occurs we simply change political parties . Johansson of Sweden in his Before I office in Stockholm. 75 . which we reviewed in CONSUMERS COOPERATION." He literally walked the floor in his disturb ance over our economic ignorance and asked. " My first reaction. tbat we have. Mr. "Another Bust Ahead . predicting a "Boom and Bust Again" which occurred shortly thereafter.not economic organizations as we should and as is necessary. I have never read of a bus iness man in America who was dis turbed over installment credit i n advance of t he bust which followed in 1937. CREDIT AND BUSINESS 19 Note also carefully in the upper chart that the booms and busts in Business correspond to the booms and busts in Prices. let me relate an experience when meeting Mr. Warren described us.but why draw the moral? As though a change in po litical' parties would solve any real economic problems! My second reaction was to dis cover that CREDIT was the "key" the very foundation .whereas in 1920 only Commodity Prices had boomed and in 1929 only Stock Prices had boomed. and the bust followed as you can see by the accompanying chart. "I am 1929?" sorry to say. "Haven' t you Americans learned anything about credit yet?" However. Both Commodity and Stock Prices began to boom to gether (a phenomenon 1 had never seen before) .Prices. Stock Prices broke through the ceiling in 1924 and flew out of sight to 381 in 1929. Commodity and Common Stock Prices are the most sensitive advance indicators I haveever been able to find as to the probable booms and busts in Busi It was as a result of fol ness. as Dr. After the next bust . he asked me thi's pene trating question. after 1929 we changed from Republican to Democrat. like other Americans was "economically illiterate". although Roger Babson wrote a book years later. I2O MO 100 70 COMMODITIES INDEX FIGURES DOLLAR FIGURES 400 300 200 I too 1910 74 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 Consumers' Cooperatic To indicate that other coun tries' Cooperative leaders are alive to the trends of such charts and statistical warnings. and quoted him as saying. "Save first.Prepare For It". How I learned this can best be told by a brief story of a small part of my own personal experiences and economic awakenings. when I opened both eyes after 1929. After the bust of 1920. "Is it really true that in the United States you have increased your install ment credit even more than in My answer was. after the horse was stolen again. You will thus avoid the installment surcharge and have some money left to buy more of the things so appealingly placed before you. we changed from Democrat to Republican. lowing these lines of Commodity and Stock Prices that we wrote the edi torial and published the charts in CONSUMERS COOPERATION in the early fall of 1937. Both hit the same low in 1932 of about 90. could do more than say "Good Morning". was that I. entitled "The Folly of Installment Buying". and then Came to Scandinavia where you have economic intelligence to learn more from you. 1941 another Boom and Bust. Again we wrote another editorial with charts in the fall of 1939 in CONSUMERS COOPERATION entitled. Then oc curred a double bust of both Stock and Commodity Prices. Buy for cash.

Dr. Simpson told borough Bill. "Install Then she turned ment Credit". of the Department of Business Statistics of Ohio State University. Immediately he forced his farmer borrowers to sell their wheat at the high prices which still pre vailed and pay off their notes and thus saved both them and the bank. how he knew he could raise wheat at 5<H a bushel. He then went on to tell of the call ing of other crop and livestock loans from time to time in the spring of 1920. However. then I editor of Wallace's Farmer. that they had voted to call the loans in the sum Then the bust came. when I asked him as to what his borrowers were going to do with 45£ wheat. was given by the Comptroller with tears in his eyes. 1941 simple words.In the spring of 1931 I was at tending a tractor and combine show at Dodge City. " That answer caused him to leave 76 for home within another week be cause of his worry over what might When he happen to wheat loans. would probably talk production and the other price the answer lay somewhere in the I went combination of the two. late president of the Farmers Union. she wrote underneath the line the April. Wheat was selling on track there at 45<r. 1 was certain that the bottom in business was going out from under me a second time and was naturally Such desperate to learn why. This information was also confirmed by John Simpson. or about half of the 1922-29 price. much as I did learn from the trip. 77 . In the winter of 1919 when every thing was boom "rosy" (the bust clouds however were gathering. to Drt Viva Boothe. I came home still confused and continued to go into the various State Universities I . credit started business upward. When it broke. "EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF CREDIT CAUSE BOOMS AND BUSTS In IN BUSINESS AND PRICES". when 1 asked him what he was going to do with wheat at 45£ a bushel. he put one with wheat as security The other to see what happened. In 1915 private foreign credit. and again installment credit expanded when a break came in 1924 and pushed business upward until 1929. arrived. After the break ending in 1932. and that that was what I was hunting. who was the first to help me really solve the problem. many long and troubled years to find the guilty culprit CREDIT. was referred by another profes sor. built a boom on the sand foundation of credit . after a break down ward in 1924. asked him. and yet so bust. he and his wife had gone to California to spend the About a week after they winter. government domestic credit and installment credit started business up again. in spite of their protests that wheat was going still higher.ten in all were visited. DISASTER ALWAYS Production for FOLLOWS DEBT. on to Washington and to Ithaca. Boothe drew a Business line upward from 1921 to 1924 and asked if I knew why it had gone up. She began to talk of CREDIT as the primary determining factor of both Business and Prices. a large farmer.) My second conversation was with a banker. and asked again. Today CREDIT is expanding at a Three speed never before known. loans. sec eventually. he said that the University was keeping cost (To make the records for him.a boom. but as small as a man' s hand in the sky). While there 1 talked with two men who opened ray eyes wider. as no one else had done. and again asked. "Foreign Credit". installment credit pushed business back up until In 1922 private foreign 1920.Private Installment Credit .Government Foreign Credit. told me this most illuminating story. When it broke in 1937. the line downward sharply after 1929. started business up ward. that agri cultural economists had their feet on the ground more than At last I general economists. they were driving along and saw carloads of oranges being He dumped alongside the road. learned incidentally. notes were discounted but the wheat note was returned with a letter saying that wheat loans were not being taken any longer. "What caused Business to fall?" Then I had the answer in a nutshell. "Who knows more about why wheat has gone down in price and why millions of men are out of work than anyone else in Ameri ca?" His answer was to recommend my seeing Dr. said that he thought it would at least be 50£ when harvest came and that he could raise wheat at that When 1 asked him as to price. "Deflation in America is proceeding in a calm and orderly way without strikes or riots of any kind that usually accompany such a process. which was later converted into gov ernment credit. he testified. he said.Gov ernment Domestic Credit . " As a result of the conversaConsumers' Cooperatii tions with the farmer and banker »t Dodge City. From there I went on and stopped at Des Moines and spent a half day with Henry A. The stopped and asked "Why?" answer he received was this: "The banks have called the fruit loans and the prices have dropped. destruction financed by Debt is the ultimate of unsound economics. of a trip to Washington in the winter of 1920 when he asked the Comptroller of the Currency as i to when they were^oing t o c allj The answer. Wallace. Then she continued the Business line upward. Kansas. govern ment domestic credit and install ment credit were again expanded and business rose. who threw his hands up in answer to my question as to why wheat had gone down in price and unemployment had gone up. now President of the Colo rado State College of Agriculture.s count. returned to Dodge City he bundled up a few notes and sent them to the Federal Reserve Bark for dis In the package of note. retary of the treasury.when the credit was shrunk by calling the loans the war boom collapsed as it had to Andrew Mellon. kinds of credit are being expanded all at once as never before . I went to Manhattan and started talking with agricul tural economists including Roy Green. Nourse in Washington and Dr. Decrease credit suddenly . who. story complete. First.a So simple. coldly said in 1921. she wrote underneath the line. "Do you know what pushed business After up further after 1924?" my side head shake. We had mer. To my answer saying "No". desperation may be what is needed to wake one up economically. Warren in Ithaca . it should be added that 1 saw wheat sell for 19£ a bushel on track in Southeastern Colorado when harvest actually came that in his testimony on the GoldsMr. who. crease credit suddenly .

' more than the original par value. Prepare as cooperators and cooperatives to be financially strong in order to be able to build a cooperative world. Furthermore commodity prices would also be stabilized in The Rochdale Pioneers were right a cooperative economy to their true that "DEBT IS THE INVENTION OF Values on the basis of barter ex It is the Devil of ^ change and the law of demand and THE DEVIL". GET THE COOPERATIVE Ignorance. Cooperative "yard-sticks" 4 are far more powerful than govern (2) GO ON A CASH BASIS AND ment "big-sticks" in preventing NEITHER GIVE NOR ACCEPT profit-piling and thus stabilizing CREDIT. supply would really function. sible. The ways are simple and yet they cannot be learned and put It takes ^ into practice overnight. collapse with its debt-sand founda tion. While working with one hand towards this greater ideal of a national and international coopera tive economy. which is the true wave of the future. local and regional cooperative prepare f or the boom and bust • ahead. SERVES. BUILD A COOPERATIVE ECONOMY time to convince people in a dem ocratic organization like a coop STRONGER AND FASTER TO PER erative. and credit is based on the gambling hysteria of hope of profits and fear of loss. how can outsiders like cooperatives ever think they can do so? I have told this story after much hesitation. they would exercise a powerful stabilizing in fluence over both the general com modity price level. tem is still dominant. COOPER protect themselves by getting their ATIVES CANNOT SPECULATE * houses in order for the bust that ON THE STOCK MARKET. after making 47 million dollars in the two years from 1927-29. MOVEMENT OUT OF DEBT-DEVIL BUSI Secondly. Production for the washout after the war would be geared to consumption. During the first chapter of the World War. but have now been moved to do so for two rea sons'First. THEY is bound to take place while the SHOULD NOT SPECULATE IN present monopoly-capitalistic sys THE COMMODITY MARKET. and supply would not be a speculation for an unknown de mand as now. lost all of it and 1 %'A m illion more in the next three yea~rs. common stocks. INSTE^AD OF PAY since any increased earnings are not ING THEM OUT IN SHARES distributed on the basis of share OR IN PATRONAGE RETURNS. If an insider like Morgan cannot win in extending credit. COOPERATIVES SHOULD of commodities and stocks. and in 1941 when we again began foreign lending. a cooperative economy Prepare against NESS METHODS. MANENTLY SOLVE THESE PROBLEMS > (1) KEEP INVENTORIES AND IN. out the booms and busts in prices DEBT.The 1929 peak of business was the highest boom ever reached and was followed by the greatest bust. with the other hand we must batten down the hatches and get our cooperative ships in order for the storms ahead by reducing inventories proportionate to vol ume. or when private-profit business will Consumers' Cooperation' April. because I do not like to discuss personal ex periences publicly. THE * creased earnings in private business RESULT WILL BE DISASTER. (3) VOT3 MORE OF THE SAVINGS however. wards. a cooperative economy would result in steadily increasing abundance for all.' BER OWE THE COOPERATIVE A cooperative economy would level GET OUT OF ANYTHING. that it will be followed by a greater bust. over production and over credit. Other illustrations have developed sectionally by regional cooperatives pooling their purchasing and bor rowing powers together. Credit would only be expanded to equal the needs of such a stabilized production and consump Today business is tion economy.. J. However. Prepare f would result in the stabilization of credit and business. 1941 a known demand. based on the balloon of credit. The time is over ripe for all cooperative purchasing and borrowing to be co ordinated nationally and thus enable the Consumers Cooperative Purchasing Movement to take its rightful and necessary place as the stabilizer of the economy of the nation. The three most dan gerous days for business in American history were in 1915 when the first world war foreign loans were made. rather than scarcity-poverty for the many and super-abundant riches for the few. there is yet time. ANYTHING AND LET NO MEM. over interest rates. P. OWE NO SUPPLIER business and hanking. shares can never be worth INTO INTEREST FREE RE. Thirdly. there were large losses sustained by cooperatives in 1937 and 1940 because leaders did not follow the advice in the editorials in CONSUMERS COOPERATION to re duce inventories and credit and build up reserves for the bust ahead. while CREDIT BOOMS BUT THIS IS . Second. Now in NOT BUILD ON CREDIT. Were all the purchases and sav ings of cooperators today pooled together nationally in cooperative businesses and banks. I am concerned lest still greater losses be incurred after the bubble of this present debt boom busts. the House of Morgan. all COMMODITY PRICES ARENOT of this uncertainty should induce YET RISING AS RAPIDLY people generally to build coopera GENERALLY AS IN PREVIOUS tives stronger and faster. Now a still greater business boom is It is reasonable to assume on. and by increasing reserves. Morgan and Company unloaded their private foreign loans on the government and were saved from the disaster which was predicted by Ambassador Page unless we declared war and the government took over the However after Morgan loans. We already have a few il lustrations of how cooperatives organized regionally can control some commodity prices and interest rates in their territories. »re reflected in increased prices of In a cooperative.' The above is written as a warning VESTMENTS LOW IN RELA to cooperators and cooperatives to TION TO VOLUME. to enable them BECAUSE OF IDLE FACTOR to take over the control of the IES AND MEN AND SURPLUS economic system as rapidly as pos MATERIALS. 79 . the boom and bust ahead. in 1922 when the after-the-war for eign loans started. holding. . as it must 78 1 want to see every ' and will. by reducing receivables and payables.

Co-operatives operate in leased or rented property and add to the value of that property. had to move because of the construction of a government building which included the site of its service station. Copies of the Articles of Incorporation. this brief report of it is presented.000.000 was raised from a fairly small group of investors within a rather short period of time. A provision is included concerning depreciation and amortization whereby the operating co operative acquires equity and is protected in all contingencies. To meet this situation some of the co-operators of Washington organized an enterprise known as Co-Operators' Properties. for the operating co-operatives. and Prospectus of Cooperators' Properties can be had from the District of Columbia Co operative League. Ohio. Regional and national co-op erative finance organizations will develop. It is absurd that people with savings who are vitally inter ested in social progress and friendly to co-operative enterprise should continue to place their savings in stocks. Its sole function is to buy land and build buildings for long-term lease for operating co-operatives. By-laws. in its early years. Once created such an investment vehicle becomes a social in stitution of fundamental value to the co-operative movement. The typical small co-operative. it seems to be high enough and the proposition safe enough so that a sufficient number of people invested to meet the requirement for funds In fact it would appear that more funds are available if the organi zation should find occasion to expand by providing quarters for ad ditional operating co-operatives. over which they have no control and the funda mental purpose of which they may greatly oppose. While 5fo i s a low interest rate for second mortgage. bonds. all asked rents that were too high to begin with and the terms of lease were usually proposed to be on a sliding scale that would result in the landlord receiving most of the net savings of the members . however. The lease also provides that the operating co-operative may purchase at any time the whole of the property at the exact price paid for it by Co-operators' Properties. to be easily available. In other cases the rent changes from time to time and almost always upward. The money thus raised on the 5% b onds is used to buy land and build buildings. At the time it was set up.00 to $1. to prove the possibility of total co-operative financing and because its deal was as good as any local offer. Many people of moderate circum stances have from $100. The investor feels that he has the protection of equity ownership in the event of the failure of the operating co-operative. However. It needs about all the money it can raise for working capital. It cannot create co-operative success but it can create the condi tions — adequate plant at reasonable cost — in which success can be built. This is an old problem that all of us in the movement are well acquainted with. or it may buy up bonds by lot from the investors. after inquiry and adequate ex planation. In the garage business this is written into the lease. Konsum. Of course. In the meanwhile. Common stock is issued by Co-operators' Properties to the oper ating co-operative so that in the event of liquidation all values over and above the face value of the bonds and preferred stock shall devolve upon the co-operative that produced the increment of value.C.W. Washington. but there are savings available in the hands of co-operators who want a way to ben efit the co-operative movement. the cethod here outlined can serve a very useful purpose in many places. In time the co-operative movement will develop great investment wings as has been the case in Europe. Konsum. so the organization was incorporated as a stock corporation in Maryland. taking second mortgage obligations on the property. 1941 81 il . by anybody interested in building up a similar organization. the first mortgage covering about half the total investment was given to the Farm Bureau Mutual Co operative Automobile Insurance Company of Columbus. thus reducing interest burden. No one may be a shareholder unless he has invested $100 or more in 5% bonds of the organization. The landlords of the city. Th'e co-operators in Washington. Over $22. Some of the District of Columbia investment organizations proved eager for the business.C. in turn. 2621 Virginia Avenue. received a 20-year lease under terms which will amortize the building and will have created an equity for Konsum of the total amount of the amortization. The organization thus established serves as an investment agency for social-minded people who would rather put their funds to work for them than to leave them in the stocks and de bentures of corporations which may work against them.INVEST YOUR MONEY COOPERATIVELY IN COOPERATIVE PROPERTIES by Jacob Baker Everyday and everywhere. D.the greater the volume of business the higher the rent. so that. Each shareholder in Co-operators' Properties owns one $5 share of preferred stock which carries the voting right. having suitable property..00 which they can invest in a co-operative enterprise if the needed vehicle of investment is cre ated. holdings. no co-operative investment organization can take on the burdens of operation of a merchandising or service co-operative. cannot spend the time and energy to raise funds for land and buildings. and deben tures of corporations. the end of the 20 years Konsum will own the building and only be paying a rental upon 80 Consumers' Cooperation the land. the automobile service co-operative of the District of Columbia. have attempted to meet the problem and as their plan and experience for doing so may be use ful to the movement as a whole. the District of Columbia co-operative bill was not yet law. First mortgage money was found. Additional plants can be provided under similar terms.. D. H. More important than the details. and actually building savings for the landlord rather than for the membership. thus increas ing their own rentals as their leases are renewed. is the broad general idea. Last year.

He must possess the common virtues of honesty. the people. This means listening to addresses by competent leaders and participating in discussions with them. and we should admit freely to ourselves. a manager should not only be a social ideal ist but also a practical realist. Second. The directors should be elected by districts and thus be responsible to and for the educa tion and participation of the members of their district. It means extensive reading of both idealistic and practical cooperative literature. largely uneducated in the oper ations of industry and finance. He must have initiative and executive ability to organize and carry out policies. Each of these four divisions must carry its own share of responsibility. The two most necessary requirements for each division of a co operative to succeed are Education and Organization. directorate. have largely given over the handling of our economic affairs to a few business men and bankers. He must organize his own time for personal efficiency and also organize the duties of the staff to achieve economical results. direct orate. Directorate Granting that a man or woman who is elected a director of a co operative may be a successful farmer. ***** Only as every one of these four divisions of the people in a is membership. professional. into committees for consultation and reccm-' j mendation to the membership meetings and to the directorate as to policies to be adopted. we are. Each committee should be primarily responsible for following out the details of its particular-function and for reporting its conclusions to the entire directorate. He is likewise responsible for presenting well thought out ideas to the directors and membership for their decision and for helping them to organize themselves to carry out their share of the operations. The directors should also organize themselves for efficiency into four major committees. He must be able to "get along with people" — the members. production and distrib uting systems. It means. There is no I 82 limit to the education which a director of a cooperative needs. finally. directorate. the directors and the staff. active participation in the work of the cooperative and learning by doing.ORGAN IZATI ON WHO IS RESPONSIBLE IN A COOPERATIVE? There are four major divisions of the people in a cooperative as sociation . He must learn thoroughly the details of every division of the operations in order to carry out and supervise them successfully. A successful cooperative must have an educated and organized membership. worker. recreation. First. i The members of a cooperative should organize themselves for ac tion in two ways. Just what does successful education and organi zati on mean in the case of each of these four divisions? Membership Since we. recreational and educational methods. housewife or in some other occupation. education. management and staff cooperative thoroughly educated and efficiently organized can the cooperative association achieve its greatest possible social and economic re sults and the cause of economic democracy be advanced to the highest degree. They should assist in organizing themselves for the efficient carrying out of their particular occupations and the entire opera tions of the cooperative. Every cooperative should have at least four major committees. Management To be successful. -education. but the employees should continue to educate themselves individually and in groups so long as they are employed. This means the financial statements. energy and economy. management and staff. Advance education is not enough.membership. recreation. By these means we can eventually hope to educate ourselves sufficiently to successfully operate our own economic institutions. finance and busi ness. Consumers' Cooperation • April. Anyone who accepts the responsibility of a directorate should begin studying all of the operations of the cooperative in detail.! As many subcommittees as are necessary to carry out the functions of the cooperative can be set up under these four major committees. It means visiting successful cooperative as sociations and attending cooperative meetings. the members of a cooperative should organize themselves for action in districts for electing directors and receiving reports froii them in order to provide for responsible and active relationships between the membership and the directors. management and staff. 1941 83 . namely. moral ity. purchasing. It means organizing ourselves into small study circles for mutual discussion. Staff The staff of a cooperative should be carefully selected from cooperatively educated applicants. We cannot hope to own and control a cooperative business or bank successfully unless and until we are willing to get down to hard study. He must have the respect 'of all by reason of his char acter and ability. finance and business. it does not necessarily follow that knowledge of that one occupation is sufficient to insure their suc cess as a director of a community organization such as a cooperative.

the Co-op began a commission business in laundry. In the spring of 1939 the Co-op had 125 members. The By-laws which had been adopted for the little buying club were entirely outmoded. modeled after by-laws of other co-ops. 1939. distributed to all riembers and many non-mejibers. departing Seniors brought the furniture they no longer wanted. provided for a nine-man board of trustees to run the organization and t-o choose and oversee the busi ness manager. In the fall of 1940. the or ganization keeping just enough to cover operating expenses. Other provisions conformed to the needs of a large organ ization. Since this time it has been understood that the dividend would vary with the business. The money 84 Consumers' Cooperatii is returned to them when the book is sold less a 10% handling charge. but in 1940-41 it has been a monthly. The Co-op then rented a second story back office in a building in the business section. scraping old paper from the walls. In terested first in the history and philosophy of cooperatives. as funds and time permitted. Gangs of students worked evenings and holidays. some one mentioned that any member was liable in full for all debts of the organization. Its activities were large enough to require liability lim itation. The members decide to adopt the Rochdale principles of selling at market prices and distri uting the surplus as a patronage dividend. i was not so much a cooperative as a cut-rate agency. First business in the new office was the furniture exchange. In June. On June 11. They quickly put their ideas into practice. Dingy paper was peeling from the walls. and was determined to go ahead with it. As book sales mounted at the beginning of the next semester. afraid of losing business if they did not give large cash savings. Also. painting and papering walls and cei! ings. and split the discount it received directly with the purchaser. In December 1939. The two rooms had not been occupied for years. but if there was more joki: flirting and paint dropped on the floor than union standards permit.. reckoned on the total businp regardless of the nature of the items. The Co-op had 260 members in June 1940. Oberlin Consumers Cooperative.W. scraping the floors and scrubbing with soap and water. A big city book firm gave less discount than it had promised. They explained that incorporation would mean cutting the div idend to 5fo. It took orders for used books which it brought from New York and Chicago. its fingers burnt. Oberl i n. and tackled the three rooms separately. The promised patronage dividend of 10% was paid. For several reasons. guaranteed a patronage dividend of at least W%. including a rebuilt typewriter and a stencil duplicator. T . However. By June the club had 25 members. it did over $700 under the Co-op. The first semester in this new location. and it was sold in the fall to incoming Freshmen. articles and editorials on the cooperative movement. and the margin bare ly covered expenses. the Oberlin Cooperator was published. ani built shelves and counters. A new set was drawn up. boys bought and repaired odd pieces of second-hand furniture. cheerful office. Education Chairman. received its papers under the laws of the State of Ohio. the Co-op did business of almost $1000. The money was returned to the owners less 15% for handling. All through the winter of 1939-40 the Co-op had to borrow small amounts from various members to tide it over when the rent came due or there were other unexpected expenses.E DUCATIO N THE EVOLUTION OF A CAMPUS COOPERATIVE by Albert Rees. and flowers. These by-laws. the di count system gave the organization little money with which to expand. there was no money for incorporation if the promised lOfa patronage dividend were paid. but the group had seen a new idea. Ohi< Early in 1938 a few students of Oberlin College began to meet as study group to learn what they could about the cooperative movement. It was chartered as an "educational institution" and the college questioned its right to do business. and revised by outside cooperators. These oc casions were more like parties than work. The next fall. At the May membership meeting. the Co-op. ai this location was very inconvenient for the girl members. Gradually the stock was built up and new items added.e book exchange had previously been run by the Y. the first issue of a mimeographed paper. 1941 85 . In the middle room the book exchange was opened in December 1939. Here a meagre stock of toilet goods and stationery was sold. The officers allowed themselves to be persuaded. These services attracted many more students. An aroused member leaped to his feet. The Co-op's leaders. set their own prices. the Oberlin Consumers' Coop erative. and giving members their usual patronage dividend. They divided the big back room into two with a partition. Once again. It is surely one of the most youthful corporations in the state.. and the articles for which most demand had been created could not be re placed. Girls made curtains for the win dows. Overwhelmingly the members voted to cut their dividend and incorporate. result was a clean. They formed a small buying club. It was lim ited by its students charter to a student membership. in September 1940. The organization was becoming too large to be run from a dormitory room. The Co-op again began ordering books. getting cash in advance.C. The only gain from a rushing business was experience. It appeared only twice during the first winter. price cutting proved a failure. The front room housed the store. they soon learned more of the campus cooperatives in which thousands of students are saving money to help themselves through college. the Co-op needed to incorporate. But there were grave drawbacks. "I demand we in corporate. cal merchants gave the Co-op price reductions which ranged from 15 to I and these were passed on to the students as immediate discounts. Its business for the year had been over $3000. Often there was no money to buy stock." Others backed him. From time to time new fixtures were added. Here students bring their used textbooks. Many students ordered books and never called for them. d cleaning. The April. It did a bus iness of $250 in September 1939 under the Y. the Co-op was stuck with §50 worth of text books. and bought Co-op soap and cosmetics from cases which one of the students kept inn bedroom. Inc.A. charging full catalog prices. and had done a business of i It was a humble beginning. Gradually a new plan was worked out. The Co-op decided to enter the book business. took no book orders. adopted by the members in May. and over everything was a layer of grime. I nc. It includes news of the Oberlin Co-op and of other co-ops. the book exchange ran out of many titles. The furniture exchange has been continued in the back room. Once more "those 28 weavers" were right. The total businei for the year had been over $1000. The co-op mem bers set to work on their office. the plaster was cracking from the ceiling.

but they have passei their ideal and their experience to their successors. What does the future hold for the Oberlin Co-op? Find a member of the board in an expansive mood and he will tell you of plans for spread ing the tvork among the members. Cooperative. and a member of the merchandising committee of Central States Cooperatives.A. may divulge his dreams of a delivery truck. the executive secretary of the Northern Ohio Co operative Association visited Oberlin. One room was added to the two-car garage and its face was lifted to improve its street appearance. a downstairs store. Straight back of the building shown here was the warehouse shown at the back of picture 2. you think that all this sounds like pipe dreams. From this time on the Oberlin Co-op began to work actively with other co-ops in the region. think how little the original study group foresaw the present organization. he left Oberlin fora better job with a community Co-op in Cleveland.O. 1941 87 . and plans to carry staple groceries when permanent membership is larger. who joined in December. distribution of pamphlets. articles in the Oberlin Cooperator. the Co-op took a great step forward when it began to pay its business manager. Consumers' Cooperatiw April.. Then a second story was added above the two-car garage and then it looked as it does in Picture 3. Other northern Ohio campuses are being explored for co op possibilities. but as active parts of the regional federations of community co-ops. He may tell of the 100 members of the Lorain County Farm Bureau Cooperative who live nearby.C. A strong federation may soon unite many campus and community co-ops in the region. coope: tive dormitories. That group did a swell job. for starting cooperative recreation.C.O.A.O. In November 1940. S . s poke in assembly to the students of the college. The name was changed to Consum ers Cooperative Association February 20. and the students foresee an organization in which they will work together with town and faculty for mutual good. both the Oberlin group and the N. In October 1940.C.00. feel that the place for student cooperatives is not off in federations of their own. Wallace Campbell. education was neglected as the Co-op struggled to get on its feet. Students with that ideal are hard to stop. and only two of the eight trustees are over 21. During the first few years. This philosophy led N. 86 BUSINESS HOW CO-OPS GROW Consumers Cooperative Association. More recently. Mr. In February 1940. a greater effort has been made to have the members know more of the meaning and philosophy of co operation. Assistant i Secretary of the Cooperative League of the U. The fee for permanent mem bership was set at $5.A. about the size of a two-car garage. North Kansas City. and a circulating library of books on coopera tives have helped. The store began to stock Co-op brand canned goods for student snacks. is where CCA had its beginning in 1929 as the Union Oil Company. Even more important was the first non-student nember. Luckily. It joinel the Northern Ohio Cooperative Association and soon after joined Central States Cooperatives. 1935. Far greater expansion of the educational program is planned. Afterward the building on the street and the warehouse at the back were connected with a 2-story structure and base ment. and of a plan for achieving in Oberlin true cooperation between the farm and town cooperatives. The Oberlin Co-op had produced its first career nan in Cooperatives. and some Oberlin graduates to help in the formation of co-op buying clubs at Shauffler College and Ilather College in Cleveland. Discussion groups. so tl the Farm Bureau members will be Consumers' Cooperative members also.present president is 18. as shown in Photo 3. Missouri This building. Oberlin's business manager was made recording secretary of N. In the fall of 1940. Today they have almost all graduated.

295.211 . receive him and look after him.81 2. listen to them and speak with him. labor.018 . occupied in September.27 3. educational or re ligious.91 36.40 4.38 166. The building. as we did.1940 which was unfinished in 1937 when we were there.735 . If his views are different from yours. If he comes to you singing. GRUNDTVIG OF DENMARK O The present home of CCA. if you need help.64 $814. He lives to day and will live alway in the heart of Denmark.878. Richter.890.44 24.756 . always ended with some tribute to Grundtvig as the inspiration and exempli fication of the nation. For many years of Consumers' Cooperation April.78 N few occasions in the world's his tory a man has become the symbol of a nation. for he is to understand that the home is yours and not his. And you should teach your children and your household to re spect the requirements of hospitality but to understand at the same time that hospitality and friendship are not the same. He came into his own before he died and is living'today in the hearts and minds of the people of Den mark as never before.814.510. 1935.94 60. Now the announcement has reached us of the dedication of the Grundtvig church on September 8. Every conversation we had with leaders of Denmark." We pay our tribute to Grundtvig and his great share in developing the "Dig nified Danes". whether cooperative. It required 20 years after Grundtvig conceived the idea of a folk-school to convert the first leader to start such a school.221. As an example.709.425 .490.040.090 . 1941 his life Grundtvig was almost an outcast because of his independent thinking in church and school. but do not alter your own views if they are right. 89 . of such a dedication of one's life. No dictatorship can ever crush the democracy he developed in the people. Such a man was Bishop Frederik Grundtvig of Denmark.433 . THE 12 YEARS OF CCA'S HISTORY IN STATISTICS Comparative Yearly Statistics of CCA and Subsidiaries Local Co-op Savings Volume Members Year 1929 19:5u 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 *1937 1938 1939 1940 Totals * 8 months 88 21 61 90 143 199 259 313 342 363 424 452 486 $ 309 . or rather Union Oil Company.978.909.899.63 100.339 .51 112. farmer.437. We worshiped on Sunday in the Grundtvig Memorial Church and saw a baby baptized. mere politeness demands that.87 2.116. ask him to cease his song.284 . On the Sunday previous to the dedication 740. cost ing a quarter of a million dollars originally.035. political. It was built to house an old-line oil company which passed out during the depression.96 1.710.51 26.46 3. say thank you.45 90. It was built by the equal contributions of the people and the state.678.411. read this by Judge H.401. Cooper ative. whom we hope in later years will realize the sig nificance.994 .63 $31. many be lieved.70 890 . The church is built to resemble the pipes of a great organ in order to symbolize Grundtvig's thought of a people lifting their voices and their spirits in song to heaven.06 981 . Today it's too small and the wholesale is making plans to expand the facilities.18 4.977. IJ was slightly larger than the wholesale needed at the time.' G RUNDTVIGS CHURCH The home of CCA.177. in 1933.70 45.02 6.58 1. was purchased at forced Sale by CCA for about 25 cents on the dollar cost of building it.00 50.102. and you are in sorrow. who is not a refugee but a resident of Denmark today.94 § 5. If he asks you if he may help you.67 94.621.000 people assembled to sing the Grundtvig songs.347.789. advising how to treat an "uninvited guest": "If an uninvited guest enters your home.689.

Ohio. tradi tional American folk dances from Ohio. etc. Courses in simple forms of dra-. pantomimes.REC REATIO N conducted each evening on "Recreation in Cooperatives" by Frank Shilston. Any surplus above expenses will be disposed of by vote of the students. She will be assisted by Alice Schweibert. Kentucky.). Zanzig. Zanzig. New York. June 14th with group singing led by Mr. Iowa. June 14 to 27. etc. pantomimes. graduate in group work and recreation. Saturday. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Associa tion.25 member ship fees which entitles them to see the April. con sumer owned and controlled. When delegates return from such meetings they should be put in positions to use the knowledge and skills gained. and directing. director. Ohio Farm Bureau Co-op erative Association and Marion Skean. will conduct advanced courses in acting .50. (3) That the recreational part or the Council meeting be planned to give a well-bal anced program. camps and conferences." 91 . Carl Hutchinson. Present plans of the Timmins Cooper ative Film Society call for the expansion of the membership to two hundred and provide for eight monthly showings of films during the 1941-42 season. * *• * Film Cooperative A unique experiment in recreation ac tivities is being tried out in Timmins. The school is conducted each year by the Cooperative Society for Recreational Education. will lec ture on Group Organization and Leader ship and teach folk dancing. Local theater managers have very little choice in the type of film booked. matics. who has had fifteen ' years experience in the professional thea ter in acting. The following are sug gested as possibilities for broadening and All Work and No Play Makes A Dull Co-op varying the recreational program: play HE Sixth Annual National Coopera tive Recreation School will be held on the campus of Iowa State College. It is more than a training in recreation as a social force in group life. "Shipyard" by Paul Rotha. These recommendations include: (1) That each Youth Council use every pos sible means to train recreational leaders from their own group. It is both self-supporting and democratically gov erned—the principle of one member one vote applying to all "persons alike— whether students or members of the staff. National Recreation Asso ciation. Miss Neva L. James Norris. directing and writing. professional actress. room and meals is $38.» taught by Augustus D. The school will open promptly at 7:30 P. A seminar will be TPHE recommendations on Recreation 1 drawn up by approximately one hun dred representatives of county Farm Bureau Cooperative Youth Councils in Ohio apply not only to the rural youth of Ohio but to all groups interested in recrea tion. by members of the school who felt the need of better trained recreational leadership in the cooperative movement. On tario—a Cooperative Film Society. After two years of study of the problem. Complete information about the school can be secured from Carl Hutchinson. Ames. Cooperative techniques are applied in the conduct of the courses and in the administration of the school. it ap peared that the only way in which the consumer of films can make his will felt is through a cooperative society controlled by himself which exhibits to its members films that are artistically made and ex press the constructive social ideals that cooperators believe in. Metal and leathercraft will ' be under the direction of Lois Epps and Gwendolyn Fife. "Play Party Games". For the third year. 246 North High Street. The Society has one hundred members who have paid $1. "The Song of Ceylon" by Basil Wright and a Cana dian film. such as charades. which was organized at the first National Co-op erative Recreation School held in Colum bus. state and national schools. dra matics (charades. Northwestern. Depart ment of Sociology and Division of Group Work. * sketches. Columbus. due to blind or block booking. and fundamentals of acting and directing will be taught by Ruth Chorpenning. will conduct • courses in sketching for beginners. tableaux. RECREATION NEWS NOTES Homeplace. Margaret Gardner. The board of directors for the 194142 season will be elected at the September meeting and plans for the season discussed and formulated. It is an experi ment in cooperative living and action. From the beginning The Cooperative League has sponsored the school and has increasingly emphasized the role of re creation in cooperative education. Indiana and Kentucky. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Associa tion. folk dancing. Music Service. Directors produc ing for small companies have been un able to present their films to the public because the commercial theatres take their films almost entirely from the distributors linked up with the large studios. as-1 sisted by Wilmer Vess.M. The staff of the school includes recog nized authorities in the various fields of recreation. The program of five sound films shown April 1 included the well known documentaries. Miay and September showings and to vote at the general meeting in Septem ber. 1941 I party and folk games. The Timmins Cooperative Film Society grew out of the need felt by members of the Timmins Neighborhood Clubs Asso ciation for a film organization in which the consumer could have a voice in the selection of the films he wished to see. and others. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE RECREATION SCHOOL T Songs and Singing in Everyday Social Living and Instrumental Music will be . Frank Shilston will be director of the school. Northwestern University. These means in clude various county. will be taught by > Darwin Bryan. Midland Cooperative Wholesale. Their first showing of documentary films was held April 1st. "Rhapsody in Two Languages. pottery and puppets. (2) That recreational programs at meetings be so planned and conducted as to secure the participation of all those present. Boyd. 1936. The total cost per student for tuition. 90 Consumers' Cooperation April.

Cowden. meeting here for its quarterly meeting March 17 and 18. First steps were made toward the pub lication of a handbook for local education and publicity committees. W. J. Lincoln. r While the Congressmen are busy with f other matters. Racine. general manager of the Indiana Farm Bureau Co operative Association. and president of the Farm Bureau Cooperative Insurance Services was unanimously elected to suc ceed him to the office of president. Mr. Ohio. claims. Now and then. closing in Kansas City. 93 . A." What is the answer to this disintegra tion of democratic legislation machinery? The answer must be found in the over hauling of Congressional machinery. the Paci fic Coast Student Cooperative League and Associated Cooperatives of Northern Cali fornia. The delegates approved a request by The Cooperative League Board to meet at some future date with their Board and the Board of United Cooperatives in joint conference to discuss common problems and possible coordination of the coopera tive movement. legislation is being pre pared to "put a floor under farm prices. National Cooperatives. when speeches are only being made for the "record" and when there is no important business to transact. July 7. Hayes. J. than any two 1 or three men could do efficiently. Plans for the first national tour of United States cooperatives were submitted to the committee by Rev. It also delegated to the assistant sec retary of The League the job of selecting the producer and supervising the produc tion. And already. and Phillipsburg. the danger to true dem ocratic machinery is so great it is frighten ing. Ohio—The Ohio Farm Bu reau Cooperative Association has launched a new paper. The Farm Bureau will continue publication of the Ohio Farm Bureau News. is to set in motion forces that will help to distribute the abundance that is present in this country — and abandon the practice of subsidizing scarcity and protecting monopoly. as president. Kenosha. Columbus. which appears the first of each month. In the other speech. An example of how the machinery of Congress has broken down was given re cently during consideration of the very important bill to extend the Guffey Bit uminous Coal Law for two more years. % At present. The committee made plans for the June conference of co-op editors which will be held in Ames. St. Plans for a national film depicting the April. | post office sites. Minneapolis.: "The opportunity of America today. But ^ much of this "work" has little relation to legislative duties. justified little consideration.107 last year. Paul. Two speeches were made on the general subject of price fixing which were worthy of any consideration. meeting here March 19 re-elected I. James P. tour director and a final itinerary approved. Howard A. Omaha. In one of the speeches. All expenses for 13 days For complete information write: J. The film proposal was approved by the Board at the meeting which followed. Superior. Waukegan. j FIRST ANNUAL TOUR OF AMERICAN CO-OPS Starting at Columbus. 1941 high-lights of the American cooperative movement today were approved by the committee which sent a recommendation to the Board of Directors for financing the film. The Ohio Cooperator. there is no doubt that a member of the House or Senate has more work. and the public interest suffers—democracy breaks down. print ed in tabloid size which will appear the 15th of each month. visiting cooperatives in Indianapolis. the lobbyists and represen tatives of special interests are watching the one thing they want and which they f are paid to get. Paul. Iowa. general manager of the Farm Bureau Cooperative Associa tion. more often the appeals are fa special privilege clothed in some "accept-1 able garments". contracts. July 19. should not also be applied to agriculture. The tour will begin in Colum bus. July 19. the issue of price fixing was raised and very properly. and an alert con. Chicago. Lincoln said in accepting the presi dency of The Cooperative League. They succeed most often because Congressmen have no time for legislative work.f stituency to make certain that Congress men perform the job they are elected to do. Ohio. and! a host of similar chores take most of the days of members of the House. Ohio. Tour Director The Cooperative League 167 West 12th Street. Nolan. which acts as purchasing agency for its fifteen state and regional member-cooperative wholesales reported that the sales volume of its mem ber associations totaled $58. even in this hour of uncer tainty and war. vicepresident. a maximum of only 82 Congressmen were in the chamber at any time during the debate and it was obvious that not more than a score of those were giving any at tention to the debate. pension cases. June 26-28. ac cepted with regret the resignation of Dr. New York City Consumers' Cooperation Chicago—The Board of Directors of the Cooperative League. Sometimes their petitions are just. Chicago—The annual meeting of Na tional Cooperatives. Murray D. Here was the issue of "price fixing" by Government with all of its implications. Granger. who asked to be permitted to retire from the presidency on the completion of his full twenty-five years as president. July 7 and end in Kansas City. it is true.821. H. Brule. Through political cus toms and practices which were first in. chairman of the board. Inc. Chicago—The Committee on Publicity and Education of The Cooperative League made up of the educational directors and editors of the regional cooperatives held its annual meeting in Chicago. Warbasse was elected president emeritus and will continue as a member of the Board of Directors and as director of Rochdale Institute. March 1315. The committee also gave serious con sideration to the possibilities of adding a full-time educational assistant to The Cooperative League staff.i dulged and now have become accepted as » "necessary to re-election". The debate. Jobs.j WHAT'S NEWS WITH THE CO-OPS John Carson Washington Representatm The Cooperative League V ISITORS to the chamber where sits the House of Representatives invari ably are amazed at the comparatively few Congressmen who are present. if he is conscientious. 92 a general understanding as to what the job of a Congressman is. Warbasse. Here also was the demand of the whole sale consumer cooperative organizations for equal treatment under the law. "I know of no movement in America that offers more hope to a distressed and bewildered world than the consumer cooperative movement. Congressmen have become representatives before exec utive departments for their districts and for their constituents. Henry Car penter. Henry Carpenter. Hull. Dr. the question was suggested whether the coal law theory. Columbus. But despite the importance of the subject. Other officers re-elected were J. Madison. L Legislation must suffer and does suffer. it is simple to explain aw:iy the absences but when Congressmen arc absent during debate on important issues. if adopted by Congress." The Board accepted into membership the American Farmers Mutual Automobile Insurance Company of St. secretarytreasurer. a description of how the coal law operates was given— given for the benefit of a score of Con gressmen.

32 county papers are men Shoppers. Mo.110. Warbasse at 25th Anniversary Dinner April. Dr. editor of the French edition of the Review of Interna tional Cooperation. Wallace J. director of the Cooperative League Accounting Bu reau. a coast-to-coast broadcast over the NEC net work by Dr. Cooperative for books purchased with their regulnS printing plants are also in operation in orders placed through the Consumers Bool Minneapolis.337.50 a quarter for members the Philadelphia Area Cooperative Fed who join through employee. presi dent. being published monthly. Kazan. manager. E. assistant secretary of The Cooperative League. Joy Elmer Morgan. CoaJ[> Hotel Commodore to launch the cooper of St. who served as educational di rector for the League's first 12 years. S." Dr. OSB. experts' completed a record year in 1940 accordir care." Other speakers were Mrs. S.Hackett is the first selection of the book North Kansas City. 2. Superior. General medical care.89 fact that Denmark will rebuild rapidly 1938 1.75 "I Choose Denmark". the importance of "atomic action" in build Group Health Cooperative. 94 25th Anniversary Celebrations The Cooperative League of the USA wound up its first twenty-five years of organized education with an anniversary dinner in Chicago with members of the boards of The Cooperative League and National Cooperatives as guests. The titled to savings of 30 per cent of tk regular list price. Hugh Cabot. our only alternative is government with representatives of the Eastern State" Farmers Exchange and New England & control.615. Senator George D. Subscribers who join in Harrisburg.)" 278.090. Consumers Cooperath e Services.868.279.0.510. and Raleigh. Benjamin. M. The state-wide co-op wholesale eration of Womens' Clubs. Individual members who agree to chased the printing plant which formerly buy four selections each year will be en. Warbasse made the major address of the evening declar ing. Group and library mem printing plant will produce its own print ed matter as well as handling the work for bers will be entitled to the same discount its affiliated cooperatives. and a 25th anniversary dinner in New York where two hundred guests crowded the upper and lower halls of Consumers Co operative Services to pay tribute to Dr. published The Cooperative Farmer. the Commit | has recently inaugurated a program to tee on Cooperatives of the Massachusetts assist its county-wide co-ops in the publica Council of Churches. Ind. M. with head ing cooperative enterprise at a region)! quarters at 1790 Broadway. characterize as "ridiculous" the idea tion in 1935. Woodcock. M. described ative. the Consumers' Book Cooperative heard lowing figures tell the story of the grow* Helmuth Moller.351. meeting here March 22 and 23 sponsorriprovides medical service for $1.1 108. Greetings by wire and letter congrat ulating the League on its accomplish ments in the development of sound. F. made clear their opposition to the anti-co op tax bill which has been introduced in New York—"If plans for voluntary co operative health service do not become an the Massachusetts legislature. New Yoi Indianapolis. Boris Skomorowsky. and C. Coady of Antigonish. Warbasse. Dr. 1.617.62 social service legislation. operations. Hearings on the bill were held on March 4 and 1]| important factor in American medical ser vice.4! $12. E. M. of L. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Pa. 1941 95 . and Miss Germina Rabinowitch of the Cooperative Division of the International Labor Office. Nova Scotia. "We are confronted by a desperate situation today.—The Con sumers Cooperative Association has pur club. New York. Mary Ellicott Arnold..50 per by the Eastern Cooperative League and month or $4.C.678 worth of goods and services and marketing cooperatives.887. executive secretary of The Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. Stanley Jones. toastmaster. the A.118. James P. first vice consul of Den of the co-op wholesale since its inaugun mark.—Dr. 27 Coenties Slip. manager. brought greetings from the cooperative movement throughout the world. which calls for building cooperatives on a firm foundation if we are to save the world. Alfred Bingham. the Rev.7 11. eminent Bos ton physician told the medical advisory operative Federation marshalling the op board and sponsors of the Group Health position to the bill.739-95 1.234. Mark Starr. the nation's lack 1935' 511. A. Thurman Arnold. and Mrs. Campbell. Waldemar Niemela.—The Indiana Farm City. John Daniels and others.9! neither rich nor poor as evidence of the 1937 72. the State Fed in 1940. a director of The Cooperative League. for 14 years treasurer of The League. Francis Xavier University. and L. The fd . Aiken. Warbasse. Date $274.78MB 200. Agster who toll oratory procedures are included under the several thousand co-op members gatheiu plan. members of increase of 36 per cent last year.693. by Francis 1940 Consumers' Cooperatt.52 1939 as soon as the war is over. Cooperative. The League of Wo tion of their papers. John Haynes Holmes. Werner Regli. president emeritus of The Cooperative League. Bureau Cooperative Association handled Boston—Representatives of consumer $6. Cooperative at a luncheon March 27 at the Wallingford. James P. — The Pennsylvanu dividually are charged $2 a month or $6 Farm Bureau Cooperative Associati quarterly. Pa.. and Mrs. N. maternity care and lab to general manager H. E. that Denmark as a nation might disappear. James P.67 of illiteracy and the fact that there are 1936 940. for the annual meeting March 3 thatu New York—At a dinner to launch a state-wide co-op wholesale had a busin new non-fiction book club. Amalgamated Cooperative Houses. dem ocratic cooperatives came from Eleanor Roosevelt.5 36. A host of personal friends and old time coopeiators also paid their respects. Dr. Edgar Schmiedler. Florence Parker of The U. Mary Coover Long. Warbasse for their quarter cen tury of service to the cooperative move ment. church or eration. Volume Net Worth He pointed to the work of cooperatives. other groups. N. East ern Cooperative Wholesale. R.

. Michael Shndid...... Bertram B.. R....... Printers' Ink ......... IB mm.03 FILMS Traveling the Middle Way In Sweden............50 2...... 96 .......... produced by the Harmon FounGstlr Excellent photography.. 3........ $3...... H.: additional showings..15 Education Through Recreation.. 1 reel...75 • Textbooks on Cooperation Consumers' Cooperatives..90 When You Buy. John C.... reprinted from The Annals .... Per Copy ltd ............ The Burden of Credit .................. Co-ops in Ireland ....... "A House Without a Landlord........... "The Lord Helps Those —Who Help Eut Other............ 5 for $1 ....... 3.......00 The Consumers Cooperative as a Distribu tive Agency.... "When Mankind Is Willing....... 1............................ Land of Sweden...... 5 for $1 ... by Paddy the Cope......... Burley ......... Kodacrome..O.............05 ... $4.. of cw erative stores..................... "Clasping Hands. Ellis Cowling . 19"x28" Mulberry............ S.. Brickbats and Boomerangs................... William Moore ... a Puppet Play ......" a new 3 reel. Jr....(12 U ... film of the Km Scotia adult education and cooperative pit gram.......... Hampden Jackson PROBLEM Ruth Broan Farnsworth YOUR WORK IS PRIZED Janet Coerr CO-OP DIVISION OF I...00 2. Erbes.................."." a 16 mm...02 ................ Ignatius W... 16 01 Kagawn and his co-ops in Japan. Cox.. Richard Giles..... Fresh Furrow: Burris Jenkins .80 Cooperation. one chapter on coop eratives .20 The Spider Web....... Rental ft unit: color...........05 Campus Co-op News letter .... Ohio......J......... A. S........ Debate Handbook .. Consumers Serve Themselves....... I'M Kel>orts Fast-Growing Co-ops Shun all Isms .... . .. Orin E............................ ORGANIZED? HOW FINLAND SOLVED THE FARM TENANCY J....... Frank Shilston ... Harold Fey .... 1941 SPECIAL OWNERSHIP ISSUE HOW SHOULD COOPERATIVE INSURANCE BE E..................... Rental: Each of four above $3 per d»y.. A Fair Deal to All Through Coopera tives.......... Credit Union North America. What Cooperation Means to a De pression Sick America.......02 Co-ops on the Campus.. Cooley ..... Edwards and Smith ...... Answering Your Questions About the Cooperative ....... songs.... Anthony Lehner . • Credit Unions Credit Unions. add tional showings............10 Two One Act Plays....25 1.... 19"x28" Red-White-and-Blue.......... ...... P.. two spinning games.........000 Business With 2................................10 List of recreational materials............. ........10 1.............. ............50.02 U ..... P........ Calkins .....00 2.. btol and white.....................................000 Customers............ ......02 U . 19"x28"..... Frank O'Hara What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions........... Red-White-andBlue............... George Tichenor .. quality CO-OP products.......................... Roy Bergengren ...... Official British Textbook .... 3 reel............ Printers' Ink Monthly .. Kenneth Gould.. Credit Unions: The People's Banks...... 5 for $1 .. from Sales Management ............ Jacks 1.......L............ shows how cooperators on tti eastern seaboard are providing themsehwith tested....... Cooperation—A Way of Peace....... 19"x28".... Rawe..... black and white... produced by the Harinon Foundatloi T'nit I. silent. What Attracts Members to the Co operative Store Movement.03 at .. Ellis Cowling ........................... I Saw a People Rising From the Dead....20 All Join Hande.. Buy Co-op.......02 U .. <'o-oi». 16 nil silent.........50 Fun for All.. 16 mm. Cooperative Ownership... J....................02 14 .............................. R..... March On...10 .... Unit 11 Consumer Cooperation.000.......................1 . two reel Hi showing how cooperation is taught in t^ schools of France.......— Cooperative Principles.................................................... by rpton Sinclair ...50 2............000. with English titles... Fowler ....50 color and $1......... John son... M...... dances...................02 ....50 per week.........CO-OP LITERATURE Leaflets to Aid You: • Novels and Biography A Doctor for the People............. silent....... Julia E. S. Warbasse................. J. $13.................. Rev....00 How a Consumers Cooperative Dif fers From Ordinary Business .02 CONSUMERS COOPERATION ....... $fi per week.05 Cooperative Recreation Songs... The Brave Years: Wm.. 19"x28" Blue.................................... Union of Church and Economics IB Dramatized as Co-ops Reveal Rapid Progress........00 • Student Cooperatives American Students and the Cooperative Movement. Ellis Cowling ........ Trilling..... 5 for $1 .. 16 mi. $5........... 2 reels.........03 Campus Co-ops............. Unit 111 Agricultural Cooperatives..... Red-White-and-Blue... games. ......... 1...... II for each additional showing or $10 pern! The First Consumer-Owned Oil Refinery in the U....... 19"x28" Green..... 3-act play.. A Day With Kagawa.... A $000. E. $!. Jr........................ Max well Stewart .... ........ POSTERS Organize Cooperatives.........15 The Answer..50 per day.. $2........ Carl Hutchinson....... two chapters on consumer cooperatives ... MAY............. Democracy.... Learn About Consumers Cooperation Sure Way is the Quick Way .. Delaware... Roy Bergengren ... 2 reels.......25 • Cooperatives and Peace Cooperatives and Pence........ Claude Shotts ........." 16 mm.. ....... Eberhart and Nicholas.. NATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS ..02 ....00 Windows on the World.. Bowen .............. silent film on the Amalgams! Cooperative Houses in New York City....... 5 for $1 ..... A Review Edward Skillin..... CARRIES ON RESTORATION OF PROPERTY............ 5 for $1 .......... available from Cooperative Recreation Service.. Josephine The Johnson.. P....50 • Cooperative Recreation Consumer Consumed........... L....... .... high school text...05 .. wholesales and factoriei France. . 3-act play...........25 let's Play............................02 .... 3... .... Consumers' CooperatiA... 2 reels.... special edition ..... My Story... slltl three-reel film............. Heyliger ... Consumer Ownership — Of...05 Cooperative Recreation......... Co-op Edition ....... $2[ day...... Hall and Watkins.. High school and college. Cuna Emerges (Credit Unions)..... Building a Brave New World........ ........ By and For the 1'eople..." a new! reel...02 1...... Midland Co-op Wholesale ...

." WE STAND FOR OWNERSHIP We stand on the belief that the world was made for all the people to own— that it was never intended to be the exclusive possession of the few. Y. Ohio Ohio Farm Bureau News Farm Bureau Services Lansing. Y.Y. Wallace J. Associate Editor. double the usual number of pages and with more pictures than ever before. Y. E. Society 227 E. An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Chicago Pacific Coast Student Co-op League Berkeley.. N. 1790 Broadway. Minn. First All-American Tour of starts at Columbus.. C. Finance and Business. CONSUMERS' -COOPERATION National Cooperative Publicity and I cation Conference. Readers Observer Cooperative Distributors 116 E. Association Indianapolis.C. Ass'n Harrisburg. Kansas City. Wisconsin Cooperative Builder Central States Cooperatives. at North Kansas City. 167 West 12 St..A. Consumers Defender Cooperative Recreation Service Delaware. send gift subscriptions to your friends. FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Madison. Ohio Ohio Cooperator Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Y. Iowa State I OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT Ames. at the Post Office at New York. N.. Ames. Dearborn. Editor. Farmers' Union Herald Grange Cooperative Wholesale Seattle. 167 West 12th St. Calif. Iowa. Oakland Cooportunity Associated Cooperatives. Ohio The Recreation Kit Eastern Cooperative League 135 Kent Ave. Mo. Washington. 1941 First Cooperative Summer School. July 19.S. have your co-op subscribe for its board members and employees. Iowa. The first was our 25th Anniversary issue. Associated Cooperatives. Ind. 84th St. N. Millard. Chicago.C. 16 St. C. Cal. Y. why we have lost ownership. 5 for Cooperative Business Training.. "Build cooperatives stronger and faster" should be our slogan on our rainbow banner for the second quarter century. Brooklyn The Cooperator Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Columbus. Paul. Now we are going on to build high the walls of a cooperative world. Minn. 111. Campbell.C DIVISIONS: Auditing Bureau. $1 per year. No.. D. Every local cooperative.. R. Bowen. This is a SPECIAL OWNERSHIP ISSUE of CONSUMERS' CO OPERATION which will tell you why we all should be owners. Wisconsin The Bridge Ten Cents The first quarter century of The Cooperative League.. Cooperative Consumer Consumers' Cooperatives Associated Amarillo. the second on "Four Corner stones". Cooperator Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. Education. Midland Cooperator National Cooperatives. Mo. June 26-28.. Penn. The second quarter century which is now beginning should be described as Building. N. and how some are gaining ownership and others can by joining cooperatives. every factory is a stone in the wall. 1879. this third. The pioneers have largely laid the foundations—four strong corner stones to carry the mighty structure of Coopera tion—Recreation. 7218 S. Columbus. Co-op Review Southeastern Coop.Y. July 7 to August 23.. N.. Chicago The Round Table Consumers Cooperative Association N. But if we are to keep it up." We may be called "The Builders. things grew after him. We are out to win ownership for all the people through cooperatives. 27 months for $2 Send your order today to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. National Cooperative Women's Guild 608 S. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative Wholesale 135 Kent Ave. N. "Wherever he went. York.00 a year. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. Washington Grange Cooperative Neii Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. Georgia Southeastern Cooperator United Cooperatives. a special "Owner ship" issue. We believe that everyone should own his own home and also be the owner of shares in coop erative businesses and banks of every kind. BUILD COOPERATIVES STRONGER AND FASTER THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn.CONFIDENCE REQUIRES ACTION Consumers' Cooperation has blossomed out for three issues in a sprightly front cover. New York City 726 Jackson Place N. Indianapolis. Education Ass'n Carrollton. City. . Minn. Co a Volume XXVII. whereby the people. Inc. Others have been called "The Pioneers. Y. Rochdale Institute. Ohio. in voluntary association. has been truly described as Pioneering.W. every regional. A thousand new sub scriptions will assure this 32 page size. Michigan Michigan Farm News Farmers' Union Central Exchange St. Paul. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. 167 West 12 St.] 14 to 27. Texas The Producer-Consume: Consumers Book Cooperative 27 Coenties Slip. We shall need many more of them. Chicago 167 West 12th Street. Pacific Supply Cooperative Walla Walla. N. Medical Bureau. We believe that cooperatives of con sumers and producers are one of the most important ways of enabling all the people to become owners. N. Y. L. Renew your subscription now. Hoover. 372—40th St. Pacific N. 2301 S. N. CALENDAR OF COMING 1 National Cooperative Recreation Iowa State College. Wash. Ind. Inc. Penn.. St.W. Hoosier Farmer Midland Cooperative Wholesale Minneapolis. with the many varied divi sions. M« • I M» •HIM PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY MAY. December 19. N.C AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Name Address Publication Am. we need more subscriptions. Price $1. Inc. 1917. C Design Service. July 7. of whom it was said. N. Cal. Y. which has just ended. Co. 167 West 12 St." We should all be like Gustav Saga of Sweden. New Age Living Central Cooperative Wholesale Superior. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. under the Act of March 3. So.A.

Today. Second." The second is the right to property in "the labor of his body and the work of his hands. 25% of the farmers were tenants. yet every man has a 'property' in his own person. he hath mixed his labor with it. Now that we have both their experience and our own experience to guide us. . In Norway farm tenancy is only 10%. Remember—you cannot control what you do not own—you cannot own what you do not control. To what is this decline in farm tenancy attributable? We also have official documents from Denmark and Finland which say specifically i-iat cooperatives in finance. r r * * * OWN FACTORIES COOPERATIVELY The evidence seems to prove that we have been all too slow in going from retail and wholesale ownership to cooperative factory ownership. .1 THE DECREASE OF OWNERSHIP IN AMERICA When the first census was taken in 1880. Every census has shown an increase until it reached 42% in 1935. now that we have begun to build such factories." It may not be gold any more. 1941 99 ." Now that we have gotten over the first humps. Normally you let the bankers control your money. Second. save your money in a cooperative credit union and in buying cooperative shares and cooperative insurance. Our early beginnings in production have proven the oft repeated statement of the British that "production is the lifeblood of the cooperative movement" and the statement of the Swedes that "co-ops are trust busters. underemployment and underproduction. oil station. These are the three determinants which the Swedes follow in deciding as to the next manu facturing step to undertake—simplicity." In Finland farm tenancy reached 69%." ' And how much property does every man have a natural right to own ? First. First.. margin. 1935 THE INCREASE OF OWNERSHIP IN SCANDINAVIA In Denmark farm tenancy at one time reached 42%. thereby bind you to at least the possibility. all of his person without reservation. The essence of cooperation is both ownership and control of both property and of money. we can only conclude that it was a mental resistance that we had to overcome to break away from private sources and begin to build our own production plants. it can be done here. OWN YOUR OWN MONEY You may think you do but you don't. but only 20%. of underconsumption. which are sold in large quantities. Yet how easy it is for you to begin breaking the chains which bind you 98 Consumers' Cooperatioi I There are two simple ways. whatever fruits of his labor 'Chapter "Of Property" in "Second Treatise of Government. underemployment. radios and other forms of personal property which the people own. as Justice Louis D." Locke says. and thereby makes it his property . What we need to do today is first. and underproduction. The fetters which bind the people are forged from the people's own gold. to mobilize our money coopera tively. to pool our purchases cooperatively and second. But an increase in ownership of personal property does not compensate for the decline in ownership of productive property. "But the chief matter of property being now not the fruits of the earth and the beasts that subsist on it. every man has a natural and inalienable right to three forms of property. we should be able to also duplicate their declaration that they do not make a mistake any more in the next steps to take because of careful advance investigation based on proven principles and practices. the percentage of non-ownership by farm operators has reached the stag gering total of 76%. As we look at the tre mendous figures of results. and with wide margins. the latest statistics we have show that farm tenancy in Finland has declined to 11% and is probably now still lower. Ihough the earth and all inferior creatures be common to all men. r * * * THE THREE NATURAL FORMS OF PROPERTY According to John Locke. etc. it will be easier to get over others in different fields. That's why we believe in building coopera tives stronger and faster in this country—to eliminate tenancy and achieve owner ship. purchasing and marketing are one of the principal reasons for the decline of tenancy. Whatsoever. The first is the right to "property in his own person. then.* whose writings formed the foundation of the American Constitution. PERCENTAGE OF THE VALUE OF FARM REAL ESTATE NOT BELONGING TO THE FARM OPERATOR. "The 'labor' of his body and the 'work' of his hands. 'to The third is the right to property in "the earth itself. Farm operators in that State only have 24% equity today in the land they till. we may say are properly his. or less than one-fourth. This nobody has any right to but himself. if not yet the personal actuality. Loss of ownership of productive property results in under consumption. Sweden has the highest farm ten ancy. . he removes out of the state that Nature has provided and left it in." that "The power and the growth of power of our financial oligarchs comes from wielding the savings and quick capital of others. but it's still your own money in some form that you allow others to control and. which the Department of Agriculture calls the greatest agricultural state in the Union." May. but the earth itself. If it can be done in Scandinavia." Locke says.. Brandeis said years ago in "Other People's Money—and How the Bankers Use It. City residents in the United States are 55% tenants or over half. Locke says. Apologists for the present system tell of the number of automobiles. Today an official report "Denmark Agriculture" says "there is no longer any farm tenancy in Denmark. For a number of years we have had many more times the amount of distribution necessary to use the output of several fertilizer plants and refineries. and joined to it something that is his own. That means. We need only to keep always in mind that fertilizer and petroleum are simple prod ucts. I think it is plain that property in that too is acquired as the former. spend your money in a cooperative store. quantity. as that which takes in and carries all the rest. Mortgages ate also much heavier and if added to the figures of tenancy in the State of Iowa.

with the control separate from the political government through a board of directors demo cratically and directly elected by all the consumers. Perhaps conditions may make the percentage vary in different countries. In Finland cooperative ownership has reached 36$ and is increasing at the rate of 1 % per year. Those things which are by nature exclusive. To the woods and waters wild With a faery hand in hand: For the world's more full of weeping Than you can understand" George Russell adds: "Away! yes. THE THREE FORMS OF OWNERSHIP There are three natural forms of property. Individual total action has proven a failure after centuries of trial. In general we believe that all of those things which one can use personally in an efficient manner should be owned privately. there might come on me some foretaste of the destiny which the great powers are shaping for us." There are also! three forms of ownership. This would include one's home at the minimum. Tomorrow. cooperative and public." Russell's wish was to dwell in the mountain of his dream where. notwithstanding his enclosure. for he had no right farther than his use called for any of them. as John Locke declared in the 1 chapter. By publicly owned we do not mean government owned and politically controlled. What we should strive for is "An Insti. Cooperative total action would probably be a failure if adopted." Time to wander." What better rules can any one write for the triple natural property rights i of every man and their limitations than these formulated by John Locke two hundred and fifty years ago? The question today is how many more years we need to put them in effect.u" ":'^ n V1^ "Come away. Just what should b< > owned in either one of the three forms is a matter which changes from time to' time in the world's history. Today under capitalism the generally accepted idea is that the ownership of one's body is subservient to the economic system and the state. getting a living. 100 Consumers' Cooperation THE OWNERSHIP OF ONE'S LIFE In the introduction to "AE's Letters to Minanlaiben" appears this sentence. he offended against I the common law of Nature. it will be recognized and we will be so organized as to maintain the inviolate natural right of everyone to the ownership and control of one's body by each individual person. This is far the highest percentage ' in any country.and. O human child.' tutional Balance. Practical results alone should determine. this part of the earth. Together they are presumed to be able to require of everyone what they must do with their bodies. may be very industrious 2. yet infinite in number. "Afternoon tea was his evening meal. May. subject only to one's voluntary acceptance of the right of a creator. cooperative and public ownership and control of our economy. The remaining activities of economic life should be at least in part coop eratively owned. the love that will not let us rest. Locke says. the mingling of God and nature and man in a being. communication. or the fruit of his* planting perished without the gathering and laying up. "In silence thought begins. attending meetings takes almost all the waking hours. where all the people accept a large degree of uniformity such as water works. Working. studying. Whose hours are such and whose work is such as to relieve them from constant pr^silre botii:. It almost seems we never have any time at all to do so. yes. with the best method to be the winner which can render the greatest service to all the people. Locke I says. ever getting deeper into the net. which gave him the hours when day re luctantly and slowly was being conquered by night to wander under the everchanging sky. After quoting another Irish poet who calls to us-r^t.bict>and off the job. etc. power and heat." When will the time come when we will not have to sell both our forenoons and afternoons and most of our evenings as well in getting plenty and trying to build a world in which to do so peacefully? We need time to wander and wonder. "If either the grass of his enclosure rotted on the ground. It is toward that tomorrow that we cooperators strive.—private. THE OWNERSHIP OF ONE'S BODY? For centuries unnumbered it was thought under slavery and serfdom that one's body was owned by the economic master and political lord. At least the stranglehold of "the present private economic dieatorship represented in the modern corporation" must be broken by either check mating or supplanting it. Just how far cooperative ownership should and will supersede private ownership cannot be answered by any theorizing. Public total action is in the process of proving a failure today. Only a cooperative economy will do so—where all I become owners and ownership is divided according to justice and efficiency into T the three forms—individual. and was liable to be punished. one." Peter Maurin arranges five sentences of Thoreau's prose in this form: 3. Yet. transportation. as Russell also says.. electric light. the peace above the desire for love. "between heaven and earth and my brothers. How we envy anyone who has it. And if I should sell and yet both my forenoons not spend his time well. We mean by public ownership the ownership by all the consumers in any area. All that cooperatives ask is an open field." We need a world in which we can wander in silence and think on its wonders. as much of the earth as he can cultivate and use the products of. and might be the possession of any other. "Of Property" in "Second Treatise of Government. "Use" should be the determinent of private ownership. was still to be looked upon as waste. and afternoons There is to society no more fatal blunderer I am sure that for me than he who consumes there would be nothing the greater part of his life left worth living for. he invaded his neigh. That alone should be the determining element. cooperative and public. I trust that I shall never 1. work of his hands he can use or consume. the labor required I wish to suggest to supply them that a man would become a drudgery. to wander on and on under star-rich skies. "If the spontaneous i products of nature perished in his possession without their due use—if the fruits I rotted or the venison putrefied before he could spend it. "If my wants sell my birthright should be much increased for a mess of pottage. Third. 1941 10 .• bor's share." as advocated by the Committee on Cooperatives of the Na tional Education Association—a balance between private. should be publicly owned.

whether in the country or city." By uniting insurance with commodities organization of cooperative insuranct failed. seem insufficient to justify any group setting limits to the participation by others in any benefits to be derived from a larger number becoming policy holders and thus spreading the costs and risks more widely.from •• . They United States may learn.. Since everyone is an actual or a potential consumer of insurance. We believe this af commodittl * a great lesson for the Consumers' CoMovement in the United States succss continuous. in education and recreaorganization of cooperative insurant.} ization.which • • • thf •<'•!—. bank and insure through the same organWe believe strongly in learning eveij. that the insurance companies which began in the State of Ohio finally broke over both vocational and political boundary lines into other 103 . Then thing possible from others' experienct when you attend the annual meeting you and thus saving ourselves from all of tk vote. which because of its size has problems of organization which a smaller country does not have... in banking and insurance. Consumers' Cooperation started on a shoe string. they achieved both efinsurance imder to) haency and democracy. Dudfcj said in brief. it will increasingly be diffi cult to persuade any vocational or politi cal area group to forego receiving those benefits themselves.lesson ----. the organization of National Co operatives laid the corner stone of Business in 1933.. It serves all of your needs. then we can proceed to consider the question of the Best possible wider organization of insurance in a country as large as the United States. Three General Types of Organization If we start by thinking of a local com munity cooperative association which will serve all of our needs as members both efficiently and democratically. "How do you get democratic con-. . Bowo serve .. a quarter century after the beginnings of na tional cooperative organization in the United States. members . In one form only has national finance organiza tion developed—that of Credit Unions organized nationally in the Credit Union National Association. Credit Union National Association and the Consumer Distribution Corporation it was concluded that the organization of a National Coop erative Finance Association should precede any attempt to organize Cooperative Bank ing on a national basis and the matter was voted by the joint committee into the hands of The Cooperative League Board of Directors which is working on the details of such an organization.. . finance has been weak. or one side or the other of a political boundary.*— . Business and Recreation. One local These basic requirements are centralia. if large scale operation proves to be more economical.-*. In other cases. When these investigation 'that the British experiensl delegates meet in the national Congress -. with him personally. in some cases there has been However.. If there had been same Board of Directors which handla «" ldea 1 development no doubt the logic commodities on a national basis ha.** — is the clearest they represent insurance as well as commodities. regionally and naand then organized together with coal tionally in &e United Statf • Our develmodities and succeeded. In Great Britain cooperative insurant! elect a nation?! Board of Directors which was first organized separately from com in turn handles the national insurance as modities on a national basis. Now with our trial and error ex perience and with the example of other countries to which we -are increasingly looking. R. (It might be added that the to Ieam. It is difficult to conceive of any major reason for doing either. Some even go so far as to limit their membership to_a single vocational group such as farmers. second. The separate well as the national commodity program.. one's vocation. . for the delegates you perience of other European countria want to attend the national Congress to could be used. the needs . we believe from study ani.u of ~£ your . trol of cooperative insurance?". of Education first. While the a-f tive and.I HOW SHOULD COOPERATIVE INSURANCE BE ORGANIZED? W E have reached the point. Efficiency and Democracy Basic It should not be necessary to say in the beginning that the same basic require ments of cooperative organization inlvery 102 local cooperative in the same terms as r we w do in Great Britain. It was undoubtedly because of the growing belief in the justice and wisdom of the "Open Membership" principle of Consumers' Cooperation and the further belief in the possibility of economies in a larger organization. we should be able to coordinate Financ^ in a11 its forms' with BuS'neSS 1941 in the best possible way locally. Mr. and the organization of the Cooperative Society for Recreational Education laid the corner stone of Recrea tion in 1936. and proven to be highly economical and ef-> Business third' would have fuollowed. We have in the United States illus trations of insurance organizations which confine their activities within the boun daries of a single State. altogether idealistic. handle the affairs of your local cooperathat we are thus able to do. The or ganization of the Cooperative League laid the corner stone of Education in 1916. first. ficient However.«. There is still a fourth na tional corner stone to be laid and that is Finance in all its various forms.cooperative serves them all. When we asked the ques tion. Furthermore. where three of the four corner stones of the structure of the Movement have been laid in a national way and in the following order—Educa tion. As a memtion for economic efficiency and deco. At least three other forms of cooperative finance are yet to be developed nationally—Banking. We think of a local cooperative as an organization to of in every E. until the former presidentofj **> little education as we all well know. "As yet you have not thought generally7n thrUnled'statesl.-«-->-----. After long discussions of a joint national committee of The Cooperative League. way they desire. Finance second.-—* all . we had to satisfy ourselves from th) reading of any literature as to their met { od of providing for democratic control' of insurance. for the Directors you want to mistakes of the trial and error method.) In other word/ °Pmei* he^ was not uniform and not the centralization of insurance under to. Their needs in commodiother field must also be applied to tk ties and services.We belleve li 1S now becoming same experience took place in Great Brit-'' "raasingly accepted that cooperative inain in the case of Banking as well-4 sunnce ^d commodities should be was first organized separately and faildl d°sely related locally. interests :. you tralization for democratic control. or one's resi dence. Finance Associations and Insurance. This is the first mental hurdle for the Consumers Cooperative Movement in the United States to get over—to decide if a close relation between Commodities and Insurance is not both necessary and desirable for both efficiency and de mocracy. tion. We believe that the time is now ripe to begin the discussion of the National Organization of Cooperative Insurance with the view of eventually crystallizing everyone's opinion and initiating action on whatever conclusion is reached. the an-' swer was quick and clear. region ally and nationally.her you study and play. you buy. Then the Cooperative Wholesale j? one Program. In some cases insurance has preceded commodities and has succeeded in a measure but doubtless not as great as though more closely al lied with commodity cooperatives every where. ^ the . control your national affairs.

why cannot ontj national cooperative insurance association serve all regional cooperatives everywhere? Is not insurance very much dif ferent from commodities which are or ganized by trade areas because of differ ences in the kind and qualities of prod ucts wanted. that fact should be brought clearly to light by thor ough statistical comparisons. 66. written by J. The problem before the founders of the Republic was therefore a double one: first to enable farmers and cottagers to acquire their holdings in full ownership. transportation costs. we suggest that the question of national cooperative insurance be care fully studied by the regional cooperatives. 1941 1 It 105 . COOPEBBTIVE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION NATIONAL 1NSUWNCE CONTRDUEOBND DISTRIBUTED THROUGH REUONBL COOPE8BTWE HKOCIATIONI • 104 HOW FINLAND SOLVED THE FARM TENANCY PROBLEM (From "Finland". It was laid down that the price should be based on the value of the land in 1914. Within each of these latter classes were two clear sub-divisions. that the new Republic must stand or fall by its ability to satisfy the land-hunger of the masses.States until today they cover nine East ern States. etc? No such territorial differences which ap ply to commodities prevent national or ganization of insurance. We now have in successful operation in the United States examples of both state and sectional cooperative insurance associations. If sectional associations are proving to be or can be made more suc cessful than state associations. We believe that it is timely that this question of the national organization ol cooperative insurance. If a single sectional insurance association covNATIONAL ering a number of states can serve several I regional cooperatives. 84. the rest were landless. cooperative economic organization pre ceded democratic political organization.000 held cottages and vegetable plots. At least it is not difficult to conceive of i national cooperative insurance association covering the entire United States which might equal and far exceed any national stock or mutual company and which might be controlled by the regional co operatives in every trade area. which makes the solu tion of farm tenancy in Finland in so short a time all the more remarkable. „ Little was done about the second part of the task until Consumers Cooperation I May. Hampden Jackson. Owners grumbled that this was too low. If sectional as sociations covering a number of states are more efficient as well as more truly co operative in spirit in not limiting their membership.) (EDITOR'S NOTE: We have secured permission to reprint a feu. secondly to provide new holdings for the landless. publishers. thus decentralizing the reserve funds. In other words. land-values having increased since then. as it seems to us that it sums up briefly the steps which finland has taken during the past 40 years to eliminate farm tenancy. Of the 160. Assuming that cooperators are open minded to consider on its merits eveij possibility of rendering greater service to themselves. FIRST CREDIT LAW —. then the question naturally follows as to whether national cooperative insurance would not be still more efficient than sectional insurance. By permission of The Macmillan Company. Of the 478. About 33 per cent were tenant farmers and the remaining 43 per cent were agricultural labourers. Loans of insurance funds are made in all of the territories where in surance is written. that is holders of leases that could be revoked at the will of the owners.1 919 The first part of this task was broached in October 1918 by a law providing state loans for peasants who wished to buy their land.122 families who lived on the land at the time of the 1910 census. it would seem that such larger scale sectional distribution of insurance has proven to be more efficient than small area operation and by being related to democratic regional cooperative associa tions can be made democratically con trolled. only 24 per cent were owners. Of the 207. and should serve as a pattern jor the United States to follow.pages fiom the book FINLAND. Hampden Jackson and published by Macmillan Company. the claim ad justers and the loaning agencies for theit respective territories.000 tenant families.) It was obvious. as one of the ments of the corner stone of cooperative finance.000 farm labourers. by J. but they had seen something of the temper oftorpparit and cottagers in the civil war of 1918 and in most cases they an were not unwilling to come to terms with their tenants. with such regionals the distributors. It should be remembered that cooperative education started in 1899 but that Finland did not become politically free until 1917. These insurance companies are increasingly being sponsored by regional commodity. On the basis of apparent results.500 were torpparit. cooperatives who act in the capacity of distributors and claim adjust ers and who nominate the directors to be elected from their respective terri tories. be considered by the regional! cooperatives.

the new landowners 106 Consumers' Cooperati. but he took the view that since the Diet in its mutilated form was obviously unrepresentative a new election should be held. There was considerable opposition from the right-wing parties (especially from the Swedes who tried to pass an amendment forbidding the acquisition of land in Swedishspeaking areas by Finnish-speaking peasants) but it was overcome by the law's very careful limit on forced sales. The Communists. The problem was not so simple as that which faced the agrarian reformers of Estonia. and contrasted it with Poland where the new Republican Government preserved the vast estates intact. Latvia. In the case of estates of 200 hectares and under there could be no expropriation. Kallio resigned and the Diet was dissolved. there could be no question of robbing them of their estates. He depended on the support of Social Democrats and Pro gressives as well as that of his own party and was pledged to find land for the landless. The landlords were to be paid by the State in Government 7 per cent bonds. Kallio's bill was supported in all its stages by the Social Democrats. as it is called. SECOND CREDIT LAW — 1927 On the crest of this wave of feeling the Agrarian leader Kyosti Kallio formed a ministry in September 1922. provided State aid for the purchase of two types of holding in hitherto uncultivated land. Latvia and Lithuania where the landlords were being expropriated to make way for hundreds of thousands of smallholders. a burden which being wage-earners as well as allotment-holders they could be expected to bear. the second type consisted of plots of 2 hectares maximum for cottage-sites and vegetable allotment. did the Social Democrats demur. were loud in their opposi tion. The landowners of Finland were Finns..I 1922 when circumstances made it of immediate importance. including the twenty-seven members of the Diet. The Lex Kallio. were to pay the State at the rate of 7 per cent per annum of the cost price. and Lithuania where the landowners were Baltic or Polish barons and could easily be expropriated as antinational aliens. At the elections of 1922 the Communists retained their twentyseven seats and it seemed likely that unless something was done to wean the masses from Communism the capitalist Republic must ultimately be overthrown. In spite of its leniency to landlords and the fact that it was creating that most conservative of social groups. Then and only then. A compromise was found in the bill which became law in October 1927. Revolutionaries who had no sympathy with communism could point to the new peasant Republics of Estonia. a peasant-proprietor class. only in estates of over 500 hectares could expropriation reach the legal limit of 50 per cent of the uncultivated land. President Stahlberg did not share this opinion. Under the Lex Kallio expropriation became legal only as a last resort. Agitators could point to Russia where the Bolsheviks had allowed the peasants to seize the estates of 500 hectares the maximum with which landlords could be forced to part was 25 hectares. shut its headquarters and its newspaper offices and arrested its leaders. on the other hand. 4 per cent of which ranked as interest and 3 per cent went to pay off the capital debt. The connection between the Finnish Communists and the Russian became so close that during the parliamentary recess in August 1923 Kallio dissolved the "Labour" Party. The Communist wing of the Social Democratic Party had broken away from the moderates and under the name of the Finnish Labour Party (the term Communist was illegal) had won twenty-seven seats at the 1920 elections. the new cottagers paid 9 per cent. The 107 . When the Diet reassembled they insisted that Kallio had infringed the liberty of mem bers and had rendered the Diet legally incompetent to legislate. In this they were backed by the Third International and by the Soviet Government—it must be remembered that those were the days when Moscow's policy was openly to ferment revolutions outside Russia. The first type consisted of small farms of a maximum of 20 hectares of agricultural land with another 20 hectares for firewood.

In the years between 1911 and 1913 Finland produced only 41 per cent of the cereals consumed by her population. By 1929 over 144. for instance. half of these being productive farms and half cottage-holdings for labourers.000 new estates had been founded on hitherto unworked land. It is perhaps encouraging to note that the State played a comparatively small part in promoting it. a loss for the Communists (who had again changed their name to escape the penalties of the law). in the sphere of agriculture burn-beating companies.elections of 1924 showed.00x3."1 When at the end of the last century the cash and credit system replaced the old subsistence economy. In spite of storms in political teacups the agrarian reforms worked smoothly. The gainers were the Social Democrats and the Concentration Party. the official year-book of statistics (Helsinki. Thirdly the productivity of the land acre for acre was increased.000 leaseholders had become owners of land and another 53. responsibility for the striking progress in agriculture lies not so much with the State as with the individual farmers who. Though the Government under took research work. for the ensuing year the conservative Lauri Ingman was to be Prime Minister. hunting teams for the purpose of destroying wolves in particular. equal membership and democratic management. First the number of peasant proprietors was increased.1 This increased agricultural productivity was the greatest 108 Consumers' Coot achievement of Finland under the Republic. in 1935 it was 2. In the first twelve years of its working the Lex Kallio brought over two million additional acres of land under cultivation.865. Agricultural Co-operation in Finland (Hel sinki. The agrarian reforms were a success in three distinct respects. The key to their success is to be found in their infinite capacity for taking pains and in their extraordinary collaboration through the co-operative movement. provided loans and subsidized the farmers (as we shall see) in time of crisis. "Since time immemorial common enter prises have been carried on among the Finnish people in all spheres of pure economy in kind. EARLY COOPERATIVE EFFORTS It is the peculiarity of the northern peoples that they combine a passion for peasant proprietorship with a habit of collaboration. proved them selves one of the most progressive groups of producers in the world.000 kilograms. in the sphere of reindeer-breeding grazing crews. In all these associations there was. The Government used no force: it did not once have to exercise its right of expropriation. In the production of hay and animal fodder (Finland's chief crops) the yield per hectare in the years between 1923 and 1927 was 1-067 food units. In 1920 the yield of milk was 1. To-day one Finnish family in every three owns land: there lies the greatest difference between Finland and the older states of Europe. in 1934 it was 1-418. 1941 109 .000 marks had been lent to purchasers of new estates. nor on the other hand did it find any difficulty in finding worthy candidates for proprietorship. in the sphere of fishing of drag-net crews that have preserved their old form down to our own day along the sea-coast and on the shores of the larger lakes. 1 See Suomen Tilastollinen Vilosikirja. By the same date under the Lex Kallio 31. once freed from hopeless conditions of lease and labour. 1936). they were voluntary and the surplus they yielded was divided according to what each member had contributed as his share in establishing the association. In the sphere of forestry there were common associations. Statistics are a poor way of measuring the Finns' growing skill in working the land. as might be expected. the country folk were lost. but never was a State loan spent to better purpose. May.000. but we know no other.000 had become cottage-and-allotment owners. for 1934 the figure was 82 per cent. in the sphere of cattle-farming common pastures. Such common enterprises consisted. as in present-day co-operative societies. Secondly the area under cultivation was increased. By the end of 1934 some they fell a prey to the usurer and the dealer and could think of no 1 Pellervo-Seura (editors). They retained only eighteen 1936).

"is an institution where the money of the poor is lent out to the rich. Professor Gebhard developed the Raiffeisen system in Finland. In 1903 the first co-operative dairies were established with the encouragement of Pellervo. A law of 1901 gave statutory recognition to co-operative societies observing the following principles: membership open to anyone who would pay the minimum subscription and observe the rules." The idea was first ^•^1 110 Consumers' Cooperation worked out by one Raiffeisen in South Germany where societies of villagers pooled their scanty savings and pledged their bit of credit to provide loans for the needy. amounted to 1.way of translating their habit of collaboration into terms of the new economy. First he needed help as a producer: he could not hope to own his own bull. CREDIT COOPERATIVES The co-operative principle came to be applied to all manner of purposes. From that moment the movement grew steadily. after the old Finnish God of Fertility) for the dissemination of co-operative ideas that the idea really began to take root among the rural population of Finland. raised his buildings. It is worth noting that the difference between the interest rates paid for deposits and the rates charged for loans was on the average only i.000. Hannes Gebhard founded a society (called Pellervo. Could not Finns adopt this method of self-help to free themselves from the extortions of the middlemen? PERMANENT COOPERATIVE FOUNDATIONS Palmen's lecture fell upon stony ground. Secondly he needed help as a consumer: alone he could not hope to buy his sugar. every member contributing to M*?> 1 941 111 . to-day over half the adult population of Finland are co-operators. In 1903 there were about 18.O. and amply met. his own butterchum.000 members of co-operative societies. They "are owned by their milk suppliers in common.299 little banking societies with a total membership of 140. his own threshing-machine.K. and the joint-stock dairies which flourished between 1895 and 1902 made profits for every one except the farmer. alone he could not hope to sell his produce in the best market. by co-operation. In 1902 he founded the Central Bank for Co-operative Societies (O.25 per cent.O. From this beginning a co-operative movement had grown up in England.000. the flour was retailed at market prices from the cottage of one of the members in Toad Lane and the profit was divided among the subscribers in proportion to the amount of their purchases. Germany and Scandinavia. control exercised by all members on the basis of a single and equal vote. It was not until 1899 when Dr. Besides credit the farmer had two other vital needs. He told how in 1844 twenty-eight Rochdale workmen had collected a pound apiece for the purchase of sacks of flour. for half the farm land is under pasture and fodder crops. every step he took beyond the old subsistenceeconomy brought him more under the thumb of the profiteering middleman. a Co-operative Credit Bank an institution where the money of the poor is lent out to the poor." wrote the Italian Luigi Luzzati. profit divided among members in proportion to their purchases. and the credits granted to them by O. PRODUCER COOPERATIVES On the produce side the most important co-operative efforts were devoted to dairy-farming. Both these needs were met. Privately owned dairies on the great estates had mulcted the tenants unmerci fully. At the end of 1935 there were 1.K. purchased his tools or improved his stock. and half the farmers' money income comes from milk products. Perhaps the most urgent was the provision of credit through Co-operative Credit Banks. Without the facilities thus provided the peasant could never have purchased his land. coffee and boots at a fair price.). The difference during the same year in England on the joint-stock banking system was nearly 4 per cent. The solution was first proposed by a Professor Palmen who gave a lecture in 1866 on the work of the Rochdale Pioneers.000 marks. "A bank.049.

"1 By the end of 1934 there were 684 co-operative dairies with 75. Both movements were careful not to affiliate themselves with any political party. mosslitter societies. the first. It manufactures about 15 per cent of the articles it sells and has been a pioneer in the manufacture of several types of agricultural machinery. for supplying farmers' equipment. maintenance. Two great central organizations have been formed. Henceforward Finnish consumer-co-operation developed through two separate channels. The rural societies were usually very much smaller than those in the towns and the latter naturally felt it unfair that their vote should count for no more than that of a parish union with a handful . At the same time the division handi capped the movement in two important respects: it split the capital resources and made mass production impossible on the scale which in Sweden was so successful in setting an example in cheapness and efficiency to profit-making companies. OTK was called the Progressive Movement and drew its strength largely from the Social Democratic industrial workers. Its activities have embraced research and quality control.of members and insignificant capital.the costs of erection. and it made consumer co-operation an irritant instead of an emollient in the friction between Haves and Have-nots. SOK became known as the Neutral Society and drew its strength chiefly from the conservative farming community. as well as the business of foreign sales. and business. Yet the distinction was not so clear as might be expected. Besides the dairies all manner of agricultural producers' co-operative societies have grown up—bull societies. notably of the famous Esa thresher. Hankkija. Neither restricted its appeal to any one class or region. Valio. and the second. 1941 113 . Nearly 94 per cent of the Finnish exports of butter pass through Valio's hands. Hankkija supplies co-operative shops and dairies with fertilizer and cattle-food. Valio has done equally important work. It was organized on a democratic basis. and lately bacon factories and egg-selling societies. which amounts to a fifth of the total exports of the country. A healthy rivalry developed between them and their competi tive propaganda brought many more members into the co-operative movement than would have been likely under an undivided system. in precise proportion as he utilizes the services of the creamery.000 members in all. Each retained the same co-operative principles. each member-society having an equal vote 1 Thorsten Odhe. Both joined the Scandinavian Wholesale Society in 1928. They were particularly angry when the rural societies refused to accept the principle that only Trade Union members should be employed. The business of SOK was primarily to buy and manufacture food. for marketing dairy produce abroad. May. keeping the minimum subscription demanded from individuals as low as possible—ten shillings is an average figure—and aiming at low prices and increased reserves of capital rather than at high dividends (the dividends in a normal year rarely exceed 2 per cent). and participating in any trading surplus in exact proportion to his milk supplies. 112 Consumers' Cooperation' in the affairs of SOK. Again the point to note is the low cost of these co-operative services to the farmer: in 1935 he received 84 per cent of the price paid for butter by the consumers. when a number of urban societies seceded from SOK and in the following year founded a wholesale society of their own (OTK). making itself responsible for the export of dairy produce. machinery and electric power-heating installations and refrigerators. grading and the manufacture of new products. Here a difficulty arose. CONSUMER COOPERATIVES On the consumer side co-operation began among the industrial workers and it was through their initiative that the first Finnish Co-operative Wholesale Society (SOK) was created in 1904. seed and grain. Finland: A Nation of Co-operators ( 1931). clothing and household utensils for the member-societies which were rapidly springing up in country as well as town areas. A quarrel developed and led to a split in 1916. such as Dutch types of cheese.

six co-operative Credit Banks.000 marks and its employees numbered 2. turreted like a castle. the Helsinki consumers' society.350 members and an annual turnover of £67. and other mutual improvement associations. now a flourishing village in one of the most fertile and bestcultivated parts of Finland. its turnover amounted to over 288. sells grocery and provisions. Through the village runs the old main road. In 1934 it had 48. The parish boasts a population of 14.200. 329 shops including 15 restaurants of varying grades. threshing societies. The reputation made by its Social Democratic managing director. with ten shops amongst them. In the middle of the village stands the stately local authority offices. Elanto sets the standard for all Finland in the manufacture of bread and bacon. have been built. two SOK. rough-cast. agricultural machinery and requirements. The Society has 1. Lapuan Osuuskauppa (Co-operative Retail Society). its greatest achievement will no doubt be found in its work as a medium of education. now a broad highway. Special show-rooms for agricultural machinery.400. where Finland fought one of her bloodiest battles against the Russian invaders in 1809. eight farmers' guilds. occupies a substantial brick build ing in the middle of the village. Of these Elanto. manures. pigbreeding societies. Each of the many central organizations has its own periodical Press. one KK. feeding stuffs. for the most part co-operative institutions of one kind or another. household utensils. and at the railway station the society has its own granary with mechanical conveyors." COOPERATIVE EDUCATION When the history of the Finnish co-operative movement comes to be written. seven co-operative creameries.Nevertheless the Finnish consumer-co-operatives have some remarkable achievements to their credit. drapery and furnishings. They set the price-level of a great many articles. a score of bull societies. raised him to the Prime Ministership in December 1926. 1941 115 . along both sides lie the business premises. and markets yearly for its members many thousands of pounds' worth of grain and other produce. and cleaning and grading machinery. "There are in the parish three consumer co-operative societies.173 members (of whom 80 per cent were wage-earners). and the same may be said for the restaurants of some of the societies affiliated to the Progressive Move ment. in intimate relation to agricultural 114 Consumers' Cooperation co-operative undertakings. with large display windows.000. with its capacious stores. May. young farmers' clubs. boots and shoes. and. with cafe and restaurant and other social amenities. which. in shop and restaurant design and in the treatment of employees.000. Some idea of the part which co-operation plays in Finland can be gathered from a Swedish writer's1 account of a journey in Ostrobothnia: "Still fresh in the author's mind is a visit one frowsy April day to Lapua. is by far the biggest and the most enterprising. The SOK settlement at Vaajakoski and its flour-mills at Viipuri and Oulu are models for the world. practically all co-operators. Vaino Tanner.

felt the force of his royal wrath and of his Talmudic magnificence of phrase. 116 Consumers' Cooperation Kyman Cohn died on March 18. Sonnichsen was May. with the writer's delight in a. his companion and his leader.000 copies respectively among the Finnish-speaking population alone. a rebuke. for the first time. His was the stocky. the wage-earner in what Quakers used to call the re-creative use of leisure. not always silent. 1941. KK maintains its own staff of architects and has set an example in factory and shop design which older nations might do well to follow. A quarter of a century before. but she took the manuscript and read it with deep emotion. The manager was young and apt to be a bit impatient with the old man and his bulldog grip on his ideas.and stock-raising and in book-keeping. What the Finnish people would have become without co-operation can never be known. 1941 117 . Every year some 1. after the violent successes and failures of which he had been a driving force. just as it had been thirty years before. His sleepy eyes. and. (An equivalent circulation in Great Britain. seeing cooperation at work again. he met with the other founders in Dr. beamed kindly upon a friend and blazed blue fires upon an enemy. At times. the gospel according to Rochdale. heavy body up three flights of stairs to participate in a meeting of that same board. On one of those days he came into the store our second store on 184th Street with a grubby typewritten article. and carried home the groceries for which he had taken orders from the various branches of his family. Was it a true cooperative? How had it begun? Why? When? As the boys explained.400 lectures were. It was Albert Sonnichsen's "The Alien Agitator. Before Cohn could send it back. would be two-to-three million copies. Warbasse's Brooklyn home to plan the future of cooperation. When we knew him better we realized the thrill Hyman Cohn must have had as he stood there. in his active middle years. Anyone expressing an idea contrary to Rochdale principles or sound business practice. "The Alien Agitator". the 25th anniversary of the found ing of the Cooperative League. hearing young enthusiasms express themselves. with unwonted shyness. in a similar hole-in-the-wall grocery.000 and 130.delivered to nearly 350. the propaganda agency of the Progressive Movement. his gruffness disap peared." Sonnichsen had written the article just before he died and had sent it to Cohn for comment. On a September evening in 1937 he walked into our first little store at 1821 Eathgate Avenue. He bought his groceries and joined the West Bronx Co-op Club. to us who were feebly having our orders delivered. and with the zealot's discernment of the prophet behind the sound and fury of the man. Cohn began shooting questions. at the end of his life he had found a new cooperative that need ed him. right here in the Bronx. the tribute of a great cooperator to his friend. in the course of his thirty-odd years in the movement he was our only cooperator.1! 'YOUR W)RK IS PRIZED" Ruth Broan Farnsworth The chief weekly papers of the Neutral and Progressive Societies have a circulation of 182. where the reading public is about fifteen times as big. here in New York. and the public as a whole in democratic principles and the elements of economics. Such facts of his cooperative life you will find in the news papers. in heat and cold. under heavy brows. and linked the small beginnings of the Bronx Co-op with the heroic past of cooperation in New York. perhaps there would have been no alternative between remaining a poverty-stricken. in Sonniohsen's unpublished article. You will find the man himself. Which English weekly can boast that?) Each runs its own lecture courses. he began to complain of his heart. When that club joined with five others to incorporate as the Bronx con sumers Cooperative Society he was elected to the Board of Directors. In his late sixties he came to us. picturesque figure that limped into our store almost daily. He was our oldest cooperator. asked the manager to read it. During the hot summer of 1938. where he had taken a pamphlet on Consumers Cooperation off a I nail and read. In it Sonnichsen drew Cohn to the life. the farmer in modern methods of crop. Thst September evening Ned Siner and Harold Wattenberg were tending store. p icturesque hero. One of the last acts of his life was to drag his tired. backward and exploited peasantry or becoming a regimented and collec tivized community in the Russian model.000 listeners under the auspices of KK. To the co-operative movement the Finnish housewife owes her education in domestic science.

Hyman Cohn. could see the practical ap plication of an ideal. and new forms of co-operation. The Cooperative Service itself publishes. Correspondence with cooperative observers throughout the world. To insure continuance of its work throughout the war.memorials when I am gone. During his speech. The entrance of Italy into the war in June blocked the last avenue of free communication and effectively isolated the office at Geneva from the British Empire and the western hemisphere. 1941 current figures for the number of co-ops and their members in a country. In the Cooperative Service Division once again periodicals and correspondence from all parts of the globe pile up as foreign cooperators learn the new address. I gave it all to the movement years ago. Since the transfer of headquarters is not expected to be permanent. scans those incoming publications for items deal ing with cooperatives. a Jew who said that from penury one might give more than from wealth. only a nucleus of technicians and specialists from the Geneva staff have come to Canada. Mrs. of the Bronx. said good words about him. and of the United States. Switzerland was neutral. in this great city. and our tribute. and only a small force. of our debt to an old man sitting in the auditorium. but its geographical situation. "I haven't got much. rather than write words now. His family have since told us that that gesture lengthened his life. The decision to move from Geneva was reached kst summer when it became plain that it would no longer be pos sible for an international organization. Swerdlove. and he was discussing with us the need to build substantial capital for it. printed in Spanish. It aroused the en thusiasm we had always had for the oldest New York cooperator. whose staff included nationals of 40 dif ferent countries and whose work depended on being in constant communication with all parts of the world. special problems confront the European co-ops in regards to production. "The foundation is different for B tenstory building. Cohn wanted copies of the article. and make it possible for the Cooperative Serv ice to have a comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the cooperative movement throughout the world at any time. That evening the manager used the ticket Hyman Cohn had bought to attend the Twenty-fifth anniversary dinner. Perhaps he repeated what he had said in another crisis in an older cooperative. an ideal which had been once. is the one he would treasure most dearly. CARRIES ON T HE International Labor Office. and re sulted in our giving him a testimonial dinner in November of 1938. we feel. and now Leslie Woodcock talked of Hyman Cohn and James Warbasse recalled the old days. and who reads Spanish.I gone. have been sent out since the establishment of the ILO in Montreal. Delegates from other cooper atives attended. in cluding its Cooperative Service Di vision. 118 Consumers' Cooperation f CO-OP DIVISION OF THE I. YOUR WCffl IS PRIZED. He goes with us. His great voice poured forth in the roar that made him hard to understand. Four issues. besides its Directory of Cooperative Or ganizations issued every three years. the main activities of the ILO were moved to Canada. It overflowed when a priest came to him to grasp his hand. representing the cooperative movement in the East. Italian and the Slavic languages with facility. Ralph Miller and George Paul hoisted him to his feet and the crowd arose and cheered the stocky Jew with the bent shoulders. CONSUMER COOPERATOR. Especially noted are May. distribution. paid. The next day came the annual ECL meeting at the Amalgamated Houses. and the like. His cup was full. Montreal. letters and tel egrams read. We were planning a new store. I am not interested in one-story buildings. price-levels. "We must give.L. I want testimonials while I can hear them. One member of the staff. Some of us thought of another Jew whom Hyman Cohn often quoted between Hillel and Maimonides. wearing the "Pine Trees" honored by all before his children and friends. devising a solution. than for a one-story building. made invasion a constant threat. their relative importance in the national econ omy . any member na tion may call upon the co-op division ex perts for assistance with a cooperative problem—either in determining its scope. re mained in Geneva. round out its sources of information. Dr." he pulled himself out of the slump into which he habitually sank between his ex hausting outbursts. At the present time. German. a world association of nations aiming at in ternational cooperation in the advance ment of social and economic standards has from its inception considered the coopera tives an integral part of its study. We know it. which would not be available to a private agency. Re ports indicate that none the less they have gone ahead to prove their efficiency in war time as well as peace-time economy. Warbasse told all of us. All of us feel that no richer gift oan be made to our future than Hyman Cohn then of fered and in offering. or advising on the effectiveness of existing legislation. The testimonial dinner was a success. so it now considers that the cooperatives will have an important share in the social and economic reconstruction taking place after the war. We knew him in the last. we who were with him at that Board meeting early in March. government regulation. Necks craned. speeches were delivered. For the same reason that the ILO. "generous".O. who speaks French. so we settled down to long hours of cutting stencils and running off the story. 119 II . with his "Pine Trees" in his lapeland his friend. both saying good words. into the future of Consumers Cooperation. We of the Bronx Co-op are proud that he was one of us in his last years when he could know of the size and strength of a movement. his fraternal circle and the credit union he had organ ized were among those present. hemmed in by nations at war. to function effec tively there. legislation affecting co-ops." Here his voice dropped. On the nineteenth of March we went to a small funeral chapel where Cohn lay dressed in his CO-OP suit. with the result that surprisingly few of the activities of the ILO have had to be curtailed. French or English. be cause of the wide interests they represent and the services they can render." It makes us wish we had done more of what he really wanted. "You should be content. Each member of the staff has taken on responsibilities and duties formerly shared by others. But I'll put in five dollars. combined with the official reports and studies coming to the ILO. his beloved daughter so close to her "Pop" told us some thing he had said that hot summer: " I d on't want . English and Russian flu ently. the tributes of old friends." It wasn't an anticlimax. a bulletin sent free of charge to co-operative organizations or their papers. "a lover of mankind". the Rabbi. bring ing with them the documents and equip ment absolutely essential to their work. Hyman Cohn is part of our past but he is not dead. for it is the one he worked for all his life HYMN COHN. Cohn sat at the head of the table dressed in his CO-OP suit. only his. acting primarily as a liasion office. is now well established and carry ing on "business as usual" in its new home at McGill University. In the larger sphere. the mellow years. words he can never see.

1941 121 .120 Consumers' Cooperation ly.

The combination of training in discusm group leadership. Wisconsin. group singing. because once tried. 135 Kent Avenue. an Eastern Cooperative Recreation School is planned for August 17 to 24. 2301 S. June 14 to 27. The April issue of CONSUMERS' COOPERA TION carried a complete story about this school. For information write Henry iDyer. RECREATION NEWS NOTES Cooperators in the Philadelphia area held a recreation week-end "just for 122 May. square dancing and feasting. August 3-9. Lake Shawnee. Ohio. and philosophy of group recreation and leadership. played games. July 1219. " 'inneapolis. which is sponsored by the National Co operative Recreation School. Millard Avenue. Cooperative leaders in the East will be drawn in to lead seminars on cooperation. July 12-19. Michigan. * * * The dramatics group of the New York Play Co-op presented two one-act plays. Hastings. These one-week tutes have grown out of the ii aroused by students attending the tional Cooperative Recreation School by the week-end recreation conf which were held last summer and past winter and spring. Chicago. Such conferences include the California Cooperative Institute. Midland Co-op Wholesale. a number of cooperative conferences will include recreation as an important part of the program. music. The purpose of the institute to give intensive training to leaders and ipective leaders in cooperative educai. Camp Shawnee In stitute.. Ames. Camp Sierra. Amherst Institute. dean of the Child Edu cation Foundation. New York. "Helena's Husband" by Phillip Moeller and "The Flattering Word" by George Kelley at a party given by the Rochdale Institute and the Council for Cooperative Business Training. Eastern Co•operative League. Columbus. who are on the staff of the National Rec reation School. Mass." according to the Co-op Reporter. it 'get's a hold on you'. Plans are under way in the Cooperative Wholesale territory or three one-week recreation lead training institutes. An Education-Recreation-Publicity Insti tute is planned for May 16-18 and May 29 to June 1 at the DeKoven Foundation. The group of more than seventy people folk danced. Wilbur Leathirman and Frank Shilston. and W. Wisconsin. Growing out of the need for regional recreation schools to supplement the work of the National Recreation School and to take care of persons unable to attend the National School. Ruth Chorpenning ind James Norris are scheduled to handle dramatics and Murray Lewis will teach jafts. the rest of the students coming from Pennsylvania and New York. crafts—metal. 739 Johnson St. New York. Circ^ Pines Center. Dorothy Sonqui crafts. former staff member of the National School and Meta Schweibert. lind the Midland Cooperative Wholesale. Recreation leadership training will infdude European folk dances. informal group singing and inimental music. June 15-July 12. Information concerning these recreation institutes can be secured 'ran Frank Shilston. leather. will be on hand to help with games and blk dancing. Staff members will include Ruth Chorpenning and James Norris. Rutherford. The staff will be assisted by former National Rec reation School students who are now ac tive in recreation work. square dances singing games. and en dorsed by the Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Association and the Eastern Cooperative League. Complete information can be secured from Jac Smith. April 18-20 for a week-end of folk dancing and discussion. Vyatautus Beliajus and icster Graham will head the staff of :eation leaders. traditional board its. has instituted a series of Friday eve ning socials where members and friends meet at the organization's headquarters for an hour or two of singing. The longest and most intensive course is the National Cooperative Recreation School to be held on the campus of Iowa State College. Pub licity for the National Recreation School was discussed and plans made for the Eastern Recreation School. weaving and wood work—games. New Jer sey." * * * Twenty-six former students of the Na tional Cooperative Recreation School met at Epharta. or pounded out copper ash trays or pewter bracelets. folk dancing. publicity and recreshould make this institute extremely iluable. A flier and detailed information can be secured from Carl Hutchinson. New York. Midland fieldmen. and Gwen Goodrich. 123 . with emlasis on procedures and techniques. Chicago. Brooklyn... * * * The Cooperative Consumers Society of Bergen County. folk dancing." May 10-11 at Camp Tinicum. Penn. Phyllis Randall. The one week's course will include instrumental music. A newly acquired piano helps to bring out the crowd. publication of the Indi anapolis Cooperative Services. will be held at the Hudson Shore Labor School. Kapnick. The cost for room. 246 North High Street. publicity and recreation. acted in charades. Chester Graham. from Indiana. Racine. dramatics. The school. West Park. The plays were also presented at the weekly meet ing of the Play Co-op. "with mem bers of the group supplying the 'music' and directions. 1941 fun. Ohio was represented by one student.RECREATION TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES T HE summer of 1941 offers numerous opportunities for persons interested in learning recreation leadership. * * * A group of serious minded but lightfooted cooperators have been gathering Saturday nights in Indianapolis to talk and play. Brule. Cooperative Youth Course. Wisconsin. music. Iowa. Crafts. May 13. April 24. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. leader from Madison. The institute is spon sored by The Cooperative Union. conduct a special recreation i July 13-26. recreat. "This is a real amateur's group. Amherst. Folk games from the South. dramatics and folk dancing will be on the program. board and tuition for the week is $20. The group grows. The recreation-vacation camp. April 27 and will be given for the Morningside Coopera tive recreation group. Minneapolis. W. from Sweden and Den mark have been the program. head the staff which will include Ni Rawn. In addition to these specific recrea tional leadership conferences. who is doing recreation and Educational work in Midland's District VI. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania.

000 60.—The American Medical Association and the District of Columbia Medical Society are law vio lators guilty of breaking the anti-trust laws. 6. North Dakota—A new con sumers' cooperative wholesale to be wholesale operations were $87. labor and co operative representatives from Louisiana. Olga Hourwich. It is a twenty year term partici pating policy.107 in 1940. a District of Colum bia medical cooperative. Inc. Two hundred edu cators. which was 14% greater than the record year 1939 and that net earnings on Jamestown.The number of lool retail co-ops affiliated jumped from 2.670.*** Toronto.933 Central Cooperative Wholesale. This increase was sur passed only in 1938 when the membership drive brought in 4. C.841 local societies of 1.000 policy-holder mem bers gathered at the meeting that the co operative movement take the lead in providing an insurance service which will guarantee the minimum insurance neces sary for the average family. C. Columbus.304. Canada 9.000 volume in 1941 at ciety was organized here last month.7%.521 for the year.—The first cooperative education conference in Louisiana took place on the campus of Louisiana State University April 14 and 15 under the joint auspices of the Southeastern Co operative Education Association and the General Extension Division of Louisiana State University. Ohio 7. president of the Farm Bureau Life Insurance Company and recently elected president of The Cooperative League. Mo. pre payment of medical care.250 21. Amarillo.000 *Induding subsidiaries ** Including livestock sales ** Ten months Superior.000 11. Brooklyn.708.896 Central States Cooperatives.158 new members to the 94 cooperatives which participated in the drive com pleted March 15. an increase of 410%. These plans were revealed for building expansion and voted to take at the first annual conference of Central their earnings on last year's business in States Cooperatives at International shares instead of cash so the co-op whole House on the University of Chicago cam sale will be in a stronger financial posi pus here April 26 and 27. a drive for new members sale was made after officials had con and new business. dent co-ops on 160 college campuses.324. Warbasse.844 Farmers Union Central Exchange. Raleigh. Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n.000 Individual Members 16. manager. The co-op policy will be for $500 face value only. 3.000 125.000 operatives. semiannually or quarterly.401 Farmers Co-op Exchange. churchmen. Michigan 3.000 or 20% over the $48. Wis.050 in 1939 to 2. Paul. James P.000 40. Warbasse said an estimated $120. Arkansas and Mississippi met for the conference to "Educate People to Help Themselves. tion to meet any emergency which may The total sales for CSC were up 9% grow out of a post-war crash.732 Eastern Cooperative Wholesale." New York — Dr. J. Chicago—The fifteen regional coopera tive associations affiliated with National Cooperatives in the United States and Canada reported total sales of $58. Minne the introduction of CD products to stu apolis and the Farmers Central Exchange.345 Pacific Supply Cooperative. Minneapolis 4.041.194 Penn. Chicago 204. St.460. Paul.-328 in 1940. annual meeting that sales of the co-op making possible a patronage refund to wholesale for 1940 were $3. their sales and membership were as fol lows: Consumers' Cooperation Regional Organization Total Sales 'Consumers Cooperatives Ass'd. voluntary health insurance is clearly called for before we attempt to legislate either on a state or national scale.000. 1941 125 .* N.114. ern states and on the Pacific Coast." Washington. Net savings A.495 Farm Bureau Cooperative Services. Walla Walla. Lin coln.865.211. The cost at age 35. The New York Times said in com menting on the decision: "It onens the way to wider devel opments in'the field of group medi cine.000 75. Wis. a New York miniature cooperative de The decision to form the new whole partment store.—Delegates to the 24th Chicago—Negotiations are under way to annual convention of Central Cooperative extend cooperative insurance to the mid Wholesale meeting here April 14 and 15 west states served by Central States Co approved the expenditure of $100. The premiums may be paid annually. During the year. N.500. Its the annual meeting of the membership original membership is made up of seven here April 28. and Midland Cooperative Wholesale. N.236.000 25. Hayes.510. North Kansas City. Dr. in 1940 totaling $205. 2.984 United Farmers Cooperative. Among plans proposed to bring up the ent time it will serve just as a buying volume were the possibility of opening agency.559. A country with forty-eight states with wide variations in cli mate.771 12. Ex perimentation with cooperatives. This was a decision of the Federal District Court here which found them 124 guilty of an attempt to destroy the Group Health Association. It will act as a broker build up this volume if it is to operate age buying organization.883. farm.000 40. re newable to age 65 and convertible. Harrisburg 2.000. limited to one coverage per person with no examination required.945 new members. The policy is designed to take the place of industrial policies where 97% of the so-called "burial insurance" is sur rendered or lapsed and thus never ful fills the purpose for which it was taken out. May. manager. groups of physicians who practice as they would in hospitals. for example. Wash.821. La. proposed to the thousand repre sentatives of 380. Canada 2.000. extension of service to ferred with representatives of the Cen individual cooperators in the southeast tral Cooperative Wholesale. The regional cooperatives.348. St. said that it's necessary for the co-op to and North Dakota. Indianapolis 6. president emeritus of The Cooperative League. 6.116 Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative.000 worth of petroleum products wen purchased through cooperatives last year saving members about $10.678 Midland Cooperative Wholesale.607 Consumers Cooperative Ass'n. Lansing.000 76. Kansas City.000.—^ WHAT'S NEWS WITH THE CO-OPS Celcimbus.22 a year.200 80. eligible for dividends. Baton Rouge. told the five million listeners of America's Town Meeting of the Air. a gain of 13-7%.337.823 sales of 1939. Murray D. an increase of slightly ovei $10. April 10 that they should organize coop eratives if they want to prevent effectively higher living costs. 2. Minn. sales fell ceries and other commodities to co-op grocery stores in those states. supplying gro economically. New York—Cooperative Distributors set known as the Northwest Cooperative So as its goal $100. Superior. At the pres to a total of $86.** Saskatoon. density of population and occupation will need more than one type of medical practice. reported to the jumped to $4.224 Saskatchewan Co-op Wholesale. is $6.000. Mo.755. D.000 16.—The fourth annual membership drive of Consumers Cooperative Association brought 3. Superior. Ohio—The big news at the annual meeting of the Farm Bureau Co operative Insurance Services here April 3 was the announcement of a new policy which it is hoped will clean up the abuses of the industrial insurance racket. Y. 1.658 Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n. Texas $ 223. co-op stores in northwestern Montana.

The author frankly recognizes the difficul ties of arousing the desire for property among people who think primarily in terms of higher wages. Cooperative Wholesale and Rochdale In is a ten-year depression gives way to a war stitute will select the candidates and tconomy financed only by saddling future gen award the limited number of scholarships erations with mountains of public debt. D. The upheaval caused by the war and the demobilization of millions of men would make this less difficult if a pro gram of decentralization were prepared now and taken up by the proper authorities once the long-desired cessation of hostilities has ar rived. Macmillan. He praised too. California was host to the state-wide conference of con sumer cooperative leaders April 8 and 9. by Charles Wood. Consumers' Cooperatives in the North Central States. Doubleday. education and finance in connection with the drive for further development of California cooperatives. 30 pages. free can ever be reestablished. editor. Washington.. Council for Cooperative Business Train history. 15c. / Chose Denmark. Andrew J. New York. Bureau of Labor Statis tics No. Belloc does not blink at the nearimpossibility of trying to reverse the direction of the world's economic forces and of the popular mind.50. 126 New York—Representatives of six ra BOOK REVIEWS tional student organizations will aid in THE RESTORATION OF PROPERTY. American Friends Ser This ap>.C. business management. economic self-reliance and human freedom. years ago. which will be conducted by the His many works in the fields of biography. R. by Dr. s pri which are made available by a grant from able brief study of the relationship between the Filene Good Will Fund. $2. Palo Alto. $3.50. a gas station. its ideals in completely realized.. U. New York^ Sheed and Ward.00. either on the part of big business or on the part of the] government. In any case. Aiken speaking befortj the Monday Evening Club. Jr. 308 pages. 177 pages. Procedure for Incorporating Consumers' Co operatives. S. . Uni versity Goes to the People. Lamberton. International f American capitalism down through the crash Student Service. Minneapolis. Vermont was the only state in ttt union that had not a single foreclosure. It is obvious that this power is lacking to the pro letariat. Eastern dom United States the danger to freedom grows. The Commonweal LATEST BOOKS RECEIVED (Available through The Cooperative League) Introduction to the Cooperative Movement. Mr.. M. he ^ out. New York—The Textile Workers Union of America meeting here for its annual convention April 22-25 voted unani mously to endorse the consumers' coop erative movement and instructed the edu cational director to foster and promote consumer cooperative study groups. Selection of the month. 24 pages. almost everj town in Vermont having a coopetativti of some kind. New York. So." In the month of February. Kebker and W. dent Union. organ ized by Farm Bureau co-op employees six years ago. The convention urged all members of the union to join consumer cooperatives and recommended that all locals set up special committees to work with the educational director and the Committee on Organ ized Labor and Cooperatives of The Co operative League. George Boyle. have obscured the fact that Hilaire Belloc has perhaps his ing July 7 to August 23. Consumers Book Cooperative. New York. Tnti property for the Cooperative Center wif purchased and improved with loans fraf He recognizes that there must be limitations on the individual for the sake of the com mon goal. 290 pages. Democracfi Second Chance ( Land. Doran and Co. This he attributed to the strong coopera tive movement in his state. Editor. contain ing a brief section on cooperatives. Harper and Broth ers. $3. religion. C. "the sirit. 127 •i . W. with model Bylaws. The organizations which will partici most important things to say on the social His "Servile State" of nearly 30 pate are the National Committee on Stu question. National Intercollegiate: of '29 and right up to the present moment. a text. two brief sections on cooperatives. published 5 years Christian Council. if less prophetic.00. The Proprietary State he envisages in the place of Capitalism or Totalitarianism would of necessity be imperfect. The co-op shop occupies the entire first floor of the Farm Bureau Cooperative building. Stuart Chase. JR. 340 Woodward Building. 370 pages. edited by R. X. $1. Sociology. April 21.—United States Sena tor George D.50. M. 236 pages. Also. ever in process of develop ment. 567 pages. It has 870 members and operates two parking lots. the selection of candidates for the first (Available through The Cooperative co-op summer school for college men aA League) women. Bogardus. Somehow he leads directly toward co-ops without reach ing them. who bulk so large under capitalist democracies as well as political dictatorships. 665. built cooperative service station. 430 pages. . by Hilaire Belloc. 25c. and suggests that true freedom ob tains as long as the family enjoys the power to react against whatever limits its freedom. Random House. St.C. Helen Sorenson. Princeton University Press.. Leland. Norman Thomas. completely revised and en larged edition. in a sense. $1. Mr. the dreams of manf of the members of the Consumers' G operative Society of Palo Alto. came true when the society opened. Antigonish. Kercher. Work and Cooperation). for instance. tv00_ his objectiv?s of distributing in adequate amount shares in industrial enterprises that are by nature large-scale. 15c. C. and the small craftsman (to a modest degree) is quite convincing. Uni versity of Minnesota Press.Oakland. 245 pages. Emory S. 1941 I Such enterprises are hardly the only villains in the piece. Belloc suggests political means for arriving at an end much better com passed by consumers cooperation. special co-op edition. $2.50. California—Exactly six yean after incorporation. Ohio—The first consumerowned department store in Columbus opened April 16 and 17 when the Farm Bureau Consumers' Cooperative. Representatives of the Associated Cooper atives of Northern and Southern Califor nia met to thrash out problems of organ ization. California—The robust young consumer cooperative at the migratory workers' camp at Visalia. Francis Hacker. First the Fields. D. New York. little book on property. The Consumer Movement. blossomed forth as a full fledged department store. "I think cooperation is the al ternative to monopoly. Organization and Management of Consumers' Cooperative Associations and Clubs. $2. $3. Vaile. New York. charted with unerring dent Cooperatives. the '"toration of the small distributor. ' meat market and located beside the newly.S. Columbus. Califor nia. L. ganizations together with officers of Con tven for the people of the democracies. A Primer of Economics. 60 pages.50. Chapel Hill. ' enterprises out of existence the way to do it? Consumers' Cooperation! May. complete with ll .00. including a section on cooperatives. Harper and Brothers.. We Have a Future. and other high-profit organization to loan it $15. Mobilizing for Enlightenment. Consumers Cooperation is logically the principal instrument for working out his admirable scheme for restoring and maintain ing economic independence and genuine free dom for millions of the dispossessed. Kress. its second grocery store.Coady. University of North Carolina Press. Sheed and Ward.00. V. of tolerance and understanding" the cooperative movement has engen dered.355. Report of the Institute of Living Law. is a substantial contribu vice Committee and the American Stu tion on the subject. A novel of the tobacco growers' cooperative in North Carolina. H. —EDWARD SKILLIN. $1. Belloc's diagnosis here is a minor masterpiece. Representatives of these or What everyone wonders these days is how. 25c. $2. C. Here in the sumer Distribution Corporation. urban or rural. _5> . the National Student accuracy the broad outlines of the course of Federation of America. belles lettres. F. But is ™ ™u U u j re • t e • i • v I the Belloc proposal of virtually taxing chain members who had sufficient faith mthd 5toreSj department stores. New York. the dispossessed.00. This was followed by the adoption of a supplementary resolu tion recommending that the national of fice of the union appropriate such funds as it deemed necessary for teaching about consumer co-ops in local unions. Cooperaative Law. Revised edition 1941. The Principles of Consumers Cooperation. Part of his remedy—the reestablishment of ** small cultivator.i 1 1-71 . de clared. 27 pages and copy of D. Princeton. Washington. New York—The spring training course for careers in consumers' cooperation con ducted jointly by Rochdale Institute and the Council for Cooperative Business Training reported an enrollment of 42 students for the term which opened here April 7. a tailor shop and half a dozen contracts in addition to the store. Mr.

.. blatf and white......... .. 2.....50 Fresh Furrow: Burris Jenkins .... Cooperation—A Way of Peace........... 16 mm........ S...............S....00 128 How a Consumers Cooperative Dif fers From Ordinary Business .................. produced by the Harmon Foundntn Excellent photography........ dances.........20 The Spider Web............ from Sales Management ..000. silent........ Frank O'Hara .. Printers' Ink .25 Let's Play. Cooley . A.. black and white.... Land of Sweden... K... La Cooperation COOPERATION AND THE STATE POSTERS Organize Cooperatives.. Campus Co-op News Letter.............10 .... Co-op Edition ... Roy Bergengren .. 2.....20 All Join Hands...... Answering Your Questions About the Cooperative ..... 19"x28" Blue.... available from Cooperative Recreation Service........ Trilling................. .. Printers' Ink Monthly . Calkins . March On........... Iiitercollegian .. Hall and Walking... Wallace J..03 2.. Ohio. P............. per year . with English titles.........M .. Consumer Ownership — Of.........03 2.. 16 mm... special edition .... Unit tt Consumer Cooperation.. $13. Kodacrome..... produced by the Harmon Foundation.......J.......... Ruf...... two chapters on consumer cooperatives ....... 16 mm.... What Cooperation Means to a De pression Sick America... silent... two reel Hit showing how cooperation is taught in tbi schools of France.10 List of recreational materials.. 5 for $1 . 1... a Puppet Play ....10 ...02 LH| ................ I'M Reports Fast-Growing Co-ops Shun all Isms .. . High school and college..................02 U CONSUMERS COOPERATION ...........03 ..... EUis Cowling . silent. 1." a new 3 reel.... "When Mankind is Willing. .02 1! . .. Ignatius W.. $2 pa day..000.......___... E. P............................................................. 2. Brickbats and Boomerangs...............50 Fun for All....... ......... Credit Unions..... M................. Consumers Serve Themselves................05 .................... .. Warbasse and James Drury MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS ..02 liDi ....25 The Brave Years: Wm.. silent film on the AmalgamatM Cooperative Houses in New York City. ......... Bowen ..... William Moore ...... "Clasping Hands....50 per week... site three-reel film... ..... Bowen ..00 • Student Cooperatives American Students and the Cooperative Movement.... .....« Are the Co-ops Getting Anywhere?............. Credit Unions: The People's Banks..... Rental pM unit: color....... Eberhart and Nicholas.. 1 reel..... James P. Heyliger ... John C.............. 2 reels.50 My Story..15 Education Through Recreation. 1 941 NATIONAL from "Kooperatoren" Articles and Reviews by Frank Harris...... Ellis Cowling .. 5 for $1 .......... 3.. Agricultural Cooperatives......... 2......10 Cuna Emerges (Credit Unions)............... $6 per week..................50 per day... _ ...........»| Consumers' Cooperating JUNE........... Rev...........................................02 LH .......... Jr.._ J0| Buy Co-op...... 16 ma Kagawa and his co-ops in Japan. Frank Shilston .... There Are Jobs in Cooperatives.. 19"x28" Green....... Rending Between the Lines . • Credit Unions and Finance How to Read Cooperative Balance Sheets.... Erbes......... 19"x28" Red-White-and-Blne.... games.02 .....80 Cooperation..... Carl Hutchinson....... A Day With Kagawa. Fowler Campus Co-ops........... Julia E........ Other Peoples* Money. by Paddy the Cope... "The Lord Helps Those — Who Help End Other..............75 • Textbooks on Cooperation Consumers' Cooperatives........... George ... 19"x28". one chapter on coop eratives .... $4..000 Business With 2.. Richard Giles... by Upton Sinclair . Cooperative Principles..... Red-White-andBlue..... 5" for $1 ......10 Two One Act Plays.......... S........ 3-act play........ ... ..................................... Rawe........ I Saw a People Rising From the Dead. quality CO-OP products........................ $5.—Columbus..... "A House Without a Landlord... 1....................................... Official British Textbook ........... Learn About Consumers Cooperation Sure Way is the Quick Way ...... ...........10 ........... Editor.. Orin E.._......._.... 1......" 16 mm. Harold Fey ... Jack McLanahan......000 Customers.... high school text. 19"x28" Mulberry. Learning the Language .01 FILMS Traveling the Middle Way in Sweden........ of coop erative stores. songs.. Rental: Each of three above $3 per day.. Cox.02 1.. 3..........CO-OP LITERATURE Leaflets to Aid You: • Novels and Biography A Doctor for the People.... Max well Stewart ...... A Fair Deal to All Through Coopera tives.. reel........ 5 for $1 .......... What Attracts Members to the Co operative Store Movement....... 2 reels..... J...... The Burden of Credit ..... wholesales and factories U Prance.........I........ add tional showings............. E....25 ." a 16 mm..00 The Consumers Cooperative as a Distribu tive Agency. Building a Brave New World.......... Fox and Miller.. K.......... Michael Shadid... Delaware... Ellis Cowling .... L........... 1C mm.. Democracy.......... $2! additional showings.... shows how cooperators on tilt eastern seaboard are providing themseiva with tested....90 When You Buy.05 .... .50...........02 LHj ......00 Windows on the World. .....05 Cooperative Recreation Songs........... Bertram B........................ Josephine Johnson. ......." a new 21.................. J...... What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions................. H.. Co-ops on the Campus.... $3... Union of Church and Economics is Dramatized as Co-ops Reveal Rapid Progress.......... Warbasse............. Debate Handbook . George Tichenor. Edwards and Smith ..... $2. Co-ops in Ireland .............................. 3...... Tichenor A $600... the Intercollegian ............... Unit I............... 3.... Roy Bergengren .. By and For the People.._......00 Credit Union North America............. Jacks 1.. Campbell......__ Cooperative Ownership..... Ohio SPECIAL RECONSTRUCTION ISSUE COOPERATION AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION from the Review of International Cooperation THE ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION OF FREEDOM Louis de Brouckere THE PROFIT MOTIVE AND THE COMMON GOOD Dr..... Red-White-and-Blue........... Midland Co-op Wholesale ............... film of the Noil Scotia adult education and cooperative pto gram....... 3 reel.. . 2 reels.02 U|| ...... Claude Shotts ......... two spinning games. 2 parts 1......15 The Answer..... Anthony Lehner ...... reprinted from The Annals ........05 .50 color and $1... 5 for $1 ...... P...... 5 for $1 . Burley .... 3-act play.00 Co-op................. 18"x2S"... ...05 Cooperative Recreation.. ..... KM for each additional showing or $10 per wteL The first Consumer-Owned Department Store in the U.02 • Cooperatives and Peace Cooperatives and Peace...... Kenneth Gould...50 • Cooperative Recreation The Consumer Consumed.... John son............10 ............. Unit III............

. D.. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Name Am. N. the co-op occupies the entire first floor of the eight-story Farm Bureau Cooperative Building in downtown Columbus. C. Consumers Cooperative Association Consumers' Cooperatives Associated Consumers Book Cooperative Cooperative Distributors Cooperative Recreation Service Eastern Cooperative League Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Madison.Y. N. Bowen. it is ruinous. Y. Organized by a handful of employees of the Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperatives in Columbus in May 1935. at the Post Office at New York. fluorescent lighting throughout. Rochdale Institute. drug and toilet goods department. I H . Y. City. Stanley Jones. Ind. Wallace J. Association Midland Cooperative Wholesale National Cooperatives. but it did not bring action in terms of new subscriptions. So.A. Filene. They cannot discuss economic problems in generalities but must do. Y.THE COVER HALF A LOAF For the past three months you have re ceived special issues of Consumers' Co operation—double the number of pages of the present issue and with a picture cover and many illustrations inside. Chicago. R." * * * This lifetime decision was made by Hyman Cohn. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. kitchen and bathroom fixtures all find a place in this multiple co-op shop. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. Oakland Cooportunity 7218 S. Editor. Chicago The Round Table N. then I shall give myself to the impossible. 1941 Ten Cents CO-OP COMMENTS "What I think we need more than anything else is a deep spiritual revival. if they do their jobs. With a green marble front. M. Wisconsin The Bridge CONSUMERS' COOPERATION OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE-PLENTY-DEMOCRACY Volume XXVII. but are continuing the picture cover and illustrations inside. Associated Cooperatives. Associated Cooperatives. If you liked those special issues and want more of them—say it with subscriptions!!! $1 per year—27 months for $2 Send your subscriptions to THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street. Wisconsin Cooperative Builder 2301 S. in voluntary association. Chicago 167 West 12th Street. L. C. C. Society Address Publication St. Readers Observer 116 E.W. Calif. modern windows. N. Price $1. Washington Hoosier Farmer Indianapolis. one of the organizers of The Cooperative League. Coady says. 608 S. New Age Living Superior. under the Act of March 3. Co. M. N. Ind. Y. Grange Cooperative News Seattle. Medical Bureau. N. We had hoped that subscriptions by the hun dreds would pour in from enthusiastic subscribers. New York City The photograph on the cover of this issue is of the first consumer-owned de partment store in the United States. Minn. Ohio Ohio Farm Bureau News Columbus. 16 St.A. N. Washington. The experiment was enthusi astically received. Millard.. "Impossible." Religious and educational leaders do not do their full job of supplying inspiraAn organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Co-op Review Carrollton. Design Service. Men's furnishings. Brooklyn The Cooperator 135 Kent Ave. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. the co-op now has 780 members and owns one of the smartest looking department stores in the city. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis. "I came to the conclusion that the moral force of The Golden Rule and the Sermon on the Mount can only work through Consumers' Cooperation on the Rochdale principles. Penn. Consumers Defender Delaware. 6 JUNE. ladies' wear. 84th St. DIVISIONS: Auditing Bureau. Paul. 167 West 12 St. We can move forward as subscription income grows but we need more consumers.. Associate Editor. C. Cooperative Consumer Amarillo.00 a year. The Cooperative League. no matter what the cost. as Dr. Texas The Producer-Consumer 27 Coenties Slip. Education Ass'n United Cooperatives. Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative Wholesale Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. Y. Lincoln. 167 West 12 St.." What a decision to motivate a man's life! No wonder it was said of him. sodi fountain. 1790 Broadway.S.. Y. 167 West 12th St. Wash. beauty shop.. Inc. Mo. Minn. Central Cooperative Wholesale Central States Cooperatives.. 1917. Inc. 111. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins.. in which we begin to practice true Christianity. For I see that the opposite is not only impossible. N. Pacific N. Y. tires and auto accessories. all right. Ass'n Southeastern Coop. Michigan Farmers' Union Herald St. With this issue we are returning to 16 pages. N. electrical appliance shop. "Your work is prized. Georgia Southeastern Cooperator Indianapolis. who died on the 25th anniversary of the League. December 19. Dearborn. Minn. like the force of electricity has to work through a machine. you say? Well. Kansas City.. sji sji sjj "The new spirit will be a cooperative spirit." * * * Preachers arid1 professors cannot be economic neutrals. 167 West 12 St. Paul..W. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. 227 E. * * * "Cooperatives enable you to practice on Monday to Saturday what is preached on Sunday." said Edward A.C. Walla Walla. Brooklyn The Cooperator Ohio Cooperator Columbus. National Cooperative Women's Guild Pacific Coast Student Co-op League Pacific Supply Cooperative Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. N. E. No. "PREACH AND TEACH IN SPECIFICS. Cooperator Harrisburg. the new world will be a cooperative world. Campbell. Penn. THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. 372—40th St. whereby the people. C. Cal. Inc." says Murray D.. Hoover. Ohio The Recreation Kit 135 Kent Ave. the new man will be a coopera tive man. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. 1879. E. Y." says Dr. N. Presi dent. Cal. Chicago Berkeley. New York City 726 Jackson Place N.

If you stop within the limits of the class. The Fellowship you feel when you meet another member in the cooperative is far different than when you meet someone in a chain store. and John Taipale of Iron River. his visit to America reminds us all of the great service he rendered the Cooperative Move ment when he was here in 1937. To speak of cooperative fellowship does not mean any failure to recognize the need of sound business. Previous generations of men have developed the techniques of automatic gas and electric power production to turn these natural resources into finished prod ucts.." * * * THE FUTURE BELONGS TO THE CO-OPS. which he introduced by saying. could paraphrase the Apostle Paul and say. and (3) the social organization of eco nomic affairs can give. co-author with Msgr. to live and to be suc cessful. Stanley Jones. Fascism attempts to enlarge the area of cooperation.50 which started the wholesale. which is the only thing that will save freedom of religion and education. If all of these are going in one direction. It is true that they say they are going to a classless society. Rawe. The true cooperator. a cooperative order. Within the superior Aryan race there is a national socialism. must be interested in the success of the cooperator who lives on the farm. They must become specific advocates of cooperative economic organization. I think this is the answer to the question so often asked by our citizens: 'What can I do to help save my country's institutions ?' " 130 Consumers' Cooperation While Kagawa's present mission to the United States is largely limited to a discussion of the organization of the United Christian Church of Japan. organiza tion. "is ex pressed by the messages and tidings associated generally with the Christmas season. is to develop the necessary cooperative economic organization of society which will eliminate the brake of profits on progress arid automatically distribute abundance to all. Cooperation is also an idealisic movement. believe in helping the other fellow too. We have the first two." says Congressman Jerry Voorhis. "I am giving to the House today a picture of the work of our American cooperatives. Now the job remaining to be done. If you stop within the limits of the race. but stops within the limits of the state. 1941 131 . Within the state they have a cooperative order. It 'deals with figures and factories. Communism stops within the limits of the class with its cooperative endeavor. Within the limits of the class of workers there is socialism." said Partanen. Abundant resources were put here by the Creator. at an inter-regional representatives meeting. The Rochdale principles of Open Membership and One Person One Vote cover the democratic or equal-freedom side of Cooperation." "Yes. a national socialism. Nazism enlarges the area of co-operation. Communism enlarges the area of cooperation. E. "We dropped our coins in the hat to help make up the collection of $15.tion and information when they take a neutral position. "Then only will the economic and social organism be soundly established and attain its end when it secures for all and each those goods which (1) the wealth and resources of nature. * * * "WHAT CAN I DO? . you lay the foundation of clash between states—as now. Two of his staccato statements made at that time will be repeated' indefinitely: "Cooperatives are the economic foundation of world peace. That is the one hopeful thing on the horizon. the class of the workers." "Cooperatives are the love principle applied to industry. High credit should be paid by the Con sumers' Cooperative Movement to the many preachers and professors who are both advocates and practitioners of cooperation. A CONGRESSMAN GIVES THE ANSWER "The true spirit of cooperatives. It is a way of organizing people as well as of producing and distributing things. which challenges this generation. unemployment and tenancy. but stops within the limits of the class. Cooperation must include "the last man of every state. It has to do with immediate economic benefits in the form of better quality. The cooperatives not only believe in a better distribution of wealth in this country. Ligutti of "Rural Roads to Freedom. improved working conditions." What more is needed? Resources. "I repeat that all the great answers are going in one direction—cooperation. for example. when they recently retired from the CCW Directorate." What satisfaction they must have had during all of the past quarter century of their lives and will have during their ..remaining years to feel that they helped to start one of the ''outposts of the new social order" in the north central states. then other races will combine against you—as now. the fellowship you feel when you meet June." He drew on the Encyclical "Reconstructing the Social Order" which says. with gasoline and groceries. Recently within less than a month's time we had the privilege and' pleasure of attending a number of cooperative meetings where the spirit of cooperative fellowship was strongly evident—at a small group meeting. lower prices. the class of workers." The above are extracts from-an address given by Congressman Voorhis in the House of Representatives commemorating the 25th anniversary of The Co operative League. techniques. with what such cooperators have enjoyed. It has to do with ultimate economic results in eliminating poverty. at a national com mittee meeting. The cooperatives not only believe in helping themselves. Brotherhood and business are two sides of the same cooperative coin. then other classes will combine against you and there will be class war. with wholesaling and retailing. but a part of the organization of the Central Cooperative Wholesale of Superior. To endeavor to express an ideal human side of the movement at times is not to overlook the practical economic side. The pressures of both plenty and poverty combine to force rapid action to "Build Cooperatives Stronger and Faster. It is spiritual as well as material. (2) technical achievement. Luigi G. to be successful. The true cooperator who lives on the farm must be inter ested in the welfare of the cooperator in the city. The cooperatives." He concludes that there must be no limit to the application of the principle of cooperation. Tai pale and I were there. It would be a study in human relations to compare what those who have lived in the competitive world have missed. they are acting to bring about better distribution of wealth. a coop erative order. why is there chaos and confusion and war? For the simple reason that if you stop within the limits of the state. who lives in the city and works in industry. Minnesota. All of these try to found life on a partial truth and hence they will break down. Dr. says the famous missionary to India. they must. "We were not only present." COOPERATIVE FELLOWSHIP Cooperation is a practical movement—a bread and butter movement." has outlined in a recent article "A Program for Prosperity. but in the meantime there will be a dictatorship of the proletariat. in discussing: A Cooperative World at Birth "All the great answers to the world need are going in one direction — the direction of cooperation. and now look at the size of the organiza tion. but stops within the limits of the race. But no Rochdale principle specifically covers Cooperative Fellowship. must be unselfish." "WE WERE THERE!!" John Partanen of Cloquet. at an annual regional meeting. higher pay. * * * Father John C. Wiscon sin. every class. every race.

Some words which are used are not common in America. establishes a genuine interdependence be tween its members throughout the world and a means. and the Pacific Supply Cooperative of Walla Walla. This meeting. It dethrones capital from the dic tatorship of economic life and puts in its place the Association of Mankind on the 133 . Washing ton. inde pendently of the economic process. a cooperative will not only succeed economically but will give to its members a supreme degree of happiness in human relations not otherwise realized. and have cured our own. but it is just as real as Cooperative Control arid Ownership which are definitely provided for. The industrial world as we know it offends at many points against the prin ciples which we have affirmed. and many opinions are being expressed as to the basis upon which it should be estab lished. We have seen the unemployment of Germany cured by an armament pro gram. Idaho. a genuine interchange of mutually-needed commod ities must take the place of a struggle for a so-called favourable balance. It has been apparent during the months since the Congress that the spirit of get-together is spreading. The monetary system should be so administered that what the community can produce is made available to the members of the community. with the best report in the history of the organ izations. whether adopted primarily for this purpose or not. Liberty and Ownership. Cooperative Fellowship may not be specifically covered by any Rochdale principles. 1936. In all these significant indications of the getting together of the Movement the action taken has been the result of voluntary desire. whatever the means by which this transformation is effected. It substitutes the service of the com munity for the profit of the individual. This status of man as man. The settling of the controversy between the Cooperative Oil Association of Caldwell. the rights of labour must be recognized as in principle equal to those of capital in the control of in dustry. of achieving equilibrium in the economic sphere between the needs of the people and world resources. in a cooperative spirit of compromise. A half day program during the annual meeting of Farm Bureau Insurance Services at Columbus. which tends to treat human work and human satisfaction alike as means to a false end—namely. rather than compulsion by neces sity. This method of ordering industry. arid the producer in turn is often subordinated to the purely financial ends of those who own the capital plant or supply the credit to erect or work it. even though those who direct and profit by it have desired peace. With it. The Malvern Conference Recommendations The following proposals which ema nated from a Conference convened by the Archbishop of York at Malvern are of special interest to Cooperators as they so dearly express a desire for an Order of society which the application of the Rochdale Principles is capable of as suring— 1. It is said that we progress by desire or necessity—that our progress is measured by our degree of impulsion by desire. I. which is the combined organization of the previous Central States Cooperative League arid The Cooperative Wholesale. In international trade. These articles emphasize in particular the increasing need of developing Coopera tion. 4. by the same means. It demonstrated both the Unity and Action of the Movement. through international asso ciation. An invitation by the Directors of The Cooperative League to the Directors of National Cooperatives and United Cooperatives to hold a joint meeting.A. Some of the evidences of this fact are the following: The application for membership in The Cooperative League of additional regional cooperatives. must find expression in the managerial frame work of industry. 132 Consumers' Cooperation Editor's Note:—In order that our readers may know what cooperators in Europe are thinking about. The organization of Cooperative Insurance Services by Midland and Central Cooperative Wholesales and their local cooperative members to jointly distribute various kinds of insurance in the States of Wisconsin and Minnesota. 3. II. and the danger of the temporary and necessary use of the State becoming permanent. To a large extent production is carried on not to supply the consumer with goods but to bring profits to the producer. in a sense. The leaders of the various organizations which have been involved in these and other similar united activi ties are to be congratulated over their increasing display of true cooperative spirit. the satisfac tion of human needs being accepted as the only true end of production. THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT IS GETTING TOGETHER The 25th Anniversary Congress last October was a great get-together for the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Without it. Cooperative Fellowship is the vital ingredient of the Cooperative Movement. the fellowship you feel when you are a member of a cooperative housing group is far different from when you meet an ordinary neighbor.another member in a cooperative meeting is far different than when you meet another stockholder in a corporation meeting. then Ownership is the economic side of Cooperation. such as the use of the word "Liberalism" for Capitalism. Declaration of Cooperation In January. during which the State Secretary of a Labor Organization and the State Secretary of a Farm Organization spoke on the same platform and talked the same language. 5. no cooperative will be an economic success. monetary gain—be comes a source of unemployment at home and dangerous competition for markets abroad. 1941 From the Review of International Cooperation have lived has been a predisposing cause of war. A joint meeting of Committees of National Cooperatives arid1 United Coop eratives. Control is the Liberty side and Fellowship is the Life side.C. organizing a joint Legislative Committee and adopting a program of action. COOPERATION AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION T HE New Order which is to assure the maintenance of the future Peace of the World after the war is a subject of vital importance for humanity. The first meeting of the joint Legislative Committee of The Cooperative League and National Cooperatives and the adoption of a national legislative program. and the use of the word "Corporative" for Communism and Fascism. 2. The system under which we June. completed the initial job of financing and staffing the Washington office. The first annual meeting of Central States Cooperatives of Chicago. we are reprinting on the next 5 pages extracts from four articles which have recently appeared in their cooperative publications. the International Co operative Alliance published a Declara tion on the Significance of Cooperative Economy which sets out in the following six points how Cooperative Economy dif fers from Capitalistic Economy— I. though (even so) not completely. If the sum of human rights is expressed in Life.

and All for Each. What raw state to a consumable state by a series It would. is it not simply a variation in phrasing The same fundamental arguments have VI. and forcing happiness upon them against households. It provides a solution of the prob of the Second Great Commandment > led the cooperative movement to apply lems of employment. All For Each. which the economist distin machinery and materials of his industry. by so doing. during the past cen while assuring to them the advantages is obtained—and for which he is ex tury. Cooperation is essentially volun has achieved its greatest successes. be well to recall cooperation has already achieved in a briefly those of our principles which give of operations also carried out coopera wide domain can inspire other successful this freedom its character and its force. the great majority of men Consumer. It is not sur effort of abstraction. It confers direct benefits upon a Mount. We can under stand the feeling of pride which led Charles Gide to say. Cooperative democracy is also an interdependent democracy. solutions in different domains. That was also the pre-occuBy Professor Louis de Brouckere. "Each For All. not Former Professor of Cooperation at withstanding the difficulties which the the University of Brussels circumstances of their times created. and take be satisfied in the best and fullest manner. it is not based on the amount of share capital. It safeguards the cooperative standpoint man is no operation belongs to the category of free farms. Co sands of housewives unite. and then decide how they can cratic. respective of their social condition. the Association of Consumers distributes nearly a century it has shown the way. Co mediate financial benefit. Giving Freedom its the produce of the Agricultural Society. and that their goal can be achieved only be separated from consumers by an Producer. small the the independence of longer the means through which wealth associations which. Each has but one vote. and also markets for his produce which for have not some of the greatest leaders are found the same individuals. "Cooperation is the only social experiment which has suc ceeded. basis of mutual and active participation in the enterprise. For great success. duty as a producer has. tively. material and spiritual. and an access It will be seen that the proposals of operation does not forget that producers of independence to the Wage-earning the Malvern Conference are in striking —that is to say. the extent of which we are sometimes Foundations of Freedom Wherever the cooperative movement liable to forget. no matter how many shares he may hold. throughout the whole world. 5. everincreasing masses of the people are car rying on many of the transactions neces sary to their economic life according to these '"dreams. but solely on the extent of a member's needs as shown by his purchases. among other benefits. 1941 cooperators. • members of the so-called middle classes concern itself with the needs which have 4. Within these two from exploitation in the purchase of the prising that proposals of this character categories. far from being found in ruins. it pre 1." 135 . guishes for the purpose of his exposition." sumer. I 134 Consumers' Cooperation June. which now eration will procure the same advantages labor supplies the needs of man that it their members in tens of millions. and the value of its solutions has been Character and Force produce which has been brought from its strikingly demonstrated by success. The members participate on equal terms in all decisions without regard to class or wealth. 3. and yield him a reasonable return without of our Movement often emphasized that whoever has carried out to the full his the Principles of Rochdale Cooperation exploiting the consumer. and nothing is done without their decision and approval. sents itself in value to production. count the and artisan for the households of the has meaning and nobility. and it is because life." From order to obtain voluntary members. It provides in its economic de be placed in a dependent or subordinate vice of "Dividend on Purchase" an im Parallels of Principles and Practice position in relation to the consumer. Nothing Succeeds Like Cooperation Anyone who knew nothing of coopera tive activities would probably think that these formulas represent only purely ab stract ideas born in the mind of some the orist. It protects its members against ignorance by its educational activities and against the hardships of life by its in surance institutions. He might even smile at their ideal ism—not to speak of their naivity. If any distinction is made between members as regards the distribution of social advantages." around which the baskets of thou diction for service." and that their organiza tions. by putting it suc cessfully into practice. Cooperation is absolutely demo give up seeking their salvation in an im to be met. of ex federation a well as is this reality. perhaps. It secures to the Agricultural liance. conditions of labour on the highest plane of advantage to the employees which economic conditions permit. It only appeals to reason in ket. our Movement has plainly demonstrated the immense value of eco nomic democracy by the sole argument which is irrefutable. wages and general "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself"? very similar rules or organization for the Individuals which it groups as producers as well as to those which it unites as THE ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION OF FREEDOM consumers. have had remarkable prosperity. The preceding principle would be quite wrongly understood if it were in terpreted to mean that the producer must III. But how amazed he would be to learn that." An ever increasing proportion of its surplus—which on ac count of its prosperity. pation of the Rochdale Pioneers. have increased in every sphere of enjoyed by the biggest enterprises. should emanate from such a Conference. every rational arid1 which give such a new character to small trader as soon as these sorely tried economic organization must primarily modern life. Indeed. Coop ploited—but the object.2. harmony with the Declaration of the Al and women in the prime of life—can IV. To (From The Cooperative News) day it is being achieved by the agricul T WAS cooperation which first pro the path which has already led the rural tural cooperative societies and more fully vided a full realization of the eco population of so many countries to such by those "cooperative chains" in which nomic organization of freedom. not for profit. it not needed for its business—is devoted to works of mu tual aid. "Each for all. 6. It considers its first duty to be the strengthening of that basis which is essential to all real social life— security. Cooperative democracy is as equalitarian as it is libertarian. It creates the mighty "bas pressed in the habitual formula—"protheir will. Cooperation has given a moral It does not aim at compelling men tary. relief by Cooperative Economy. had their birth in the Sermon on the greatly strengthened his claim to an ef V. All authority emanates from the possible return to a dead past. and the basic Cooperative Prin fective satisfaction of his needs as a con ir very large section of the community ciple.

however. this. the satis faction of legitimate requirements. And it is thus that liberalism. But the suggestion will perhaps be per mitted that. and through this to a policy of State in tervention which cannot without injus tice be made a complaint against the State. at the same time. to this end envisages collaboration based on freedom and' free-will between consumers and between the countries. following the outbreak of war. revolving upon powerful private organizations. they will. indeed. The real interest of the Government in democratic countries should. By what sudden grace would these private and. ideological development is in many places in sharp contrast to those ideas of democracy which. How far it is from and contrary to our idea of order as expressed in Coopera tion. the Cooperative Movement provides a sound division of work. has led the world into the worst of chaos. 167 West 12th Street. preserve their initial objects. consequently. which alone. like other forms of enterprise. in preparing the way for Stateism. Starting from needs. Cooperation—The New Order Is this order desirable in the eyes of cooperators? Let us flatly answer. has taken an increasingly compulsory form with unmistakable features directed precisely against the creative idea of Cooperation. finally produces a kind of to talitarian monster. a large measure of State influence upon national economy will remain. Ruf. it must be assumed that in democratic countries after the war all unnecessary compulsion over economic life will be abolished.THE PROFIT MOTIVE AND THE COMMON GOOD I T IS certain that the free play of "na tural laws. 136 COOPERATION AND THE STATE By Dr. the opinion which sees the raising of the standard of living as the aim of economic life. production and distribution. On one hand. a risk that the democracies themselves will not be able to keep apart the two sharply distinct forms of state compulsory organization. is incar nated in the consumer. in the last resource? It is a truism to say that intervention is born of the need to palliate the deficien cies of private activity. First Annual R E C I S T E R ALL AMERICAN TOUR OF COOPERATIVES •kl ™law 9PPor*nnity to see America's co-ops at work" July 7-19 ^^ \Af •^ ^^ • • 2600 miles — $88 ** For information write THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE. and as one of the most important means The question of knowing to what ex tent this political system. the corporative philosophy of the New Order and the crisis order imposed by necessity. within the framework of an appropriate international division of labour. but which is totally undesirable. without restriction or injustice. and that the Cooperative Movement. cannot do so except through its subjection to the State. It is the Cooperative Order. in our opinion. and regards its effects upon the standard of living of the individual as something quite subsidiary. but it would be necessary to make it clear that in the ma jority of cases this deficiency is a synonym of disorder and abuse. But. will itself be in a condition to bring about the tri umph of the essential principle of public well-being. for us. therefore. when not checked. even if these economic cor porations thus established are capable of carrying out useful coordinating and ad visory functions. will have much greater possibility than at present to function to the advantage of the community. necessary in order to make clear the difference. Is it not incumbent upon the State to restore order? And is not the State called on to assist. during the rise and expansion of the Consumers' Movement. are generally only attained at the expense of the whole community. Vigorous propaganda of ideas on the part of the Cooperative Movement is. a positive notion. which prospers through the free adher ence of individuals and their active and fraternal participation in the common task without waste or antagonism. strong in action. was partly clothed in the garb of compulsory organization in order to withstand the effects of the crisis." As to the organization of economic life. in other words. There is nothing to be said1 against this on the part of the Cooperative Movement. and the obvious possibility that. we have the economic philosophy which sees in self-sufficiency a necessary step towards increasing the power of the State. By its action it alone provides the concrete proof that it knows how to harmonize private with social aims while serving both. which remain of a private order. as a rule. There is. and which. national economy. re flects the general interest. All the sacrifices and privations which war economy imposes on the individual should give food for thought. constituted its proper "living space. New York Consumers' Cooperation f June. in virtue of their nature. no. un fitted by definition to identify itself with the general interest with which it claims a connection. therefore. For it is cre ated precisely as a result of the need for true order which aims at ensuring for all. Even in the democratic countries. conflicting interests •inconditionally subordinate themselves to reneral aims ? The professional order. not be denied. One cannot de mand more from private initiative than the pursuit of the profit aims to which it is devoted. even in the democratic countries. the eternal jungle. in conscious or unconscious assimilation with authoritarian thought. and which. Private Interests the Basis of the Corporative Order The imperious necessity for an ulti mate organisation of economic life will. Accordingly it becomes all the more important that propaganda of cooperative ideas should drive home and make clear to the members of the Movement that the present compulsory economic organization is a necessary evil which has come upon us as a result of the crisis. With out the Cooperative Movement there would be no real order but that imposed by the compulsion of power. that is to say. Editor. of carrying out a preliminary grouping of enterprises and professional branches. As long as the State is truly democratic it cannot have any interest in restricting the Movement's freedom and the right of all citizens to free economic organizations. more or less policed. nevertheless. LA COOPERATION Published by the Swiss Cooperative Union O From: "KOOPERATOREN" Published by Kooperativa Forbundet of Sweden VER large areas of the world. and. which consciously endeavours to uproot poverty and backwardness. be to aim at strengthening all forms of practical collaboration between consumers. remains to be answered. on the other." from which liberalism (capitalism) expected the common good. 1941 ---1 137 .

I just got the 1941 copy of the American Youth Hostel handbook and boy. lowering the cost of our meals for each of us. as we do on our vacation. were crowded into one week-end of hos teling just as naturally as you please. Oh. who had been invited with his wife to eat with us. Be sides that. Northfield. I wasn't sure Frank knew what he was talking about when he said that hosteling was more cooperative than anything else I did—but do you know— we all worked together as a group for the group's good (and there's no racial or religious discrimination in hosteling. boy. I'll drop a card to the hostel and let them know we're coming. It will cost you two dollars for the year. After the meal. after arranging to get together for another trip soon. when I started. we all had breakfast together (the two meals costing us each 38c. playing games. The social needs of cooperators can be filled throughout the nation by well-organized programs of cooperative recreation. if you wish. meet me tomorrow night and we'll decide where to go. As a result. The carpentry my friend and I had been doing with the co-op crafts group came in handy. we tired and sat around the fire singing all the folk songs we could remember. Make Your Own Fun "Now. if we were going from one hostel to another. we arrived at the hostel at 5 o'clock— the time most hostelers pull in from their day's travels. dramatics. I'll tell you what to do. Sometimes they are barns converted into hostels. I think I'll just wear my shorts and a pair of sandals. you come with me on the trip I'm planning for this week-end. You see we do our own planning. we all put to. Ordinarily. an easy trip in a day. sure. I'm glad you'd rather bike though. and we can use them. the cooperative move ment has recognized and given rec reation the place it deserves. I thought you weren't going to show up. a night and 5c. we'd have to travel under our own steam. and had the dishes cleaned up in a jiffy. many coopera tors have been introduced to folk danc ing. And what swell friends I made. didn't you get your pass yet? Send to the AYH. Is that a date? Swell. each of us contributed to the evening's entertainment — but no one acted as an individual. "what will we do for fun tonight? Is there a movie in town?" The other hostelers laughed and said that my friend must be new at hosteling. Once back in the city we parted. And have we a means at hand by which we can spend our week-ends and vacations in the open and also in a co operative manner? I should say we have. cup. such as pots and pans and blankets are already at the hostel." said my friend. instead of just answering your questions. I guess there'll be a bunch of other hostelers there. is also a truly cooperative way of living. it was just the way we play here. Of course.Hostel Hospitality THE TRAIL TO CO-OP FUN A T LONG last. Well. We pooled our resources and bought our food together. and an invigorating swim in a stream we saw beside the road. and we all felt that the hostel was our re sponsibility and we pitched in with vim to clean it up and a few of us stayed and did some repair work in the morning. right away because you'll want it for the week-end. Up bright and early the next morning. My friend was truly impressed with the spirit of comaraderie evidenced on such brief acquain tanceship. Hosteling furnishes the answer. This is what he was saying: Group Action for Group Good "You don't know what you're missing. After awhile. etc." . we were running through some square dances we all knew. you'd better wear a minimum of clothing. Of course it was my friend. The houseparents greeted us warmly and after giving them our passes. although I'll carry a shirt to wear going through towns. It's quite a popular hostel. at work and even at play. games. What's that? Oh. By the way. You know. it would only cost you a dollar. as long as its a week-end trip and we're not going from one hostel to another. either). besides being the most eco nomical mode of traveling and enjoying the beauties and wonders of nature. How would you like to bicycle out to the hostel at Sussex? It's a dairy farm and the houseparents are real friendly people. particu larly during the spring. arid certainly we ought to get a good coat of tan. let's get down to mapping our route. But now that you're here. All the fun we have here folk dancing. it 138 lists lots of new hostels in different sec tions of the country. 1941 Co-op I overheard a very enthusiastic voice raving about the benefits and fun of hosteling to a small circle of interested listeners. And I found some swell new ones near us. crafts. turning in at 10:30 for a good night's sleep. We can travel light because all the heavy equipment. oh. (they sign them before we leave) we prepared our bunks and then decided to set about preparing supper. the houseparents are folks who love to have us around to talk to and play with. although if you were under 21. or else a building that wasn't used. all we'll need is a sheet sleep ing sack and a plate. we could go directly to the hostel by car or train. summer and fall. probably we'll get a swim in. singing. en livened by the dry slow humor of the housefather. But one thing they all have in common. one took out an old fiddle and in two shakes of a lamb's tail. And gee. group sing ing. That's one advantage of hosteling. "What's that you say? What is hos teling and how can it affect me? And what do you mean when you say it's more cooperative than my present activities?" Let's Go Hosteling Suppose. Much more so than our daily existence at home. two of the hostelers who weren't in a hurry decided to stay with us awhile and do some repair work that was needed on the roof of the hostel. taking our time and en joying the sights. There were three other fellows and four girls already at the hostel and we all decided to pool our food and have a co-op supper together. fuel charge. The principles of recreation for fun and for the satisfaction to be gained from crea tive activity have been accepted and put into practice. we hiked back to the city together. The meal passed in hilarious fashion. Later that evening at Play Consumers' Cooperation ¥ June. doing crafts. to spend his time outdoors in the coun try. knife and fork. It's fun to see the country side at a leisurely pace.) and then. Gosh. for the nominal fee of 25c. For hosteling. if we have a pass. Mass. etc. It's agreed then ? We'll bicycle out to Sussex—that's only forty miles. And it's worth it! And so after an interesting ride on secondary roads. We had a good time puttering about and then with our two new friend's. Everyone deserves. I'll bet we have swell weather. All the hostels are different. And what fun they've had playing! But are all the recreational needs of our friends filled by these community groups? No. With that.

manner. I've found that this is appreciated and builds good will. And if you do finally run their pictures you have a friend for life. Pro vide them with cameras. Of course the answer usually comes back that pictures cost too much. Paul V. It's a lot better than just let ting the negative clutter up your desk. staff arid contributors. Think about using pictures when de signing your papers. Your budget will keep you from spending a lot. may do more to change our economic policies than any one force recently developed. Ready to Shoot Now that some of the staff or your members have cameras. you are doing well. maybe the cost isn't as great as we think. So enthusiastic was the audience that Marsh is planning another radio broadcast. you are ready to snap the 10. committed himself and the Roosevelt administration to an allout crusade in support of a program — any program the conference could agree upon—to see that the 40 per cent of our people who are ill-fed. Ten thousand words take up space and cost a lot to set and make up. it does suggest something for co op publicity and press that seems to have been overlooked. rather than by the oil trust. How to get them is the next question. but with some careful planning you'll be able to afford John Carson Washington Representative The Cooperative League W7ASHINGTON—Out of the NaW tional Nutrition Conference. send the negative to the person or persons of whom the picture has been taken. This Con ference. Oil regulation and price fixing may not be debated during this Congress. arid National Cooperatives agreed to carry through to a successful conclusion the fight of the cooperatives for the right to do business cooperatively in the distribu tion of bituminous coal. How ever. But if there is anything like a comparison be tween one picture and 10. With the nation already sold on diets and vita mins by the profit-motivated industries. cuts can be run for newspapers or magazines. leaflets and other publicity. Take several pictures of each subject. where several hundred 'delegates listened to good scientific speeches and windy politi cal blather came one important develop ment. 1941 that the advocates of a program of dis tributing abundance. but doesn't concern us here. In many cases results of this kind will offset the cost of many pictures. If the picture has come out at all well. If yours is a co-op paper you will have an editor. unless the defense price-fixers precipitate it. the print is used di rect and it is not necessary to have a cut. Read directions and be will ing to do a little experimenting. Here again people tend to think that cameras are expensive.! HERE'S AN IDEA— FOR GETTING YOUR NEWS ACROSS I i T HAS been said that one picture is worth 10. Campbell to tell radio listeners over a national hook-up how and why consumer cooperatives were the practical way to help consumers. And remember.000 words. Maybe the paper can afford to give cameras as prizes in a picture or news contest. Cost is around five 'dollars. You'll dress up your publicity. If there is truth in the above quoted statement. staunch Single Tax leader. despite its obvious political foster-fathering. * * * When the legislative committee of the Cooperative League of the U. Whenever you see some thing that has news or interest value. Maybe we've too readily accepted the idea that pic tures cost so much more than words that they must be ruled out. we cooperators should cancel out some of the space that we daily fill with word's and substitute a few pictures. Agfa Super Pan Press or Eastman Super Double X film will cover both assignments with satis factory results.000 words. If you get one good print out of every five. whether used in the paper or not. the committee forced to the surface the broad issue of a free economic system or a controlled economic system. bulletins. give it more reader appeal and get people to look at it.000 words. The greater portion of the pic tures used in the Midland Cooperator since last summer have been taken with such cameras. Carry the camera with you at all times. There are a number of inexpensive mod els on the market that do a good job. The issue exists now in the handling of coal. Pictures Not a Luxury Give it some thought and I believe you'll find that pictures aren't expensive luxuries in a publicity program but a real necessity. It started a band wagon moving so rapidly the Administration leaders will have to ride it out. It is the effect on the subject. rather than skinning off scarcity. It is the use of more pictures and illustrations. One pic ture couldn't cost as much. are in the saddle. Congressman Voorhis June. what people see makes a far greater impression than what they read or hear. It is probable 141 .A. the Nutrition Conference blazed into a crusade. called on Congressman Jerry Voorhis and Wal lace J. These may be paid or they may be volunteer workers. The net result is How to Win Friends There is another angle to making pic tures that is frequently overlooked. These cam140 Jack McLanahan eras come with flash attachment syn chronized with the shutter and can be used indoors or out with equal ease. * * * The People's' Lobby. But it is certain to come when the oil trust realizes consumers are organizing and de veloping the strength to gain freedom. Federal Security Administrator. Some of the oil interests are flirting with price fixing by government. an organization sponsored by the irrepressible Ben Marsh. It doesn't take a lot of skill. After prints are made.S. shall be fed. McNutt. Five of the Midland fieldmen have used cameras of this type with excellent results. As a low priced camera that will serve all purposes I'd recommend the Agfa Shur-Flash "Pioneer" or "Chief" or the Eastman 620 Flash Brownie. By whom it was said and under what circumstances would make a good question for a quiz pro gram. People like to have their pictures taken and as you go about with your camera you'll be winning friends. The fight for freedom in handling coal is being slowly organized. I've found it a good way to "crack" situations that can't be approached in any other Consumers' Cooperation more pictures in place of the printed line than you ever figured was possible be fore. In the case of offset printing. snap it. That might have been true in the past but is not so today. ready for indoor or outdoor use. or urge them to buy one. You will be surprised how soon you'll begin to "see a picture" in almost every situation. In any case the first thing to do is to get cameras into their hands.

000 in 1940 with membership growing from 613 to 978. coop erative and credit union representatives who met at Hampton Institute here May 5 and 6 for the third of a series of conferences sponsored by the South eastern Cooperative Education Associa tion. There is also a section on cooperative statistics. Ohio—The Farm Bureau Co operative Association pushed its total business to a new high of $1. The equipment is expected to pay for it self in less than one year.000 in 1939 to $231.„„.000 worth of commodities and ser vices for its 100.. Camp Newton-Hamilton. June 14-27. opened a new gro cery store and moved into their own modern service station building during the past year. CCA's First Co-op Summer Institute Estes Park..' *"• CO-OP demand made a small net saving on their $401.049 an increase of $189. the Booster drive month. Some of the selections deal with cooperative history. Superior. Mr. Detroit—A group of trade unionists who have been studying cooperative housing for the past year have purchased a 120-acre tract 13 miles from Detroit for their housing project. "Southern States Cooperative does about 15% of the farm supply business in the five southern states it serves. 1941 ternational cooperative movement.. SUMMER OPPORTUNITIES IN COOPERATIVES The First Ail-American Tour of Cooperatives Starting at Columbus. Rochdale Stores' sales jumped from $117. the producers movement. Minneapolis — Midland Cooperative Wholesale got off to a good start toward its goal of five million dollars this year by rolling up a sales record of $1. churchmen. according to a decision reached at the annual meeting here May 23. Superior. Camp Shau'nee Institute The Cooperative Federation of New Jersey.369 in its petroleum and grocery divisions for the first quarter. Mass. Rare is the indi- 143 . Michigan. Most of us are lim ited in an outlook through specialization.000 to $44. Wisconsin—Over 150 'delegates from three states meeting here May 3 and --„.000 capital to expand its baking facilities. Regina. Organized in 1923. told educators. Consumers Services. — llth convention of the annual ™. Ohio. Sixteen Consumers' Cooperation new locals and 400 new members were added last year.900 over the same period last year.. Ames. Life today is so complex it is extremely difficult to see the whole or the inter-play of the parts within the whole. This unit will increase the gasoline yield from crude oil from eight to ten per cent. Capital was raised through the Cooperative Thrift Guild in which the members deposited a small percentage of their wages each week.000 in the same period. CCS is now supplying bread to many of the cooperative stores in the area through Eastern Cooperative Wholesale. where Midland Cooperative Wholesale sought recognition of its rights.. Half of the new apartments have been subscribed for and construction is scheduled to start in June. C. Then if a court case develops. the week of August 4. the world's largest ten ant-owned housing development in the United States. the issue will be clear and positive." Hampton.411. Sales for Konsum service station and repair shop boomed from $19. will raise $5. there by saving all farmers in these states sev eral million dollars a year. Many people know little and care less about it. Women's Guild and Stu dent Cooperatives running consecutively from July 6 through September 6.. Saskatchewan — An absorption and stabilization plant is being added to the new plant of the Consumers Coop erative Refineries at a cost of $25. gen eral manager of Southern States Coop erative. a group of small grocery buying clubs. Mass.. Southern States Cooperative will purchase about $17." Frank Lloyd Wright. Virginia—"The best test of the usefulness of a cooperative is its ability to act as a pace setting influence for profit business. July 7 to August 23. Wisconsin—April. July 22-25. marking a gain of 24% above the first quarter in 1940.093. (Available through The Cooperative League) This book is a selection of readings as sembled to supply contrasting viewpoints about the consumer cooperative movement.. Included are selections on cooperative medicine. REVIEWS INTRODUCTION To THE COOPERATIVE MOVE MENT. Those spheres of social activity in which we find our daily contacts absorb so much of our attention.500 where it stands today to 2. But it sets the pace for both price arid quality for the other 85% of the industry. has completed plans for the construction of three new buildings containing 48 two and three room apart ments. near Hastings. California Cooperative Institute Camp Sierra. coop erative finance. July 12-19.—Consumer cooperatives in the nation's capital doubled' their volume of business. Mo.207 for the first three months of 1941.000. New York's chain of eight co-op cafeterias.000 business last year. by Andrew J. July 19National Cooperative Recreation School Iowa State College. New York—The Amalgamated Coopera tive Apartments. This is more than 20% ahead of volume for the first quar ter last year. saw sales volume of Central Cooperative Wholesale jump forward to $402. Kress. August 16-23. the legislative fight to get a declaration of cooperative rights from Congress should soon be under way again. Volume of business of all the co-ops reached the $300. Others ac cept it as a complete answer to all our ills or may go to the other extreme and set themselves in violent opposition to it. $3. The expansion program is 142 necessary to keep ahead of the growing — f -'---/~v'r> L--c~~ '"'^ J——— J for The. Iowa." Mr. Wysor. 370 pages. At the same time. Iowa. EducationV Youth. Firtt Summer School on Careers in Consumers' Cooperation New York City and Amherst. June 26-28. Wright discussed with Howard Cow'den ideas for a new head quarters and factory buildings for CCA and said when he departed. and Konsum Credit Union also reported marked progress. "It's easy to get me back here.00. for the 4. July 7 and clos ing in Kansas City. the marketing of agricultural products and the in- June. Health. Camp Newton-Hamilton Institute The Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n.000 members this year. National Cooperative Publicity and Education Conference Iowa State College.505 bringing the first four months sales for the co-op wholesale to $1. New York. August 3-9.the hearing before the Coal Division. we fail to recognize them as but a part of a much greater whole. others appraise various schools of cooperative thought while still others are descriptive of the many fields of cooperative action. North Kansas City. „. G. July 12-19The Eastern Cooperative League Institute Amherst. Circle Pines Center A series of institutes on Cooperative Business Management. Inc. Harper and Bros. said when he visited the Consumers Cooperative Association here May 8. Labor.000 by the next convention. WHAT'S NEWS WITH THE CO-OPS Washington..000 mark.cafeterias bread.™ Northern States Cooperative Youth " '"2000 by '' ' motto ' ' as their TLeague accepted "42" and made plans to boost their mem bership from 1. Recreation." W. Columbus. will be reopened to fill any holes in the official record.870. Housing. And so it is with cooperation. All you need to do is to start building.^.—"You ought to be transferring the permanence of the cooperative idea into steel and stone. one of the world's foremost architects. Eastern Regional Recreation Workshop Hudson Shore Labor School. Wysor said. D. New York—Consumers Cooperative Ser vices. Colorado. Ames.000..

This present volume deals with coop erative^ progress since that time. There are 34 pages dealing with the McNary-Haugen bill." if he should turn out to be a student. and relate the parts to the whole of which they are a part. This book on cooperation contains no men tion of the organized cooperative movement in the United States. It is a strange thing that. The student. hard pressed for time should find it a convenient way to make the acquaintance of authors whose books they have always intended to read. $5. California Fruit Growers. Still it is rich with informa tion on other subjects. and the Lennoxtown Society had employed it thirty years before. When we turn to "Cooperation in the United States. The idea of the "dividend" had been used by the society of Meltham Mills and others for several years. Parker. —JAMES C. Hackman INSIDE WASHINGTON—Capitol Letter JUNE CONFERENCE REPORTS —J. 1941 John Carson AUDITORS MAP PROGRAM TO MEET EMERGENCY Laurie Lehrin EDITORS AND EDUCATORS CALL FOR CO-OP WAR EMERGENCY DRIVE PLAN FOR ARCHITECTURAL MODERNIZATION WOMEN'S GUILDS PLAN MORE ACTIVITY NATIONAL CO-OP RECREATION SCHOOL Consumers' Cooperation A NATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS . His sources range far and wide over the field of cooperative action. Eatmore Cran berries. His decision as to what to include in the way of contrasting viewpoints is of course open to criticism but such criticism would also apply to any alternate selection. Fay has not distorted the conception of coopera tion by mixing it with the state as have the Webbs. Bergengren. Schmalz and a score of others.A. And this fact is not yet grasped by its promoters. There is much infor mation about the cooperatives in the totalitarian countries. the reader finally finds about one page which indicates that there are consumers in the United States engaged in a more or less unco ordinated attempt to supply some of their needs. Mr. marketing and sociology. Interstate Milk Producers Association. 540 pages. the cooperative execu tive. And finally." Under this cap tion. European cooperation is well represented and discussed up to the out break of the present war. and the cooperator may be grateful that cooperation has not been wholly ignored. This book is useful as a repository of facts concerning ancillary subjects. with the exception of Charles Gide and a paltry few other economic teachers. weigh. Fay. Failor. by C. Daniels. the Christian Socialists. and here above all the external student would welcome an aca demic monograph. consumer cooperation has been con fused with a multitude of interests yholly un like it and philosophically unrelated to it. He shows that the Rochdale Pioneers discovered none of the Rochdale Principles but got them from other societies. While Mr. will never be in a position to take its 144 CONSUMERS COOPERATION place in the changing world and stand out as a dominant way of life and of business until its leaders understand its unique quality. London: P. It gives also a resume of the evolution of the cooperative idea from the time of Owen. Professor Kress makes an effort to do this. the grave of old cooperative hopes. Indeed." Then comes "Cooperative Marketing. agricultural cooperation has always enjoyed his special attention. and the early British movement. I have no hesitation in saying that the consumer cooperative movement never will be on a sound basis. "How far and in what districts the range of supply is being extended to include domestic goods. Here the author speaks of "general store-keep ing. He contrasts Gide with the Webbs. So frequently." This is followed by a chapter on the A.vidual with a gift for synthesis. California Walnut Growers. S. Educational committees and local discussion groups should find this book a real stimulus to pertinent discussion of cooperation. who can select. R. Our concept of democracy is so different from even that of England or France. The first volume of this work was published in 15>08. 1939. VOL. Party Starts on First All-American Co-op Tour TEACHING COOPERATION AT PINE MOUNTAIN Gladys Hill and Vera R. Teachers should find it especially valuable as collateral reading in courses in economics. WARBASSE JULY. he has always confused agricultural marketing by classifying it with consumer co operation.A. and con sumer cooperation has been discussed by him under "industrial cooperation" along with work ers' profit sharing industries. M.A. is not easy to discover.Sc." The reviewer would sug gest that the "external student." we find the chapter opening with "Farm Credit. Fay writes as historian rather than as economist. and other capitalistic profit business. Consum er cooperation is different and unrelated to any other economic system. apparent conflicts are due more to the circumstances in which cooperation is found than to conflict in the essentkl nature of cooperation itself. This book on cooperation gives a few pages to consumer cooperation but it gives chapters to agricultural marketing and workers' copartner ship. however.." What is called "cooperative purchasing" Mr. will find at the end of each chapter a carefully balanced bibliogra phy to enable him to delve deeper and explore more completely the contrasting and sometimes conflicting points of view found in the author's selection. will find easy access to the information he needs in the voluminous literature on American cooperation from the hands of Cowling. P. Fay treats as a device which the farmer has added as a sort of fifth wheel to his market wagon. D. II 1908-1938. it might have been appropriate for the author to express a word of caution about interpreting the selec tions of authors from other countries and at tempting to note their possible application here. Consumer cooperation is treated only under the heading of "Cooperative Purchasing. DRURY COOPERATION AT HOME AND ABROAD. and says of Gide that "he was not torn between cooperation and socialism. King & Son.

Price $1. C. N. Cooperative Distributors The Recreation Kit Delaware. Cooperator Pacific Supply Cooperative Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop.. Associated Cooperatives. N. Prepare to partici pate in "A COOPERATIVE CRUSADE.. the Columbus Con sumers' Cooperative's gas station and store and a banquet at Ohio State University the opening day. Wisconsin Cooperative Builder Central Cooperative Wholesale 2301 S. New York City THE PICTURE ON THE COVER Forty educators.. Wash. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Those present at the Publicity and Education Conference recently held at Ames. You can help! Will you order a sub scription for your local public or school library. St. Y.. Penn. D..00 and we will see that it is sent regularly. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. These are only a small part of the libraries which ought to be receiving copies. Already we have hundreds of college.C. Mail subscriptions to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street. City. 608 S. Send us $1. E. 1941 Ten Cents A COOPERATIVE CRUSADE GENERATING There are many signs of a growing response within the Cooperative Movement to the challenge made at the 25th Anniversary Congress last October for "A Cooperative Crusade. greeted by un precedented publicity.. New York City 726 Jackson Place N." It is under way. 167 West 12 St. Hoover. FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Associatio. it calls for the formulation and adoption of a unified national program to be participated in by all regional and local cooperatives. although as yet in somewhat of a general form. Millard.00 a year. Inc. Oakland Cooportunity New Age Living 7218S. Texas Consumers' Cooperatives Associated 27 Coenties Slip. at the Post Office at New York. Associated Cooperatives. Pacific N. 167 West 12 St.-a re statement of the general as well as the specific objectives of the movement. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Ohio Cooperator Columbus. Association Indianapolis. Design Service.. N. churchmen. Education Ass'n Indianapolis. Y. No. An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Y. Co-op Review Carrollton. Cal. L. Editor. Ind. Rochdale Institute. Ohio Cooperative Recreation Service 135 Kent Ave. IH . Consumers Cooperative Association The Producer-Consumer Amarillo. So. Chicago National Cooperative Women's Guild Pacific Coast Student Co-op League Berkeley. 167 West 12 St. l6St. Chicago The Round Table Central States Cooperatives.W. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing. Ass'n Harrisburg. Minn. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis. This picture at the Clinton County Farm Bureau Cooperative Association..W. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. Washington Grange Cooperative Wholesale Hoosier FarmerIndiana Farm Bureau Coop. Medical Bureau.Y. Y. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. Wilmington. C. Columbus. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Ohio Farm Bureau News Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. December 19. The Cooperative Tour. Superior. 1790 Broadway. but which will doubtless crystallize into definite action. Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative News Seattle. N. Paul. Associate Editor. Y. 84th St. Minn. 372—40th St. Co. under the Act of March 3. Michigan Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Herald St. in voluntary association. Readers ObserverConsumers Book Cooperative Consumers Defender 116E. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. 1879. Y. Wallace J.. 7 JULY. it calls for the adoption of definite methods of appealing widely to the American people.SEND A SUBSCRIPTION TO YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY The national magazine of the consum ers' cooperative movement ought to be available in every public library in the country.. Calif. Many a cooperator got his first knowledge of the American movement through books and magazines he read in his local library. Y. Dearborn. Wisconsin The Bridge CONSUMERS' COOPERATION OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY Volume XXVII. Kansas City. Paul. N.N. THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. Walla Walla. 167 West 12th St.. 111. Society 227 E. N.i Madison. Inc Cooperative Consumer N. C. Ohio was taken on the second day of the tour following visits to the Farm Bureau Cooperative Association and Farm Bureau Cooperative Insurance Services with headquarters in Columbus. N. Bowen. Minn. N. National Cooperatives. C. United Cooperatives. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U.Y. N. Iowa started the ball rolling toward a national cooperative drive which will have been discussed by the national directors at their meeting in July and further steps taken by the time this issue reaches our readers. Washington. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative League 135 Kent Ave. DIVISIONS: Auditing Bureau. Penn. Mo.A. 1917. Campbell. whereby the people. C. Co-op Department Store. It calls for. civic and cooperative leaders start on the First AIIAmerican Tour of Cooperatives.A. Ind. Georgia Southeastern Cooperator Southeastern Coop. included visits to all types of cooperatives in nine states on its 2600 mile intinerary." There is plainly an internal ferment in the Movement which is beginning to be expressed. Cal. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Name Address Publication Am. R.S. Chicago 167 West 1 2th Street. Midland Cooperative Wholesale Chicago. Inc. school and public libraries on our subscription list..

Tompkins was given an honorary degree of Master of Arts "The late Rann McDonald was one of the first men to join a Study Club in New Waterford. Nova Scotia "The present war is no exception. Recover ownership through cooperatives is its main theme." —Carl Hutchinson. Coate "You cannot be economically free unless you free yourself. land or ideas: no one of them longer regarded as a speculative commodity but used as the actual necessities of human life like ait and water. Everyone is getting the profits—why pay high prices to make dividends higher when they go right back into high prices? Of course. Columbus. but the few who get the dividends accumulate them at the expense of the majority who pay the high prices. John P. toils on in its competitive drive for profits. no idle land except for common landscape. and the College still owes the money." —The Co-op Reporter. Pennsylvania. They build men. disclosed this week that Charlie Schwab's career ended as it began —by gypping people." —Alvin T. tricks and meanness seem to go out of business." Thus another product of frenzied finance goes the way of the Insulls." —Father Leo R. . it has in the last 20 years. as in Europe. World War the Second is a revolt against the barriers to trade which have impoverished not only the people who starve with nothing. . S. It is a recurrence of the eternal struggle among men to erect new empires. Ryan. These rules have been destructive to all concerned. He must not stand alone. Sullivan. Past-President Coop erative Society for Recreational Edu cation "Vanishing ownership is the major problem in American agriculture today. Institute of Social Order "The obvious interpretation of 'Our Father' crashes head on with our accepted economic system. No special group is prospering. Cooperatives do more than build up the material founda tion of cooperators." —Citation by Harvard University June 19. and the majority have enjoyed nothing except the struggle to pay the high prices for the favored few to enjoy dividends." —Harriet Elliott 146 Consumers' Cooperation "Just going through all the routine things of life is not enough to satisfy all the things which make up a human being. J." —Neva Boyd.WORTH QUOTING! "Our forefathers went shadowlike into beautiful 'd'angerous new valleys exploring and hoping— And so do we. N. World War the Second again proves the old adage: 'When goods fail to move across national boundaries." —Editorial. Dakota "With cooperatives.' " —Clarence Henry. The rules of the game have survived from the intense competition of the ages of scarcity. No man can in sincerity say 'Our Father' and not invite eco nomic revolution. Ward. Here. . J. left large areas of our population in poverty. The issue for May is a special ownership number. . Loretta. 1941. but also those who surfeit with too much. You have to have something else. and you get great enjoyment out of creating recreation for yourself. —From the Maritime Cooperator July. President. no holding against society of the ideas by way of which society lives." —Haniel Lang "Peace will only come the cooperative way. George Boyle in The Mari time Cooperator. hence no necessity to make big profits. Schwab renigged on the debt. He must combine with his fellow farmers for purposes of cooperation. It is too powerful even for those who run it. to the techno-tyranny of a Stalin or Hitler for whom we slave. We respectfully suggest that Members of Parliament and all men in positions of Public Authority in this country get and read and study CONSUMERS' COOPERATION for May. and $2. He played a most active part in the New Waterford Credit Union." —Bishop Vincent J." —Father John C. which it is unable to pay. 1941 147 . when Fr. in "Finland Forever" by Hudson Strode "James J. Ohio "No speculation in money. etc. In the field of his material interests these undertakings of coopera tion are cooperatives. J. A few years ago Father Sullivan said Schwab induced the College to borrow $25. He was the first president of the New Waterford Cooperative Society. in regular business high prices mean high dividends. it is a revolt of the 'have nets' against the restrictions of the 'haves' . a quick step. He must not live his life in isolation from his neighbors. no very rich nor very poor to build for." —Vaino Tanner. Muench. J. There is little that individuals can do about it. without regard for the consequences to human beings. Educational Director of The Chicago Board of Trade in Ohio Farm Bureau News "The Very Rev. a revolt of impoverished consumers against the piled-up surpluses of essential materials in the countries of excess production. Fargo. this is the true basis for what we could honestly call Democracy. Notre Dame Uni versity 'Both nature and supernature furnish the pattern for the farmers' social and economic life. J. armies will. President of St." He lived cooperatively. Francis College. Rawe. Tompkins. .000 of interest. Mitchells. from the techno-tyranny of over-centralized 'companies' for which we merely labor. a Nova Scotian priest through whose leadership and teaching an agricultural people learned to become masters of their own economic destiny. huge and impersonal in its operation. at National Cooperative Recreation School "We are trying to develop a cooperative culture to round out the cooperative program. to labor. —From a newspaper story "Our great economic system. The State can not make you free." —Frank Lloyd Wright in London News Chronicle on "How to Rebuild London" "CONSUMERS' COOPERATION is the monthly magazine of the Cooperative League of the United States. to the consumer and to business itself in recurring periods of depression. Na tional Catholic Rural Life Conference "It is an easy step. Antigonish.000 and turn the money over to him." —Bishop A.

then by the same token it can be denied the right to deal in any other commodity or service. Did it prevent prices rising under the NRA days? Certainly not. labor. which we are now undertaking. So we are using an external unnatural political agency in the emergency. If a cooperative can be denied the right to handle any one commodity or supply any one form of service.C. it would have made little." When you are out of debt and have cash on hand you are in the best kind of position to take advantage of every turn of events as they may come. war or no war. When we say that the original idea of self-regulation by profit business has failed.000. The index price of basic commodities precedes and is followed by the index of general commodities. The NRA had a Consumers' Advisory Board. However." One of the most reliable Washington commentators says that the accomplish ment of the previous Prices division of 149 . The index of general commodity prices is now also moving up from week to week. We be lieve they should recognize that today the consumers' representatives in Wash- Consumers' Cooperation / July. Business refuses to work except on terms which it dictates. even if desirable. But the horse is al ready stolen or will be. 148 E take quite a philosophical view of life as it evolves from compe tition to cooperation.E. This is the reason the decision of the Director of the Bituminous Coal Division of the Department of the Interior on the application of Midland Cooperative Wholesale to be designated as a registered distributor denying that right is of such great significance to the Movement and has aroused such widespread interest.000. difference as any tariff is intended to raise prices to domestic consumers and no Consumers' Counsel could prevent it. "Speaking bluntly. PRICE INFLATION ON The index of basic commodity prices has risen from 100 on September 3. Consumers Cannot Depend On Government Price Controls We are the Wisest. We want to emphasize that this decision will not be accepted by the Coopera tive Movement lying down. The moves to be taken and whatever help which will be needed on the part of every cooperative and cooperator will be announced from time to time." It will be fought through to a successful conclusion whatever action may be necessary—by appeal from the decision. will not work in the permanent interests of people we are also only recording a fact which cooperators. and to protect your cooperative from possible financial difficulties. We are concerned lest cooperators who are building the new world of plenty and peace should allow themselves to be too optimistic and complacent over the encroachments of the state. both in inflation and deflation. the govern ment and the public are 'over a barrel' when it comes to dealing with business in time of war or other crisis. Economic forces are more powerful than political regulation in a democracy." All of this should give point to the recommendations of the National Society of Cooperative Ac countants as to what cooperatives should do to get their houses in order. and have also now agreed to an amortization schedule which will give the factories to the manufacturers in a few years. by any legislative act or administrative ruling. "we're going twice as high as ever before. Yet we rec ognize fully that we must go through a certain amount of state-regulation as a temporary measure because we have failed to organize ourselves as con sumers and producers into self-help non profit cooperatives and unions to a suf ficient extent to control the economic system within itself. who make up the vast majority of the people. Free competition has been replaced by monop oly competition and the little people are being ground to death between the mill stones of poverty and war—the farmer. which it has not been. Some of the members of the Board did effective work in their individual capacities but the Board could not protect the con sumers against price rises. by Congressional action—as may be determined by the Joint Legislative Com mittee of the Cooperative League and National Cooperatives. This time we have let billions of dollars of contracts on a cost plus basis. or nearly 50%. The Guffey Coal Act is said to have cost consumers $100. to 149."No fledgling feeds the father bird! No chicken feeds the hen! No kitten mouses for the cat— This glory is for men. of all people if they are to be the salt of a new world should be fully aware of and not be fooled.5 at the close of June 1941. 1939 when war was declared. A tariff act original ly provided for a Consumer Counsel but the clause was vetoed. which are ap plicable. Wallace says today that "prices of all kinds have gone up faster in recent months than ever before in history." Cabinet Secretary Jesse Jones says. as we did in the last war. Only under dictator ship can prices be controlled and then only partially. Nor can the Consumers' Counsel of the Department of Agriculture prevent farm prices ris ing. office and small business folks. Be prepared to do your part as action is called for. Strongest race— Loud may our praise be sung! The only animal alive That lives upon its young!" —Charlotte Perkins Oilman W CO-OPS FIGHT FOR LIFE It is no more or less than a life and death struggle for cooperatives if they can be denied. the right to engage in any activity because of their payment of patronage returns on purchases.N. We recognize the necessity as well as the desirability of gradual evolution over sudden revolu tion as the only real process of pro gression. There is no good arid sufficient reason to assume that general commodity prices will not follow basic commodities during the present period of price inflation. the law provided for a Con sumer representative. by court proce dure. The T. Yet. report rightly con cluded. (See their report on another page. we are only recording a fact. Vice-President Henry A. The problem is whether we will not rely upon it to so great an extent as to end in Fascism or Com munism. When we say further that state-regu lation of profit business. as proven by the course of the two index lines during and after the first world war. are to "Get Out of Debt. Now we have a new Office of Price Ad ministration and Civilian Supply under the defense program. It is not a question of their being fine and earnest folks—it is a matter of their actual power to control prices in the interests of the consumers which is the primary question. 1941 ington are largely lambs in a den of lions.) The principal recommendations. if any." and to "Build up Cash Re sources.

Pupils have learned to social adjustments through the second appreciate the values of cooperation and half of the nineteenth century to the are becoming intelligent consumer buyers decades of economic planning that grew as a result of our living. What Makes War? OOME people thoughtlessly say that ^ war is made by the selfishness or ig norance of leaders. then our leaders.the industrial revolution. and stage scenery. broader outlines for a play and to the Paralleling this activity is a study of other the outline for a display of the re "Man and His Needs. and a small class of non-workers who have much. Only when consumers and producers organize themselves into cooperatives and unions to the extent necessary to control the economic system. Emphasis at Pine Moun pils develop the details and sometimes tain is upon cooperation as a way of life change the outline. I am not in favor of such a course." It might be added for those who do not appreciate the implications of those few words that he has been considered the unofficial liaison contact man between Wall Street and the White House for at least 25 years under all political administrations. "Well. and I may say in advance that there will be no bloodshed unless it is forced upon the government. at least we've kept down the prices of pipe organs. and the so-called lead ers are as impotent to mitigate its ravages as are the bewildered mob supplicating these leaders for relief. pupils learn of racies. It is a disease inherent in an economy which makes for a large class of workers who have little. "In my view of the present aspect of affairs. thinking. buying. "Bernard M." Yet in two months we were in the Civil War. Hackman. as in Scandinavia. Kentucky "r^OOPERATIVES belong to democ." Yes. and not our political and eco nomic leaders. Gratifying examples and as one solution for the immediate of such activity were the printed price problem whatever that might be. he declared. the local store or the attractive offerings The more daring ventures are suggested of the "wish book" published by the mail in broad outline by the instructors. initiative in using the school print shop Acting on Ideas as a resource at their command. and out of the World War I. bookkeeping. 1861. Philadel phia. An editorial in THE FREEMAN dis cusses this subject. Leaders in any period are only the prod uct of the desires of the people which they have embodied in the institutions they have organized. then our institutions. They do not look beyond the names of the current leaders and realize that leaders only act in re sponse to the desires of the people which they have expressed in their institutions. our proach of imperialistic and socialistic na pupils' knowledge of buying is limited to tions. Subject barriers disappeared when the and banking become well established pat instructors suggested to one group the terns of continuous expression. it is our economic system which expresses the current desires of the people." Beginning with sources of the various cooperative orJuly. The study Pupils learn to work with ideas as well of new fruits and vegetables resulted in as with patterns of expression. buying hints. We must change our desires. 22. A single line in Business Week is far more revealing than most people recognize. will the lambs overcome the lions and the meek inherit the earth which is rightfully theirs but which they have given away through their own selfish ness and ignorance. which is responsible. Pupils from the mountain Creative Activity hollows know only the limited stock of Creative activity is often spontaneous. publicity. After professional touch." In this war world the consumers and their representatives are today pawns of the profit unusual assembly program—the urge ing with Pine Mountain's philosophy of of a few pupils to share their new found learning to do by doing. But the desires of the people which they had expressed in the institution of slavery overcame his resistance. Our desires and our institutions and our leaders must all be cooperative—not competitive—in order to have peace. study must precede practice. Coming from the coal nize the fundamental differences in ap and lumber camps of Harlan County. furnishings. and in addition elect to Congress a majority of farmers and workers. Share selling. The the Rochdale principles. the local consti prize possession of many of the thirty tution. clerking. One paragraph reads. in or der to prevent war. in an ad dress in Independence Hall." The new Office of Price Ad ministration also absorbs the previous Consumers' Division.the OPM "is hard to determine" but that one expert in the division summed up its work in these terms. don't they?" remarked a the economic necessity which revolution tenth grade pupil of Pine Mountain Set ized social conditions and standards of tlement School in the midst of a discus living. Abraham Lincoln personally en deavored to avoid war. No man makes war. they proceed to organize the con of pamphlets and important addresses. 1941 151 . From ally act upon the ideas they are learning. tucky kitchens of tomorrow. The institutionalized desires of the people are what make wars. It must run its course. pupils continu knowledge with the whole school. "Naive indeed is the one who believes that any president can prevent our suf150 fering the scourges of the war in which we are already engaged. There is no neces sity for it. They follow the economic changes sion about the dangers threatening Euro with their accompanying political and pean cooperatives. sumers' cooperative store which they will These will be found in some of the Ken operate for the school year. and lists pupils. The gov ernment will not use force. Pu order houses. Teacher of English Pine Mountain Settlement School Pine Mountain. and Vera R. As a result of this study the pupils the offerings of the commissary for their see the cooperative way as one democratic food and to the advertised stock of the solution for economic and social prob mail order catalog for their clothing and lems. posters lettered with an almost ture. the results of which have been described as "a debacle. Thus tags for the store and the posting of cooperation becomes simultaneously the poems on cooperation as a result of pupil core and the method. and the method of organization pupils is a well illustrated notebook filled and administration are understood by the with co-op notes. Pupils recog working together. Baruch is a fairly regular visitor at the White House these days. Consumers' Cooperation Cooperation. there is no need of bloodshed and war. In keep. no man unmakes it. pupils with artistic talent came original To insure progress in a cooperative ven price lists. The germ is ever-present in our social order. the Core and the Method — An Enriched Program for the Tenth Grade Teaching Cooperation At Pine Mountain Gladys Hill. On Feb. unless force is used against it. Teacher of Cooperation.

500 government employees in Wash ington working on price fixing and ra tioning and about 24. with teachers." We believe. No suitable play could be found and they were re solved to do a play.." Pine Mountain. — Slowly. basic materials for cooperative study. What I learned from the book no one else would have known about. Equally reward ing was the series of displays which appeared in the store and in the reading room of the library. can get a copy by sending ten cents. bookkeeping. that some definite contributions have been made to charac ter building. During the last war. These figures may indicate the extent of the job when the government begins to fix prices and control economy.S. objectivity. which will soon serve our school and community. So it is significant that every pupil after the production comments on the feeling of accomplish ment and of delight in the dramatic ap proach.A. Pupils volunteer for clerking. In learning to make the food dollar go farther we have emphasized the importance of buying wholesome inexpensive foods. A new apart ment building has been requisitioned to house his organization. He said "the price increase which Chrysler was requested to forego involves approxi153 4 . Pupils saw the pamphlet through the printing processes including linotyping. Incidentally. The granting of that power is just around the corner. But in this way we share with the whole school. arranging the stock and displays. automobiles and a score of other commodities have been given the price red light. They have taken great pride in collecting and filing this material.) John Carson Washington Representative The Cooperative League Wash'mgton. elimination of irrelevant detail. and acting in a play they had written them selves were for individual pupils very satisfying expressions of their own crea tive ability. plus postage. This fourteen scene play. But the credit you get after ward is always worth it. administrator of the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply. Aluminum. The chapters in the booklet describe cooperation in the store. D." Said the junior partner.760. the gov ernment's price-fixing machine is gather ing momentum. "I am learning a lot more about cooperatives than I would have if 1 had just got down a book and read. I feel more able to go about my work. printing stationery. They had poor buying habits. Administering the capital stock of $197 Consumers' Cooperation structors are greatly encouraged to see the strong individualism of these young Southern Highlanders yield to delight in cooperative enterprise. 1941 amount of work to be done. and speaking in as sembly programs. whole wheat breads.E. mail order houses." We in- Learning Intelligent Food Selection As a result of our study of consume! buying our pupils have a comprehensive guide to intelligent food selection. writing and speaking about cooperation in other school courses as the children who attend this Settle ment School are having. doing errands." "I have never enjoyed anything in school as much as being in the co-op class. government and es tablished consumer laboratories. more willing to cooperate with the group.C. Apparently. He told Con gress the government lifted its price con trol ban too soon after the last World War. This emphasis grew out of a need for a greater variety in the diets of our families. The letter writing. Henderson's attack on Chrysler Cor poration—which got little publicity in newspapers—was unrestrained. government agencies. knew nothing of government grades.000 more persons working in field offices.395 jobs. Their next cooperative ven ture was the writing of "Experiences in Consumer Cooperation at Pine Moun tain.ganizations. Kentucky. of a cooperative enterprise is the R. for the benefit of the 115 stockholders becomes a real responsibility. The only local example. Ceiling prices for rubber tires have now been fixed. They were in a dilemma. frosted foods." Much careful thinking. We can not refrain from moralizing to the effect that every child in every public and private school in America ought to have the oppor tunity of engaging in cooperative business ac tivities as well as of studying. weighing of values. to the Pine Mountain Settlement School. cleaning the store. "Co operation Around the World" was a most satisfying expression of the ideas they had previously learned. reporting. not only during the "de fense emergency" but for some time thereafter. he asked for provision for 1. and relying upon the advice of the U. inter viewing.462. and credit associations. Experiences from the pupils' social environment offered a sharp contrast to cooperative buying. proof reading. bread. and are watching the progress of the line across the mountain with great interest. scrap iron. too. Said one pupil in evalu ating her experiences. "Every department in school finds our pamphlets useful. has begun to crack down and he has gained the good-will of Congress. and an honest evaluation of their experi ences went into this pamphlet. never had bought by weight or in quan tity. and with other pupils. articles for the school paper. Attention was focused on publications of cooperative organizations. Leon Henderson. the plans will be for price fixing. spreading the cooperative idea. he has added the warn ing to Congress that the President may shortly ask for complete price-fixing au thority. cooperation in the classroom.-" "I would like to help write another play sometime. Their families had been victims of installment companies. We have stressed nutritive value and have introduced a variety of new foods sucli as tree ripened citrus fruits. Although he insisted it was impossible to forecast accurately the July. of follow ing a food budget. make-up and press feeding. Shopping intelligently for their store has become a matter of personal pride and is an honor. Henderson's aides said there were 11. Pupils accept the privilege of operating the store as a public trust. . As the pupils came 152 to us they knew only price as a guide to quality rather than real intelligent tested value. Pupils are now beginning to read labels and to buy by weight which are the first steps in intelligent buying. We studied the guide books. and cheese. (EDITOR'S NOTE: Those who are interested in reading a printed pamphlet entitled and de scribing "Experiences in Consumer Cooperation at Pine Mountain Settlement School. discussed the problems with the neighbors. Now his ma chine is driven by pleas for cooperation and the subtle threat of a denial to manu facturers of preferences or priorities in transportation and the supply of raw ma terials. Let the pupils speak for themselves: "Just think! We're heroes! We wrote and produced a play! So you see every thing that is worth doing takes worrying and studying. "I feel I have accomplished something. steel. poster work. Henderson suggested a warning as to the future.. Not one but everyone profits by it. green vegetables. explanations in as sembly. and private enterprise when pupils wrote business letters to procure materials from these sources. exercise in critical judgment. To this. arrangement of 'displays. Pupils were alert to the opportunities for cooperation be tween groups. research laboratories. other than the school store. Henderson now has a tremendous organ ization for which he asked appropriations of $3." Writing a Play on Co-ops At first the idea of writing their own play seemed too ambitious to the pupils. When the home economics and mechan ics departments came to borrow some of our materials one pupil remarked. paper. I also enjoyed listening and planning with my teachers these five weeks we spent on the play.

were repre sented at the conferences and they have nominated men for each of the districts.000. for the purpose of conducting a survey and selecting the most desirable accounting terms for use by cooperatives. a discussion of in come tax problems affecting cooperatives. are being heard from Senators and Repre sentatives over the government budget and financial situation. Secretary National Society of Cooperative Accountants I N 1936. Wheeler. Riddle and Jules Englander. urged the House Committee on Labor to adopt. Selvig. Oil Control — Secre tary of Interior Ickes. vice-president. 4. The past year's activity. Conserve cash. ac counting legislation.A. A Five-Point Program of Action Following an address by Mr. by paying no cash patronage refunds while association is in debt. Bowen Tells Accountants of "Boom and Boomerang" Ahead Consumers' Cooperation Cooperative Accountants Recommend Program To Meet Crisis Laurie L. Need for More Audits The membership now numbers sev enty. Davies. Hear ings probably will begin the latter part of July.000 or 23 per cent on its invested capital. R. through meet ings and the publication of a monthly bulletin. which was held in Indianapolis on June 19-20. the Voorhis-Wagner resolution which would create a post-defense economic commission on which three representatives of consumer cooperatives would sit." Then he said. uni formity of reports and terminology. a small number of accountants doing auditing work for cooperatives assembled at Columbus at the time of the Cooperative League Congress. and there organized the National Society of Cooperative Accountants. 155 «l . has ap pointed Senator Worth Clark of Idaho to be chairman of a special subcommittee to hear evidence on the LaFollette-BallCapper resolution which would amend the Bituminous Coal Act and permit con sumer wholesale cooperatives to continue in business as distributors of coal. These in cluded E. for many cooperatives do not have audits. It now seems probable Congress will approve of this pro posal. directors. now have before them nom inations for membership 154 on the various regional committees which will participate in the regulation of the oil industry. through its Washing ton representative. 1941 elected for the coming year. to meet with a similar commit tee of the Publicity and Education Com mittee. W. an inevitable result of irresponsibe spending. 5. this is not a large membership. Liquidate indebtedness as rapidly as possible. process ing." He warned that price-ceilings would be fixed for automobiles because of Chrysler's refusal "to cooperate. Meanwhile. the company was asked to forego $1. the following conservative principles: 1. about $20. and directors July.000 for the first six months of this year. There is no opposition to spending for an ade quate defense program but there is grow ing fear over evidence of scandals. in comparison with the number of coopera tives in the country. etc. "in 1940. K. which are engaged in scores of different activities — production. * * * Voorhis-W'dgner resolution — The Co operative League. At the sixth annual meeting of the Na tional Society of Cooperative Accountants. queer deals with industry in the taking over of such things as ships. The concern is not only over the number of dollars ap propriated but chiefly over the lack of any check or control of waste. along with representatives of other economic groups and also of church organiza tions. and includes the great majority of the cooperative accountants. the new oil czar and his deputy coor'dinator. secretary-treasurer. A committee on terminology was ap pointed. job and salary plundering." He added "in terms of net income to stockholders. finances and reports were reviewed. president. Maintain normal inventories. Reduce accounts receivable to a point where business with patrons will finally be done on a cash basis. 'distribution. Inc. Ralph K. This has been accomplished.000. E. the accountants discussed a recommendation on financial and ac counting policies which cooperatives should follow in order to safeguard their financial stability in the event of a price and market collapse after the war is over. Individuals in Congress mutter and moan but leadership has not developed as yet to organize a fight (or control of the spending spree.000 at a time when it had already earned. the technical questions discussed included analyses of the balance sheet and operating statement. Lehtin.mately $4. Leon Henderson proclaims daily against infla tion. during the entire present emergency and war period adopt to as great a degree as possible. Bowen. 3.000. However. F.000. after taxes. The Cooperative League and National Cooperatives. service. Avoid expansion of facilities. chairman of the Senate Com mittee on Interstate Commerce. Wadsworth. Laurie L. ex pressions of very marked concern. O. packaging. do not speculate.S. and some recent accounting develop ments. Lehtin. and the like.. The purpose of the Society was to provide a common meeting ground for those many account ants scattered about the country who had similar problems to deal with—auditing and accounting of cooperatives. U. Cooperative accountants audit both consumer and producer asso ciations. in the main. and by selling more share capital. fi nancial.000 out of net sales of $750. Warnings were expressed in the House just as an indication that Congress may assert its authority—something it has almost com pletely renounced. and the value of the organization realized. The committee's report states. secretary of the Cooperative League. 2.500.. promptly. but also questions of taxes. F.000." * * * Coal legislation — Senator Burton K. "It is the consensus of the Society that the retail cooperatives. * * * Spending and government appropria tions—More arid more grumbling. Chrysler earned more than $37.

retiring president of the Cooperative Society for Recreational Education which conducts the school each year. a large part of the time was spent in learning folk dance and singing games. Iowa. "We believe that every one has many avenues of expression and if a person is exposed to many activities he will become a more versatile person and better able to get out and help other people. If as cooperators we are inter ested in re-creating society. the District of Columbia and Can ada. Ames. selected by the students. and a panel discussion on the relation of the various fields of recreation by the staff. Margaret Gard ner and Willmer Vess were in charge of the puppet work. Darwin Bryan taught American singing games from Ohio and Indiana and Marion Skean introduced a number of southern singing games. key container. The drama courses at the school offered many different types of dramatic activity ranging from simple charades. new this year.National Cooperative Recreation School "VV/ORK together. business and finance —as the first step toward greater partici pation. Carl Hutchinson. Dean Nelson of the Home Economics Division of Iowa State College. Andrew Jensen of Midland Co operative Wholesale. small in number but representing twelve states. or pocketbook. rounds. the es sentials of music leadership and how to make and play shepherds pipes as well as other musical instruments. Under the direction of Mr. as Miss Boyd pointed out in a seminar discussion. educational director of Consumers Cooperative Association. recreation and summer camps and (4) to promote such cooperative services as buying clubs. and pan tomimes through elementary acting to an advanced course in directing. Among the speakers at the institute were Merlin Miller. ash trays." Carl Hutchinson. The school. Neva Boyd. Students also explored the fundamentals of design in a class taught by Mr. music director. appropriately chose this for the first song at the opening session of the National Cooperative Recreation School held on the campus of Iowa State College. elected by the students at the close of the school. Iowa. descants and other vocal music. declared at the opening session. Zanzig. Each day's activities started with a lec ture on group organization and leader ship by Miss Boyd. recreation. Miss Neva Boyd and Alice Schweibert taught American and European folk dances. in gen eral. Semi nars on subjects of interest. These seminars included a talk on Co operative Recreation and Education by Carl Hutchinson. This is the sixth year The Cooperative League has sponsored the school. Cooperative Work and Organization in the South by students from Mississippi and Georgia. does not wish Women's Guilds Plan Greater Activity D EPRESENTATIVES of cooperative J-\-women's guilds in three regional groups. tute felt could well be undertaken by women's groups include: (1) to train women to become efficient. Stein-Bugler. A large number of students attended the semi-annual pic nic of the Alleman. Nearly every student spent some time in the craft shop making pewter or cop per bowls. Iowa. Zanzig. we are going to have to make better use of our leisure time. June 14 to 27. Ruth Chorpenning and James Norris headed the drama department. As in past years. Gertrude Emerson. in clude: Wilbur Leatherman. "The proper use of leisure time will make the difference between building up a cooperative society or a society imposed upon us. VV onward we go! PD!" Augustus D. Iowa. We should not look on recreation as a relief from the tedium of living but as a definite social value. A course in story telling for children. The ad vanced acting class presented two one-act plays and another group presented an orig- Ellen Edwards inal play which had been conceived and "written" by the group. R. with a picnic and folk dance at the school auditorium. met on the campus of Iowa State College. etc. general secretary of The Cooperative League. Singing was an important part of the two-weeks intensive recrea tional leadership training which the school offered. which included discussion of the function of recreation and some bases for the evalua tion of various types of recreation. Specific projects which the Insti- 156 Consumers' Cooperation | July. E. students learned a large variety of songs. Ellen Edwards. Northwestern University. and leading the singing and dancing. for each other. credit unions. Both string and fist puppets were made by the students and puppet shows were numerous and excellent." To make them aware of this and to help prepare them for that role the First National Cooperative Women's Guild In stitute recommended the formation of more women's guilds and the study of the four cornerstones of cooperation — education. insurance and medical co-ops. Barbara Raines of 157 . Department of So ciology. (2) to take more active places on committees and boards of directors in cooperatives. under the direction of Gwendolyn Fife and John Stein-Bugler. were held each evening. Charles Wiedner of Group Health Mutual. or a leather billfold. are not filling the role we feel they could fill in the cooperative movement. "What should be women's place in business when that bus iness is owned by the consumers ?" The conclusion was "Women. (3) to sponsor co-op youth work. Cooperative aid helped with the fun by presenting a puppet show. and Merlin Miller. June 26-28 to consider the question. Over one hundred students and staff representing eighteen states. Frank Shilston. music director of the Na tional Recreation Association." The board of directors. bracelets. president. The entire school combined a visit to the Granger Homesteads at Granger. consumerminded family purchasing agents. 1941 I to train specialists in any one particular recreation field. There were over seven hundred co-op members present at the picnic. Bowen. was taught by Miss Boyd and Anne Hopkins. joined in. Ames.

From Massachusetts to California and from North Dakota to Kansas "kitchen clean" stores have blossomed forth. for an appeal to economic self-preservation. Co-op Papers. educational directors and recrea tion leaders recommended to the board of directors of The Cooperative League that it sound the keynote of a "Cooperative War Emergency Drive" this fall to call the attention of all America to the opportunity that lies ahead of it to strengthen democ racy by building on the cornerstone of voluntary consumer cooperation. N. arid na tional business undertakings such as manu facture of electrical appliances. the interest in being treated fairly. Personal Contact and Commodity Mer chandising. What Appeals Stimulate People? What appeals stimulate people into act'nn and how these appeals can be used to speed the growth of cooperatives were the chief concern of the early sessions of he conference. the publicity and education men proposed 158 that appropriate steps be taken for a uni fied national drive to be carried out by regional and local cooperatives.." into active cooperators. Trenary and Bruce's Crossing. Peterson of the Illinois Farm Supply Co. University of Southern California." Mr." Dr. B. "joiners. Within the movement the drive would call for strengthening the financial structure of all cooperatives to ride out the post-war crash and to increase membership. Whitney of Central Co-op Whole sale . Minnesota. the importance of recogni tion and participation. E. Mrs. We regret that in the course of publication his name was dropped and he was not given credit for the article. George Letts. Central States Coopera tives. Washington. N.. The organizations repre sented were Central Co-op Wholesale.Cooperative Distributors and Miriam Sanda Shilston. and Con sumer Distribution Corporation. Wis. It is possible to name only a few of them: Cambridge and Maynard. and an appeal for unity on a na tional basis expressing the essence of the traditional American philosophy of inde pendence and freedom. R. secretary. 1941 E. 159 '• . and W. WE'RE SORRY! The article. In his keynote address Mr.. Dr. were asked to contact outstanding architects to create a standard design for co-op store fronts to be used by the regional wholesales and local cooperatives when opening or re designing stores.. Plans Laid For Architectural Modernization T HE progress in modernizing co-op food stores achieved in the past year has been more dramatic than even co-op leaders themselves had dreamed'. In a particularly practical session on the se of these appeals. "The movement must put its own house in order. appeal to reason. Lin coln. N. Y. Pa. Scranton. Cowden. Squaw Lake and Cloquet. Calling for a cooperative crusade an swering indirectly a similar appeal made by The League's general secretary last fall. A. June 26-28. Howard A. Among the proposals he made were: a chain of cooperatively owned radio stations. Play Co-op. editor of the Eastern Cooperator. Bowen said.. president of Con sumers Cooperative Assn.. spoke to a joint session of the Publicity and Education Con ference meeting with the National Coop erative Recreation School and National Co Consumers' Cooperation operative Women's Guild Institute which were on the campus at the same time. general secretary of The Cooperative League. the matter of which appeals ire most effective will be comparatively simple. modernized stores in rented buildings. said "If we get a clear enough idea of what people are. general secretary of The Cooperative League. Cowden pro posed a series of projects which might be undertaken by the movement to help cre ate unity of thought nationally." He stressed the universal desire for new experience. national president of the Cooperative Women's Guilds. In his opening talk on "What Appeals Influence People. former secretary of the North ern States Cooperative Youth League. Whitney. Racine and Maple. Bowen. Ruth Wright of Chicago. Schenectady. Berkeley." Laurie Lehtin. Midland Co-op Wholesale. Co lumbus. presided.. Harrisburg. a na tional weekly newspaper. D. Ohio. The drive would point out the nature of the emer gency and the significance of the consum er cooperatives as a solution. "The Trail to Co-op Fun" -which appeared in the June issue of Consumers' Cooperation was written by Frank Harris. meeting at Iowa State College as a tem porary committee on architectural modern ization in advance of the Cooperative Pub licity and Education Conference. George Tichenor. Co-op Publicity And Educational Directors Call For "Co-op War Emergency Drive" I N a dramatic last minute wind-up of their annual conference at Iowa State College. eighty cooperative editors. cutting debts arid plowing savings into capital. reported on new store buildings. assistant editor of the Ohio Farm Bureau News and Ohio Coop erator. R. sketch out methods for their application through Discussion Groups. D. Hempstead and Rome. Marvin of the Iowa State School of Journalism under lined the importance of using a consumer approach to the problem of selling the consumer philosophy. A. and recommended the centralized purchasing of fixtures for co-op stores William Torma of Central States Coop eratives and E.. emo tional appeals to family and community pride. Brookston. Gilman Calkins. Winfield. it also recommended that light cream an j forest green be adopted as the standatd ized color scheme for cooperative build ings.. Boom and Boomerang In another joint session. Two unique sessions of the conference were an entire morning devoted to use of recreation as an effective means of devel oping cooperatives and cooperators and a final session in which members of local cooperatives reported on what they had found in practice changes inactive mem bers. J.. redecorated co-ops at the old stands and re-designing of fronts and equipment. The entire conference then or ganized itself into small discussion groups to further discuss use of these appeals. Menahga. "The cooperative movement cannot afford to depend upon the govern ment to cushion successfully the crisis to save cooperatives and other business. pointed out the need for a unified and simply stated philoophy. New York City. Davis Douthit. then reported to the conference the recommendations of his organization for meeting the crisis. the conference heard July. "by cutting inventories. Midi. C. and the importance of releasing frustrated interests as impor tant primary drives for action. for personnel imbued with the p ilosophy. Emory S. The committee recommended to the Board of Directors of The Cooperative League the formation of a permanent com mittee on Architectural Modernization. editor of the Midland Co-operator. secretary of the National Society of Cooperative Accountants. Vocational Psychologist of Collingswood. tires or lumber. head of the Department of Sociology. Greenbelt. educa tional director of Central Cooperative Wholesale. Nebr. Bowen. Representatives of the five consumer cooperative wholesales handling groceries. Mass. Kansas.. Md. Calif. a chain of co operative education institutions operated by the regional associations with a "cir cuit riding" faculty if necessary. Eastern Co-op Wholesale. Consumers Cooperative Ass'n. was chosen chairman of the Pub licity and Education Committee for the coming year and E. Bogardus." he concluded. warned the conference to prepare the movement for the economic crisis that lies ahead. capital and trade of the cooperatives..

112 pages. 160 A paper prepared for the Protestant Church Council of Social Work. 180 pages. New York City. published by Richard R. Ohio State Uni versity. A description of the education. MARKETING CO-OPERATIVES. "The Maynard Weavers. Edgar Schmiedeler. and has devoted at least a third of the book to describing the operation of farm purchasing and urban consumer co operative efforts.50. Barnett. 50c. "A More Cooperative Democracy. "Minnesota Cooperative Oil Associations. Grace S. we must appreciate his statement of the problems that these organizations face.. 19621/i N. Fowler ONAL MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS .by Finnish groups in the United States. Smith. "Case Studies of Consumer Cooperatives.. O. New York. co operative study and cooperative promotion activities of the students at Pine Mountain. financial condition. New York. A greater portion of the book is devoted to types of farmers' marketing associations. Greystone Press. $1. "Marketing" as used in the title by Prof. Jesness. HERBERT FLEDDERJOHN Consumers' Cooperation ational Figures in Church World Visit Co-ops /ACT NOW OR REGRET LATER 'CONSUMER CO-OPS GO INTO MARKETING Editorial George Halonen LOCAL CO-OP ORGANIZATION MANAGERS Carl Hutchinson MEASURING STICK FOR COOPERATIVE OIL COMPANIES Gletm S. 480 pages. "The Consumer Movement and Business. In addition to the study of farmers' marketing associations. Maynard. legislation and cooperative program of the Farmers Union. New York." by Dr. Alexandria Avenue. 30c." by James D. An analysis of the extent of cooperative oil distribution. Fox CAPITOL LETTERS John Carson REVIEWS: "The Morale of Democracy" George Tichenor **Case Studies of Consumers' Cooperatives" Bertram B. | its failures and successes—with particular em phasis on the organizations and activities that make up the present day American Co-operative Movement. 5c. Marketing Co-operatives is a comprehensive study of co-operative activity—its beginnings. A study of consumer cooperatives started . Mass. Columbus. published by the United Cooperative Society.00. April 1941." by Dr.. Kentucky." the story of the United Cooperative Society of Maynard.00. George Gleason. Agricul tural Experiment Station. "The Church and Cooperatives." by Haines Turner. Written by Dr. University of Min nesota.New Books And Pamphlets Received 1 The Morale of Democracy. by Congressman Jerry Voorhis. and hence consumer co-operatives are • marketers as much as are associations of pro ducers who form an association to sell their grain. "The Farmers Union Triangle. Jamestown. published by the author. B. by Donald F. An unusual aspect of the book is that Mr. Blankertz seems to have a keen appreciation of the social aspects of co-operative effort as well as the economic basis for their existence. Cali fornia. an address at the Con sumer Conference of Greater Cincinnati. James P. Al together. University of Oregon. 330 pages." by Rev. New York. Columbia University Press. A program for rehabilitation with a brief section on consumer cooperatives. published by the Cooperative Groups at Pine Moun tain School. Harlan County. A description of the cooperative store. Special Co-op Edition avail able through The Cooperative League. methods of operation and operating efficiency of coopera tive oil associations in Minnesota. Pro fessor of Political Science. Describes the work t churdimen in development of consumer. 25c.B. Los Angeles. 74 pages. Ronald Press. 166 pages. North Dakota. A book for the general reader on the philos ophy of cooperation particularly as it affects the consumer. producer and self help 'cooperatives and brief analysis of various types of coopera tive enterprise. published by the Paulist Pr«." by E. 32 pages. postage. 40 pages. Blankertz. 401 West 59th Street. $2.S. "Experiences in Consumer Cooperation" at Pine Mountain Settlement School. Barnett. plus 2c. it should be a very excellent text book for college classes in co-operation for which it is obviously intended. Blankertz means the moving and handling of goods from sources of production to consump tion. by Frank Aaltonen. and while we might disagree with his conclusion as to the probable limited field of urban consumer societies. $4. Fred Koller and O. available from the author. lOc. Pine Mountain. Bulletin 351. published by the Farmers Union Education Service. $2. although govern ment statistics indicate that this might not be true if present trends continue. California Confe ence of Social Work. 35c. Zorbaugh. the author has presented a very good historical background for all types of co operative activity. M. Includes two speeches on cooperatives by Congressman Voorhis on the floor of Con gress and his talk before the Annual Meet ing of Eastern Cooperative Wholesale." by Gladys Talbott Edwards. CONSUMERS COOPERATION "Balanced Abundance. Warbasse and an introduction by Wallace Campbell. but this might be defended on the grounds thai these represent a larger volume of co-operative business in the United States than do the pur chasing or consumer societies. These are supplemented with an epilogue by Dr.

S. December 19. Chicago 726 Jackson Place N.Y. "Education in and for and by fellowship. Mail subscriptions to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street." An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement.. Ohio Ohio Farm Bureau Ne\v^ Columbus. Mich. J. said Milo Perkins recently.A. Ind. Many a cooperator got his first knowledge of the American movement through books and magazines he read in his local library. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing. Rochdale Institute. Cal. Inc. Hoover. The other picture ifseveral outstanding church leaders. Bishop Joseph F.. The visit to the cooperative local cooperatives was arranged by Dr. Hcnr) penter and the Rev.. Brooklyn The Cooperator 135 Kent Ave. These are only a small part of the libraries which ought to be receiving copies. industrial secretary of the Fe Council of Churches ." 45. FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Publication CONSUMERS' COOPERATION ^ ^ John Dewey's message to the New Education Fellowship.S. C 167 West 1 2th Street. ^ Cooportunity New Age Living Cooperative Builder The Round Table Cooperative Consumer The Producer-Consumer Readers Observer Consumers Defender 116 E. Editor. Inc. Send us $1. Wisconsin. Kansas City. Amarillo. W sin to study consumer cooperatives in action / m the church leaders in the delegation were Dr. . is an imperatively required factor in an education that will arise in contrast to the world now engaged in destroying itself. N. City. C. J. Associated Cooperatives. Calif." It should help the people of the world to realize that peace will never be won on the battlefields of Europe or of any other country. Dr. D. Michigan Farmers' Union Herald St. Washington Hoosier Farmer Indianapolis. 1917. The need of per fecting democracy in America is quite apparent. Wash. famous Japanese Christian.N. 1941 The Bridge Ten Cents CO-OP COMMENT We present a free ad to the film "Tom.SEND A SUBSCRIPTION TO YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY The national magazine of the consum ers' cooperative movement ought to be available in every public library in the country.. Washington. Left to right Rev.00 and we will see that it is sent regularly. Busch of St. Fifty church leaders from several countries time off from the important annual confcrena Association of Council Secretaries of the Federal cil of Churches meeting at' Lake Geneva. 1879. Southeastern Cooperato Carrollton. Wisconsin 2301 S. Wis« . Consumers Cooperative Association Consumers' Cooperatives Associated Consumers Book Cooperative Cooperative Distributors Cooperative Recreation Service "Eastern Cooperative League Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Y. Penn. Superior. Dean Clark of the U. Paul. -whereby the people. Minn. James Myers. C. Minn. for a line which is worth the price of the show. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Name Am. is also a sick nation. C. Y. George Haynes. N. N. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Dick and Harry. Entered as Seecond Class Matter.S. school and public libraries on our subscription list. Chicago. 167 West 12 St. Toyohiko Kag Harry Frank. Inc. Millard. This pattern must go within the next few years. early in July to drive to Elkhorn and Racine.. D Stanley Jones of India. Dr. THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. Perm. So. Campbell. Ohio 135 Kent Ave.. 1790 Broadway.. The Recreation Kit Delaware. 84th St. N. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. the Rev. Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative Wholesale Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. Associated Cooperatives. Stanley Jones and Dr.000 Americans are hungry. Education Ass'n United Cooperatives.. N. No. Mo. Y. Chicago Berkeley. Bowen. Already we have hundreds of college. Mi China. N. 167 West 12 St. C Design Service. Co-op Review Harrisburg.. Auditing Bureau. Chicago N. Eucharistic Congress. Association Midland Cooperative Wholesale National Cooperatives. and the solution is cooperatives. Ind. T hike Kagawa. At Elkhorn and Racine the churchmen vis. Minn. Now Dr. in voluntary association. Y. R.000. 16St. said at the recent Catholic Cloud.. Society Address St. 8 AUGUST. James Myers. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. operative gas and oil service stations.C.. under the Act of March 3. Cooperate! Walla Walla. race relations secretary of Federal Council of Churches. Co. Georgia Indianapolis. Wisconsin OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY Volume XXVII. Price $1. Public Health Service says that the U. National Cooperative Women's Guild Pacific Coast Student Co-op League Pacific Supply Cooperative Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. Dearborn. Paul. 372—40th St. N. You can help! Will you order a sub scription for your local public or school library. Pacific N. through cooperation and with a cooperative society as its aim. Y.W. 167 West 12th St. manager of the Elkhorn Consumer operative. The group picture is a photograph of the > delegation in front of the modern co-op food at Elkhorn. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. chairman and tary of the Committee on the Church and Cooper of the Federal Council of Churches. 167 West 12 St. Grange Cooperative Ne< Seattle. E. L. E. Y. Cal. Probably less than half of the population enjoys good health. Dr. Wallace J. recently meeting at Ann Arbor. at the Post Office at New York. "The modern pattern is based entirely on prices and profits. N. Y. Texas 27 Coenties Slip. had in it this quotable phrase.. Brooklyn The Cooperator Ohio Cooperator Columbus.." starring Ginger Rogers. 111. Ass'n Southeastern Coop. Oakland 7218 S. 227 E. Madison. Associate Editor. N. but only in the neighborhoods where we live. Chester Miao of Ch addition to American church leaders..A. * tary of the Brooklyn Church and Missions Fedei Dr. * * * Minn. " Why can't we get ahead without duggin' all the time?" * * * The Directors Education Committee of the Cooperative League will meet in September to formulate suggestions to be presented to the International Coopera tive Alliance for "A Cooperative Peace Program. 608 S.00 a year. scores yards and credit unions and discussed both phib cal and technical questions on cooperatives witl cooperative officials. Henry Carpenter. New York City THE PICTURES ON THE COVES. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. Central Cooperative Wholesale Central States Cooperatives..Y. New York City DIVISIONS: Medical Bureau.W. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis.

and has more than $75. then between groups of individuals and the state political authorities. * * * Sister Francis Dolores." A moral might well be drawn that cooperative ministers should be chosen Bishops by every church body and that thereby we will eventu ally cooperatize the church as Kagawa urges. Nova Scotia. author of "Cooperation: An American Way. He merely wanted to show up what he thought were the shortcomings of the Society's banking system. it was thought that the Distribution Depart ments of the regionals as well as the Educational Departments should be repre sented on the National Cooperative Crusade Committee. Whitney. Someone should tell Mr. The counsel for a cooperative employee of the Liverpool Society who pleaded guilty to forgery. "Father O'Reilly has aided in his own community of Lourdes one of the most successful cooperative efforts in the country. Both Boards of Directors unanimously approved the Cru sade in principle. Stand by for further announcements in your cooperative newspaper. S. says. It is hoped that the first Crusade Committee meeting can be held during the month of August." urges that we stress three advantages: Cooperation — the answer to profiteering. Send them to the Chicago office of the Cooperative League. Ohio "Cooperatives are cells of Brotherhood.000 invested in facilities and in ventories. Iowa. Stanley Jones RESPONSE UNIVERSALLY FAVORABLE TO COOPERATIVE C RUSADE As announced in the July issue of CONSUMERS' COOPERATION.." August. Librarian of the People's Library. then the Church rejects it. Competition leads. and E. writes to The Coopera tive Consumer. . J." by Vice-President Henry A. A full day was spent in outlining suggestions for the Crusade. The Crusade is an answer to his challenge: "Today we need a great many more persons who will become as deeply motivated by the idea of a cooperative economic so ciety as the young men of 1776 and 1787 were motivated by the idea of a democratic political society." Vera Lynn. the way to economic democracy. Ickes. the spirit and idea of an AMERICAN COOPERATIVE CRUSADE which crystallized at the Publicity and Education Conference at Ames." JjJ ij! JjJ One of the best cooperative advertisements we have ever seen was a simple story published by the Sydney Cooperative Society of Nova Scotia in the Maritime Cooperator which told how in 4^ years and with an initial investment of $3. "You have hold of one of the great words which must dominate the future.000. libraries will become less useful in building character and in developing real culture. we are laying the foundation for an appreciation of Shakespeare and grand opera. while your political system is the superstructure. to channelize thought and initiate and con sider proposals which may lead to a cooperative society. George's. Business and Capital. The one is the living stream of thought for the twentieth century as the other was for the eighteenth. Secretary of the National Publicity and Education Committee with the General Secretary of the Cooperative League at the national executive offices in Chicago. Therefore 'Build Co-ops in Order to Have Democracy. . John Fisher. and the idea that finds expression in the word must rule the future of the world.000 in patronage returns." From Cooperative Notes." Suggestions will be welcomed from everyone by the Committee. "We do not believe that in training for work and efficiency. and referred it to a special committee to be composed of those nominated by the regional members from their Educational and Distribu tion Departments. * * * The Cooperative Consumer of Saskatchewan headlines this sentence from the address of Dr." —Dr. and says. . J. The need is for a body of people in accord on general aims. E. lobster factories and sawmills. Thomson. first between individuals. Since the Crusade will have to do with Increased Mem bership. J. Coady emphasizes that "Through credit unions. as idealistic and as realistic as were the young Federalists of 1787. which are being sent to each regional for their consideration preliminary to the calling of a meeting of the full committee as soon as a date can be determined upon which will not conflict with previous engagements. where Dr. "Always remember that your economic system is the foundation. Dr." * * * "Somehow a tankful of co-op gas seems to carry a car farther and faster. Wallace are surely most appropriate to reread at this time. 162 Consumers' Cooperation "If free enterprise is taken as synonymous with competition as the organized principle of economic life.GLEANINGS FROM THE COOPERATIVE PRESS The Maritime Cooperator announces the appointment of Father Michael O'Reilly as Bishop of St. Kan." Jjj Jjj Jjj Another cooperative productive federation was sold to the consumers' co operatives when the SCWS took over the Paisley Cooperative Manufacturing Society. Britain's most popular radio singer. is the daughter of a member of the London Society's maintenance staff. cooperative stores. The foundation must fit the superstructure. and the way of peace. So reports The Cooperative News of Great Britain." Apropos of her statement. to a ruthless competition. Tompkins is located. Then the cracker on the end of the whip calling for action reads "This u-'as done by ownership.500 the Society has done a volume of over $900. of Bazaar. Chairman. and prepare to be ready to participate in this Crusade to "Build Cooperatives Stronger and Faster. history clearly proves. A. * * * A veteran cooperator. was presented for consideration to the Directors of the Cooperative League and National Cooperatives at their quarterly meetings held during the four days of July 14-18.' " JjJ Jji JjJ The Cooperator of Brooklyn says that John Daniels. and finally to conflict of war between nations themselves. has paid out more than $50. 1941 163 . defended his client by saying that "not a penny had gone into his pockets.. a prelim inary meeting was arranged for by long-distance telephone between Gilman Calkins." —Bishop Karl Alter of Toledo. The following sentences from the pamphlet "COOPERATION—The Dominant Economic Idea of the Future.. president of the University of Saskatchewan. . Reserve Mines. His appointment brings a new pillar of strength into the people's eco nomic movement. Following the favorable approval of the National Directors.

"In days when reaction had a stranglehold on local government everywhere." How can one be so blind as not to see with their own eyes the increasing poverty. "It was the Webbs who gave to the trade union movement its first really detailed history. 'The Cooperative Movement in Great Britain. or upon any other single line of products is danger ous. When the new Britain is being built. Conserve cash by increasing re serves and by selling more share capital. phones. scientific yet simply written. etc. greatest of all C.W. "The cooperative that takes on new services may not make a saving on all of them.A. even by the conflict now raging. W. and that groceries draw the entire fam ily into participation. Reduce accounts receivable to a point where business with patrons will finally be done on a cash basis. Father Virgel Michel once wrote that "The first step in social reconstruction is the realization that capitalism as we have known it is dying and should die. Build up big retail and wholesale volumes on simple wide marAugust. it was the Webbs who supplied the shot and shell in the opening stages of the battle between reformers and reactionaries. "Half-a-century ago Mrs.. In this." which is based on government statistics. On the other hand. Webb met J. Diversify! Diversify! "Don't Put All Your Eggs in One Basket. Finally. Mrs. as they always have and always will. But the truth is that Scandinavia has developed a higher standard of living for workers with even less natural resources than we have. etc. Pay Day is Coming — Prepare! No individual and no nation ever piled up a mountain of debt without it toppling over on them at some future day. upon feed and fertilizer. But their influence for the good goes much deeper. When you get one line going well. T. "Beatrice and Sidney Webb make up one of the greatest intellectual partner ships this country has ever known. together they also gave to trade union policy-makers the blue prints upon which the great union organizations of today have so largely been built. Beatrice Webb is to retire from the presidency of the Fabian Society. Liquidate indebtedness as rapidly as possible. then Miss Potter. This is what the Cooperative Movement in the U. We predict that you will be happily surprised when they are pub lished at the close of the fiscal year and you see them. Mitchell. did when we started manu facturing fertilizer and refining petrole um.GUEST EDITORIAL from The Cooperative News SOCIAL ARCHITECTS "It is announced that Mrs.S. The Directors of the Coop164 erative League gave lengthy consideration to the suggestions of the National So ciety of Cooperative Accountants as pub lished in the July issue and revised them. 4. start into another. Webb joins her equally famous husband. in the United States. They are sand foundations and will wash away. At 83 years of age. Today groceries are looming big on the horizon. 1941 gin lines and then go into production. "The hackneyed expression 'the rich are becoming richer and the poor poorer' is quite untrue of the United States. not for philosophical discus sion. The National City Bank Bul letin says that "the standard of living of the American working man has been higher than anywhere else in the world. but it may find that it will have a net saving as a result of its combined activities.S. the Webbs will find contentment in the certain knowledge that the great work they have done is not obscured. chairmen. but for action and ACTION NOW before it is too late. radios. and recommend them to every local co operative as follows: 1. The regional cooperative groups who now handle groceries are proving that they can save money and supply better quality. We are beginning to hit on all four cylinders—retailing. the twilight of their lives. Dependence upon petroleum products. Pound home the truth to people—don't let them be deceived by such false figures. the wisdom of the Webbs will still inspire and instruct those who build." This fact is tragically supported by statistics which even the editor of a bank bulletin should know and accept. Her book. Today we are blowing up three debt balloons on which we are building pro duction—domestic government debt. Black of the Farm Credit Administration gave this sound advice.' was the first really expert analysis of cooperation as a social and economic influence in Britain. Together they have made a gigantic contribu tion to social progress. in stallment debt and foreign government debt. if it continues on a single track endeavor. Why set any limits to the coopera tive products you handle? Why let the march of progress roll over you as mar gins go down in the lines you are hand ling? The purpose of cooperatives is to lower margins in every line. but keep moving ahead into new fields. G. and the in creasing concentration of ownership in the hands of a few. 3. Webb." ACT NOW OR REGRET LATER T HE following four suggestions are offered. to whom she has paid so many eloquent tributes. Avoid expansion of facilities ex cept where needed for immediate use. Select the next one with care. 165 . brought her eager student mind to the service of cooperation. On behalf of the cooperative movement. 2. for statistics prove that monopolies are flour ishing. Consumers' Cooperation 5. un employment. are the outward symbol of the Webbs' achievements. This is the rule the Swedes follow." The author should have read "Dividends to Pay. Monumental works. Do not gamble on inventories." Retailing and whole saling are necessary to build the founda tions of production — but retail and wholesale savings are small compared with what is possible from cooperative production. process ing and production. and he might have saved himself from making such a deceptive statement.. wholesaling. Debt balloons will eventually col lapse." They repeat the same old platitude about the number of autos. the same Bulletin says. "In her happily long-delayed retirement. It was whilst engaged in this work that the future Mrs. the 'Cooperative News' extends good wishes to both these apostles of the new order. "Half the people hungry"—"half the people sick"—are the latest reports in addition to the proof of statistics of so cially minded government administrators. tenancy. "monopoly in this country is much more of a political bugaboo than a reality." This old saying needs polishing up and practicing by cooperatives today." Produce! Produce! The advance reports of the results of the cooperative refineries in Kansas and Indiana indicate that they will prove heyond question of a doubt that "Pro duction is the life blood of the Coopera tive Movement. Then the Bulletin says. it might find itself out of busi ness before long. Tell the Truth to the People! The necessary fundamental of any dis cussion is an agreement upon basic statis tical facts. Governor A. this grand woman ruefully confesses that 'old age and the difficulty of meeting my friends in London during the war' make it necessary for her to give up office.

how in our case farmer patrons could receive patronage dividends when only cooperatives are eligible as members ? After trying to find a practical solution to this problem. and mining enterprise on the coopera tive plan. Now we have a reverse picture— consumers' cooperatives entering into large-scale marketing of farm products.1942.000 to be known as 'common stock'. property and effects shall first be applied to the payment of said preferred stock at par. and. which was held in Superior on April 22. which shall be non-cumulative. and other necessities. issue bonds or other evidences of indebtedness. at the rate of five per cent (5%) per annum commenc ing April 1. Circular letters were sent out to all CCW member societies in Northern Wis consin and Northern Minnesota. Wisconsin. mercantile.000. and no more. The Articles set forth the purpose of this cooperative as follows: "The purpose of this association shall be to conduct a marketing. 1941. which was selected as the most suitable center for marketing purposes. Inc. amounting to $30. Within a few weeks.tock-owning cooperative association shall have one vote for each share of common stock of this association that it owns to every full fifty of its own individual members or major fraction thereof. The meeting unani mously decided to go ahead. to find a suitable location in Duluth. The meeting also devised a practical financing plan on a quota basis. The new undertaking was named the Cooperative Terminal. not only the right of non-members (patron farmers) to participate in patronage refunds was established. Building Bought After all the preliminaries had been completed and a considerable amount of pledges collected. 1941 ciation shall have more than 40 votes. ex ercising due care in electing delegates to the meetings of the Terminal and giving instructions to these delegates." Thus the capital of $50. upon dissolution or distribution of assets. central oil co-ops and the CCW itself were asked to take 20 shares each. The voting in the meet ings of the Terminal will be based on a proportional franchise." Thus. a share of pre ferred stock may be issued to him. Scope of Activities The Cooperative Terminal. It was well represented by consumers' co-ops and also some representatives from marketing co-ops. its Articles of Incorpora tion were filed with the Secretary of State on May 22. priorities and privileges: "To receive interest dividends. the Board of Directors selected as the headquarters for the Co operative Terminal a two-story building 167 . but at the same time farmers undoubtedly will have more direct interest in the af fairs of their marketing association and will be able to control it through their individual membership in their own local cooperatives. Thus some fifty co-ops have so far pledged to buy 166 $15. Also a temporary Board of Directors was elected. The conference voted to incor porate a marketing association controlled by the cooperatives and not by individual members. Some fifty cooperatives were rep resented. amounting to $20. the min ing and processing of peat and other prod ucts. This same voting method has been successfully practiced by the Central Cooperative Wholesale.000 shares of the par value of $10 each. etc. 1941. po tato and seed cooperatives. the question arose. join with other organizations or with other cooperative marketing. pro ducers' cooperatives (berry growers'. the refund due him may be credited to his individual account. elected com mittees to draft Articles and By-Laws. approved by the At torney General. non-member patrons in the co operatives will not receive patronage divi dends in cash until they own at least one share. and thereafter such patron may participate in the distribution of income upon the same basis as a common stockholder or member. the committee found out that the Minnesota legislature had recently amended the Co operative Law so as to eliminate this dilemma. hold or dispose of any property as the said business may require. The amended law provides: "If the patron is not qualified or eligible for membership. the city cooperatives to subscribe for one share and one additional for every branch.000 was di vided into 300 shares of the par value of $100 each. forest and marine products received from its members and patrons. as prescribed by the by-laws: "In the affairs of this asso ciation.) to subscribe at least for one share. equipment. and it shall also be authorized to do and perform. and ob servers from the University and State marketing sections. Inc." Both Common and Preferred Stock Issued As. county agents from counties in the territory of the pro posed Cooperative Terminal. pro vided that each affiliated organization shall have at least one vote and no assoAugust. The non-voting preferred stock shall be entitled to the following preferences. responded affirmatively. and when such credits shall equal the value of a share of preferred stock. each affiliated or (common) . any act or thing necessary and proper to the conduct of its business or permitted by the act under which this asso ciation is incorporated. Michi gan co-ops were not included at this time because of transportation difficulties. patrons and the general market. The plan provided that all consumers' cooperatives located in rural communities must sub scribe and pay for two shares. and acquire. and one additional share for every branch store they may operate. At the Head-of-the-Lakes district.. by demanding reports. and 2. farmers' co-op creameries. the committee called a formal organizational meeting. The initial capital was set at $50.000 worth of capital in this new venture. and the distributing of such goods and products to its members.00 each. The • holders of the preferred stock shall have no right to vote at any meeting of the association. in March. with very few exceptions. Federations.' Ownership of shares of common stock was limited to coopera tive associations. broker age. purchasing and service organiza- Consumers' Cooperation tions and hold stock therein. This unique enterprise is the result of many years of farmer-member demand and discussion. To participate and receive patronage rejunds upon distribution of undivided sur plus on equal terms with the holders of common stock. either for itself or for its individual members and patrons. For these purposes it mayenter into any lawful contract. and before any payment is made to the holders of the common stock. (lie purchasing and manufacturing of supplies. around Lake Superior. and the balance shall be divided among the holders of the common stock. pledging to fill their quota. $100. three dis trict federations of Central Cooperative Wholesale member societies decided to hold an organizing conference about these plans in Superior. consisting of five cooperative store managers and four experienced farmers. and payable annually on the 31st day of December of each year. in conformity to the general co operative practice and the provisions of the Law." The "ceiling" of 40 votes is calculated to eliminate the danger of a few big societies' controlling the meetings of the Terminal. out of earnings. The general nature of its opera tions shall be the marketing and processing of the farm. after all of the debts of the association shall have been paid. Encouraged by the speedy and affirmative returns.CONSUMER CO-OPS GO 5 NTO MARKETING By George Halonen Educational Department Central Cooperative Wholesale D URING the past several years there has been an ever-increasing tenden cy on the part of marketing cooperatives to enter into distribution of consumer goods. all co-ops. the assets.. was incorporated under the Minnesota Co operative Law and. Min nesota. before any interest dividends on the common stock shall be paid.000 to be known as 'preferred stock.

but after negotiating with the owners. we find that counties on the whole are wellpleased with results. Twenty-eight are married. 15 have had one or more years of high school. January and February. securing delegates for various Co-op conferences. seasonally.228.) F OR the past two years an increasing number of county Farm Bureaus and Cooperatives in Ohio have employed County Organization Managers to carry on membership and educational work in the local county units. but they require a capacity to work with people and to translate these ideals and principles into August. 8 clerical work ers. Here is a first appraisal of the latter development in Cooperative Duluth with a full basement and three modern sizeable coolers. A grasp of progressive educational techniques is a great asset. The full-time men give practi cally their entire attention to organization and education work. Dur ing this period they organize Advisory Councils. and Advisory Councils are growing—both in numbers and effective ness—where a trained worker is devoting full-time or part-time to this task. The qualifications of employees of this type must include considerably more than formal training. LOCAL CO-OP ORGANIZATION MANAGERS— AN APPRAISAL By Carl Hutchinson (EDITOR'S NOTE: The organization of Coopera tive Education is rapidly groiving. In some cases they are directly re sponsible to the Co-op manager. These events are among the most stimulating that oc cur in our organization. The experience of these men on the job is proving to be one of the most val uable teachers. promote Farm Bureau Committee work. whereas only a jew years ago there was only one regional which had an employee with the title of Edu cational Director. While the plan is young. Two of the 34 men stopped with the 8th grade. organize meet ings. The average Co-op volume per county for the 34 counties with Organ ization Managers is $188. Various other duties are assigned to them. a step by step procedure. while in others they operate in a parallel rela tionship with the manager. one or more years of college. and making everything ready for the "grand opening" about August 15. These men have averaged 3. and their average income is $128 per month. They come together at the State Office at stated intervals for con ference. 2 min isters. de cided to buy it outright at a reasonable price on favorable terms. The test of this phase of our educa tional program. They have the title of Organization Managers. It is our hope that within the next few years the other counties of the state will be able to strengthen their program with leaders whose job it is to develop the capacity of people to work together. Now the Board is advertising for a manager. Nearly all of the regional cooperatives now have educational departments with a number of employees. and 16 on 168 Education Department Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperatives part-time. 7 Co-op employees. 1941. Their previous occupations were as follows: 9 were farmers. They are equipped to supply information on the various commodities handled. Counties with full-time Organization Managers average 14 Advisory Councils per county. Their chief func tion here is to organize the membership campaign. and now has 17 full-time men employed by their local county organizations. Then some regionals began employing District Educational Eieldmen. 1941 practical forms. America Needs Strong Cooperatives 169 . One of the additional important tasks facing the Terminal is educational and research work in cooperation with the universities. directing the youth program. and because other buildings inspected were found to be less practical or the rent too high. The average Farm Bureau membership of the 34 counties having full-time and parttime Organization Managers is 274 per county. or other printed matter put out by the local organization. 3 school teachers. exchange of ideas. handle matters of public relations. Own labels or trade names will be used and "quality guaran teed" in the same way thitie consumers own label does. membership has increased. of course. especially when combined with a sense of the practical and a capacity to organ ize and inspire confidence in people's ability to help themselves. the organization men are re sponsible for the publication of the coun ty newsletter. Usually. The staff of the national Cooperative League is increasing from time to time. while the average membership per county in the 84 organized counties is 221. During the other nine months of the year. Not only do they need an understanding and grounding in the cooperative philosophy. is to be found in the practical results out in the counties themselves. borrowing the name used by the Swedes for their Educational pro gram. ranging from 24 years to 56. There are now three regionals with such Edu cational Eieldmen in their Districts who are co-equal with the Business Eieldmen. To date we have 17 counties with fulltime Organization Managers. state departments. The financial support of these workers is usually shared jointly by the County Farm Bureau and Cooperative AssociaConsumers' Cooperation tion. 11. The remaining counties average 9 per county.182.iverage for the counties without Organ ization Managers is $149. in turn. This became necessary. Their average age is 35. and so forth. The Board originally planned to rent this building. train leaders. which had a staff of five District Organization Fieldmen and two Educational Men in the State Office. such as conducting tours. The Men Themselves The following information about the Organization Managers themselves might be interesting. and 5 are college graduates. too. Ohio has started the ball rolling on an extended scale. As this is a new venture and our cooperatives lack large-scale market ing experience. In some cases they may be responsible to a joint com mittee set up by the Farm Bureau and Co-op Boards. and the state organization. while the . and six single. The co operative stores will be the main agents in gathering farm products of all types and the Terminal. the progress naturally will be slow. most of their time is devoted to membership work. The fact that these men are supported by income from the Farm Bureau and Cooperative Association means that only the counties which have sufficient income from membership and patronage earnings are able to employ these workers. because otherwise the building would not have been available for occupancy for a year.6 years. voluntary leaders. into two parts. Such persons fill the missing link between local. schools and county agents. their chief responsi bility is more definitely educational. Their work may be divided. During December. but in most cases they do not carry an order book.7 years' service in the Ohio Farm Bureau. train the workers and direct the campaign. Cooperative business has responded favorably. will market these products. The latest development is the employment of Local Educational Managers. 4 skilled or semi skilled workers. and discus sion of mutual problems.

of course. 36 to 1. of Consumers Cooperative Associa tion. The one shown includes only a few of the more important. there will be fewer tight spots in the life of the cooperative. North Kansas City. Even at the organization of a coopera tive. Fox discusses an efficiency yardstick developed by Consumers Coopera five Association of North Kansas City. Every dollar invested in any part of the business must be kept turning and earning more dollars. Even though a cash basis of operation is to be recommended as best. If there are two dollars on hand with which to pay every dollar of current debt. should be accumu lated equal to at least 50 per cent of the depreciated fixed assets.MEASURING STICK FOR A COOPERATIVE OIL COMPANY* By Glenn S. certain balances must also be maintained. the members should own around 50 per cent of the total assets. and ratio of total re tail sales to charged sales. of course. For example. for oil cooperatives. explana tion of terms and methods of calculation. Refined fuels. Within the current assets.) 1 OOMEONE has said that the discern ^ ing newspaper reader. naturally. neither are they goals. see related pamphlets "Learning the Language" and "Reading Between the Lines" by Miller and Fox. The desirable standard's are not averages. with an eye on all factors of any given situation. This standard should possibly be set at 60 per cent or more in these unsettled times. 1941 171 . And that one sale should be charged for ac commodation only and should be col lected in ten days on the average. Thus two other credit standards are evolved. or comparisons. per cent of retail sales charged. They merely point out the highway to success. simpler ratios. should show a much higher turnover. 20 per cent or less. Fox Finance Department Consumers Cooperative Association (EDITOR'S NOTE: There is a great need of setting up and following operating standards by cooperatives. 2 to 1 ratio of current assets to current lia bilities. The ratio of sales to inventory is the first comparison considered which ties the balance sheet with the income and expense statement. The measuring stick is a number of ratios set up in graphic form so the strong and weak points can readily be visualized. The kind of inventory kept in most co operative oil associations should turn every 20 days or 18 times a year. But it does not follow that such guides are in fallible. then there is over-investment or low Consumers' Cooperation August. research shows that the ability to make net savings decreases rap idly when more than 40 per cent of the current assets is in receivables. 170 eral. Missouri. then additional reserves. yet if credit is to be extended. namely.. One widely accepted method of analy sis is to weigh the component parts of a balance sheet or operating statement by the use of ratios. They might be thought of as a "passing grade. to keep all the ratios above the standard. Should total sales equal less than eight times the original cost of fixed assets. They must be tempered by com mon sense. is important even though gen*For a fuller treatment of the subject. while others get lost trying it. This means comparisons of current operations with three things: the re sults of the previous year. Some associa tions take short cuts and get there more quickly. and some form of efficiency standard. Mr. in the members' equity section of the balance sheet. nor are they danger lines. should learn the art of "read ing between the lines. certainly not more than one sale in five can safely be charged." The object is. The old accepted rule of thumb. an estimate for the current year. Mo." And that same technique might well be applied to read ing a balance sheet. particularly in these times. If the members purchase enough stock to equal the fixed assets.

Until the Senate picture de velops more. if the growing fight over whether executive authority shall dominate or whether Cona reasonable proposal can be developed. chief of OPACS. very regular New the Committee which of member a be to generally averages about one per cent of bill remarked. tlon Management. As he sug co-op. The fixed overhead costs will tend to drive wider margins or decreased savings. They are median figures representing the upper one-third in the case of margins and savings and the lower one-third in the case of expenses. to make us vote for it. As Con gressmen indicated. has suc John Carson Washington Representative ceeded in giving some protection to labor. we will have to control profits also—controlling prices inevitably means controlling wages and that calls for con trolling profits and that means control of our entire economy. or the Of to a degree the importance of the weak fice of Price Administration and Civilian ness. Henderson finally had to ask for com ing. it is possible this time that real reform legislation can be adopted. are matters of little moment. But can be viewed by placing more than one Leon stepped on the toes of "cotton Sena year's analysis on the measuring stick. at the given be will mittee of cent the favorable net results of 9 per before they try thing the at look to least." "How about controlling wages?" "We cannot say now. even though Sidney Hillman. other than from operations. For weeks plete tell me how they could justify opposing the plan in view of the gradual increase he has been trying to get an agreement on some plan. labor representative. But at this mo ment. a seri centages is calculated. Congressman Voorhis proposes that rep resentatives of consumer cooperatives shall be on the commission. "But will you support the legislation?" a powerful influence at the White House. The resolution. and 25 per cent on tires and accessories should at least result in a total gross mar gin of 24 per cent on total sales." * * * Taxes—The new tax bill has run the gauntlet of the House. if it were begun.C. Dealer who happens Income. * * * Voorhis-Wagner resolution — The House Committee on Labor will not act. but Knudsen and others also are power the Congressman was asked. on the Voorhis-Wagner reso lution until evidence recently taken is printed and available to Congressmen. The weak points and." "And controlling profits?" "Yes.volume. 1941 gress shall continue to exercise its au thority. And right now. finally. some powerful individuals are in sisting that the legislation must provide for a veto power over any price czar's rulings—and that veto power must be vested in an advisory group chosen from various organizations of citizens. or on the "post defense economic" situation. generally speak by any of the leaders in the OPM group. Mix them with common tacked Henderson publicly and sore spots sense and one gets sound business judg began to break out all over the Adminis ment. fighting organization if he de cided upon that course. Expenses should be held to 16 per cent of sales if at all possible. Henderson's OPACS could become a The Cooperative League forthright representative of consumers.—"We must begin with the realization that if we give the President broad price fixing powers. Knudsen. That added "hoped our com he that asperity. "I do not know. regarded by many as be ing the most important legislative pro posal now before Congress. Standards were established for the op erating statement by using the operating experiences of some 300 middle west cooperatives. A high percentage of the total expenses in a re tail oil cooperative is the payroll. If the progressive or liberal group in the Senate organizes to make a fight. Then. discussion of the tax bill is a waste of time. 29 per cent on distil late and kerosene. This fig ure should include commissions. The price fixing legislation has not been written as this is reported. The amount of the latter required to sell a dollar's worth of petroleum and related W ASHINGTON. tors" and then he stepped on the toes of Far too little time is spent by manage automobile manufacturers and then he ment watching trends as revealed by per began to irritate William S. Henderson." About 48 hours after President Roose velt had asked Congress for price fixing authority. Henderson is still here repeated verbatim. Consumers' Cooperation August. the import of the message began to sink in and one re172 Skirmishes over this legislation tell merchandise is higher even than in a stories of the situation in Congress. After each of these ratios and per But before the President acted. It must be remembered that OPM represents "management" or the boys who take the profits. That is a turn over of notes. 30 per cent on oils. Inci dentally. I would like for you or anyone to price fixing authority. sales. would cre ate a commission on unemployment. Finally Knudsen at goals and plans. could have gotten approval of the line drops below the standard. D. Then the important members of House and the President stepped into the mess." I think that sums up the thoughts of In fact. it can be placed on ous insurgent movement had developed in the columns as the co-op shown on the Congress. or what form the bill took in the House. in prices. can be ascertained by the distance i Supplies. Two or three months ago. they do not know what will be proposed. some tween gross margin and expenses shows opportunity. plus all accounts. this bill is being prepared in Ex ber of members. Certainly the annual retail sales should be 12 times the notes and accounts receivable. Column 7 is an over-all ratio of re ceivables to turnover. requested to approve it. are among the most im ecutive departments and Congress will be portant percentages and ratios. centages and ratios. along with the num gested. During the first 24 hours after the message was read. Leon measuring stick. along with 173 . I will not say until I ful and Henderson is not liked very much see what is proposed but. He had made little progress. we give him control of our economy. or the Office of Pro'ducmeasuring accomplishments of budgets. One grocery store. with the consider will be difference the to sales. They are valuable in chief of OPM. tration." He was express A member is counted as loyal who does ing the bitterness there is in Congress most or all possible business with the o\er Executive domination. a suit was the remark of the Congressman zealous. it looked like he might fail. Probably this. a Congressman thus expressed his worried thoughts to a representative of the Cooperative League. but it is prob able that will have to result. A desirable gross margin of 23 per cent on gasoline. every 30 days. but what the House did. progressive leaders are discussing whether a fight could be suc cessful. these Congressmen also insist on "pitiless publicity. hardly a ripple of interest or concern over the proposal was noticed in the House or Senate cloakrooms. The next skirmish is going to involve Senate and it should indicate that the price fixing proposal will be approved. Trends I reasonable price control legislation.

Howard A. He has caught the underlying spirit of this group of tough-fibred people.A. be passed. $2. Its leaders know that re tail stores and wholesales are but opening wedges. such as Dr. Dr. The Coal Division decided when Midland Cooperative Wholesale applied for recognition. business. that coal producers could not pay or recog nize Midland. The first half of the book is devoted to a general summary. in the epilogue expresses a distrust of forms of 'slateism" which would smother the spirit of free enterprise he holds as essential to de mocracy as to Cooperation. They are crowded to gether until they are working under ex treme difficulties. Until Midland is registered with the Coal Division it can get no pay for its services in distributing coal. "The distributive process remains relatively inefficient. Abroad. The Coal Division denied its application for registration. hence its business is confiscated. and he portrays the various phases of their so cialistic revolt and struggle. it is hoped. No answer has been had as yet from Ickes to any of the cooperative proposals. This book grew out of demand for reprints i)f the address by Mr. after an arduous day packing a banquet hall to appreciate this evangelistic message. Whether or not they will do so will depend upon the capacity of consumers for social organization. he describes the extent to which Cooperation lias been woven into the democratic texture of every country not yet cut down by the swastika or sickle. In the three speeches of Mr. There are still conspicuous opportunities for improvement of which cooperative enterprises may take advantage. $1. .representatives of organized agriculture. Rogers. Ralph K." There is nothing sudsy about Mr. notice of appeal from the decision of the Coal Di vision in which Midland was denied the right to register as a "distributor" of coal. Senator Clark recently submitted to the Coal Division a request that the Division offer a substitute for the LaFollette-BallCapper proposal if the Division contin ued to oppose the legislation.50." It is remarkable that a Congressman (though voted by newsmen "most sincere and earnest" member of the House) goes all-out for a movement that is anathema to every legislative lobby and of no particular concern to his con stituency in California.D.S. . solve the economic prob lems of this power age. It now seems that the House Committee on Labor will approve the resolution. He has not yet gotten the substitute proposal from the Division. The cooperative movement has gone far beyond the phase where it required precise statistic proof. Both characteristics are evident in this book. farm supplies. have progressed rapidly. by the Hon orable Jerry Voorhis. Ph. he repeatedly posits Cooperation.Attorney Daniel Rogers. the "best school for democracy that has yet been devel oped in this world" . . outside of the "major" or "trust" group. Procrastination serves only the profit wholesale and retail dealers who fought the cooperative amendment and who. audi tor and buyer matters of policy and tech nique and finance of a million-and-a-halfdollar business. But more remarkable is the amphibious quality of a typical co-op au dience which can exalt to the appeal of a New Jerusalem and look to its cash-and-carry foun dations. with Consumers' Cooperation August. . .00. and therefore might not have appreciated the lack of considera tion shown cooperative enterprise. a com prehensive statement of cooperative oil and gasoline activities was filed with Ickes. Voorhis' clear and fine call for an idealistic program and much challenging evidence that "Coopera tion opens the door for ourselves without shut ting it in the face of a neighbor. and be approved there. he de scribes the role of Cooperatives as yardsticks for the price and quality of fertilizer. It seems unfortunate to this reviewer that Dr. Minnesota and Northern Michigan. In the closing paragraph of his summary. in opening the court fight. Because the cooperative leaders felt that Ickes and Davies might not realize that cooperatives handle more oil and gas than any group. as chairman of a special subcommittee to hear evidence on the LaFollette-BallCapper resolution to amend the Bitumi nous Coal Act and thus provide recogni tion for consumer cooperatives. . as yet. Turner does a mag nificent job of setting forth the several im pelling motives behind the cooperative or ganization of the Finnish factory workers in Maynard. . At that time another request was made for the appointment of cooperative representatives to oil committees in the five regulatory zones Ickes has set up. not a dozen of whom had ever depended upon the sale of groceries for a livelihood discussing with manager." BERTRAM B. for gasoline and groceries. they have not begun to clear up the requests and demands for information. . incidentally. Then the proposal will have to go before the House Committee on Rules. * * * Oil control—Secretary Harold L. Mass. BOOK R EVIEWS THE MORALE OF DEMOCRACY. Cooperators are asked to write to their Congressmen and Senators and urge that this "cooperative must" legislation. before it will reach the House for final action... founder and president emeritus of the League. The cooperatives got from Ickes and Davies only one representative on all of the committees. The Coal Act now permits coal pro ducers to pay profit wholesalers and "farm cooperatives" for the wholesale 'distribution of coal. has filed in the Circuit Court of Appeals in St. finance. insurance. Incidentally. had the support of the Coal Division when the fighting became most severe. Campbell. TICHENOR CASE STUDIES OF CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVES." and someone else has suggested that its symbol should be a "Golden Slide Rule. Cowden. the new oil czar and his deputy oil czar. It had been a meeting that an outsider would have found remarkable: 300 men and women. 93 pp. Voorhis which make up the body of the book. Ickes. as the answer to the greatest single need today: "For one people somewhere in the world to give to all man kind a living proof . Wheeler of Montana. has been named by Sena tor Burton K. con tributes a long introduction that is one of the best condensed reviews we know of the piractioil achievements of more than 70 million Cooperative families in the world. that they can. These new government employees are not housed properly. Dr. In this country." The legisla tion now proposed would correct that situation. unfettered by racial prejudices and distrusts. . and "we must have an economic democracy and that we cannot have in a society which is controlled by private monopoly or dominated by the motive of gain. James Peter Warbasse. Wallace J. Groups other than the Finns. Then. New York City. The Greystone Press. Louis. Davies are putting together a considerable organization of lawyers and clerks and "experts" to direct the business of regulating the production and sale of oil and gasoline. He has been delaying the hearing of evidence until the Division decided its course—but hearings will be held shortly if the Division continues to procrastinate. Columbia University Press. or any cooperative other than a "farm cooperative. and poverty in the midst of plenty and make the machine the servant of man and not his master. associated ordinarily with Con174 sumers Cooperative Association of North Kansas City. For while he has been meticulously fair in his at tempt to appraise consumer cooperation as j method of store keeping. Turner presents. and of the church groups. Dr. that territory covered by the Cen tral Cooperative Wholesale. assistant secretary of The Cooperative League of the U. This is the begin ning of the cooperatives fight to continue to do cooperative business in all fields. Haines Turner." John Cham berlain has called Cooperation "an idea with handles. 1941 \ out loss of liberty and without resort to gov ernment compulsion. that "Cooperation is the translation into economic terms of the basic principles of Christian faith" . It is one cooperative step which will be come historic. although he asked for it several weeks ago. followed by a case report on the cooperative accomplishments of the Finns in Maynard. Turner should have chosen to limit so strictly a work on consumer cooperatives. Turner says. FOWLER 175 . * * * Coal price fixing --—. Voorhis at the 12th annual meeting of Eastern Cooperative Wholesale. He gives evidence of the extent Cooperatives are suppressed by both totalitarian plagues." GEORGE H. of its efficiency as compared to that of chains and independents. and soon. he has limited even that evaluation by centering his study on the Finnish Co-ops in the United States. New York. by H. * * * Coal price regulation—Senator Worth Clark of Idaho. of labor. started legal ac tion in which cooperative natural rights may be fully tested. but acting in this instance for Midland Cooperative Wholesale of Minneapolis. Then he shifts his attention to another Finnish group and deals studiously and comprehensively with the aims and objectives behind the develop ment in Wisconsin. important only as they lay a founda tion for the development of a more expansive organization.

.05 Cooperative Recreation Sonss..20 ........ Excellent photography.... l(i mil silent.0^ • For Younger Cooperators The Little Red Hen and Her Cooperative..................05 Cooperative Recreation........ Ellis Cowling .......02 l... .25 additional showings............... S........ . Kllis Cowling ....... film of Hie Ku..... Ignatius W..... Unit I..... Kental per unit: color. .. Edwards and Smith ...................25 • Credit Unions and Finance How to Read Cooperative Balance Sheets..... ...02 1...05 What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions............ .25 .. per year ... Leslie 1'aul ... 3........ Blue ...0(1 FILMS Traveling the Middle Way in Sweden....50 color and $1... section on Co-ops . produced by the Harinon Foundation..........S..... A $600........... 19"28".50 1....... two chapters on consumer cooperatives .. .15 The Spider Web.... ...00 Windows on the World.. Eecl-White-and-Blue March On. 1. wholesales and factories in France...... Ileyliger .......... A.........03 2... When Mankind is Willing...... Co-op Tour Editorial AMERICA ON FIRE FOR CO-OPS! Mary MacMillan WITH THE CO-OP CARAVAN ONE DAY IN THE LIFE OF A COOPERATOR Howard A... Ij... A House Without a Landlord... William Moore .. Ellis Cowling .....................03 2. ......CO-OP LITERATURE Leaflets to Aid You: • Novels and Biography A Doctor for the People............. Carr-Saimders and others .... Clasping Hands.000............. silent.. Claude Shotts .........JO .. 3.. H.. Michael Shadid.... Helen Sorenson. TTpton Sinclair .... ...80 Wlien You Buy....00 ..000 Customers.. Richard Giles. $1) Organize Cooperatives............... 2 reels........... Cox.......... Agricultural Cooperatives.... Kodacrome...... Ked-Whitennd-Blue ...... Eed-White-andBlue .....80 Cooperation.... 3 ree'.... Anthony Ijehner ....00 Tile Consumers Cooperative as a Distribu tive Agency..... Rev...02 1. E.. Rental: Each of three above $3 per day... Wallace J........02 1...... By and For the People. Building a Brave New World....... Reading Between the Lines . There Are Jobs in Cooperatives.25 The Hrave Years... 3-act play....... Campus Co-op News Letter. $2 per day..... 2 reels..05 . Cooperative Principles..... Kagawa and his co-ops in Japan.... Kit P.. shows how coopcrators on the eastern seaboard are providing themselves with CO-OP products...... Harold Fey ............ from Sales Management ...... John C....511 1. Fowler Campus Co-ops............. high school and college......... E......... nursery rhyme........50 Our Interests as Consumers....................50 ...02 ........................... 2 reels.. The Burden of Credit . 2. 2... Hall and Watkins..... 2...... Carl Hutchinson ...... E.. Learning the Language . a Puppet Play ...... a 1C mru. I Saw a People Rising From the Dead....... ...50 Play Party Games......... ...... What Attracts Members to the Co operative Store Movement...50 Fresh Furrow.. Democracy..........4H Consumer Cooperation in Great Britain........... Calkins ...... Julia E. Kit 49 ... addi tional showings.... 16 mm......10 2.............02 ... Jacks 1...20 ..00 The Consumer Movement.......... 1 reel..... 2...................50.............. Learn About Consumers Cooperation Sure Way is the Quick Way .......... IB mm... $150 for each additional showing or $10 per week.. ...... A Fair Deal to All Through Coopera tives.......... 2 parts 1..........50 ONSUMERS COOPER AT fON .....50 • Cooperative Recreation Josephine Consumed. Burley ...... Trilling............ PM Reports Fast Growing Co ops Shun all Isms . Kenneth Gould....... 1..20 . .......02 ........ ?3...... 19"x28".. $5. . 19"x28"..... Eberhart and Xicholas. a new 3 reel..13 .... Max well Stewart ... two reel film........ silent film on the Amalgamated Cooperative Houses in New York City.. Cowden Jack McLanahan TRAINING LAY LEADERS EASTERN COOPERATIVE RECREATION SCHOOL POSTERS (any selection of 6 ........ Wm.. 3... Debate Handbook ........ Mulberry Consumer Ownership — Of... Consumer Tile Johnson......J..... J.........20 ..... $13... American ... .................. Green .......20 ..... by Paddy the Cope... S.... The Lord Helps Those — Who Help Kadi Other...... ...03 ........... high school text.................... two chapters on Co-ops ... P.............. showing how cooperation is taught in Hie schools of France. M....... Land of Sweden... Erbes....000 Business With 2........... Cooperation—A Way of Peace.......20 • Cooperatives and Peace Cooperatives and Peace.. Rawe.75 . Consumers Serve Themselves.10 Other Peoples' Money............ black and white....... Consumer Cooperation......20 Consumers' Cooperation Ellen Edwards SEPTEMBER 1941 NATIONAL John Carson CAPITOL LETTERS REVIEWS: "Consumers' Cooperatives in the North Central States" "The Law of the Organization and Operation of Cooperatives" "Democracy's Second Chance" MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS ....... Dorothy Jacobson. Bertram B................ E.. 16 mm...........25 American Folk Dances..25 Let's Play....... 18"x28".................................. Koy Bergengrell ...... Orin E........ *£y ft .......(n ....... Frank O'Hara ............ silent.. Johnsou..... Kit T.. J.02 1......00 176 How a Consumers Cooperative Dif fers From Ordinary Business ....... Unit 111......... $<! IKT week..05 ............................".........02 1............. Campbell. Official British Textbook ......a Scotia adult education and cooperative pro gram. . $2... A Day With Kagawa. George Tichenor ...00 <'o-oi>... Co ops in Ireland ..02 1..........02 ..............(X) • Student Cooperatives American Students and tile Cooperative Movement............ Bowen ...... Co-ops on the Campus........50 .. blait and white.. Co-op Edition .. the Intercollegian ........ Co-op Caravan Rolls Across Ohio on First U...... Burris Jenkins ..............50 per clay...!(! Credit Unions. P.. silent three-reel film...........15 Education Through Recreation...... 2...............000. 19"x28". Buy Co-op... George Tichenor ..10 Credit Union North America...01 ........... ............. 10 ram.....00 1...... produced by the Harmon Foundation....... $4.50 ......10 .. 1....... of coop erative stores............... Unit 11.i» ..............IB l....20 All Join Hands.. a new 1' reel... Printers' Ink North Woods Miracle.. Story Without End...:' Quadrilles..... Kate Bradford Stockton Facing the Sunrise........ Cooperative Ownership............... trnion of Church and Economics is Dramatized as Co-ops Reveal llapicl Progress.... Bowen . one chapter on Co-ops 3. ... Printers' Ink Monthly .....75 • Textbooks on Cooperation Consumers' Cooperatives........ special edition .. ... Frank Shilston ..................... ...50 per week.............. Are the Co-ops Getting Anywhere?............. Warbasse..10 Two One Act Plays.. 19"x28"....... P..50 My Story.......50 02 1....... Brickbats and Boomerangs. $2... Answering Your Questions About the Cooperative .50 ..... 4......... .10 Credit Unions: The People's Hanks........ with English titles...... Fox and Miller.... 1C mm...........

S. Washington Hoosier Farmer Indianapolis. The pamphlet "Income and Economic Progress. Wisconsin The Bridge CONSUMERS' COOPERATION OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNALOFTHE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY Volume XXVII. Brooklyn The Cooperator 135 Kent Ave. C. 167 West 12th St. Kansas City. Ohio Ohio Farm Bureau News Columbus. Central Cooperative Wholesale Central States Cooperatives.S. Cooperator Walla Walla. N. Millard.S. Y. 1917. Chicago 726 Jackson Place N. R. Medical Bureau.. They have now proven that they can do so both indirectly and 'directly against monopoly competition in the United States. Ass'n Southeastern Coop. Y. Renew your subscription now so you won't miss an issue. Washington. N. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Address Name Am. 227 E. Society FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Publication St.N. Y. which was used in the Ohio area for outside talks and also for giving directions to the drivers of the cars. Associated Cooperatives. concludes that lower prices to consumers is the most An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Y. Education Ass'n United Cooperatives. and following that is the Ohio Farm Bureau sound tmck. 111. Minn. L.." Your national magazine. Ind. N. Consumers Cooperative Association and Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association have demonstrated what cooperatives can do in making savings in petroleum production. Pacific N. Inc. C 167 West 12th Street. under the Act of March 3. National Cooperative Women's Guild Pacific-Coast Student Co-op League Pacific Supply Cooperative Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. Cal. Cooperatives. Editor. Association Midland Cooperative Wholesale National Cooperatives. Dearborn. December 19. In the lead is the Ohio StatePolice car followed by Carl Hutchinson tour leader. Cal.. Y. 179O Broadway. The Producer-Consumer Amarillo. in voluntary association. Oakland Cooportunity New Age Living 7218 S. and thus lower prices indirectly by patronage dividends on pur chases. N. . Campbell. 84thSt. Wallace J. Minn. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. Within recent months. tools and techniques to use in the forthcom ing Co-op Crusade. 9 SEPTEMBER. Rochdale Institute. New York City THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. Wash. We have demonstrations right here in the United States. Penn. City. The thirteen cars 'in the tour party all bear placards "The First Annual Tour of U. Design Service.. Southeastern Cooperator Carrollton. Inc.00 a year. N. 1879.W. Calif. Mo. Paul. Price $1..... Penn. Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative Wholesale Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. Co.Y. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing. •whereby the people. New York City DIVISIONS: Auditing Bureau. Cooperative Builder Superior. 167 West 12 St. No.THE PICTURE ON THE COVER GET READY FOR COOPERATIVE CRUSADE The First All-American Tour of U. Madison. Hoover. Ohio 135 Kent Ave.. Cooperatives can also lower price levels directly and prevent monopoly price fixing. Y. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. E. 167 West 12 St. We have said that cooperatives were the answer to high prices. W.Y. Associated Cooperatives. 372—40th St. they will astonish everyone. Paul. Cooperatives can make tremendous savings in the cost of distribution and production. two dollars for twenty-seven months. C.C.A. N. Georgia Indianapolis. The Recreation Kit Delaware.A. Minn. Send subscriptions to others who should take part in this first nation wide co-op drive. One dollar will bring you the magazine for oneyear. Consumers' Cooperation will bring you news. Cooperatives gets under way! The pic ture shows' the tour starting from Colum bus. Grange Cooperative News Seattle. Mail subscriptions to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street. 608 S. Chicago The Round Table Cooperative Consumei N. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. Texas 27 Coenties Slip. Y.. at the Post Office at New York. C. Consumers Cooperative Association Consumers' Cooperatives Associated Consumers Book Cooperative Cooperative Distributors Cooperative Recreation Service Eastern Cooperative League Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. as before we had demonstrated what we could do in re tailing and wholesaling. 1941 Ten Cents AMERICA ON FIRE FOR CO-OPS! This is the purpose of the national Cooperative Crusade that is starting. Ohio and Indiana Farm Bureau Cooperative Associations have also now demonstrated what cooperatives can do in lowering price levels by cooperative fertilizer production. 16 St. No longer do we have to use European examples to prove what cooperatives can do in making savings and in lowering prices. N. When the figures of savings are published at the dose of the fiscal year. Ohio. D. Wisconsin 2301 S. There never has been a more favorable time. Chicago. 167 West 12 St. Inc.. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need." which summarizes the Brookings Institution studies. Associate Editor. This is the job of Consumers' Cooperatives—to lower prices to users. Readers Observer Consumers Defender 116 E. Co-op Review Harrisburg. Brooklyn The Cooperator Ohio Cooperator Columbus. Now we have the proof. Michigan Farmers' Union Herald St. Chicago Berkeley. Ind. We now have evidence of the great savings possible when cooperatives go all the way from retailing to production. as before we had demonstrated what we could do in retailing and wholesaling. So. N. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis. N. Bowen. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. C..

. It's all right to be allowed to join and to become a voting member by paying in full for one share.. Fourth: The right to equal representation on all public bodies. The field is ripe for a cooperative harvest. ACT ON THE REQUEST WITHOUT DELAY... But here in America. Such bodies now are quite generally made up of political and producer representatives. Congressman Jerry Voorhis challenges us that the most important single need of the world today is this: "For one people somewhere in the world to give to all mankind a living proof and demonstration that they can. 1941 179 .. (Write your Congressmen and Senators in support of the Voorhis-Wagner Bill. Cooperators are stirred as never before. LET'S MOBILIZE OUR MONEY COOPERATIVELY It has been more than 25 years since Justice Brandeis warned Americans that they were being controlled by their own money.? We think backwards generally about our Co-ops.are the ones at fault. to declare that "Our liberties we cherish.. during war. then every one of the more than two million persons in America who are identified with the co-ops is not only an embattled buyer. most construc tive economic reform movements. People are becoming aroused and hunting for a solution. "Cooperatives. Put your money at work working for you and your country in cooperative shares or savings. our rights we maintain. Midland Cooperative Wholesale has been denied that right by the Ad ministrator of the Bituminous Coal Act. consumers. We think of dividends first and investments second." There are four coopera tive rights which are challenged: First: The right to engage in any business and pay patronage returns on purchases. Invest My Savings Cooperatively The most practical as well as the most patriotic thing every cooperator can do is also to invest his or her savings cooperatively. I. There are two ways to do something about it which everyone can do right now: invest in cooperative shares. Consumers' Cooperatives which "limit their membership largely to agricultural producers are now enabled to get Joans from the Banks for Cooperatives. without loss of liberty and without resort to governmental compulsion. Now we have a Washington office. or after war. Every cooperator has his or her part to play. Consumers Cooperative Refineries of Saskatchewan are now offering Cooperative Savings Bonds. it can likewise be destroyed in.." The Scandinavian countries have been such laboratories on a small scale. A merica should be that nation. or it might be $100. it might be $50. ]ohn Doe.) Second: The right to equal access to credit. but also co operative crusaders out to build cooperatives stronger and faster." says The New York Times. Prices to consumers are rising faster than pay to producers. We are not blaming producers. But one representative of Consumers' Cooperatives in Washington can only open the doors to get a hearing for consumers. it might even save the world from dictatorship by the contagion of a cooperative example. solve the economic problems of this power age. That might be $25. By so doing. which cooperatives in the United States might well do. (Write your Congressmen and Senators in support of the LaFollette Amendment S 1315.... All plus the fact that the condition of the regional associations was never better and the unity in the movement was never greater. 59. Credit Unions are the simplest form of Cooperative Savings Banks. Owe My Co-op Association $. as cooperators. which is fundamental to the whole cooperative movement.." We have the proof of the power of cooperatives. What is needed is a living demonstration by a large nation. But whatever average minimum amount is needed should be considered as owed by each member to his co-op until paid. Do your part to help maintain the rights of cooperatives to freedom and equality. A Bulletin of the University of Minnesota says that of 92 oil associa tions. Trade and Capital Drive that can do wonders. while -Consumers' Cooperatives with both farm and urban memberships cannot.important way to distribute purchasing power as compared with higher pay and taxation. 41 owe more than they own. A reviewer of Voorhis' book The Morale of Democracy. We need to think in terms of o wnership rather than dividends. They have been bled white by dividends.R. the field is ripe for a co operative harvest. H... We are only stating a fact. he is also a trooper enlisted in the service of a great ideal. No one should be allowed to join a co-op without understanding that he is expected to pay in as soon as possible his equal minimum share of the capital needed for facilities and inventories. It might even protect America from dictatorship.. invest in cooperative savings. Cooperative Preferred Stocks are another possible form of investment of surplus savings. We have the proof—the field is fertile—we have the spirit. let's set America on fire for CO-OPS! OUR RIGHTS WE MAINTAIN We need a cooperative birth of freedom. by per fecting democracy in this country. our co-ops are badly under capitalized. Not only have we now this statistical proof of the power of the cooperatives to lower prices. These are the ingredients required to generate a Cooperative Crusade such as America has never had—a national Membership. excessive interest rates will be reduced and inflation also in part prevented. Eventually. the spirit of cooperation is the morale of democracy.. September. Not only are we consumer-buyers out to lower prices.. Consumers' Co operatives made up of producers are completely exempt from income taxes." So we are. Before war. If this right.the case of others. But to be a full-fledged member.. ]ohn Doe.. while Consumers' Cooperatives which have open membership are not exempt from taxa tion on that portion of their savings which they transfer to general surplus. as the Congressman from California believes. We need.. That's all right when the movement has plenty of money. as it rolls up momentum. end poverty in the midst of plenty and make the machine the servant of man and not his master. 178 Consumers' Cooperation Third: The right to equal exemption from income taxation. we all need to learn to bank coopera tively. Cooperatives can do this job of lowering prices. but we also have now an unusual opportunity.. We.) We are not blaming the government. The economic pressure is increasing. We have been fooled by reading the stories of Britain where one can join a co-op by paying a shilling down.. We have not spoken for ourselves in the past. each one should be expected to invest whatever average amount is neces sary.. When you are asked to write your Congressmen and Senators in sup port of legislation.... It's high time we did more about it.. says: "If. "are one of the world's most peaceful.. Or ganized consumers are generally ignored. can be destroyed in the case of one commodity. I... Cooperative Investment Certificates are another. as well as buy cooperatively. We also have now the third thing necessary—the crusading spirit. and are beginning to do so.. They serve as Golden Rule yardsticks for business.

chained to the dictators' decrees. . ***** "Cooperatives are places where peace principles may find expression.GEORGE RUSSELL SAYS THREE NECESSARY STEPS IN ECONOMIC PROGRESS George Russell described the three necessary steps in economic progress clearly 25 years ago in Cooperation and Nationality. In the 1940 decade now opening. The FIRST Step is to reject the competitive-monopoly system. unemployment. in America.' " At long last we cooperators have the final answer to this age-old question. co operative organizations would. Animal power brought serfdom. The fourth economic system of slavery is State-bureaucracy. . through which. If we but WILL. chained to the lords' lands. The SECOND Step. all of which are in structure democratically controlled and non-profit. The THIRD Step is to build a consumer-producer cooperative economy. At the turn of the twentieth century." September. Russia has suppressed cooperatives. Gas and electric power keep on piling up surpluses which we cannot dis tribute among ourselves. which makes the wealth-producer a toiler for a bureaucracy. It has been described by Francis Neilsen as "one of the most damnable systems of slavery which can be perpetuated. and the third and present the owner-worker type. In the 1910 decade we shipped our surpluses to Europe and took in exchange lOU's payable to the government. do not have to drift into State-bureaucracy. of both freedom and security." said George Russell. which cannot be paid. We should all learn them and take them. employment and ownership for all. THE FOUR ECONOMIC SLAVERIES The first organized economic system was labeled slavery. most of which are in default and will never be paid. "We will be free indeed!" The indications are not too favorable." said Russell. But this time he said. The Divine Event to which we are moving is a state in which there will be essential freedom combined with an organic unity. In the 1930 decade we shipped our surpluses to Europe and took in exchange 180 Consumers' Cooperation lOU's payable in gold. Thus far. Each new power production age requires the development of a new corresponding system of dis tribution. The president of the International Cooperative Alliance is a citizen of a coun try allied with Germany. At least." "The Eden of the bureaucrat is the Hell of the governed." The use of a political government to control an economic system is unnatural and exterior. according to Russell. In the 1920 decade we shipped our surpluses to Europe and took in exchange lOU's payable to private bondholders. and accordingly becomes dictatorial. Cooperative Common wealth alone allows freedom and solidarity. we entered into a new power age—automatic gas and electric power. It was admitted to be such. to prevent our automatic machines being snowed under with their own output we have devised a new surplus-removal project in each of the past and present four decades. "It is anarchic and inhuman. marketing cooperatives and labor unions. over 99 per cent of which are in default and will never be paid. Germany has suppressed cooperatives. we are largely blindly fumbling at the job. chained to the masters' households. which we now have stored underground and which is largely worthless except for metal. The second economic system was serfdom. crime and war. and the world is hurrying from it in disgust. is to resist the tendency to turn to "the State to do for us what we should and could do far better ourselves. Whether it was and is wise or not is not the question we are discussing. Abraham Lincoln once said: "There has only been one question in all of civilization and that is how to prevent a few men saying to many men 'You work and earn bread and we will eat it. chained to the owners' factories. but advancing straight ahead down the Middle-Way to Cooperation. We may be FREE. We are trying to develop a new automatic mass dis tribution system which will correspond to automatic gas and electric power produc tion. . for the first time. we will be free indeed. It might help us to eventually learn how to really solve our economic prob lems by cooperative distribution of our power production. The few were lords and the many were serfs. The present system has become a third type of slavery: the first the master-slave type. Hand power brought slavery. only to find itself in a new but larger prison house. If we are will ing to cooperate and work hard enough at the job of building cooperatives. But we." This would include private. 1941 181 . tenancy. If we but WORK. credit unions. Steam power brought competition. disease. When a people grow decadent and imbecile they place themselves in the hands of the State. Broadly interpreted. A democratic economy must be self-con trolled from within itself and must provide income." lest a fourth bureaucratic-ward type of economic slavery overcome us. the economic processes of what we have done and are doing should be under stood. The third economic system was competitive-monopoly. "When a man becomes imbecile his friends place him in an asylum. we can forestall the danger of dictatorship by neither turning to the left toward Com munism nor the right toward Fascism. or another form of slavery? William Morris once said that always before when mankind had thrown off its chains it thought it would be free. It must make possible the realization of both self-interest and socialresponsibility. has witnessed a gigantic attempt on the part of the United States to solve our economic problems by de veloping a huge surplus-removal project. cooperative and public ownership and organization as parts of an institutional balanced system. The world generally is adopting another form of economic slavery. AMERICA'S FOUR SURPLUS-REMOVAL PROJECTS Each of the past four decades. There are increasing reasons for the neutral policy of the Consumers' Coopera tive Movement in the United States. include such economic associations as con sumers cooperatives. in turn. because of its fruits of poverty. as adopted by the delegates to the last Congress. including the present. The vice-president of the International Cooperative Alliance is a citizen of a country allied with Russia. Then the few were masters and the many were slaves. The few are the dictators and the many are the wards. What's ahead? Freedom. we are shipping our surpluses to Europe and taking in exchange lOU's payable in the form of rentals. These are economic facts which the American people should understand. So. The few are the owners and the many are the workers. the second the lord-serf type.

On the way to the office I light a CO OP cigar. battery and spark plugs. also. 1941. with an ample supply of CO-OP compounded oil in the crank case. local cooperators joined the visitors in fun and merriment and as they CO- Carl Hutchinson and Agnes McPhail 183 . This gave the group a chance to hear from the people themselves just how and to what extent they benefited by being members September. tubes.S. On reaching the office I find a CO-OP newspaper on my desk. become the most enthusiastic participants as time went on. next to a CO-OP bridge lamp. The annual pat ronage dividend from the CO-OP store and cafeteria more than pays the cost of my membership in a CO-OP Health As sociation of which I am a member. a CO-OP radio brings me a CO-OP spon sored newscast that keeps me abreast of world developments. CO-OP manufactured grease in the chassis. everything possible was done to assure the visitors a welcome and to make their visit informative and enjoyable. more satisfying. in the Cooperative Pipe Line Association and the Co-op Re finery Association should enable me to pay in advance for the added health care. which will be much improved when additional equip ment has been added to the CO-OP print- Howard A.I OME DAY IN THE LIFE OF A COOPERATOR (EDITOR'S NOTE: At a meeting of the board of directors of The Cooperative League in March the directors discussed informally ivhat part co-op products played in their lives. interest on my shares in a retail oil and gas cooperative. Cooperatives" sped along the highways or were escorted through the cities to the sound of police sirens. Coirden's article grew out . I turn to a volume entitled "Cooperatives—a Way to Peace. Mr. After a day at the office I drive home. On laying it down I have a feeling that those who labor in the cooperative field are rewarded daily far beyond the amount of their re spective pay checks—rewarded with the satisfactions that come from living and carrying forward the cooperative way of doing business. Banquets were given by local cooperative societies in honor of the tourists and here they had an opportunity of mingling with the members of cooperative societies as well as with the cooperative employees. Cowden. In my favorite chair. I switch on the lights in my office—lights generated co operatively at a cost of 1. besides being photographed from every possible angle. answered al most as many questions as they themselves asked. After that I sit down to a break fast of CO-OP grape fruit juice. of course. but also as very gracious hosts and hostesses. The group was fortunate in having as their leader Carl Hutchinson. During breakfast. and life immediately becomes richer. On my desk are letters from cooperators. President Consumers Cooperative Association ing plant acquired by CCA March 1. Everywhere the visitors were royally re ceived. Believing that "all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." It is an antidote to the headlines that scream of war and human conflict. equipped as it is with CO-OP tires. The group expressed amazement at the size and scope of the cooperative movement in the United States. Hutchin son interspersed statistics with a bit of co operative recreation and it was interesting to see some of the group who looked rather askance at the folk dances and games in the beginning. The touring party presented an impressive picture as the thirteen automobiles bearing placards "The First Annual Tour of U." Mr. and time for painting. Several members of the party were invited to take part in radio programs. Special programs were prepared by the local societies and at one point in St.000 consumers. Even the car seems to run better. Consumers' Cooperation CORTY travel-weary tourists lingered 1 in the lobby of the Phillips Hotel in Kansas City. not only as people who are doing a remarkable job in correcting the ills in our economic system. enabling us to print a CO-OP paper in a CO-OP plant. Cow den has engaged a painter to brighten up the home. Neatly arranged kits containing descrip tive material and financial statements were presented to the group at several points. It is spring time.) O N arising each morning I brush my teeth with CO-OP tooth paste and then I shave with the aid of CO-OP Brushless shave cream and a CO-OP razor blade. In short. in the Cooperative Oil Producing Association. official paper of Consum ers Cooperative Association. The coopera tors in the middle west will long be re membered by the touring party. where nearly every item on the menu is a CO-OP label product. When prepaid medical. It's The Coopera tive Consumer. reluctant to break up after a 2600 mile tour of cooperatives through nine states of the middle west. made in a CCA fac tory owned by 125. and a tankful of gas from the first cooperative refinery in the United States. The tour group. CO-OP corn flakes. Here. On reaching home I find that Mrs. Cowden 182 WITH THE CO-OP CARAVAN Mary MacMillan The Cooperative League Howard A. 1941 of a cooperative organization. Noon comes and the conference is ad journed for lunch which is served in the CO-OP cafeteria in the basement of CCA.of that discussion. educational director of the Ohio Farm Bureau Coop erative Association and former president of the National Cooperative Recreation School. Paul the Farmers Union Central Exchange band came out to greet the visitors. surgical arid dental care are added under the plan. were shown every type of cooperative imaginable from a hog serum plant to a cooperative mor tuary. and a group of CO-OP members are wait ing in the lobby for a conference. in a credit union. Local reporters were on hand at every point and the tour ing party. Police escorts in the various states facilitated an otherwise heavy itinerary. What kind of paint is it? CO-OP.6 cents per kilowatt hour as against the commercial rate of nearly 6 cents per kilowatt hour. representing thirteen states and three provinces of Canada. Topping if off are two cups of good CO-OP coffee. CO-OP butter on bread toast ed in a CO-OP toaster and spread with CO-OP jelly. Well informed guides were pro vided by the cooperatives at every stop to show the visitors around and to answer the thousands of questions thrown at them by the members of the touring party.

" The group was also im pressed by constant stress on the necessity of education. In the group were four Negroes from the Penn Normal. Kan sas were. Here the group diverted for a moment from cooperatives and for a half hour or so were entertained by the presi dent and founder of the Liars' club with some of the tallest tales and most fantastic stories ever told in the middle west. in fact.A.Visiting a Co-op Store at Virginia. North Carolina represented the Farmers Federation along with two other represen tatives from the same organization. E. Indiana. When asked what impressed them most on the trip. state editor of the St. Filene. for eighteen years a member of the Canadian Parliament and now reporter for the Toronto Globe and Mail was one of the outstanding mem bers. Here. managing director gave a summary of the Credit Union movement in the United States and showed the plans for the proposed Filene House to be erected in Madison as a trib ute to Edward A. Guy Sales of Asheville. Wisconsin members of the 184 touring party were guests of the youth groups at the recreation camp owned by Central Cooperative Wholesale of Superi or. a minister from Portland. Charles MaGill Smith repre sented the Southeastern Cooperative Edu cation Association of Carrollton. Ohio and New York. This cooperative is owned and operated by the Indians in this territory. very pretty Indian girl. About half of the group were southerners. The group ar rived in time to witness the closing ex ercises of the 17 to 24 age group. The oil refinery at Phillipsburg and the oil wells at Laton. And that develops people. a part of it. As this group left a younger group be tween the ages of 8 to 14 came in. The party was made up of aft unusual combination of people of varied interests and professions. hatcheries. the tour members all indicated that they were especially impressed by the high quality of leadership in the move ment. giving his impressions stated: "In a cooperative you're not sitting in the grandstand watching nine men play. in a way. and manager of the Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperatives. The tour members were privileged in deed to have an opportunity to hear such outstanding leaders as Murray D. a representa tive of the Manitoba Federation of Agri culture. From Washington came Maurice Colombain representing the International Labour Office and from Arkansas came three rice farmers. At various points in the tour the group was shown dramatic steps consumers co operatives have made into production— feed mills. Louis PostDispatch. editor of Ensemble the cooperative newspaper for the prov ince of Quebec. makes them selfreliant. on duty for one of the big utility companies. paint and grease factories. Two representatives of the Farm Security Ad ministration came from Florida and South Carolina. Ligutti a homesteading project was founded in a run-down min ing district. At Brule. several cooperative em ployees from Pennsylvania. president of the Cooperative League of the U. Oregon. proving to the group that it is possible for the consumers to go all the way into production. manSeptember. Hull. Eugene Bussiere of Quebec declared: "I'm awfully glad that I came on this tour and I'll certainly bring home a great experience. New York was also repre sented by Oscar Freeman. and a brotherly love in them—a real reaching out in universal fellowship. Wisconsin. Canada came Eugene Bussiere. I. Another newspaper repre sentative was Paul Greer of the St. Her quick wit and all around cam araderie made her a favorite "with her fellow tourists. Here the visitors were entertained with several songs by a. Helena Island." Paul Greer. no matter whether they were service station employees or the heads of big associations.A. One of the unique features of the tour was a visit to the Winnebago Handcraft Cooperative at Black River Falls.S. Minn. Industrial and Agricultural School of St. The group included also a representative of the Board of Edu cation of Michigan. "Most important is the quality of the people who call themselves cooperators. general secre tary of the Cooperative League of the U. I was most impressed by your educational movement. Iowa. Indianapolis Consumers' Cooperation A very fine spirit of fellowship and friendliness grew up within the touring group itself and those in charge of the tour expressed their appreciation of the wholehearted cooperation which they re ceived from the members. L. and Howard A.S. the father of the Credit Union movement in this country. Roy F. The touring group also had an oppor tunity to visit headquarters of the Credit Union National Association at Madison." Everywhere the group found a very active educational program aiming at an informed membership within the co operative societies and continuous devel opment of leaders." said Agnes MacPhail. G. the touring party learned new songs. Another Canadian was John Friesen. the climax of the tour. Another interesting stop was made at Granger. The members of the touring party voted the tour a complete success and returned to their various communities imbued with the spirit of cooperation and with a re newed faith in Democracy. Louis Post-Dispatch and from Quebec. H. Bowen. the youth from a very early age learn the principles of cooperation and here they come each summer to participate in a cooperative program. R. Bergengren. a reality. fertilizer factories. A description of the tour would not be complete without a word about the Liars' Club in Burlington. Georgia. Agnes MacPhail. You're in the game. These leaders in very stirring speeches explained the philosophy and told of the growth of the cooperative movement in the United States. pres ident of Consumers Cooperative Associa tion of North Kansas City. I found that yours is not only a business move ment—but also a social movement. South Car olina. Wis consin. where under the direction of Msgr. i went along. Mo. The camp is used all summer for such activ ities and it was not surprising to find a healthy growth in the cooperative move ment in this area. "There was a warmth. You learn by actual participation. Cowden. Co-op Fertilizer Factory. Lincoln. bakeries and printing plants. dances and games and discovered new friends. The group was shown the homes from which the miners had moved as a contrast to their present neat and well-kept homes. 1941 Storage Tank at Co-op Refinery ager of the Indiana Farm Bureau Cooper ative Ass'n. 185 .

Drop the idea that they are costly and require a lot of heavy planning. Those within the movement and those who critically ob serve it from without are agreed. Facilities need not be fancy." However. but at attracting the serious-minded member who has potential leadership qualities. Wilbur Leathennan. Informal group singing was an im portant part of the week's activities and students learned a number of folk songs from many countries. pointed out that 187 . several smaller rooms for discussion ses sions. Smith. However. Students explored the possibilities of such simple forms of dramatics as charades. And don't think the week end institute is only for summer use. operation. Up and Down the Land Hold week-end institutes as often as possible." We will be getting the lay leadership that we need. Cooperators have become conscious of this problem as never before. Montana and Ne braska have held training institutes for a number of years. The leaders need not be there all the time nor do they need to appear formally on the program. Leroy Bowman. 1941 tableaux and learned the fundamentals of acting and directing. I want especially to deal with the week-end I 186 Jack McLanahan Midland Cooperative Wholesale type because of the ease with which it can be set up and its adaptability to al most any situation. do not "water down" the program by describ ing it as a "super-duper" outing. There is an old Chinese proverb which says: "If you would plan for the present build a house. They are beginning to do something about it. but the discussion here will be limited to one type. specialist in discussion group methods. and it has had a lot to do with the rapid growth and success of their advisory council program. It is a year-round method and several days around a fire in midwinter at some quiet place in the country may do more good than the same period under a blazing sun. folk dancing." "classes. but should include one room large enough for assembly meetings and such group activities as folk dancing. There should be plenty of time to al low for individuals to follow their own particular interests—time for spontaneous group discussion. Coop eratives will succeed only to the extent that they can attract and develop com petent leadership. This should be simple and direct. Charlotte Chorpenning. dra matics and crafts. educational leaders and members who can do the job." EASTERN COOPERATIVE RECREATION SCHOOL Ellen Edwards O RGANIZED by former students and staff of the National Cooperative Recreation School to help meet the in creasing need for recreation leadership training in the East. There are many variations of the insti tute idea. and Mrs. and finally. not enough is being done to de velop leadership among lay members. "How can it be applied?" tak ing in organization. principles and devel opment. And be sure to stock the in stitute with a lot of good books and stimulating leaders. Bowman. Dr. vary with each group. Keep the insti tute informal. Institutes of this kind are not for general membership educational pur poses. The craft shop where in struction in leather and. August 17 to 24. employees. The committee should keep costs as low as possible. if you would plan for to morrow plant a tree. I am personally in favor of leaving the entire afternoon open for this purpose. Chicago. the "week-ender. full of gaiety and good fun. not overlooking the fact that most cooperators are in the modest in come brackets. but always moving toward the goal of training people so they can lead others in the ways of cooperation. Farmers Union people in the Dakotas. And for goodness sake. pub licity can be planned. Avoid reference to "education. metal work. seminars and special activities. An hour's session in the morning and afternoon was devoted to a discussion of the philosophy of group recreation and leadership and techniques of group organization. outlining the na ture of the program and not forgetting to point out that it means having a good time. Thirty-five students and staff from six states and the District of Columbia at tended. study cirConsumers' Cooperation cles and publicity. pantomimes and September." The problem is to find managers." Like the others. Once the place has been chosen. the first Eastern Co operative Recreation School was held at the Hudson Shore Labor School. board members. It is the advantage of the week-end approach. circuit schools. it has as its purpose the deepening of understanding and the de velopment of skills among cooperative members so they can go back to their own communities and take a more effective part in building the local movement. if you would plan for the future. in stitutes and camps are being held to train board members and educational leaders. of course. speaking to the group Monday evening. it is well to keep several things in mind. "How can it be made lively and attractive?" taking in recreation." and "teachers. per haps. A small group pre sented an original play which was created and rehearsed before breakfast each morn ing. and dining and sleeping accommodations. Don't aim the publicity at getting everyone to come. don't figure that you must have at least 100 to have a success ful institute. Goodman Theatre. Special speakers during the week in cluded Dr. develop a man. Making Up the Program The program will. of the Midland educational department. Robert L. West Park. assistant secretary of the Eastern Cooperative League. Associa tion with people of this kind will mean a lot to those attending. First Steps in Planning Select some place out in the country or in a small community where the group can be pretty much to itself and undis turbed by other activities. Some suggestions of ways by which such training might be accomplished are. in order. It should be a bal anced program. Organize Week-End Institutes Most effective method now being used to train lay leadership is the week-end institute. Schools are being organized to train em ployees and managers. However. Bring in a new group each time. New York. If every regional cooperative will take hold of the institute idea and use it this fall and winter — tens and dozens of week-end gatherings to train leaders in every corner of their territory—we will have begun to do one of the things that must be done if we are to build coopera tives "stronger and faster. stating clearly the pur pose of the week-end. re cently directed an institute in eastern Wis consin built around a 3 point program: "What is the cooperative movement?" taking in history. It is a serious problem. weav ing and construction of board games was given was busy all day. and with it the onward march of the movement cannot be stopped. Students not only learned a large vari ety of American and European folk dances and games but had an opportunity to practice teaching them as the party each evening was turned over to them to plan and carry out.HERE'S AN IDEA — FOR TRAINING LAY LEADERS S LOGAN of the cooperative move ment today is "build stronger and faster. Northwestern University and head of the Children's Theatre. Ohio cooperators were among the first to develop this idea on a wide spread scale. sociology department. Almost every regional is now adapting and adopting the tech nique.

lead the group singing and Guy Williams. The next year or so may see the laying of business cement and in that cooperatives could not expand." The New York newspaper. interest in organizing an effort to pass a real rev enue bill. lead the games and dances as well as an action-group discussion each morning on "Cooperative Recreation. for tire manufacture. arranged and edited by Augustus D. but what can be done about it. This legislation was to be September. "Which means cooperative develop ment will be stifled and business will be more or less frozen in the hands of those who happened to have had it. the 20 per cent reduction order must be followed. lasting lovable music for informal singing in homes. sent a photographer and a feature writer up to the school one day to get pictures and a story of the activities." compiled. personal conver sations and relaxation. and thus a ruling in favor of profit wholesales. social life. Inc.. Here in 120 songs and choruses is a comprehensive variety of fresh.—Cooperative W organizations. In cidentally. public school musk teacher of Detroit. by proposing legislation to amend the Guffey Act in many particu lars. 189 .C. assisted by Mrs. The apathy in Congress is marked. * * * * ESTES PARK CO-OP CAMP "The idea of combining a summer va cation with cooperative education is ex cellent!" commented one of the 150 per188 sons from six states who attended the Co op Camp and Institute." explained one of the able and sincere officials at the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supplies. At a special meeting at the close of the session the students decided the school was so valuable a similar one should be held next year and elected a committee of six to make plans. "Yes.John Carson Washington Representative The Cooperative League Folk Dancing at Eastern Recreation School "Recreation that involves action. are going to have more serious supply problems. Colorado conducted by Consumers Cooperative As sociation. with speakers and discussion groups in the morning and evenings. "Hopelessly inadequate supplies to meet an abnormal demand. Zanzig. or any member of these committees. the tax program an nounced by Congress last Spring has been abandoned. available through The Cooperative League. more or less that's true. The Coal Division still scurries and evades the issue. * * * * "Singin v America. a 20 per cent cut as compared with the business of last year would mean a 60 per cent cut in National Coopera tives' present business. Miss Ruth Kurtz. 1941 rushed through as a measure to get rev enue. PM. ethical life and cultural expression—into integrated and dynamic powers of a new order. Singing and folk games and dances were a part of each day's activities. Leadership is absent. feeling. and adds that regardless of that." the Co operative League representative suggested. And that tells the story and presents the problem to cooperative organizations. This year's school was sponsored by the National Society for Recreation Education and endorsed by the Eastern Cooperative League and the Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. One of the present rumors is that the Coal Division will try to get around the difficulties it established for itself by issu ing a confiscatory ruling against coopera tives. Olson and Guy Williams at tended the National Cooperative Recrea tion School at Ames in June. Marion Olson." was the answer. Assistant Camp Direc tor. The more serious problem is not only going to be supplies of raw materials— it is going to be the inevitable tendency of war regimentation to freeze existing business developments and thus hamper cooperative growth. * * * Taxes—Obviously. Colorado. schools. But the Senate Commit tee has promised the League that the Coal Division will be made to meet the issue. their supplies of raw materials already pinched. meetings and dubs. It is the goal of bringing together the thin seg ments that individuals now fall into— business life. As an example. Yuma. Only Con gressman Jerry Voorhis of California made an effort to get a real bill passed and his one-man fight got nowhere. But OPACS in sists it cannot consider the co-op com plaint because OPACS deals only with manufacturers. The bill is going to soak the poor. 25c. should achieve. Consumers' Cooperation WASHINGTON. But cooperative tire purchases through National Cooperatives. and the cooperative growth which might save democracy. supplies of crude rub ber. the tragic fact is that it has been utterly impossible to get from either the House Ways and Means Committee or the Senate Committee on Finance. The daily program allowed ample time in the afternoons and evenings for hiking and mountain climbing. Estes Park. artistry. Such a bill would take months and months of consideration. Na tional Recreation Association. * * * Cooperative Coal legislation—The Sen ate Committee on Interstate Commerce is trying to force the Bituminous Coal Di vision to either favor proposed legislation to permit wholesale cooperatives to dis tribute coal—from which they are now debarred by Coal Division law—or offer substitute legislative proposals which would protect cooperative natural rights. It was to be followed "in Septem ber" by work on a real revenue revision measure through which some of the out rageous injustices of the administration sections of the bill would be cured." Both Mrs. have increased so steadily and so rapidly. B. Without combinations of this sort the cooperative movement will never reach the high goal it. The Coopera tive League will protest emphatically any such effort to delay necessary amend ments of the Act and thus prolong the protection the Division has already given the profit wholesales from efficient con sumer distribution of coal. should be part and parcel of all cooperative business and organization meetings. of all modern movements. were ordered reduced 20 per cent. August 3 to 10 at Association Camp.

in quality. N. or if you are not a share-holder in businesses that operate under the Rochdale cooperative principles. As a mere "laborer" in work and a mere consumer in the matter of property. their isolation is a matter of inertia and that can be overcome merely by wanting to do so. New York. Inc. in a local community way. As a mere "job holder" you do not have the effective ownership and control of anything along with the cooperative ownership and the cooperative control of essential economic functions on the part of your job-holding neighbors. W. Of course such a relationship among lawyers would enhance the ability of each to serve his cooperative Clients. one who has effective control and responsibility for some sort of productive property in addition to your job. Its immediate purpose is to pro vide the consumer with quality goods more economically. Kebker. there is a slight unspoken jealousy that is in herent in the profession. It is an easystep. $1. goods that do not produce. and ideas. security and independ ence. University of Minnesota Press. The book is rich in details but space pre cludes much elaboration. you put your labor on the market as a commodity and as a buyer you never progress any further-than the buying of consumer goods. V.this book would soon be the best seller in America. officers. the sarn principles will often govern both cases in volving them and those affecting the consume side of the movement. as a mere BIG-CITY inhabitant. You are a slave of techno-tyranny. and loss of coop erative membership.BOOK REVIEWS CONSUMER'S COOPERATIVES IN THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES. It is an in dependent social movement with a justi fication of its own. Minneapolis. and the practice of social justice and social charity. Then by legal research. individual and cooperative. but its ultimate and more important aim is to create a new economic and social order with the con sumer interest predominant. Its success is measured as much by the quality of human relationships that it promotes as by its business efficiency. agers. "Democracy's Second Chance. goods that are used up at the end of the day. There is but one way to get in this "show. too. 167 W. etc. You do not cooperate in anything with your neighbor. "Democracy's Sec ond Chance" integrates for you home-use pro duction on the land. JAMES CURRY Washington. the drafting of organization papers. a prole tarian. skills. in a rura] way.. and employees to each other and to cooperative itself. HAROLD M. Kercher. Special Co-op Edition. The confused men and women in the places of leadership and education who prattle about democracy. He carries the cooperative throuf1 its life story of promotion. Some barriers exist between these men because their respective clients or asso ciates have different cooperative philosophies. Mathew Ben der and Co. "Companies. This short book. The book is a well-balanced but sympathetic treatment of the cooperative movement. these lawyers can build up a structure of legal theories and precedents that will foster rather than retard the cooperative movement. It is objective. acquisition. DEMOCRACY'S SECOND CHANCE: LAND.C. You do not cooperate with anyone in anything important. mentioning the newel "model" laws recently passed for that pur pose) . it is apparent trfl his work possesses these qualities in a ven high degree. LIB ERTY. if you live in overcentralized cities. directors. Albany. mostly. C. the fifth to deal with o operative law. order from The Cooperative League of the U. Talents. The totalitarian dic tator walks over the wreckage.. but." The people must be in the economic "show" out on the land. their relation to the chain store in this respect is not established but there are many cases where cooperatives are at least holding their own against such competition. RAWE. freedom. run the economic "show" at a profit. $3. committees. Based upon the study of institutions in the field and at close range it is authoritative. GROVES Department of Economics University of Wisconsin 190 THE LAW OF THE ORGANIZATION AND OEM TION OF COOPERATIVES. Mr. briefs. Vaile. There are many lawyers throughout the country who are interested in it either because they represent cooperatives as private clients or because they see in them an opportunity to make the law serve democracy. marketing agret merits.00 (available throug! The Cooperative League). of course. Inc. makes it succinctly clear that to have a democ racy the people must be in the economic "show. Do you think and act in a seller's culture? Do you think and act as a mechanist? Do you think and act as a collectivist ? Are you the slave of techno-tyranny ? Has your work be come "labor" and has your life become de vitalized ? It is made abundantly clear in the grand new book by George Boyle. tht nature. by litigation and legislative promotion. independence are wrested from the people. by L. The author tries not only to explain the la» of cooperation but also to explain the prin ciples of cooperation to lawyers. . and the legal relations members. organization. finan cing. 191 \ . Thi-. education and writing. is the first to cover those phast that have to do particularly with consumers cooperation. 1941 Your personality with its talents and initiatives is damned up. The motive for sup porting it arises out of social idealism as well as out of practical consumer inter ests. —JOHN C. by George Boyle. And if the people do not get in the eco nomic "show" in a cooperative business way. This may be caused by the' that after organization is completed. 12th St. in the rural com munity. He describes the promotional pn cedure.. The forme task is the one mo-t needed to be done so matters very little that the book contains son* rather obvious non-legal errors. the month or the year.. an account of the peculiarities and cultural heritage of the immigrant Finns. and case studies of numerous cooperatives. their special statutes. While hn thoroughness and accuracy can be tested onl by daily desk use of his text. however. if you own no productive property. $5.. 430 pages. some o the legal precedents cited deal with markerin rather than with purchasing cooperatives. The authors find that cooperatives have decided competitive advan tages over the independent country store. It includes some deductive analysis of the place of Cooperation in the economic and general scheme of things.. You must be an owner. interested in the battle oj bullets and dividends and blind mechanical death. New York. dictatorship and the necessity of war had better take time out and sit down and read the many good recent books on rural life and cooperative businesses. Consumers' Cooperation* September. with personal responsibility and control. security.A. But they are quite isolated from each other. to the techno-tyranny of a Stalin or Hitler for whom we slave. in the city.e. How well the authors grasp the philosophy of Cooperation is illustrated by the following excellent passage: Consumers' Cooperation is regarded as a revolutionizing principle of human rela tionships as well as a practical economic method. in skill. includ ing the Wholesales in the North Central States. This book is a "happy blending" of three independent research studies. Packel has done a necessary and highl creditable job of assembling and stating tht essential principles that will eventually develo into a more rounded system of law. by ex change of work. much prac tical advice on conducting cooperatives. The previous volumes related al most exclusively to problems of marketiq groups. It cannot grow in responsibility. ini tiatives. if you live in apartments. Edited by R. Sheed and Ward. transfer.S. by Israel Packel 307 pages. then Democracy will go down. S. In such a life your culture is definitely lowered. It is not enough for you to labor and buy. You are a very lonely individual. Furthermore. The dominant and typical financial problem of cooperatives is clearly that of inadequate capital. Most of this one is directly relevat to consumer cooperative organizations but in cludes. a quick step. and W. giving you a human philosophy with a sane economic and social life. that you will have to answer all these questions in the affirmative. the week. Jr. in freedom. is to be expected because the farmer'5 or ganizations were first to be set up on a larjn scale and so the first to come before the courts Because their internal organization is so sim ilar to that of consumer cooperatives. This book contains very valuable informa tion and also points the way to the cooperative development of cooperative law. Leland. // American people were more interested in the real battle for democracy—the battle oj brains with intelligent thinking and living— and les-s. and management to the alternative happi or unhappy endings of successful operation cc the one hand or insolvency and liquidati on the other." i. He has an adequate chapter on financing hi his treatment of other operating problems rather sketchy. AND COOPERATION. over-centralized capital groups. editor of the Maritime Cooperator. D. if each week or each month you run your wage through Over-Centralized Services. scholarly and well-documented. the general law of assocu tioris and corporations. from the techno-tyranny of over-centralized "companies" for which we merely labor. and cooperative business in communities that can remain sound. The development of legal theory would be facilitated by the establishment of a formal or informal cooperative bar asso ciation by means of which the lawyers could coordinate their work somewhat as the auditors have done. J." crammed with the rich vital thought out of which democracy is made and preserved. Your personality cannot express itself. S. It seeks the causes of social phenomena in the social and cultural backkground of the people involved. the selection of a proper incorporaticn law (without. Y. C." The way is through owner ship. Editor Boyle's book.50 (available through The Cooperative League). This prob lem arises in large part from excessive dis tribution of earnings and excessive extension of credit. the problems incidental to the actual operation a cooperative business are not very dissimil to those of private business in the same lii of goods or services. rural life. Democracy is weak because you in your helpless proletarian state are weak in the things that build democratic people. then.

....... per year .. Debate Handbook .. Land of Sweden........ Unit 111. Anthony Lehner .......... Cooperative Ownership.....M 3 OCTOBER 1941 Robert L.. Co-ops in Ireland . 1 reel..... Building a Brave New World. Frank O'Hara .. silen'.. E..... by Paddy the Cope....... Warbasse.20 Consumers' Cooperation NATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS ...... Ellis Cowling ........ Kit 49 ..02 1. Kenneth Gould.... 2 reels...48 Consumer Cooperation in Great Britain...90 When You Buy...............10 Union North America.......... high school text....03 2..... 3... Heyliger .......... Julia E.......50 per week. $<i i>..... Burris Jenkins ... Cowden L....... Leslie Paul .. Red-White-and Blue .................. The Lord Helps Those — Who Help Kuril Other..... Cooperative Recreation.. $X...50 2. ............ Credit Unions....01 .. silent... 2 parts .. Cooperation—A Way of Peace......10 ...... Official British Textbook .... Richard Giles.............. When Mankind is Willing..03 2....15 Education Through Recreation......... ........ Consumer The Johnson....50 Our Interests as Consumers.. silent.................................... $1) Organize Cooperatives. J......... 16 ran... Frank Shllstou . Selvig Howard A. Kagawa and his co-ops in Japan....................02 1... — Cooperative Principles.00 The Consumers Cooperative as a Distribu tive Agency..........25 Let's Play..00 2. John son...02 l......... A..... Eberhart and Nicholas...W1 FILMS Traveling the Middle Way In Sweden..... °« 3 ....... Smith E... Bowen . ..... produced by the Harmon Foundation....... 2 reels..... 1. Learn About Consumers Cooperation Sure Way is the Quick Way .... Printers' Ink Monthly .............. $2 per day... 2..... Hall and Watkins.......... A House Without a Landlord. $13.... Brickbats and Boomerangs......25 . Unit II......50 .................... 19"28"... a Puppet Play .CO-OP LITERATURE Leaflets to Aid You: • Novels and Biography A Doctor for the People...........00 (any selection of 6 . Rawe.......... Democracy.... a 1C inm......00 The Consumer Movement.... Trilling............. By and For the People. 1...02 1..........'a Scotia adult education and cooperative pro gram..... Fresh Furrow................. $4. showing how cooperation is taught In tw schools of France... L.. Clasping Hands.................... one chapter on Co-ops 3... Michael Shadid.............. Red-White-and-Blue March On...........02 L5» . Learning the Language ...... .00 Windows on the World.........50 COOPERATION ...... 2.......25 • Credit Unions and finance How to Read Cooperative Balance Sheets.. black and white.............. 2 reels......... $2.... 4.... Printers' Ink North Woods Miracle...... Dorothy Jacobson. 19"x28"..........02 1.... American ...... Whitney William Torma Gilman Calkins Ellen Edwards John Carson Anthony Lehner THE CONSUMERS CAUSE IS THE PUBLIC WELFARE THE ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE .....02 1..... How a Consumers Cooperative Dif fers From Ordinary Business .......................... $1.......50 .......... .50 ........ Carl Hutchinson ............ Campus Co-op News Letter..50 Play Party Games.......... Kate Bradford Stockton ................. silent film on the Amalgamated Cooperative Houses in New York City.............. .50 color and $1.20 All Join Hands. Co-op.......00 \.. William Moore .15 The Spider Web....... Rental: Each of three above $3 per day.... O rin E...50 ....9' 1. Ignatius W. 3 reel........ Cnrr-Saunders and others ................. Bertram B... the Intercollegian ...... Claude Shotts ...........3 additional showings........... Kit T.... Cox..... Burley ............ with English titles..000.... Excellent photography..... ...... Kodacrome. ..... Red-Whiteand-Blue ..... My Story.............20 ....... adilltional showings.......... a new 3 reel.... special edition ... Max Stewart .. Rev.... Buy Co-op........ Harold Fey .... blurt and white..... Wallace • For Younger Cooperators The Little Bed Hen and Her Cooperative.... Helen Sorenson..................5» for each additional showing or $10 per week..... M............... shows how cooperators on me eastern seaboard are providing themselves with CO-OP products...........05 ... P. 19"x28"......... E'ox and Miller. 3.50 • Cooperative Recreation it Josephine Consumed........... 19"x28". PM Reports Fast-Growing Co-ops Shun all Isms .........'<i UJ . J.. week. A Fair Deal to All Through Coopera tives..... .. nursery rhyme.. Agricultural Cooperatives.. ... E.02 ....10 ..........00 • Student Cooperatives American Students and the Cooperative Movement...75 • Textbooks on Cooperation Consumers* Cooperatives............IB 1J» ......... ........ .. Other Peoples' Money..0" . Mulberry Consumer Ownership — Of... wholesales and factories in France. 1(1 mm... Erbes...... E.... section on Co-ops ..... . Koy Bergen....... 16 mm.....10 What You Ought to Know About Credit Unions. 1............... Co-op Edition .......... S. high school and college.......... 3-act play........... from Sales Management .... produced by the Harinon Foundation...... Lincoln POSTERS 1....20 • Cooperatives and Peace Cooperatives and Peace.. Bowen ........ Calkins Two One Act Plays... two chapters on consumer cooperatives .. two reel film.........................05 ........ Union of Church and Economics is Dramatized as Co-ops Reveal Rapid Progress......... silent....... 19"x28". 16 mm...""> Quadrilles.. F. Edwards and Smith .... Answering Your Questions About the Cooperative ...15 Story Without End..10 . Ellis Cowling ...............000..... Kental per unit: color.. American Folk Dances..............10 Facing the Sunrise.. of coop erative stores. Ellis Cowling ...... Unit I.80 Cooperation. $2....000 Business With 2.. H.... George Tichenor .05 Unions: The People's Banks.........02 There Are Jobs In Cooperatives............. .....02 .. J. Co-ops on the Campus...10 Credit well Credit pren 192 . Upton Sinclair ....J. Wm. E................. S......... Are the Co-ops Getting Anywhere?..02 1......50 per day.05 ..25 The Brave Years.... What Attracts Members to the Co operative Store Movement..... Reading Between the Lines ... .... Jacks 1.. . I Saw a People Rising From the Dead........... P.. Mapping Plans (or Nationwide Co-op Drive at Kansas Gty Meeting NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE ISSUE Special articles by: Murray D...... 19"x28".............02 . A $600... John C........03 ........ Campbell.05 ..... Blue ..... 1. film of the Ni'.................02 ............... George Tichenor ....50..... two chapters on Co-ops .50 2............ Cooperative Recreation Songs........... Kit P.............. Green ..... 16 mm.. ....... 1(1 mm.. The Burden of Credit ....... 2.. Fowler Campus Co-ops........... three-reel film......25 J.. $5... A Day With Kagawa........... Consumer Cooperation...... a new 1 reel. ....... P.. K........000 Customers.....-i ... Bennett A......... Consumers Serve Themselves..

Consumers Cooperac Association.. retary. Cooperative Consumer N. N. Pennsyh nu Farm Bureau Cooperative Association. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need. in a notable article. Y. which become the common denominator of all producer interests. Millard. New Age Living 7218S. Rochdale Institute. . Texas. Minne apolis . Cooperative Builder Superior. Columbus.e St. Over a century ago. N. Co. Chicagc National Cooperative Women's Guild Berkeley. Y. Bowen. Horfl. New York. Cal. Michigan Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Herald St. Competition between producers for profits has resulted in scarcity. Merlin Miller. 1942. Amarillo." The nature of this revolution is "a revolution against scarcity. 1941 Ten Cents THE CONSUMERS' CAUSE IS THE PUBLIC WELFARE The managing editor of Fortune Magazine. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. No. Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative Ne\\. Ohio Farm Bureau 'News and Ohio Cooperator.Y. Con sumers Cooperative Association. Farmers Union Central Ex change. Midland Cooperamr Minneapolis. Cal. l6St. C. N. Ass'n Harrisburg. 167 West 12 St. C. N. Ind. Inc. Russell W. Education Ass'o Indianapolis. St. Hugh Bogardus. r fjV'oung. as the ultimate end and object of all industry and commerce. Chic ." Our present economic chaos results from our having failed to build an economy based on the fundamental principle of the priority of our consumer to our producer interests. edi tor. the. Cooperative Distributors The Recreation Kit Delaware. assoc. N.S. Arnold Ronn.. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Consumers Cooperative Associarion . New York City DIVISIONS: Medical Bureau. Guy Williams. So. Hoover. Herbert Evans. Am. Kansas City. an open ing of a new world so vast and so little explored as to frighten off the imagina tion.00 a year. Washington Grange Cooperative Wholesale Hoosier Farmer Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. Auditing Bureau.s Seattle. Wisconsin The Bridge CONSUMERS' COOPERATION OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY Volume XXVII. Inc. N. N. City. .W. We are all consumers as well as producers. Camp bell... educational director. New York. "must be to our time what the American Declaration of Independence was to the eighteenth century—a breaking up of the past. R. and not con sumption. Bennett. An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. general t. W. Wallace J. 227 E. Chicago The Round Table Central States Cooperatives. Consume Cooperatives Associated.. Texas Consumers' Cooperatives Associated 27 Coenties Slip. Entered as Seecond Class Matter.W. C. The Cooperative League of the USA. 1790 Broadway. Consumers Cooperative Association. Washington.. Indiana Farm Bu. as sistant educational director. Southeastern Coopenilor Carrollton. 608 S. Cowden. D. E. Cooperator Walla Walla. will the public welfare be served.. Associated Cooperatives. assistant edi tor. Y.. Midland Cooper n. J.A. Consumers Cooperative Asso ciation. Leonard Cowden. Georgia Southeastern Coop. States Cooperatives. E. Mo. Cent . Herbert Fledderjohn. Paul. Public iveljare in economics is represented by the consumer.interest of the consumer is almost constantly sacrificed to that of the producer. Kansas City. R. Carl Hutchinson. December 19. head of the Organization-Education Department" of -the Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperatives. V. THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn. Y. Penn. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing.. Society FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Madison. arid it (the system) seems to consider production. 167 West 12th Street. Chicago 726 Jackson Place N. Paul. and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to only as far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the con sumer. Consumers Cooperative Association The Producer-Consumer Amarillo. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. Cooperative Associarion. N. Superior. executive secretary of the Pennsylvania Fan Bureau Cooperative Association. editor. "Build For a Saner World. R.. Inc. Ohio Cooperative Recreation Service 135 Kent Ave. Central States Cooperati (Good Will Fund staff) .. assistant maiwu Central Cooperative Wholesale. A. E. Consumers Cooperative Associa tion. Howalt. Kansas City: '. 1879. James Cummins." This revolution. Ben jamin. Price $1. Yet we have allowed our pro ducers interests to dominate.Y. Editor. Bruce Bowman. advertising manager. A producer-organized economy is built upon special interests—not general interest. "This Would Be Victory.A. The Cooperative Consumer. Midland Cooperative Wholesale Chicago. •whereby the people. Mo. C Design Service. Central Cooperative Wholesale Superior. The Midland Cooperator. 111. Harrisburg. Y. Smith. 84th St.The Picture on the Cover COMMITTEE OF CO-OP LEADERS PLANS FIRST NATION-WIDE CO-OP DRIVE Representatives of regional cooperative associations of Trie Cooperative League of the USA met at Kan sas City. Y. and R. 167 West 12th St. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Ohio Farm Bureau News Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Y. Campbell." Committee members left to eight (outside the Ushaped table) are: John Carson. Minn. manager. Left to right (inside U-table) are: William Torn educational field man. N. Jensen. Associate Editor. at the Post Office at New York. H. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative League 135 Kent Ave.C. vice president of Consumer Distribution Corporation. N." Interpreted more specifically and positively. educational director. September 11 and 1 2 to map out plans for a nationwide Cooperative Drive to run from October. L. 167 West 12 St. Adam Smith wrote: "Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production. erative Association. N. Minnesota. Meacham. Minn. C. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Publication Address Nan-. meeting were: Glenn Thompson. Minn. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. in voluntary association. Whitoey. Committee members unable to attend '. Gilman Calkins. assistant secretary of The Cooperative League of the USA. New Y k Howard A. it is a revolution of consumers for plenty. Ind. Columbus. Wash. Brooklyn The Cooperator Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Ohio Cooperator Columbus. Calif.» Anthony Lehner. Washington repre sentative of The Cooperative League of the USA. Wallace J. Davenport. The maxim is so perfectly self-evident that it would be absurd to attempt to prove it . 167 West 12 St. "education director of The Eastern Cooperative Wholesale. Readers Observer Consumers Book Cooperative Consumers Defender J16E. The Drive will rally cooperators around the slogan. Robert L. Consumers Coop eratives Associated. Gulp. Iver Lind. National Cooperatives. president of Consumers GT . North Kansas City." declares that "we are in a revolution. sales manager. Dearborn. Ohio Farm Bureau Cooperative Association.. Pacific Supply Cooperative Penn. Paul.. Association Indianapolis. edu carional director. Co-op Review Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop.. 1941 to October. United Cooperatives. Pacific Coast Student Co-op League Pacific N. Wholesale. he says. 372—4()th St. N. Wisconsin Central Cooperative Wholesale 2301 S. 1917. Oakland Cooportunity Associated Cooperatives. 10 OCTOBER. A. edu cation department.N. Only as consumers are organized in Consumers' Cooperatives. Bowen. under the Act of March 3. L.

" From Superior. The inflation-deflation period in the beginning of the decade of the thirties brought the urban consumers cooperative purchasing movement into being in a widespread way in America. It stands for the Rochdale Pioneers' purpose of building a better system of distribution and production. the dynamic expression of a feeling of the need of a Nationwide Drive at the national Publicity and Education Conference at Ames. 61 circuit councils were scheduled to draw co-op leaders from nine states together to carry the co-op drive to the grass roots. requires the organization of consumers in cooperatives. ." It is the idealistic star which leads us on. all of whom have had active experience in regional drives. a call in the General Secretary's Report to the 25th Silver Anniversary Congress for "the inauguration of a corps of Cooperative Crusaders by every regional association. All inflation-deflation periods are times which speed up the growth of Co-ops. Minnesota and Wisconsin and Minnesota are beginning their part of the Nationwide drive with a determined effort to carry the cooperative message to every home in those communities. All three words in the name were well-chosen by the Drive Committee. educators. wholesale arid manufacturing institutions. which will result in the organization of a nucleus group of Cooperative Crusaders in every locality. at which time the initial plans for the Nationwide Co-op Drive were made. more business and more investment in cooperatives as part of the drive to "Build a Saner World. . Fourth. which will be followed by a deflation period. No one will save America from destruction by private monopoly or public bureaucracy but ourselves. The Nationwide Co-op Drive is a consumers' crusade. It is a Nationwide "CO-OP" Drive. The Consumers Cooperative Movement is taking advantage of the opportunity of riding the crest of the stream of time to speed up the coming of the day of plenty for all and peace on earth. and general managers. The national drive of the decade of the '40's. sales managers. NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE TIMELY The Nationwide Co-op Drive is now on. of democratic control. Cooperative economic crusaders are needed today as badly as were democratic political crusaders a century and a half ago. There are times -when an oncoming movement must push against the general current of thinking. is the first NATION WIDE Co-op Drive covering both rural and urban residents. and extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. From Kansas City.Everyone needs to be converted to Consumers' Cooperation. It is the first "NATIONWIDE" Co-op Drive. This is an important fact to note. The consumers' cause is the public welfare. We need to have the spirit of a cause. Cooperators need to feel that we are men with a mission. of graded quality. moving in concentric circles. a full day's meeting of the Chairman and Secretary of the national Publicity and Education Committee with the General Secretary of the League on July 30th for the preparation of a detailed agenda.000 one-dollar-a-year men. 1941 195 . It means. The name "CO-OP" has now become widely and favorably known. advertising managers. "A plow guided by a star. to channelize thought and initiate and consider proposals which may lead to a cooperative society. What we need is a DRIVE toward A Cooperative Economy which will replace the present monopoly system and prevent the coming of state dictatorship. 194 Consumers' Cooperation The inflation-deflation period in the beginning of the decade of the twenties brought the farm consumers cooperative purchasing movement into being in a widespread way in America. which was submitted to the members of the Drive Committee in advance of their meeting." Second. CO-OP is both the name of our Movement. and the authorization of the appointment of a Drive Committee to be made up of members of the Education and Distribution Departments of each regional association. . and little progress can be made. A Nationwide Co-op Drive is "TIMELY" today. which is made up of representatives of The Cooperative League. There are other times when the current of thinking helps a movement on. THE NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE IS UNDERWAY. The consumer is the foundation of today's American economic revolution. From Chicago came word that basement buying clubs are moving to street level. The public well-being is incarnated in the consumer. now starting. and the practical plow which turns out retail. The inflation period now on in the beginning of the decade of the forties. The need is so great that it is impossible to fully conceive it. We are also fast turning toward a system of state bureaucracy. THE NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE GETS UNDER WAY!!!! As we go to press: Seventy-five communities in the Eastern Cooperative Wholesale territory were mobilrzing for an intensive campaign for more members. and the trademark of our products. The national drive of the decade of the '20's was principally a rural drive." The revolution against scarcity. Third. side-street stores are growing into main street food markets and old estab lished cooperatives are streamlining their stores and modernizing their equipment as one phase of the drive to make co-op stores in beauty their co-op ideals. Vice-President Henry A." It calls for intense activity on the part of everyone in keeping with the great need today. National Cooperatives and the regional cooperative associa tions. THE CALL FOR A COOPERATIVE CRUSADE IS ANSWERED The Nationwide Co-op Drive has thus far covered five particular phases: First. October. as the French say. as idealistic and as realistic as were the young Federal ists of 1787. and for plenty. It is a seal of consumer ownership. The need is for a body of people in accord on general aims. and of de veloping a better method of education and government by members. a two-day meeting of the Drive Committee at Kansas City on Sep tember llth and 12th. It is a Nationwide Co-op "DRIVE. In New York the National Radio Committee met to draw up proposals to present to The Cooperative League for a Nationwide radio program financed by 50. Wallace has challenged us that: "Today we need a great many more persons who will become as deeply motivated by the idea of a cooperative economic society as the young men of 1776 and 1787 were motivated by the idea of a democratic political society. makes a Nationwide Co-op Drive TIMELY today. and of lower price. The present system is failing fast. Wisconsin came word that more than 180 communities in Northern Michigan. . in June. the unanimous approval of such a Drive by the Directors of both The Cooperative League and National Cooperatives at their quarterly meet ings in July. Fifth. nothing else will save us except by building coopera tives stronger and faster. The national drive of the decade of the '30's was principally an urban drive. This committee included editors.

Regional cooperatives can well arrange for a circuit of prominent speakers from religious. educational and recreational pro grams. it was recom mended that each regional and local co operative set up for themselves definite figures to be achieved covering all three goals. 1941 ganize the present membership for ac tion. ill 196 To atvaken America to the advantages of Consumers' Cooperation. consisting of Messrs. in putting on any Co op Drive. which are intended to broad cast the idea of Cooperation to everyone who can be reached by public addresses. is the key to an effective Drive. Members should invite in their neighbors and friends to spend an afternoon or evening. banners. the abbreviation Co-op or Coopera tive. region al and local organization and action. that they are part of a Nationwide Co-op Drive. in connection with regional and local drives. on account of the difficulties of computation and comparison. Campbell and Tichenor was appointed to draft a more extended statement as to why America Needs Cooperatives which. These were expressed in challenging language as: Join a Co-op. the name Drive.: Build Cooperatives Stronger and Faster Build Democracy Through Co operatives Build For a Saner World— Join a Co-op. or Personal. Name Lengthy discussion by the committee boiled down into the question of whether to use the words Nationwide or Nation al. Goals The three major goals to be achieved by the Nationwide Co-op Drive are: In creased Membership. The third type of publicity is that of Publications. This committee should orOctober. and yet not too large to be reasonably possible of achievement. Some drama groups make a circuit of a number of cooperatives. after approval by the Drive Committee and The Cooperative League Board. 1. Publicity Program There are five principal proven ways to reach prospects in order to get them to "Join A Co-op. Local cooperatives should organize their members into drama groups. A spe cial leaflet is planned for general dis tribution briefly discussing these three challenges. recreation groups. It is also vital that all of America be awakened to realize the facts of the success of Con sumers' Cooperation and its possibilities in helping to bring about plenty and peace. Buy in Co-ops. which cover national. as well as general newspapers and magazines. Co-op dramas put on by members have a wide appeal. They were expressed in the Revieiv of International Cooperation as: first. While the Consumers' Cooperative Movement is growing strong er all the time in building its financial. Crusade or Cam paign. choruses. educational. business. Pictori al. Under Platforms are included various types of open meetings as well as radio programs. all of which make possible greater participation by members and also makes a strong pub licity appeal to others. etc. Purpose There could be but two possible pur poses. Enthusiasm comes from enlistment in a great cause. 5. Tichenor. both internally arid internationally. Invest in Co-ops. It is the cause of the consumer—the public wel fare. A unanimous decision finally crystallized on the name NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE. Application blanks should be provided for canvassers. The Committee phrased these two purposes of the Nationwide Co-op Drive in these words: To develop and strengthen the Con sumers' Cooperative Movement. Platforms." They can be named Personal. in general. Publications. These should be large enough to call for real effort. It was not thought possible by the Committee to set up national goals as to number of members. second. Both purposes need to be achieved to a far greater degree. Oth ers were suggested by the Committee Among them are these. They are successfully proven methods which every cooperative association will do well to study and adopt. farm. The first. Cooperation — The Answer of Free Men Cooperation—The Program For Free Men Consumers' Cooperation Cooperation—America's Train ing Ground For Democracy Cooperation — The Plan For Tomorrow That Works Today America's Road—Cooperation! America Needs Cooperatives America Needs A New Idea— It's Co-ops! Cooperatives Are The Ameri can Way America! Build Cooperatives!! 4.I THE ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVi T WO things are required to make any Drive successful: enthusiasm and or ganization. will be recommended for adoption by each local and regional cooperative and for publicity in the press. Larger Investment. Printed Matter. etc. labor. It should be emphasized. from which you can make selections for handbills. posters. Slogans The Consumers' Cooperative Move ment has already developed a number of slogans which make a strong appeal. Both regional and local cooperatives should always be on the job to get consumers' cooperative speak ers on programs of other organizations where possible. it is vitally necessary that all these be speeded up to meet the dangers con fronting democratic institutions. More Business. volume of business or amount of investment to be achieved during any particular period. bands. The other four methods are for the purpose of arousing interest in order to reach people generally and make them receptive to personal solicita tion. 197 . A sub-committee consisting of Messrs.. Local coopera tives can hold special meetings with similar speakers. Regional coop eratives should provide all of their local associations with instructions on "How To Put On A Co-op Drive. which will strengthen their appeal." and with materials applicable to their general pro gram. Local and re gional radio stations should be used by cooperative associations—either as free time or paid programs. Names of possible prospects should be asked for from each member. These include both regional and local cooperative papers. co operative and other fields. Carson. to strengthen the Cooperative Move ment internally. Organization is a matter of careful planning. 2. Smith. Our cause is great. Invest in Co-ops. Every cooperative should select a Drive Committee. A special Radio Sub-Committee was also appointed by the Nationwide Co-op Drive Committee. we are sum marizing the suggestions and recommen dations of the Nationwide Co-op Drive Committee. Buy in Co-ops. leaf lets. and one into which every regional and local drive can be integrated. Canvass ing can be done individually or by teams. Campbell. However. In the following. 3. to give the Co operative Movement the radiance it de serves. We believe there will be general agreement that the name is a good one to rally around. Evans and Benjamin to consider thor oughly the possibilities of raising a Na tionwide Radio Fund in order to arrange for national broadcasts.

which will be available at least by the first of the year. through the Harmon Foundation. etc. and "Traveling the Middle Way in Sweden. Interviews and statistics make the great est appeal. last summer an American Co-op Tour was taken throughout the Middle West. we include 198 three principal forms: Movies. for its mem bership and invite prospective members to attend. Both regional and local cooperatives should be on the alert to get co-op stories in their newspapers. 10. Furthermore. The Cooperative Movement is learning that the primary desire of people for group activity is to play together. third. Business Programs As a part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. 7. games.Today the regional cooperatives pub lish splendid newspapers which reach practically the entire membership of the locals. and culminates at the October 1942 Con gress of The Cooperative League. and that is by inviting them to attend and take part in some form of cooperative recreational and cultural ac tivity. The Cooperative League supplies a News Service every week to all regional cooperative papers. 199 . and others will follow monthly. it has now been possible to arrange for a series of colored posters as a part of the Nationwide Co op Drive. either institutional or commodity. New Cooperative books and pamphlets. These should consist of study groups. Beyond that. Summary Every cooperator should experience a great thrill over the starting of the First Nationwide Co-op Drive. Pictorial publicity is the fourth type. institutes. Ten new pamphlets are already scheduled as a part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. etc. every cooperative should plan care fully its program of getting present as well as prospective members to "Buy in Co-ops." The fifth and last principal method of publicity is that of Printed Matter. No local cooperative should be with out a Bulletin of some kind which is sent regularly to its members.. and many of them publish cooperative stories from time to time. posters. Employees and Directors. table souvenirs. Recreational Programs It is necessary to tell people about Consumers' Cooperation by using the five methods of publicity previously described. that they apply ethical prin ciples to business." We need to mobilize our money cooperatively just as much as we need to buy cooperatively. etc. It should not only "Build Cooperatives Stronger and Faster. they should then be urged to invest their surplus savings in co-op loan capital. Mailing Lists for litera ture. More Business and Larger Investments. It is also the fastest growing method because it visualizes the story of Coop eration. We are also happy to be able to an nounce that. second. Broadcast Advertising in newspapers and over the radio. through the cooperation of a number of the regional members of the League. which has an even greater appeal than either the spoken or printed word. arts. require that people not only "Join a Co-op. etc. Educational Programs Democratic Movements. The national Cooperative League is constantly on the job with writers and publishers to get articles on Consumers' Cooperation in national magazines. Posters and Tours. it has now been possible to take a national co-op film. every regional and local co operative should promote programs of folk dancing. bonds. with the assistance of the regional edi tors. singing. film strips and slides in an increasing number. such as cal endars. summer camps. and the Drive Committee Consumers' Cooperation urges that regional and local cooperatives make use of this method of publicity to a greater degree. that they extend American democratic principles. Finance Program The final part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive is to persuade people to "Invest in Co-ops. credit unions. Several tours have been ar ranged to Nova Scotia and Europe." but should also give each one an increased faith in and respect for the Consumers' Cooperative Movement as one of the principal agencies for perfecting arid protecting democracy in America. auto stickers and plates. fifth. The first of these will be is sued in October. signs. Such a Bulletin helps to keep the membership active both in buying and in educational activities. Youths. These are "The Lord Helps Those. are pouring from the presses constantly. which will be issued from time to time. over the course of the past several years. such as Con sumers' Cooperation. and Prospective Members. a film of the first American Co-op Tour con ducted in the summer of 1941. News papers are supplied regularly with the national News Service. For that reason. As a part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. Every shoulder to the Co-op wheel to roll the Cause of the Consumer — the Public Welfare—along faster! The first period of the Nationwide Co-op Drive starts with October 1941. Visual Advertising by films. Demonstration of the products them selves. by The Coop erative League. Old and new members should be urged to invest in more than just one share of stock. either published or stimulated by The Cooperative League. preferred stock. as well as featuring Co-op principles and practices.. Mem bers. when we will celebrate our victories in In creased Membership." but also that they study how to help themselves suc cessfully. they should have presented to them the idea of investing at least a minimum amount sufficient to provide themselves with the inventory as well as the facilities needed in both the local and wholesale coopera tive. to make it possible to build factories for production. It has proven to be more than true that "Seeing is believing. instrumental mu sic. It has been proven. as well as to finance any time payment purchases which are necessary and advisable by cooperative members. They will stress that Co-ops follow American pioneering traditions. etc. Educational programs should be organized by every cooperative for all five of the following groups: Juniors. It was not thought by the Drive Com mittee that the time has yet arrived for a national cooperative advertising cam paign. the League has again been able to secure. Only recently there have been pub lished full pages of cooperative pictures by some newspapers. crafts. together with stories and statistics. magazines and writers. Regional co operatives are also providing their locals with films. Re gional cooperatives are also finding that tours through their territories are highly effective. Such Bulletins should help to gear each local cooperative in with the Nationwide Co-op Drive." which tells the story of Nova Scotia." There are five principal meth ods of advertising and selling. They are: first. 9. fourth. by the cooperation of the regional associations." As a part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. all of October. This film entitled "The Co-ops Are Comin' " will be available shortly. Under Pictorial publicity. a special pictorial series of success stories of local cooperatives. local co-ops can use newspaper advertising effectively. but there is also another way to interest them. 1941 which should be used. Souvenirs. 6. savings certificates. as well as to a large additional list of newspapers. 8. Every local cooperative which does not now do so should subscribe to the regional co-op paper for all their mem bers as a part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. Plans are being laid for a 1942 American Co-op Tour by The Coopera tive League. that Co-op Tours are one of the most effective means of interesting people in the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. the League is inaugurating. However. The Cooperative League has been able in the past to supply the Movement with two silent films through the cour tesy of the Harmon Foundation..

This Consumers' Cooperation Nationwide Co-op Drive is a direct chal lenge to every Co-op manager in the United States to bring his Co-op up to a new level of efficiency. according to the __ _ —Jr=~ Swedes. the first arid most urgent step to be taken toward member ship growth is to increase the patronage and participation of existing members. Obviously. The success of cooperative wholesales in other parts of the United States should demonstrate just as conclusively that the co-ops have something that should have the support of all the people. More members. the co operative movement calls all people to the pursuit of peaceful aims in attaining that abundance for all which it is now possible to achieve for the first time in all recorded history. That. But.THE CO-OP CALL TO PEACE AND PLENTY M. and when we have done that their actions will support their words as they present to others the benefits of cooperative pur chasing and investment. Why? Many present members invest in only one or two shares. This must be changed and cooperation for "all men's good" substituted since it is the fundamental basis of life itself. support them loyally. more in vestment. the measure of our success in this joint effort will be indicated. the experience of Consumers Cooperative Association should convince anyone who studies it that the formula does work. Increased patronage from present members is the most convincing evidence of this morale. charge themselves reasonable prices for the goods. strengthen present cooperatives. To have total democracy. People everywhere are groping for a peaceful way of getting the standard of living that is now possible. with merchandise appealingly displayed and effectively handled? On top of this." An eco nomic franchise must be granted all people which will parallel the political franchise. that the wonder is that people generally have not seen it and caught hold of it. we must undergird po litical democracy with economic democ racy. The teason? Because the land on which it would fall belonged to the few. in my opinion. Con sumers have patronage. the people would still go hungry. courtesy and efficiency of every employee remind member and nonmember alike that the Drive is on! Let's all put our shoulder to the wheel. brightly lighted. Economic cooperation has demonstrated its effective ness in lowering purchaser's price and increasing producer's pay. That formula is so simple. In the forthcoming Nationwide Co-op Drive. no matter how pow erful." is the answer to the policy of scarcity and high prices which the cartels try to en force. D. Why ? First. more patronage. President Consumers Cooperative Association I T was Tolstoy who pointed out that. 1941 much experience in "trust-busting. let the personal appearance. extend our services and thereby demonstrate that people can solve their own problems in the democratic way. In fact. the right to vote. by the increase of new members brought into the movement. The eminent Russian au thor recognized in his day. for each and every local Co operative. which aims to develop and strengthen the consumer cooperative movement and arouse America to its ad vantages. J. Can it be said that any Co-op is really in the Drive whose quarters are not sparkling clean. But political democracy is not total democ racy—it is only a half measure. Lincoln. Now it is up to us to tell the world of our past accomplishment and our vast possibilities for the future. Sales Manager Farm Bureau Cooperative Association T HE first important goal of the Nation wide Co-op Drive is a marked in crease in Co-op membership. so easily understood. raise adequate capital. President The Cooperative League I N these days of aggression and war. not • to the many. While we have made only a beginning. and the material benefits have followed. The present situation is the inevitable and logical sequence to the restrictive. How can we convince non-members of the benefits of cooperative action when our own members frequently show such gross indifference both in purchase of goods and in ownership of shares? Most of our Co-ops could easily increase their 200 present volume of business 25% without adding a single non-member. No trust. The people build their own fac tories. we are not going to get this added support from sheer ballyhoo. who have had October. as we are rec ognizing it even more acutely in our own. They would simply turn the flow of their patronage away from the trusts. let us drive for a fuller par ticipation of these partial members. or how well financed. and they have as much ability as others to hire technical 201 . Bennett. which I define as "participation in making economic policies and practices by all people contributing to or depend ent upon the economic system. can with stand medicine so powerful as that. Cowden. selfish group producer in terests that have dominated our thinking and action. Even a giant weakens and falls when you quit feeding it. It can be done. and monopoly prices come tum bling down. monopolistic. when governments all over the world are calling their citizens to arms. BUY IN CO-OPS: THE WAY TO OWNERSHIP Howard A. It has demon strated its effectiveness in building people. Individual and group bene fits and interests have supplanted a pol icy of good for all. if manna were to fall from heaven. Many pres ent members purchase only one or two items cooperatively. to a large extent. We should use every device at our disposal to en list new people in the movement. Our first job in this Drive is to build morale within our own ranks. the combines and the monopolies and direct it through their own cooperative organizations. Cooperators would attack the disease of centralized wealth control that is gnawing at the vitals of our system by pacific but effective means. that widespread ownership is posi tively essential in winning a degree of security and the maximum of freedom. is working. or how ruthless and knavish it may be. I hope the theme of widespread ownership and its high importance will be carried to millions of consumers who at this moment know little about it. JOIN A CO-OP — BECOME A LOYAL MEMBER L. Political democracy issues through the political franchise.

in ad dition to the amount needed for local operations is one of the jobs of this year's drive. at least $25. The youth programs of Ohio. to culminate 203 . teachers. small change is not a sound financial foundation for the cooperative movement. when a person joins. fairs— these are all available channels of introduction. October. Many members do not yet see beyond the shelves of their store or the pumps of their gas station. A speaker at a Co-op meeting in the East summed up two mistaken notions when he said: 'Many Cooperators expect to own a new social order on Boy Scout dues. and for a gas station and wholesale. regular meetings. posters. for a farm supply store and wholesale. and we should make the most of our gi opportunity. And they have advantages. farm and labor leaders. and a coffee roaster for a blending plant. Personal door-to-door canvassing (with co-op merchandise samples). emblems. should be that of Red Cross workers at a great catastrophe. local—to tell people everywhere about Cooperation. ministers. co-op dramas. and the first factory or two. clubs. How? To tell the whole community: Mass meetings. that of a great sym phony orchestra in action. bulletin boards. Ours to choose the way we use the power in our purse—not only in day-to day purchases. Whitney. If American Cooperatives are to meet the challenge of the times. signs. more ef ficient operations and regained ownership. Dramatizing the im portance of providing capital for a ware house inventory. and information to de velop participation and the sense of re sponsibility that begets loyalty. 1941 It is not enough to have an adult pro gram. pageants. Chairman. This calk for regular bulletins. It's a machine which A consumer can own and expand to do any job he wants done—if he'll put up the money. and second. parties.00 to join. Central Co-op Wholesale and the Farmers Union are examples. No time ever demanded more publicity than this period of the first Nationwide Co-op Drive. consumer courses. The Co-op publicity job is never done. this involves two publicity approaches: sug gestions or reminders about the services and commodities. souvenirs. A Co-op share pays dividends not only in cash but in better facilities. exhibits. A ssistant Secretary Eastern Cooperative League U DUILD for a Saner World—Invest JLJ in Co-ops" puts the Drive empha sis where wide margins and large savings in the past have kept it from being put. but also in month-to-month investments! _ _ —— -=^ . Our own youth organizations are needed to bring continued vitality and life to our efforts. attractive modern stores. festivals. We must also invest our other savings in loan capital in local co-ops or in bonds or preferred stocks of regional wholesales and factories regularly and continuously. the Ohio Farm Bureau Co-ops. than with those above. Present them with pomp and splendor to audiences new to the movement. A. The mood. direct mail. touts. that of the doctor's attendants at a major opera tion. Thus permanency is assured. newspaper advertising and stories.-. we must make them strong by making these minimum investments per member: for a grocery store and wholesale. We have a real story to tell America's underprivileged millions. and a refinery. Don't stop with one. forums. Why not launch cooperative youth organizations within the other re gional wholesale areas throughout the country during this drive. that competitive business would give millions to possess. libraries." First. at any one time. Smith. A Co-op is not a club which costs $5. we WILL set America "on fire for co-ops!" But we must tell our neigh bors first! Consumers' Cooperation INVEST IN CO-OPS: BUILD FOR A SANER WORLD Robert L. Co-op shares are not an expense like dues. With that ap proach by every co-op and co-operator in the where technical men are needed. Two new national co-op movies are in production. inherent in the co-op way of doing business. that of firemen at a mammoth fire. In a co-op. for ef ficiency. It says in effect: "Go out into your community and boost your Co-op. Factories are free only to Cooperators who have put up the cash to build a foundation of sound retail and whole sale distribution facilities. of course. leaflets. although it has done the bigger half of its job. The initial step in that mighty Drive is publicity—national. but more intensive methods should. We must thoroughly educate every member and functionary for demo cratic economic action. movie shows. "GIVE COOPERATION THE RADIANCE IT DESERVES" Oilman Calkins. regional. To tell prospective members: There is 202 no definite line of demarcation here. be confined to smaller areas. picnics. use it and control it. EDUCATE FOR DEMOCRATIC ECONOMIC ACTION E. Educational Director Central Cooperative Wholesale T HE Nationwide Co-op Drive is under way! It is a challenge to over a million member-patrons of The Coopera tive League to go out and co-operatize America. and more posters. that of all hands at their posts as a great ship casts off anchor. Ask your neighbors to come in!" But more than joining a Co-op is needed. National Publicity and Education Committee and Nationwide Co-op Drive Committee W E have a mighty job to do! The first Nationwide Co-op Drive i s under way—to awaken America to Con sumers' Cooperation. well-groomed mailing lists. To tell the members: Publicity hasn't stopped. We all tend to slow up or "skip a cog" now and then—doing even the things that are good for us—unless we're urged nicely into loyalty. larger amounts. frequent reports to mem bers. the tempo. Radio. better service. guest events. commodity exhibits and demon strations. never stops.

let Consumers' Cooperation us say. The Nationwide Co-op Drive would riot be complete unless it included an effort to encourage people to obtain this cultural commodity on a co operative basis. These discussion groups improve membership participation and increase cooperative trading. should be stressed. etc. Such a program should be inaugurated by all the cooperatives so that they will be able to take their rightful place in the period of economic readjustment follow ing the present and still more severe coming dislocations. patronage re turns. RECREATION — A VITAL PART OF THE NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE Ellen Edwards." There 204 can be no adequate means of educating the patron to the meaning of cooperation unless the employes have first availed themselves of every opportunity to learn about the cooperative movement. Training in the theory of coopera tion. Train ing courses should be offered to groups of from 20 to 25 employes. Educational Director Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Cooperative Association ECAUSE of restrictions certain to be imposed in an ever-increasing man ner upon cooperatives as well as any other business concern attempting to sat isfy consumer demands. folk dancing. puppetry and games. It is quite obvious that there should be separate courses for managers. These youngsters. for warehouse men. for members of the various boards of di rectors. form ing an invaluable part of a broad pro gram. It is imperative that the employe should know a good deal about the origin. Why should not hundreds of ad ditional groups be organized by the time of the '42 Congress ? Women's Guilds and Mixed Clubs arcdoing excellent cultural work among the well-established older membership. one week or longer training courses. usually mothers of cooperative families who have shown special interest in child welfare. D. They should meet the needs of employes in accord with their function and respon sibility in their local cooperative. the problems affecting the specific groups according to their function and responsibility could be incorporated in point No. he is also the spokesman for an idea and an ideal — that of Cooperation. 1941 leadership training. boards of directors. directors. 1 is equally applicable to all these various groups. yes. Cooperators should be as interested in the quality of the play goods they con sume as they are in the material commodi ties. for store employes. Perhaps the regional cooperatives are the best agencies within the movement to offer this training. intensive. Since the quality of recreational goods depends so much upon the capacity. for oil truck serv ice men. We need to develop leaders who are sensitive to social values and who understand something of human needs if our recreation is to result in so cial growth. We need more Junior groups as a definite part of our education al program throughout the land. the history and the aims and pur poses of the cooperative movement. dramatics. They should and possibly can provide the personnel and the facilities for periodic. Jones of the Farm Credit Administration "the spirit of cooperatives will largely be interpreted by the patrons in accordance with their opinion of these employes. the next few years might well be utilized in strengthen ing the structure of consumer coopera tives from within. discussion leaders. membership meetings. to name a few. which can be developed around the two points outlined above. such as group singing. One of the problems affecting the movement as a whole is the problem of proper training of employes. when production and distribution of consumer goods receive the "go" sign. a greater readiness to work together. 2. The employe of a cooperative is more than just a worker in a business enterprise. 2 dealing with the technical training. in sight and interpretation of leaders. the training of em ployes moves in two directions. Week-end and full week training schools should be sponsored by local and regional cooperative organiza tions to an even greater extent than is now being done. the Drive should stress the importance of October. for bookkeepers and. There is now growing rapidly in America a far-reaching program of adult member education. Executive Secretary National Society for Recreational Education D ECREATION might be classed as a J->• cultural product which people crave and consume to the tune of ten billion dollars a year. Such a broad educational program by each cooperative wholesale in the coun try should be a part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. Juniors are also studying co-operation in a very practical way. He must receive technical training which leads to a full understanding and intimate knowledge of the commodities for whose distribution he is responsible. Quite logically. 8 to 12 years of age. they will judge its efficiency almost en tirely in terms of their efficiency. are guided by trained Junior leaders. According to J. TRAIN EMPLOYES TO BE PRACTICAL IDEALISTS B Anthony Lehner. handicrafts. 205 . Many of these Junior groups have their own Gum Drop Co-ops with honest-to-goodness an impressive Youth Rally in connec tion with the Congress in '42? In the CCW area. Then we must train cooperative func tionaries better—employees. Those forms of recreation which awaken in the participants a sense of mutuality. 1. . ed ucational committees. While point No. The study circle tech nique is being used as the basis for co operative membership education by many of the members of the League.

and that is where their rea soning went awry. nonpressure public interest group. that the consumer interest is the public interest. that the public interest shall be served. Already steps have been taken by the committee in: 1) Agreement on uniform color scheme of Ivory and Forest Green Trim. as cooperators. 5) Work ing on a possible national competition among architects for design of a coopera tive store and service station. Cooperators must seize upon every op portunity to let their government repre sentatives know that an idealistic. beauty. A generous allowance of time for recreational fea tures should be part of all Drive meet ings. but. 207 . "What you are talking about sounds just too —————— idealistic. no subsidies. Here are a few basic improvements the Commit tee is seeking to accomplish in its work and through your cooperation. the drive is going on Consumers' Cooperation to make an official government and its members realize that practical idealism can exist. a banner on which was a strange device. film strips. about a year ago when The Cooperative League of the U. and particularly to the Congress of the United States. when "con sumer" representation was first estab lished in government agencies in Wash ington. "Consumer cooperatives are asking no special favors. efficiency and service on a national scale. "You've been around here long enough to know you've got to be a pres sure group to get anywhere. efficiency.scale." A period of social activity should be part of every study club meeting. A program for youth should naturally be built around recreational activities. the Con gressman shook his head. 2) To provide standards of design and color for fixtures and interiors of our cooperatives. and movies to assist local cooperatives in building. Totalitarian statesmen have found time to employ recreation as a means of regi menting their subjects. They can vote by writing to their Congressmen and Senators today demanding fair treatment in the admin istration of the coal and oil regulatory acts. Simplicity. il lustrated booklets. or by the press." The true consumer philosophy recognizes that everyone is a consumer. Group singing. demands only that consumer rights shall be recognized. 2) Purchase of cash registers and refrigeration equipment on a national . cleanliness and efficienc. prove that we are! CONSUMERS INCARNATE THE PUBLIC WELFARE T HE days of revelation were at hand.1 October 1941 nomically carry out this program at the lowest possible cost. The climax of all these recreational activities might be a colorful Fun Festi val in which cooperatives from all over the country participate at the time of the Cooperative League Congress in October. 4) Working on a film strip to help stress the importance of modernization. One of the best ways to make friends is through play—having fun together. that the consumer interest cannot be a class in terest and. Festi vals in which the entire community par ticipates would help to develop the co operative neighborliness which we so need today. "Con sumer cooperatives insist only that the rights of consumers shall be recognized and preserved. insisting that in a democracy price control by cooperative competitive yardsticks must be promoted.A. Chairman National Architectural Committee W E could do the finest publicity and educational job in the nation by telling America's millions of consumers about cooperatives and their advantages. re modeling or choosing business sites which are a credit to the fine principles which guide our cooperative progress. no special privileges. 3) To pool the purchases of refriger ated and mechanical fixtures used in our stores. or a few games or dances will help to give the cooperatives the "radiance they de serve." 206 John Carson. 6) Work ing with the design service in develop ing a uniform educational and commer cial poster service for cooperatives. of interests identified with a government of and by the force of po lice power. 1942. Are the leaders of our democracies sufficiently alert and wise to conduct recreational activities in keeping with our democratic ideals? Let us. The Architectural Committee's job is to urge every cooperative in the country to adopt a unified program that will make that "welcome" sign on the doormat of every cooperative a lasting invitation to each new consumer who enters. of layout in cooperative stores. 3) Obtaining similar arrangements on other nationally known and tested mechanical equipment.S. Little by little. These days came to Washington." he said. 1) A truly American design for our buildings in which our democratic char acter will find expression. They were thinking of classes and class war. that the consumer movement can never be a selfish move ment. therefore. it was asserted that a "consumer" interest existed and that it had to be recognized as being something entirely distinct from the "public" interest. unfurled its banner in Wash ington. As the Swiss writers say: "The public well-being is incarnated in the consumer.inter est and could never be a "pressure group" in support of a selfish interest. that the con sumer is the public. Torma. if we cannot measure up to this pub licity and education with inviting." the inscription reads. To work out drawings." "Your League is not a pressure group ?" inquired an incredulous Congressman.The Drive should make new friends for the cooperative movement. The true consumer philosophy is a philosophy of good will and of government from within the in dividual. clean and efficient merchandising units our drives will not accomplish what is in tended of them. asking fair treatment for the public in matters of taxation. and economy should be the elements of a design that will pre sent a friendly cooperative appeal to every consumer. 'Publicity on a national scale be comes simplified because certain charac teristics of design typical only of cooper atives can be referred to by radio. known as consumer cooperatives. service stations and warehouses en a national scale to enable us to eco . Cooperators can vote every day and any day as one part of the Nationwide Co-op Drive. a puppet play. 4) By carrying out this uniformity in exterior design. These very conscientious speakers and writers insisted that a "consumer" interest must be recognized as having a status in eco nomic affairs somewhat similar to the "labor" interest and the "capital" inter est. LET'S DRIVE FOR MODERN CO-OPS William J. one cooperative is help ing the other in obtaining increased trade. and when told the consumer cooperatives only insisted on serving the public . Washington Representative The Cooperative League Some few years before. rather than of government by force.

Consumers' Cooperation Anders Hedberg THE DOWN AND UP OF THE EMPORIA COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION H. keeping in mind. President National Society of Cooperative Accountants T HE Nationwide Co-op Drive is a challenge to cooperative accountants. but the training program is ex pensive. mem ber and officer. The National Society of Cooperative Accountants. Prime Minister —see "A Swedish Cooperator in the Government. of which there are many today. Co operative accountants must— 1. 2. James P. of course. A DECLARATION OF COOPERATION A SWEDISH COOPERATOR IN THE GOVERNMENT supply. F. "COUNSEL FOR THE CONSUMER" John Carson WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE CO-OPS IN THE CRISIS? MAGAZINE FOR COOPERATIVE LEADERS . invites cooperators everywhere to join "The Friends" and make a mem bership contribution of $1. Warbasse. By this they must A Axel Gjores. Feel themselves a part of the Coop erative Movement. Not only continue to make good audits. Strive to educate their clients that cheap audits are many times very expen sive. etc. Coordinate their own thinking to the general purpose and objective of the Cooperative Movement. They should be members and patrons of cooperatives. Cummins NOVEMBER 1941 A NATIONAL JUSTICE LOUIS D. Ac counting maps out the course of our finan cial development and provides the means of painting a vivid picture of our suc cesses and failures. This. but must act cooperatively. Lull. will icquire considerable study and the read ing of books and periodicals. G. W. 5. director of the Institute. This will re quire constant study on the part of the accountants to keep up with current in formation relating to tax problems. which is a nation-wide fra ternal organization of persons rendering accounting service to cooperatives. Minister of Food and Supply and Per Albin Hansson. BRANDEIS.Give good advice. and will need the support and as sistance of cooperative leaders every where. too. NCT York City. but must constantly strive to make better audits. Dr. has as one of its objectives the rendering of the very best possible service to the coopera tives." page 212 FRIENDS OF ROCHDALE INSTITUTE N organization known as "The Friends of Rochdale Institute" is being created to help build up and finance the national training school in consumers' cooperation established under the auspices of The Cooperative League four years ago. J. The thing that will need to be done before this can be fully accom plished is uniformity of reports and ac counting terminology on a national bask While accountants cannot bring this about alone. to the end that eventually we may have compar able reports and statistics. gov ernment regulations. The success and stability of our cooperatives is dependent to a great extent upon good accounting. 4.A CHALLENGE TO COOPERATIVE ACCOUNTANTS E.00 per year. as well as to every other employee. Gladden Haskell. Selvig. Contributions should be sent to Rochdale Institute. Sixty-six graduates of Rochdale In stitute are now employed in full-time jobs in the cooperative movement. so we can correct our mistakes and perpetuate the movement through better planned operations. 3. they can point out the need. that expensive audits are not always good audits. 167 West 12th Street. The demand for trained graduates is greater than the 208 COOPERATION not only talk cooperation..

During the course of the Nationwide
Co-op Drive at least a thousand co-op
managers, editors, directors and other
leaders should be added to the present
subscribers of CONSUMERS' COOP
A hundred new subscriptions in your
region. Ten new subs in your local
co-op would put your national magazine
over this immediate goal. Subscribe in
dividually, or have your co-op send sub
scriptions to each member of its board
and staff. It's a good investment. The
price is reasonable, the goal is very
modest. Help put it over.
$1 per year; 27 months for $2
167 West 12th Street, New York City

The new colored movie, "The Co-ops
Are Comin' " is now available for distri
bution everywhere. Use it in your co-op
meetings, in schools, colleges, churches,
farm and labor groups in your community.
Filmed in connection with the first AilAmerican Co-op Tour last summer, it
shows all types of co-ops visited during
the 2,600-mile trip.
More than a travelog, the movie por
trays the strength and power of the move
ment, recording the accomplishments in a
dozen fields. It is a 21^-reel, silent film
produced by the Harmon Foundation in
cooperation with The Cooperative League.
For information about rental and life
time lease write:
167 West 12th Street, New York City

608 South Dearborn, Chicago
167 West 12th Street, New York City
726 Jackson Place N.W., Washington, D. C.
Auditing Bureau, 167 West 12 St., N. Y. C.
Medical Bureau, 1790 Broadway, N. Y. C.
Design Service, 167 West 12 St., N. Y. C.
Rochdale Institute, 167.West 12 St., N. Y. C.


Am. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. Co.
Associated Cooperatives, N. Cal.
Associated Cooperatives, So. Cal.
Central Cooperative Wholesale
Central States Cooperatives, Inc.
Consumers Cooperative Association
Consumers' Cooperatives Associated
Consumers Book Cooperative
Cooperative Distributors
Cooperative Recreation Service
Eastern Cooperative League
Eastern Cooperative Wholesale
Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n
Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co.
Farm Bureau Services
Farmers' Union Central Exchange
Grange Cooperative Wholesale
Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. Association
Midland Cooperative Wholesale
National Cooperatives, Inc.
National Cooperative Women's Guild
Pacific Coast Student Co-op League
Pacific Supply Cooperative
Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. Ass'n
Southeastern Coop. Education Ass'n
United Cooperatives, Inc.
Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Society

St. Paul, Minn.
372—40th St., Oakland Cooportunity
New Age Living
7218S. Hoover, L.ACooperative Builder
Superior, Wisconsin
2301 S. Millard, Chicago The Round Table
N. Kansas City, Mo.
Cooperative Consumer
Amarillo, Texas
The Producer-Consumer
27 Coenties Slip, N.Y.C. Readers Observer
116 E. 16 St., N. Y.
Consumers Defender
Delaware, Ohio
The Recreation Kit
135 Kent Ave., Brooklyn The Cooperator
135 Kent Ave., Brooklyn The Cooperator
Ohio Cooperator
Columbus, Ohio
Ohio Farm Bureau News
Columbus, Ohio
Michigan Farm News
Lansing, Michigan
Farmers' Union Herald
St. Paul, Minn.
Grange Cooperative News
Seattle, Washington
Hoosier Farmer
Indianapolis, Ind.
Midland Cooperator
Minneapolis, Minn.
Chicago, 111.
608 S. Dearborn, Chicago
Berkeley, Calif.
Pacific N.W. Cooperator
Walla Walla, Wash.
Penn. Co-op Review
Harrisburg, Penn.
Southeastern Cooperator
Carrollton, Georgia
Indianapolis, Ind.
227 E. 84th St., N. Y.

Credit Union National Association

Madison, Wisconsin

The Bridge


Volume XXVII. No. I I


Ten Cents

Americans need badly to learn two things. First, that they have power as
Consumers. Second, that they should organize Cooperatively.
It was over a hundred years ago when Dr. King challenged a group of poor
people in England: "You are poor. You think you have no power. Organize your
purchasing power." In those days, Adam Smith also warned that "the interest
of the consumer is almost constantly sacrificed to that of the producer." Yet far
too slowly have the people of the world, and in particular of America, learned to
think of themselves as consumers as well as producers. We have now a com
petitive system of producers organizations struggling for profit. The methods used
are those of internal and external force. The results are widespread poverty, un
employment and tenancy. Yet by also organizing as consumers, we could have a
consumer-producer cooperative system based on service to all rather than profits
to a few. The methods used would be persuasion and not force. The results would
be a widespread distribution of incomes, jobs and ownership.
The primary purpose of the NATIONWIDE CO-OP DRIVE is to arouse
Americans to the fact that they are consumers and should organize themselves into
consumers cooperatives. The specific things everyone should do are three: Join
Co-ops; Buy in Co-ops; Invest in Co-ops.
Make America Consumer and Cooperative Conscious!
An organ to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement, whereby the
people, in voluntary association, purchase and produce for their own use the things they need.
Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U.S.A., 167 West 12th St., N. Y. City.
E. R. Bowen, Editor, Wallace J. Campbell, Associate Editor. Contributing Editors: Editors of
Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations.

Entered as Seecond Class Matter, December 19, 1917, at the Post Office at New York, N. Y.,
under the Act of March 3, 1879. Price $1.00 a year.

Adopted by the Board of Directors of The Cooperative League of the USA at its
quarterly meeting in Indianapolis, October 21, 1941. This Declaration should be
read and adopted at every regional and local cooperative meeting.
Today America needs new pioneers. . . .
Men and women who will prove that the self-reliance of our pioneer tradition
still endures. . . .
Men and women who will apply the spirit of 1776 and the wisdom of 1787
to the problems of 1942. . . .
Men and women who will grasp the significance of the democratic principles
of liberty and equality of opportunity and extend them from the political into the
economic field.
Today we are faced with the problems of war and chaos, class and race
hatreds, scarcity amidst potential abundance, dictatorship, high cost of living,
unemployment and insecurity and the concentration of wealth and power. These
are the results of the prevalent economy of scarcity.
Yet, there is at hand, and at work, a program which' substitutes peace for
violence, construction for destruction, evolution for revolution. Today, millions
of families throughout the world are developing this program for abundance
through Consumer Cooperation.
Our problems are all man made and can be solved by men who are willing
to take practical, peaceful steps toward building a world of justice and peace.
Cooperatives serving millions of families throughout the world
are building gradually a system of free trade between peoples with
out profit, force, or exploitation. Permanent peace will only come
when the resources of the world are available to all mankind.
Cooperative membership is open to all, eliminating discrimination
which sets race against race, class against class, and peoples against
Cooperatives are organizations of consumers set up to distribute
justly and without profit the abundance our power age is able to
Cooperatives, in which each member has one vote, apply the
principles of democracy to the day-to-day job of supplying the neces
sities of life. Cooperative democracy is the exact opposite of political
Cooperatives offset the high cost of living by increasing buying
power, reducing the costs of production and distribution and eliminat210

Consumers' Cooperation

ing the incentive for profiteering. Because savings are distributed to
the consumer owners on the basis of their patronage, cooperatives
cannot profiteer.
Cooperative stores and service stations, factories, mines, mills and
refineries are creating new income and new employment. Savings,
passed on to the consumer owners, expand their buying power and
create in turn more wealth and more employment.
Cooperative ownership strengthens the moral fibre of the people
and gives everyone a stake in America, bringing to the people eco
nomic power to help themselves and to check both big business and
big government. We want neither private monopoly nor public
Our present world is governed by ruthless competition for profit rather than
constructive cooperation for service, a world of hate instead of friendliness. We
believe that the democracy and neighborliness of cooperatives extended through
out the world would eliminate the economics of force which causes war and that
cooperatives will establish a permanent basis for world peace.
We believe that ideas can march where armies cannot penetrate and that the
time has come when men of good will, working together in economic coopera
tion, can create a saner world.
The methods of cooperation have proved successful in every kind of enter
prise from oil and farm supplies to groceries, from insurance and housing to
recreation. And each step further, from retail, to wholesale, to production, taps
new and wider benefits for self-reliant people. Good will cannot fail.
The Consumer Cooperative Movement has been endorsed by the major
religious faiths, by national education associations, by all political parties, by farm
organizations and by the labor movement.
Cooperatives are not institutions set up by philanthropists to help the people.
They are businesses created by the need, intelligence, vision, good will, hard work
and capital of people who believe in themselves.
Conscious of our opportunity and responsibility we pledge ourselves:
To study thoroughly the job ahead of us.
To join and help form cooperatives and accept the responsibilities of
To buy everything possible through our cooperatives.
To invest in cooperatives.
To tell our neighbors and our neighbors' neighbors about cooperatives.
These are the opportunities and responsibilities of America's new pioneers.
Men of good will, using the tools of the new age, can build a saner world.
November, 1941


Anders Hedberg, International Secretary
Kooperativa Forbundet, Sweden

A MERICA'S contact with the few
•i*- peaceful countries that are left on
the Continent of Europe is quite naturally
very limited nowadays. It is difficult to
keep pace with all that is happening on
the fringes of the vast area of conflict and
outside it, but the cooperators in the
United States are undoubtedly aware that
Sweden and Swedish cooperation are free
and are steering the same course as they
always did. In Sweden political neutral
ity is a sound and necessary principle—
not merely for the cooperative movement.
The Swedish economy finds itself in
a more difficult position than ever before,
owing to the country's being almost en
tirely cut off from the supply of vital
necessaries and other goods from abroad.
We have had to adopt rationing, pricecontrol regulations and other Govern
ment measures. However, the Swedish
consumers are suffering from no scarcity,
not even in the autumn of 1941, although
one sighs in vain for a cup of really good
Co-ops Stabilize the National Economy

One of the reasons why the Swedish
economy has managed to fare pretty well
is undoubtedly the fact that the country
has had a very strong cooperative system.
When a third of the population has com
bined to form strong and sound con
sumers' organizations, the consumers are
able to make their voices heard in an
authoritative and expert manner even
within the State Administration. The best
evidence of this is perhaps the fact that
Axel Gjores is the Minister of Food and
Supply in the Swedish Coalition Govern
ment, which comprises all the political
parties with the exception of the few
Communists in the Riksdag arid the Nazi

Party, which is conspicuous by its entire
Axel Gjores has, so to speak, grown
up within the sphere of consumers' co
operation and spent most of his work
ing years in it. He is a self-made man
who has worked his way up the ladder
in an almost American fashion. At the
age of 14, he began to earn his living as
a worker in a foundry. Having gone
through a course in perhaps the most fa
mous of all famous people's high schools.
he became a shop assistant in a consum
ers' society and was quickly appointed
to the Cooperative Wholesale Society
(K.F.), the central organization of the
Swedish consumers. He there rapidly
found those contacts and connections in
England which have proved to be of
such vital importance both for his own
personal development and for the rela
tions between Swedish and British co
Become Nation's Foremost Publishers

After spending some time at the Co
operative College in Manchester, by 1918
his training and experience justified his
being appointed editor of the most
widely circulated organ of Swedish co
operation, which under his management
developed into the biggest popular jour
nal in the country. Its present circulation,
just over 600,000 copies a week, if reck
oned per inhabitant, would correspond
to an American edition of about twelve
million copies. In 1926, he became i
member of the Board of the Wholesale
Cooperative Society and head of one of
the principal departments in the Society.
Among other sections, there came under
his supervision at that time the bookpublishing department, which rapidly
Consumers' Cooperation

grew to be Sweden's leading enterprise
dealing in economic literature. Another
of the fields of enterprise in which he
showed a keen interest was the great
permanent Cooperative School.
In his cooperative days, Axel Gjores
also found time for a considerable
amount of writing. Among other books,
he has published in English a work that
is no doubt known also in America, en
titled Cooperation in Sweden.
As a member of the Board of the In
ternational Cooperative Alliance, he
kept in close touch with cooperation in
foreign countries and especially kept up
his lively contact with the problems of
Great Britain and derived many impulses
from that country. His book on Robert
Owen and the Birth of Cooperation is a
work possessing scientific qualifications.
Moreover, his interest in history has
found expression in a paper on the Chris
tian Socialists in England.
A Cooperator Heads
the Board of Trade

In 1938, sincere regret and disappoint
ment were felt within wide circles in
cooperative Sweden when Axel Gjores
resigned from active service within the
cooperative organization. The reason was
that he was then appointed head of the
Board of Trade, a Government Depart
ment whose duty it is to supervise and
control a number of functions within the
economic life of Sweden. The appoint
ment of a hard-bitten cooperator to this
central post in the Civil Service first
caused surprise and gave rise to com
plaints in private industrial arid commer
cial circles, but in a very short time all
opposition was silenced. It was quickly
realized that the Board of Trade had ac
quired a chief who not only was a cooperator, but was also capable of carry
ing out his important official duties for
the benefit of the entire community. Even
the retail grocers said he was a "jolly
good fellow in spite of being a coop
November, 1941

When the European war broke out in
the autumn of 1939, the State economic
bodies found themselves faced with new
and serious difficulties. The huge burden
of work that rested on the shoulders
of Axel Gjores became heavier still, and
his general reputation as an extremely
efficient administrator was still further
enhanced. Everyone admitted that he per
formed his very arduous duties as pricecontrol authority with unimpeachable im
partiality and with far-sighted attention
to the urgent needs of the Swedish
Called to the Cabinet

When, therefore, the post of Minister
of Food and Supply became vacant in
1940, it seemed only natural that Axel
Gjores should enter the Cabinet. This
time the appointment met with no op
position from any quarter. He carries his
heavy burden of responsibility with
calm strength, good humor and personal
Naturally, we Swedes haven't merely
the Government arid the Administration
to thank for the fact that our economic
life can go on as it does and that we have
not had to tighten our belts more than
we are doing today; but without this
strength and self-confidence displayed by
the State Administration our position
would have been far worse than it is.
Sweden's cooperators are highly gratified
at having one of their own men at the
economic helm and hope that the trend
of high policy will soon be such as to
lighten his burden and restore full eco
nomic liberty to the economic life of the
The life of Axel Gjores affords an il
lustration of how rapidly social progress
in Sweden has developed. As a twentyyear old iron-worker and trade union
ist, he was blacklisted after an un
successful strike and lost his job. Now he
is a member of the Cabinet as Minister of
Food and Supply, highly respected by
workers, farmers and industrial magnates.

TUST a few days ago, friends buried
J the flesh and bone of Louis Dembitz Brandeis, retired Justice of the
United States Supreme Court who died
at his home in Washington on Sunday,
October 5th.
But that which was Brandeis is not
dead. The spirit of Brandeis—and he
was all spirit and soul—goes marching
on. A Supreme Court which once treated
him and his beloved associate, Oliver
Wendell Holmes, with derision and con
tempt now walks in the paths those two
great jurists cut from legalistic under
brush planted by highly paid corporation
lawyers. In Massachusetts and in New
York, Brandeis' prized and most cher
ished accomplishment, his "Savings Bank
Insurance" system is joined with coop
erative insurance to make insurance a
public service rather than a money trust
to exploit mankind. But Brandeis lives
more in the hearts and minds of thou
sands of young apostles he inspired and
taught and sent forth to do battle. They
were his jewels. In them he found great
er reward, he said, than any man should
See him on a Sunday afternoon at
"tea" in his apartment. He and his be
loved wife greet each visitor but by a
natural force, Brandeis gathers close to
him the young men, his disciples, and one
by one and sometimes in larger num
bers they talk. The men of lesser im
portance, high officials, members of Con
gress, rich merchants, quickly gravitate
to the outer circle. See him when he had
one of his young men in for a personal
conference and when a particular work
was to be done. In his rather bare study,
he would sit for long periods listening
and counselling. There he lived.
More than 40 years ago, Brandeis,

the effort to free man so man could as
sume responsibility.

John Carson

then a young and able lawyer but one
who was yet to win national fame, arose
before the august House Committee on
Ways and Means and introduced himself
as a "counsel for the consumer." The
Committee, then one of great prestige,
was considering the notorious Dingley
tariff bill. Some of the newspaper men
wrote that Brandeis was treated with
patronizing smiles as he began his first
intensive struggle against the legalized
racket, extortionate tariff rates. He lost
that fight. He lost many fights. But he
won the wars.
From that day on, Brandeis was a
"counsel for the consumer." I think he
came nearer to fitting the word "tribune"
than did any man of his day. He was not
elected by the plebians to see that justice
was done them, but he volunteered for
that work and was at it until the days of
his last illness.
Unfortunately, he, who had urged and
advocated the development of consumer
cooperatives, did not realize what tremen
dous strides the cooperative movement
had made. Only a year ago, he invited
me to one of his delightful personal con
ferences and for almost two hours he
plied me with questions and urged me on
and on as his wonderful eyes lighted by
the story of cooperative development.

"The great developer is responsibility,"
he wrote. "Hence no remedy can be hope
ful which does not devolve upon the
workers participation in responsibility for
the conduct of business, and their aim
should be the eventual assumption of full
responsibility—as in cooperative enter
prises. This participation in and eventual
control of industry is likewise an essen
tial of obtaining justice in the distribu
tion of the fruits of industry.
Democracy is a Serious Undertaking
"But democracy in any sphere is a seri
ous undertaking. It substitutes selfrestraint for external restraint. It is more
difficult to maintain than to achieve. It
demands continuous sacrifice by the indi
vidual and more exigent obedience to the
moral law than any other form of gov
ernment. Success in any democratic un
dertaking must proceed from the individ
ual. It is possible only where the process
of perfecting the individual is pursued.
His development is attained mainly in
the processes of common living. Hence
the industrial struggle is essentially an
affair of the Church and is its imperative
Once I asked him why he and another
very able and very wealthy man, another
Jew who made large contributions to
public causes, had parted company. He
hastened to tell me they were still per
sonal friends and then added:

To Free Men to Assume

"He was interested only in building
institutions, I am interested in building

The consumer cooperatives expressed
in action the philosophy for which
Brandeis fought, a plan of life and living
which permitted and encouraged the in
dividual man to grow and develop those
spiritual forces which build for selfreliance and which cry out for freedom
and independence and tolerance and
goodwill. His whole life was spent in

Brandeis was born in Kentucky. His
father had ample means and Brandeis
wanted for nothing. He died a very
wealthy man, but one whose wealth was
not as much of him as were his clothes.
He had no personal experience with the
tragedies of poverty, but as he grew more
and more to resemble in face and form
the great Lincoln, he also walked from

Consumers' Cooperation

November, 1941

an early day with Lincoln in the war to
end the troubles of the oppressed.
In 1910, he became counsel for a
young government clerk, Louis R. Glavis,
who dared to expose a Secretary of the
Interior—one Ballinger. Brandeis lived
with that case day and night until finally
he and Glavis uncovered the facts which
aroused public opinion to drive Ballinger
—and eventually Taft—from public of
fice. As that fight had as much to do with
the election of Woodrow Wilson in
1912 as did any other incident, Wilson
wanted to name Brandeis as Attorney
General. Wilson permitted political ad
visors to dissuade him, a decision he al
ways regretted, but in 1916 he made
amends by naming Brandeis to be a Jus
tice of the United States Supreme Court.
Then began a fight in the United States
Senate where a blot of shame was written
into the records in the attacks on Bran
deis. Privilege and its robber bands as
sailed him but far worse were the attacks
of the ignorant and intolerant who op
posed him because he was a Jew.
Victory by Dissent

Brandeis never lowered himself to in
dulge in personal attacks on others or to
recognize that some made personal at
tacks on him. He really loved his fellow
man. When Taft, who never forgot the
Ballinger fight, joined in the disgraceful
attacks made on Brandeis' confirmation
to be a Justice, Brandeis kept his counsel
and his kindly mien. When Taft, years
later and then in trying circumstances
himself, sought to apologize, Brandeis,
quietly and with great forbearance ig
nored the original attack and the apology.
Throughout the years when Brandeis was
just a "dissenting Justice" of the Supreme
Court, one who had to be tolerated, he
never complained. He had no time for
his personal affairs or personal fortunes.
He had the great task of reforming the
legal philosophy of the Supreme Court
and he was ever at it.
There was a man. There is his light

A few of us had made size able loans to keep the store afloat. it goes without saying that the member creditors began to think and act realistically. and still others $5. paid the full $21.700. Cooperative Association began rolling around the streets in a wheezing. discouraging period of existence. This is good for both the Cooperative and the consumer-member. There is.E. Glad Times Only a cooperative business could withstand such a blitz of mobilized igConsumers' Cooperation norance and mistakes and still succeed.00. the stock has par value or better. transient trade in creased. *The new by-laws require the purchase of $5. the reorganization proceeded successfully. The following fall the store settled down in an old brick house two blocks from the business district. making shelving.A. While this was going on. each promising to buy $20. are employed full-time. Kansas. was purchased and new modern shelving and lighting were installed. 1941.00 worth of stock for full membership. arid un classified laborers—a fairly good cross section of the town. It is prac tically out of debt. it is difficult for all except the most devoted cooperators to sluff off those groups of lesser importance to do the work of the more important. Walls were re-decorated and floors painted. etc. This ill-con ceived venture left the Cooperative with about $1. active members in the Associ ation. We have been hoping that negro families would come in. to help set up the store. Its inventory consisted of a small quantity of a small variety of stable groceries. railroad workers. formerly rented. Fewer than fifty persons signed up as charter members. they called on Consumers Cooperative Asso ciation of North Kansas City. Transient trade is increas ing. and one woman. 1941. however. 1941 poria Cooperative Association and then buying against that deposit until another one is needed. pulling off the old paper. Even some of its members wouldn't allow the truck on or near their premises! That was five years ago last April. rising trade and increasing membership were immediate. the Board of Directors is composed of two young college pro fessors. however. G. W. two doctors. Racially. It is an intelligent. N. Lull. the Coop erative immediately began to climb.00 application fee as provided in the by-laws. like the writer. But the Board decided to start the business when about sixty members had signed up and paid a small amount of their con tracted stock purchase. but as yet they stand aloof. and a charter secured. Committee on Cooperatives. as well as in terms of politics and religion. a meat market and good refriger ation facilities were added. to pay cash for their groceries. second hand truck. where so many potential cooperative leaders belong to two or more clubs or societies. So a series of meetings were held. The membership of the Emporia Co operative Association is distributed among people of different interests and occupations. the cooperative had been a buying club. It is composed of farmers. and they are rapidly becoming one hundred per cent patrons. an increasing number of aggressive. by-laws drafted. there are the preponderant mongrel variety of Americans. and is turned over on the average of five times in three months. Missouri.00* worth of stock and to pay a $1. Like the truck which afterwards housed the store. cheese. Whereupon CCA withdrew its support and the three directors and the manager resigned. public school teachers. Evaluation After the modernization of the store. however. It was a very good thing for the future of the Cooperative that the by-laws re quired all loan capital to come from the members.. this was slow and difficult. For the purchase of this equipment. He persuaded the members to organize a cooperative gro cery store under the Cooperative Law of Kansas. officers elected.00. the manager had employed inefficient and even dishonest help. CO-OP label goods are becom ing more popular with both member and non-member patrons. including the manager. its members have neglected some of the ad vantages offered by the Educational De partment. Many members follow the practice of depositing money in the EmNovember. the membership has in creased to 175 active members. looking for a world to conquer. After an emergency meeting was called and three new directors elected. Some paid $15. several Mexi can families. painting. The mem bership is. meats. a pro gressive farmer. A modern service counter was built. au tomobile mechanics and electrical work ers. 216 Sad Days The manager persuaded the Board to stock electrical equipment with an out lay of about $1. has proved to be a very strong factor in the success of the Cooperative.000 in the quarter ending in July. one of whom is president. others paid $10. Only a few. the ideal istic young man appointed manager. only a few can or will go out to get new members to sign on the dotted line. while the Associa tion has made use of all the multitudi nous services provided by CCA. at least one preacher. The store equip ment. and peforming various other odd jobs. forward-looking board. uncertain. loan capital was provided by the manager's father. Cummins H OW the people laughed! For here was a co-op engaged in huckstering. fresh vegetables and fruits. a chemist. when the store of the Emporia.00. New members came in. Wholesale Administers First Aid After the directors of the Emporia Co operative Association voted to relocate the store on the main business street. former chairman. But. It also serves as a profitable institution for the savings accumulated by the members. To make matters worse. Very much of the success of the Coopera217 . at any rate. which took place in April. At the present. A delivery service is maintained. Three men. scrubbing walls and floor. In a community like this. and a railroad foreman.THE DOWN AND UP OF THE EMPORIA COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION Dr. were paid for out of current earnings. Membership in the Emporia Cooperative Assodation or in the Lyon County Coop erative Association (gas and oil) is nec essary to qualify for membership in the Credit Union. When the financial condition became so bad that the membership stock was worth less than nothing. the one director who was op posed to releasing the inefficient manager influenced two other directors to vote with him in reinstating him. very cosmopolitan in this respect. It enables members arid those who wish to become members. Before the truck started rolling.00. eggs.200 debt and with practically no electrical goods on hand. milk. butter. cream. and self-service carts and bas kets were provided. Some enter prising members cleaned it up. which is located in a rear room of the store. the Em poria Cooperative Association paid its first patronage savings to members—4% on sales amounting to $11. and a few families of Welsh and German extraction. All of these improve ments. Credit Union Helps The Credit Union. who is secretary. The in ventory is adequate in groceries. with this reorganization. Here again. when they are behind in their expenses. Then followed the effort to get more members. But. a lady homemaker. building mechanics. with the collaboration of Miss Gladden Haskell and J. Five years after the beginning and three years after its wobbly. CCA has been very helpful in the membership drive. It should be added that the three resigning directors have remained loyal and effec tive members of the co-op. H. But a young idealist came to town.

where. but we must study. bringing new faces with them. and work together. and a good. we shall need a large assembly and rec reation building for the use of the entire membership. a run down min ing district was turned into a community of well kept homes. Graham. is the Recreation Insti tute which aims to train leaders so that they can go back to their societies and communities to carry on constructive and non-competitive leisure activities. a Cooperative Youth Work camp. co-op gas stations. The film shows the tour party as guests of the youth groups at the recreation camp owned by Central Cooperative Whole sale of Superior. silent. Circle Pines Center has stressed throughout the four seasons of its operation the value of wholesome. Ohio in July. folk dancing. Beach and waterfront and roads have seen improvements. which will be increased as the business warrants. The film. is filling a need great in the lives of American people. "the world will beat a pathway to your door. 167 West 12th Street. and all these scenes and many more make for a dramatic portrayal of American cooper atives in action. visiting cooperatives of every de scription." And when Dr. The manager and the assistants receive fairly good wages. We need more stock room. creative and inexpensive leisure time ac tivities that bring the cooperative attitude to the party. To participate consis tently and effectively in a consumer co operative in the face of the hydra-headed opposition stimulates the exercise of in telligence and the mobilizing of social virtues. first hand. You see the homesteading project at Granger. Forty educators. and Robert Stockdale. churchmen. it is true.600 miles through nine midwestern states. music. He has selected three capable as sistants. real cooperative achievement. small audi ence and committee room. The 1941 Recreation Institute was directed by Chester A. under the direc tion of Father Ligutti. One of the cooperative schools that are a part of Circle Pines Center's summer program each year. Looking still farther into the future. Wisconsin. he is speaking of it in no aca demic sense for the members of Circle Pines Center have looked farther to the future than one might suspect. building with our own hands some thing that is putting more meaning into our lives and more self-reliance into our spirits. streamlined grocery stores. but we should never overlook the very real present. . "The genius of Circle Pines Center. Son quist. Iowa. It is available for rent or purchase through The Coopera tive League. buildings are being con structed and friendships have been ce mented across the native fieldstone walls that have grown high with the labor of many people. wholesale houses." And watching people come from every part of America each year. and traveled 2. Waldo Kapnick. shop. insurance companies. and the membership of other cooperatives. Ably assisting him were Naomi Rawn. and week-end work bees of various member societies have made the new farm site a bee-hive of activity all summer while the educational and recre ation institutes were being carried on in the government camp eight miles distant. rural electric cooperatives. They are not depending each year upon the rental of the National Park Service Camp to meet their needs but have purchased a large farm and are developing it for their yeararound center. "lies November. with this group. Sonquist speaks of building. is a new film produced by the Harmon Founda tion with the cooperation of The Coop erative League. We are on our democratic-cooperative way.said one philosopher." 1. "The Co-ops Are Coming' " is a visual record of cooperative achievement. a cooperatively owned department store. Here for the first time is a thrilling story of the development of American cooperatives in the middle west." says David E. crafts. credit unions. and the first cooperatively owned oil refinery and oil wells in the United States. 2 1/2 " reels in length and may be obtained in color or in black and white. We should dream. It is a delightful movie. is a 16mm. Gwen Fife. more display space. Consumers' Cooperation CIRCLE PINES CENTER "TF you can build a better mousetrap. It should have at all times even better management and services than competing private businesses. cooperative camp in lower Michigan. and meet 218 Esther Covey the men and women whose vision and work made all this possible. With these forty people you visit co operative mills and factories. and was photographed in connection with the first Ail-American Co-op Tour that took place this past summer. a Chil dren's Camp. New York. This is looking ahead to the time when a number of coopera tives in this section of the country will see fit to federate as they do in Wiscon sin and in the Northern Peninsula of Michigan. more office room and equipment. You see. journalists and cooperative leaders from all parts of the United States and Canada gathered in Columbus. We hope a bright future is ahead of us. photographed in color and we guarantee an entertain ing and instructive thirty minutes to all those who are fortunate enough to see it. more refrigeration units. Sometime we should own our store building. Educational Director of the Madison Cooperative Council and formerly of Ashland Folk School. 1941 Viola Jo Kreiner in the fact that together we are . which could be used also for food demonstrations and informal conversation. its director and educational di rector of the Eastern Michigan Associa tion of Consumer Cooperatives. Roy Chelf. Conceived as a year-around vacation and cultural center for cooperative educa tion and recreation. Marjorie Johnson arid Dor othy Sonquist. We need more parking space. the picnic ground and the fireside as well as to the educational lec ture and the committee room. 'THE CO-OPS ARE COMIN 1 —A Review "The Co-ops Are Comin' ". Clearing Ground for a Co-op Cabin 219 . a rest room for patrons. think. There are many problems of expansion and service ahead. A work camp of the American Friends Service Committee. . one cannot help but feel that Circle Pines Center. For a cooperative should never be miserly with its employees. One must forego many former privileges and learn to enjoy unpopu / larity.tive is due to the young manager.

Associated Cooperatives of Northern California. Kagawa. At Superior. and who under stand that only alert and awakened minds will be the bulwarks of our democracy. approved a Cooperative Program for World Peace and issued a Declaration of Cooperation as a feature of the Nation wide Co-op Drive. Ohio. Work began in Regina on a 225. The board of directors of The Coopera tive League. Erection of additional plant capacity for the co-op refinery in Indiana is being held up temporarily pending priority approval. National Cooperatives and United Cooperatives toured the mills and factories of the Indi ana Farm Bureau Cooperative Association and met informally together at luncheon in Shelbyville. bot tling works. Nebraska. new business and new capital. a step which should make possible greatly in creased joint purchasing by the regional cooperatives. five times what it was last year. Wisconsin. the Central Co operative Wholesale has just broken ground for a new elevator attached to the CCW feed mill. to cost $27. In Columbus. In North Kansas City.000 arid the management committee of the wholesale has authorized immediate construction of a warehouse addition to the co-op bakery. English Secretary to Dr.000 gallons of co-op paint. literally.Helen Topping. The refinery will supplement the out put of the co-op refinery at Phillipsburg. an administrative building. more business and more investment in cooperatives as part of the 221 . a dozen large oil transports. 1941 steps to extend co-op grocery wholesale service in the state. Here are some of the regional drives that are part of the coordinated campaign: Seventy-five communities in the Eastern Cooperative Wholesale territory are mo bilizing for an intensive campaign for more members. leading a discussion at Circle Pines "Circle Pines Center. New York. Farm Bureau Cooperatives in Ohio and Pennsylvania have joined hands with the Southern States Cooperatives to construct a $400. the Consumers Co operative Association and its associated cooperatives purchased a 1500 barrel-aday oil refinery at Scottsbluff. A. grocery store and creamery at Scottsbluff. and 9 representatives of both farm and city cooperatives met to consider possible November. National Cooperatives selected T. New Capital It is too early yet to measure in any way the effect of the current Nationwide Co-op Drive in bringing in new members. The board also ok'd a proposal to set up a National Co-op Radio Fund to which individual co-op members may contribute directly to the cost of general co-op publicity via radio. laundry. It is building men and women who have experienced some of the fullness of living the creative and cooperative way. CCA is building a modern brick and concrete headquarters and oil compounding plant scheduled for completion December 6. November 7. as its general manager. serving thirty con sumer co-ops with 15. more even than a camp. Moving Into Groceries Cooperatives in Saskatchewan took a step last month which was hailed as the most significant since the establishment of the Saskatchewan Cooperative Wholesale Society in 1929 and the opening of Con sumers Cooperative Refineries in 1935.000 members in that area was admitted to membership. To meet expanding volume. Consumers Coop eratives Associated will have a business volume of one million dollars in 1941." It is indeed building. Tenhune. New Business. Eastern Co operative Wholesale. "is all that it was pictured to me and more. hatchery. Amalgamated Co operative Houses held ceremonies No vember 15 at which Congressman Voorhis dedicated three new units providing for 48 more families in America's largest housing cooperative. At Amarillo. found its facil ities overcrowded and the wholesale board approved steps to secure larger quarters. During the past fiscal year CCA manufactured 3 million gallons of co-op grease and more than 48. meeting the following day. The boards of The League. warehouse and buildings housing a ser vice station. the Consumers Cooperative Association has just authorConsumers' Cooperation Ized immediate construction of an addi tion to the paint and grease factory plants at its headquarters. But the drive is already attracting a great deal of attention and both regional and local co operatives in all sections of the country are contacting individuals and organiza tions that have never been tapped before. Texas. New Buildings The co-ops are building. The Saskatchewan Co-op Wholesale an nounced the purchase of the four-story Fairbanks-Morse Building in Saskatoon as its new home. but more than a mousetrap. New Members.000 barrel storage tank to en large the facilities of Consumers Coop erative Refineries. National Coordination At Indianapolis in October. Kansas which is now turning out 3400 220 barrels a day of refined products and which reported earnings of almost a quarter of a million dollars in the last fiscal year. The action was approval of extending the services of the co-op wholesale into the distribution of groceries to 35 grocery co-ops in the province and at the same time to open the way for co-op grocery distribution to all cooperators in the state eventually. ten service stations in western Nebraska and 71 acres of ground. chief buyer for Central Cooperative Wholesale. 8." said a young woman from Montana. In New York City. Already a number of study clubs in rural areas have started case-lot distribution of groceries as a first step in that direction for rural Ohio. with a year yet to run on its four-year lease. Ohio. cafe. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE CO-OPS IN THE CRISIS A RE the co-ops being snowed under in the 'defense crisis ? Have the people become so prosperous they don't need cooperatives any more? Has the situation abroad made America overlook the co-ops? Are the co-ops getting anywhere? Let's look at the record. which will have a capacity of 20 carloads of feed a day. from Amarillo to the Atlantic coast. New Refinery Early in November.000 continuous-mix feed mill at Reading. In Brooklyn.

. New Tools Today the cooperative movement is at work "making the tools of the new age expedite the vision of the old. National Catholic Rural Life Conference and Cen tral Conference of American Rabbis have taken part in these conferences while rep resentatives of both the A. Edgar J. "THE CO OPS ARE COMIN'. BOOK REVIEWS COOPERATION: A CHRISTIAN MODE OF INDUS TRY. Sixty-one circuit councils in CCA land are scheduled to draw co-op leaders from nine states togther to carry the co-op drive to the grass roots.I. but very complete. The national movie. a follower of Benedict. Mr. Bergengren. . "a full measure of sup port will be accorded the organization and extension of cooperative buying or ganizations in cities and towns throughout the nation. side-street stores are growing into main street food markets and old established cooperatives are streamlining their stores and modern izing their equipment as one phase of the drive to make co-op stores equal in beauty their co-op ideals." is in the final stages of pro duction. Senator George D. . Kingsport." he says at one point. and C. the good way of life. functions. Ryan. The Most Reverend Vincent J. it is natural that his book takes on the aspects of a text book. by Rev." The National Co-op Radio Committee. Into it he has crammed the history of cooperation in this country. Bishop of Bismarck. And as profes sors in Catholic schools and Catholic colleges turn their attention to cooperation. Father Schmiedeler is following in the paths laid down for him by those who went before him in the Benedictine Order. the book is eminently successful." More than 180 communities in North ern Michigan. what it can do for them. This book will be of great value to anyone interested in a concise. —JOHN CARSON. $1. He is turning on the light of co operation and good will against the darkness of a materialistic philosophy which is the in evitable part of an individualistic profit order. have spoken at a Labor-Co-op conference in New Haven. Representatives of the Federal Council of Churches. president of The Cooperative League to appear at the next meeting of their executive asso ciation to tell them how to express their interest by action. We live in an age when propaganda is power. February and March to find Fifty-Thousand-One-Dollar-AYear-Men who will finance a series of nationwide broadcasts to tell the story of cooperation from the housetops by radio. The title of the broadcast will be "Building a Saner World. He is teaching and preaching the cooperative way of life. Southern Publish ers. the book should be a leading one on all cooperative bib liographies. . Order through The Cooperative League. Lincoln. by Roy F. 1941 CREDIT UNION NORTH AMERICA. Catholic Literary Guild. In the Chicago area basement buying clubs are moving to street level. It is a sound picture. Rev. Edgar J. Miss ouri. One is to create a handbook for people who want to organize and operate credit unions. On November 29. twenty great Rail road organizations expressed "deep inter est in cooperative buying organizations" and invited Murray D. 390 pages. "Cooperation: A Christian Mode of Industry. The first two of a regular series of posters have been distributed arid six more are in preparation. Bis hop of Fargo described cooperatives as Consumers' Cooperation "closely intertwined in the development of Christian philosophy.I.O. Credit union members must understand what the credit union is. "HERE IS TO MORROW. . president of The Cooperative League will take to the ait from 10:15 to 10:30 p. Muench. of L. and plans are under way for a similar confer ence at Schenectady. appointed by the committee which drew up plans for the Nationwide Co-op Drive. The facts are presented with scrupulous lucidity. as well as in foreign countries. $2. N. "We shall discuss education. organization. Lincoln. said in a tele gram of response." his fifth book. described promotion of credit unions and cooperatives as "the instru ments of liberation for the farmer. repeatedly turned to cooperatives as the economic manifestation of Christi anity at its sessions October 4-8. has written for the Catholic Literary Guild Press. Schmiedeler. The writer chooses to emphasize certain things not always foremost in the mind of the average credit union officer. what they must do for it. Congressman Jerry Voorhis and Murray D. is making plans for a drive during the months of January. hasn't yet taken a definite step in response to the Norris-Voorhis telegram." Early in November.50. Washington Representative. beautifully photographed portraying the American co-ops in action and driving home drama tically the philosophy of cooperation. The C. Truth about economics will help us to correct those abuses which so many times make our economics work efficiently against democracy. Thus through the printed to "Build a Saner World. Roy F.S. Cooperatives are the means of cultural and spiritual regeneration. The Cooperative League November. Aiken." Conferences on Religion." and "Protect and Build Democracy thru a Co-op. Minnesota and Wisconsin are beginning their part of the Nation wide Drive with a determined effort to carry the cooperative message to every home in those communities. the philosophy of cooperation and of great im portance the part the Catholic Church and its followers have played in the development of ihe cooperative movement. the great est contribution of Nova Scotia to the credit union movement is the adult study club tech nique.m. Particularly will it be of value to students. "most impor tant credit union function of all.. Knowledge is power. . Schmiedeler. . As Father Schmiedeler is a teacher. The co operative way is the Christian way. Into "Credit Union North America. He also directs the educational work in the cooperative field for the National Catholic Welfare Conference. Conn. O. Labor Shows a Growing Interest Senator Norris and Congressman Voorhis sent a joint telegram to the American Federation of Labor. Y.B." Father Schmiedeler teaches the economics of cooperation at Catholic University in Washington. "HERE IS TOMORROW" will be avail able for showings in all parts of the coun try the first of the year." photographed in connection with the first Ail-American Co-op Tour last summer was completed and released the first of October and it has already been shown to many thou sands of consumers. Bergengren has crammed all the information anybody could get into 390 pages. ." The Most Reverend Aloisius J. As I have elsewhere pointed out in this book. Bergengren has two major purposes in writing.O. The National Catholic Rural Life Con ference meeting at Jefferson City. admin istration and accounting manage these subjects with a clarity that can only be surpassed by the clarification of experience. As a handbook of policies and methods. Congress of Indus trial Organizations and the American Rail road Brotherhoods urging that labor take a more active part in the promotion of consumer cooperatives saying: "higher wages alone won't solve the problems of working men"—and inviting organized labor to consider immediate practical steps in the cooperative field." A colored motion picture. and a question-and-answer recapitulation at the end of each section is so well handled that every point is made twice but without monotony. president of the Amer- ican Federation of Labor. James Myers is focussing the attention of church men and labor on consumer cooperatives as a way of cutting the costs of living and living a fuller life. In two thousand co-ops from coast to coast blaze the slo gans "Neighbors Built America—Neigh222 bors Are Building Co-ops. Chapters devoted to definition. The film was pro duced by the Harmon Foundation in co operation with The Cooperative League. 218 pages. hislory of the cooperative movement." Other Catholic leaders also went on record as endorsing and encouraging cooperatives. And the manager and field staff of Eastern Co-op Wholesale are meeting with managers and board mem bers of local co-ops from Maine to Mary land." The conviction that the credit union is 223 I I .00 (avail able through The Cooperative League).F. William Green. Labor and Cooperatives An outstanding series of conferences under the direction of the Rev. . Tennessee. The other is to affirm his faith in the future. . eastern stand ard time over the Columbia network to tell America about the cooperatives.

and security hold ers. Because we know the credit union and have faith in it. embodied in Section 537. Bowen. is given..S. "Who will say that we in the credit unions have no responsibility? We have found in cooperative credit a factor of tremendous potential worth. also that the said two paragraphs contain statement's embracing afftanr's full knowledge and belief as to the circum stances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the company as trustees. 1933. printed on the teverse of this fotm. 167 West 12ih Street. personally appeared Mary MaiMillan. we must make it do for the people all the things it can do. Y. and business managers are: Publisher—The Cooperative League of the U. Eastern Cooperative | League.50 \Vhat Can the CO-OP Mean to You? a beauti fully illustrated pamphlet. 167 West 12th Street. A Short Introduction to Consumers Coopit:-\ tion. The Important Fact about a Cooperative. Ic. 55. published by the 224 Cooperative Union of Chicago. N. to the best of her knowledge and belief. -a true statement of the ownership. Postal Laws and Regulations. New York. ninth printing. New York. by Ellis Cowling.S. Required by the Acts of Congress o] August 24. having been duly swotn according to law. Camphell. 1912. a Notary Public in and for the Stair and county aforesaid. 3-L-172. or to workers or ganized to improve their bargaining power. as amended by the Act of March }." To consumers purchasing commodities cooperatively. LAURENTS. limited edition free on request.) Consumers' Cooperation Gtr. New York. 15c. 1943. $1. Sworn to and subscribed before me this 26th day of September. Reg. We must per fect it. O. 1912. Augustus INVESTMENT PROGRAM DECEMBER 1941 NATIONAL CAPITOL LETTERS MAGAZINE FOR John Carson COOPERATIVE LEADERS . Before me. or corporation has any interest direcr -or indirect in the said stock. or other secutities are: None.A. managing editot. Doubleday. 32 pages. Edgar Schmiedeler. N. the phrase cries out for expansion. a doctor's dissertation. 2. editot." The book's momentum ends with the phrase "one great agency. Catholic Literary Guild.. New York. Notary Public. who. published by the author. Chicago.CRAL UBRARY JAN 7 1942 THE STAR LEADS ON UNIVERSITY OF FOUNDATION OF CIVILIZATION BALANCE PRICES AND INCOME Louis J. State of New York.50 Oar Interests as Consumers. Louis. G.A. edited by V. Y. and other security holders owning or holding 1 per tent or more of total amount of bonds. Business Manaser. Elliott Ross. 16 yu lOc. for Ocolc. 200 pages. Bergengren's book like a river. Y. 167 West 12th Street. 1941. a high school text with 80 pages on cooperatives. County Clerk's No. and March 3. N. Taber E. That the owner is: The Cooperative League of the U. or can we knock down the? partitions and bring them all together? An integrated program of self-help still awaits formulation... Etc. ss. Harper and Brothers 338 pages. deposes and says that she is the Business Manager of the CONSUMERS' COOPERATION and that the following is. required by the Act of August 24.nothing if it is merely a machine for borrowing and saving rises through Mr. published by The I Cooperative League. J. abstracts of 600 books and articles on cooperative education. which through two chapters on history and three on achievements keeps lifting its voice. Y. we have the sole responsibility to use it as one great agency for perfecting a better economic life for all the people. New York.-^ four-page leaflet. N. by Dorothy Hous ton Jacobson. B. J. 3. St. Works Progress Administration. bonds. What about them? Is each constructive social force to work in a room by itself. THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF THE U. That the known bondholders. I pletely revised. ci r. Herder Book Co. 1. 363 pages. $2. Associate Editor—Wallace J. manage ment. 448 pages. mortgagees.S. Y. giving the names of the owners. New York County. Tereshtenko. That the names and addresses of the publisher. 218 pages. R. by Rev. etc. Col lege of the City of New York. No. County of New Yotk. Doran & Co. the name of the person or corporation for whom such ttustee is acting. R. and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person. Circulation. contain not only the list of stockholder! and security holders as the_y appear upon the books of the company but also.S. 167 West 12th Street.. Management. of trie aforesaid publication for the dare shown in the above caption. Cooperative Project. to wit: 1. by Rev. By MARY MACMILLAN. $2.B. N.A. A Survey of Consumers' Cooperatives in the United States. 111. Editor—E. Bryngelsson. association. $1. That the two paragraphs next above. 290 pages. stockholders. 608 South Deatborn Street. K.50 Cooperative Plenty. in cases where rhe stock holder or security holder appears upon the books of the company as ttustee or in any othet fiduciary re lation.. hold stock and secutities in a capacity other t'han that of a bona fide owner. Business Manager—Mary MacMillan. $2. 193). [Seal] ALFRED L. mortgages.. if any. or othet securities than as so srated by her. (My commission expires March 30. Bowen OHIO OFFERS COMPLETE'COOPERATIVE E. 4. by L. by Francis Hackett. o] Consumers' Cooperation Puolished monthly at New York. and at last in the concluding chapter reaches flood level. NSUMER COOPERATION Statement of the Ownership.00 Cooperative Education. RICHARD GILES Associate Editor The Bridge NEW BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS (Available through The Cooperative League) Cooperation: A Christian Mode of Industry. 1941.00 I Chose Denmark.

A. where the first Consumers' Cooperative Society was organized on December 21st. Minn. 12 DECEMBER. but it glows with the light of love and faith for those who have vision and understanding of the potentialities of Cooperation. N. N. Paul. . The Producer-Consumer Amarillo. Washington Hoosier Farmer Indianapolis. Auditing Bureau. Mo. prints are available for rental or purchase on life-time lease in either 16mm. It led on to Denmark. 16 St.. N. Published monthly by The Cooperative League of the U. Y. It may be small today. Farmers Mutual Auto Ins. Ohio Michigan Farm News Lansing. Carrollton. play the drama tized scenes and commentary. Associated Cooperatives. Cooperatoi Penn. December 20th. from which grew the Farmers Cooperative Marketing Move ment. Cooperative Builder Superior. Chicago. Philip Brown of "I Wanted Wings" and "H.. which they put into practice. Editor. Ass'n Southeastern Cooperative League United Cooperatives. where the Tolpuddle Martyrs organized the first Labor Union. such as "Follow the Gleam" and "That Cause can Neither An oigan to spread the knowledge of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement. Y. Wisconsin. insurance businesses. New York City DIVISIONS: Medical Bureau. Inc. Michigan Farmers' Union Herald St. Bowen. Y. Rochdale Institute. On that night.. 1879. and other acts showing their pre ceding efforts in raising capital and the subsequent worldwide success of the idea of a Brotherhood of Consumers. "Here is Tomorrow" shows how men and women working together as neighbors have built a "peoples' business" owning streamlined grocery stores and warehouses. E. The Recreation Kit Delaware. it may be dim as yet compared with its large and brilliant competitors. feed and seed mills.00 a year.W. It was produced by Documentary Film Productions.. N. Ind. FRATERNAL MEMBERS Credit Union National Association Madison. Campbell. well-known actor. D. C. C Design Service.. Chicago Berkeley. Walla Walla.s Seattle. N. R. C. It led on to England. Y. refineries. pipelines and oil wells.W. Wash. where the first Cooperative Credit Union was organ ized in 1850. 227 E. should be every neighborhood in America where the star has led the people to organize a Cooperative Society. or 35mm. Cal. Contributing Editors: Editors of Cooperative Journals and Educational Directors of Regional Cooperative Associations. Associated Cooperatives. Minn. Complete information may be secured from The Cooperative League. Inc. Wisconsin The Bridge CONSUMERS' COOPERATION OFFICIAL NATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CONSUMERS1 COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT PEACE • PLENTY • DEMOCRACY Volume XXVII. Cal. Consumers Cooperative Association Consumers' Cooperatives Associated Consumers Book Cooperative Cooperative Distributors Cooperative Recreation Service Eastern Cooperative League Eastern Cooperative Wholesale Farm Bureau Cooperative Ass'n Farm Bureau Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Minn. New York to Phillipsburg. 167 West 12 St. Price $1. N. Entered as Seecond Class Matter. December 19. 167 West 12 St. Y. Ohio 135 Kent Ave. No. Washington. ninety-seven years ago. Co-op Review Harrisburg. Workmen's Mutual Fire Ins. Chicago 726 Jackson Place N. City. It led on to England.. N. 167 West 12 St. indeed.S. 1844. under the Act of March 3. 111. Pulham. 84th St. in voluntary association. at the Post Office at New York. Co." the first sound movie of the American consumer cooperatives ever produced. Oakland Cooportunity New Age Living 7218 S. THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 608 South Dearborn.. 167 West 12th St. with Roger Barlow as cameraman and Irving Lerner as film editor. Calif. editions. C. where farmers organized the first cooperative creamery in 1882. Saturday night. 608 S.Y.. Inc. The picture is not a travelog but a moving testament to the ability of people to help themselves—a sample of the future. Wisconsin 2301 S. hatcheries and fertilizer factories. service stations. Appropriate songs should be sung by all. Happy. New York City. under the direction of Herbert Kerkow and Willard Van Dyke. 167 West 12th Street. Associate Editor. Paul. 167 West 12th Street. But the star has never rested long. Society Publication Address St. Dearborn. Ind. C. Pacific N. Hoover. Association Midland Cooperative Wholesale National Cooperatives. Midland Cooperator Minneapolis."HERE IS TOMORROW" "HERE IS TOMORROW. Central Cooperative Wholesale Central States Cooperatives.. The movie is a dramatized documentary portraying vividly the accomplishments anJ scope of the cooperatives throughout the country. 1941 Ten Cents THE STAR LEADS ON The Biblical story of the three wise men who were led by a star ends their journey with the star coming to rest over Bethlehem. whereby the people. Grange Cooperative New. 1790 Broadway.A. Inc. purchase and produce for their own use the things they need.M. is completed and will be available for distribution in all parts of the country January first. Kerkow and Barlow travelled 6. Kansas and north as far as Superior. Y. 1917. Wallace J.. Esquire" and Jabez Gray. Ohio Ohio Farm Bureau News Columbus. "Here is Tomorrow" is a 27-minute movie. N. there should be cooperative dramas with acts picturing the Rochdale Pioneers at work filling the shelves of their small store on Toad Lane in prepara tion for the momentous event of the morrow. Kansas City. Texas 27 Coenties Slip. Millard.C ~ Readers ObserverConsumers Defender 116 E. Chicago The Round Table Cooperative Consumer N. Brooklyn The Cooperator 135 Kent Ave. N. should be celebrated as Rochdale Eve. Penn.. Georgia Southeastern Cooperator Indianapolis. It led on to Germany.. AFFILIATED REGIONAL AND NATIONAL COOPERATIVES Name Am. N. Y. 372—40th St. L. National Cooperative Women's Guild Pacific Coast Student Co-op League Pacific Supply Cooperative Pennsylvania Farm Bureau Coop. Through centuries. So. Brooklyn The Cooperator Ohio Cooperator Columbus. Y.000 miles this summer and fall photographing co-ops from Brooklyn. Farm Bureau Services Farmers' Union Central Exchange Grange Cooperative Wholesale Indiana Farm Bureau Coop. it has led men on in their search for the kinds of social organization which would put the principles of brotherhood into practice.

the uniting of farmers and interest as consumers. Their patronage The reason why groceries are the pri dividends for the past five years averaged mary key to the building of a cooperative over $100 each. There are four steps groceries in a cooperative—other savings which are usually taken. That is why Con workers. Cooperation. four principal rea sons for going into groceries faster: the dictatorship. The interest of the entire family can you. Mr. unwise business practice. A . they are an example How Go Into Groceries of what is being done now by older co We have not only learned why we operatives. Cooperation should become our yardstick in measuring the cost and quality of goods and service. But when are you going into are developed among the membership. But patronage returns are not should go into groceries. or given to. National Grange (We are happy to reproduce herewith as a guest editorial the section on Cooperation in the address of Louis J. We have be fore us a list of patrons of an established serve and extend democracy.) T ill eam work and self-help are the foundation of civilization. and which if December. No one would want to live in a cooperative state where all private enterprise was stifled. "You are on the "cational and recreational activities which right track. Organized farmers. unfair legislation. exert undue influence. Here. Almost half of our farm population hold membership in marketing. "I see. Unless farmers arid work "NOW. or Labor from exerting undue pressure. The great danger in a democracy today groceries faster ?" It was seven years ago when he asked is the misunderstandings which have that question. they all had a wide margin. The total volume of this business runs well into the billions of dollars. Here the farmer who works with his own hands. It can take out the arbitrary. man aging their own affairs. the fact that groceries are the sumers' Cooperatives are the common de primary key to building a cooperative nominator of producer groups. CO-OP labeled bill every six months. young and old should make merry in folk dancing. who work on the farm or in the factory Why Go Into Groceries have no common economic relationship. makes of a coopera they can save 5% or more by retailing tive a common meeting place of farmers and workers and will unite them to pre and wholesaling groceries. feed cows' stomachs co only be built around a commodity like operatively and tractors' stomachs coopera tively. that civilization rests upon selfkelp rather than state help. that which everyone uses. where everyone had to be a cooperator. or a $20 bill every cans of food products are the primary year as a return on their purchases ? While means by which a cooperative world can these amounts may be larger than can be built. Taber. in America. But all should be happy to live in a nation where coopera tion becomes a new David saying to the Goliath of mechanized. they can be divided and conquered by There are. Taber Retiring Master. cooperative grocery store. mother and children — get into were simple and bulky commodities and the habit of going into a cooperative gro cery store and buying regularly. adds to direct per sonal ownership and control and can be to business what democracy is to govern ment. It has not been what governments have done for. In this statement. cold. but how to do the only savings that are made by buying it in the best way. can meet organized Labor that performs essential service.corporation is more helpless than a cooperative. or a $10 any other commodity." Guest Editorial THE FOUNDATION OF CIVILIZATION Louis J. from handling of commodities like groceries the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. however. Taber emphasized two of the most important reasons for the development of a cooperative economy: first. and home owners of this Nation will preserve their stake in the blessings of American life!" 226 Consumers' Cooperation GO INTO GROCERIES FASTER! I N an interview with the late Sir Wil are made in lower prices on highly ad liam Dudley. and materialistic. Small business. through hired management. Cooperation is but giving to those who use it. Today we could answer grown up between organized farmer and question "When?" byy saving his y * worker groups." ers can be brought together on common For the American Cooperative Move ground. like Big Business or Big Labor. The one common economic savings to be made. It is not a panacea. and second. will injure no group and will help all. their citizens. and that we were us ing them as stepping stones to build a naturally become interested in the larger meaning of Cooperation and in the edufoundation for going into co-op gro ceries. which everyone personally con cooperatively?" Our answer was that feed sumes. family-sized agriculture. delivered before their Diamond Jubilee Session on November 12. 1941. This is one agency that can prevent the danger of monopolistic practices by Business as well as Labor. organization meets organization. When men ment is becoming grocery conscious. a still greater challenge for service faces the cooperative movement. Let's celebrate the Birthday of Brotherhood in Business! The ninety-seventh Birthday of Consumers Cooperation—"The Plow Guided by a Star. If possible. the enlisting of the ground on which they can unite is their entire family. former President of the vertised commodities—besides the assur ance of known quality under government Cooperative Wholesale Society of Eng land. Here. "We have come to the turn in the road. CO-OP brand coffee and cakes should be served. can deal with organized Labor in an entirely different manner than can the corporation stockholders. retiring master of the National Grange. and not feed your own stomachs groceries. Cooperatives have now proven. There is danger that Big Government may. and can bring the warmth of human personality into business and into life. It is what the people have done for themselves that counts. pur chasing agencies. What family would not like to chases far overshadows the purchase of receive a $5 bill each quarter. or more than $20 per is because the volume of grocery pur year. It can help prevent mass production and chain distribution from stamping out little business. individual fighting farmers can prevent bureaucracy. the same advantages and machinery that corporations give to stockholders. The prin ciple of open membership and the Lost nor Stayed". or mutual insurance activities. he asked this question: "Why do and cooperative grading. if honest and efficient. at least. When everyone in the family — and fertilizer and petroleum products father. 1941 227 . that has been oj lasting value. modernized America. be expected in the early stages of start ing a cooperative. that organized farmers can deal directly with organized labor and arrive at a meeting of minds as cannot be done when corporations deal u'ith labor. This meeting of minds leads to understanding fairness and justice in the end. Cooperation. there is reason to fear for the preservation of democracy." he said.

in time. the building chosen should be such as to make possible the installation of selfservice equipment in the beginning. It takes hard study to learn to do so suc cessfully. Eventually. because of the scattered membership. until it that there are no insurmountable diffi culties in handling groceries—plus the fact that they are the commodity around which people naturally group themselves first. handles a volume of over $2. Distribution is usually made from a mem ber's home or garage. and Midland Co operative Wholesale of Minneapolis.followed through wisely insure success. the inconvenience of han dling purchases without convenient fa cilities will become greater. the organization of a study circle. The membership of these three whole sales consists principally of farmers. it is necessary to provide for delivery service.000 8—$717. and the store may be open only part-time in the beginning. Brooklyn. ^s^ 1940—$1. only small patronage dividends should be paid. This will usually be in a low-rent location. However. Lastly. and. until at length the group will incorporate and take the third step by opening a Co-op store. Packaged goods can be bought in case lots from co-op arid private wholesales. Two whole sales have developed to serve them— Eastern Cooperative Wholesale of Brook lyn and Central States Cooperatives of Chicago. probably 500 cooperative clubs have been started. Progress of Co-op Groceries Central Cooperative Wholesale of Su perior. Poverty and unem ployment on a vast scale finally woke him up. then. However. Again the membership will grow.000 7—$533. VOLUME Increases average around 40% per year </1941—$2. the next step is learning by doing. next. prorations are quite certain in most commodities except groceries which makes it all the more advisable to build a grocery volume to replace reductions in other lines. In time the co-op membership will grow larger. the people have de faulted on their responsibility of owning and operating their own businesses.000 at beginning and end of 7 years (1929-36) as brokerage wholesale Consumers' Cooperation December. first demonstrated that the handling of groceries cooperatively can be made a success. and then from the first to organize others.000.000 •1939—$1. but the ordinary American-born citizen had been too individualistic. after developing strongly in petroleum products. Minnesota. N.000. The phenomenal growth of Eastern Cooperative Wholesale. Missouri.000 $300. Then. There are also now many indications that the membership of other cooperative wholesales are becoming actively inter ested in going into groceries.559. a Co-op store. The best way to start learning is to organize a small study circle of friends and neighbors. the store will be found too small. or some other con venient meeting place. cash and carry Co-op Food Market. They are: first. the fact that the membership in the beginning was largely of one ra cial group apparently led others to hesi tate in going into the handling of more complicated products like groceries. It takes more than emotion arid en thusiasm to build a cooperative grocery store. City residents began to think of themselves as consumers and of cooperative organ ization in the early depression years of the thirties. if the town is large enough to require more than one location.000 Est. finally. and the fourth step will be reached. other neighbor hood Co-ops will start as branches or separately.071. Y. A few racial groups had proven in the cities that cooperative gro cery stores could be made a success if people would stick together. Study outlines are issued regularly. The Possibilities in Co-op Groceries Illustrated By Eastern Cooperative Wholesale. Cooperative litera ture is now available in abundance. and the balance credited to each patron toward the purchase of shares. In the past. We have learned These steps are no longer theoretical in the United States. and to begin with more simple products like feed and fertilizer and petroleum prod ucts. and pro gress ahead in this field of cooperation is likely to be rapid. During the past few years. however. a buying club. 1941 I 229 . Wisconsin. Generally. They are now pre paring to celebrate their 25th anniversary. many of which have evolved into stores and some into food markets. opened grocery departments.000 yearly is the outstanding proof of what can be done in the handling of groceries cooperatively. In the end. From learning by study. but proven out by experience. if any. in order not to be handicapped by an ex cessive payroll. the savings are often large in percentage. to meet competition and to serve the membership the most economi228 cally. However. a Co-op Food Market. Since much of the work is done voluntarily. Consum ers Cooperative Association of North Kansas City. The simplest way to start business operations is by evolv ing the study circle into a buying club. the time will arrive to develop into a self-service.

the competitive-profit system is unable to bal ance total price and income because of the accumulation of excess savings in the hands of a few. 1941 The Control of Income The most direct way to prevent price inflation is for consumers not to have any more cash and credit to spend than the normal price of the civilian goods avail able. must be taken by Uncle Sam in some manner and used to pay for defense goods. cannot be effectively controlled by a democratic political government. More money and less goods mean higher prices. Since in this way the small shareholder is taxed at equally the same rate as the large shareholder. Emergency Relief Measures Less of the income of the people will have to be "soaked up" by the govern ment if prices can be controlled by gov ernment regulation. Three Keys to our Troubles The University of Chicago has just celebrated its fiftieth anniversary with the assembling of a "learned" Congress. a decrease in the goods that can be purchased. It cannot be left in the hands of the people to spend. TOTAL INCOME TOTAL PRICE 230 Furthermore. emergency relief measures. Any additional income which they receive will have to be taken from them by the government in one or both of two ways: either taxed away or bor rowed away. Naturally. industry. that their failure to solve the problem of unemployment was because those who owned goods refused to sell them at prices which those who could consume them could pay. we do not have too much faith in the government be ing able to effectively control prices direct ly. without answering the question of how to do it. it serves to prevent so much income going into the hands of stockholders individually for them to consume or save. may result in both economic and political disaster for America when the time for deflation arrives. There are two factors which tend toward deflation: first. agriculture and labor—who continually battle among themselves in a producer-bound econ omy over the distribution of scarcity. Both reduce the amount of income that can be spent. then the net cash income of consumers fins credit to consumers must be no greater than the normal price of the (iinlian goods that are available. taxation and second. and has im mediately brought violent opposition from finance and industry.HOW BALANCE PRICES AND INCOME TO PREVENT INFLATION AND DEFLATION E. Another inflation period is already under way which. Every cooperator should think his way through to a clear understanding of these problems and to a decision as to what action should be taken. which themselves bring on periodic depressions. Repeated booms and busts. the profit on both. there would be a greater measure of justice in 231 . Each producer group insists that the others be controlled. The four powerful producer economic groups—finance. third. logical thinking can reach no other conclusion—we are in for an other bust if we do not prevent a price boom. but should be considered separately — it is in reality profit on price. then the price of civilian products will also rise in proportion to absorb the in creased income. This profit is included in the price. and the second. savings. A simple statement of the situation is this: There are two factors tending to ward inflation: first. ag gravates it. The Control of Prices The total price is made up of three factors: first. there will need to be two answers: the first. such as oc curred in 1920 and 1929. Effective govern ment control of prices can only be done by domination. the price of civilian goods. Emergency relief requires some meas ure of control of both prices and incomes by the government. When such taxation is adopted. second. since the present sys tem is not self-controlling to prevent inflation and deflation but. Unfortunately. are greatly exaggerated in converting a large part of civilian produc tion over to defense production and reduc ing the amount of civilian goods available. poverty and tenancy lest we also lose democracy in Price of Defense Goods Must Equal Price of Civilian Goods which can be bought Must Equal Taxation Corporation Taxes Payroll Taxes Sales Taxes Personal Income Taxes Borrowing Personal Savings Restricted Credit to Consumers Cash Income of Consumers Consumers' Cooperation America. if not stopped. This has been proposed by Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau. The charts on the previous page show the economic factors involved and will help to explain in general what will have to be done if temporary economic stabil ity is achieved and the extremes of in flation and deflation are prevented. Second. the increase in in come and second. or price. We Americans must work out a system which will answer the problems of unemployment. that economic stability cannot be achieved until a system is worked out where income will equalize outgo. Bowen T HE most important immediate eco nomic problems which America faces as a nation have to do with preventing inflation and deflation. These normal difficul ties. This can only be done by balancing prices and income. However. The internationally known economic au thorities who spoke at this Congress were specific in making these three declara tions: First. while paying out huge sums to workers for the production of defense goods which they themselves do not purchase with the income they receive. The problem we face is this: // infla tion and deflation are to be prevented. the economists left the problem unsolved after making this analysis. For if net cash income and credit to consumers rise. will if con tinued inevitably lead to revolution and dictatorship. and thus prevent higher prices or lower them. No American should be blind to the certainty of deflation follow ing inflation—we have had two violent examples during the last twenty years and should learn from such experiences. but not themselves. permanent remedies. Third. the price of defense goods. instead. R. There are at least four kinds of taxa tion which can be adopted by the gov ernment: The first is corporation income taxes. This means that an amount equal to the price of defense goods. and December. that economic freedom and po litical democracy have disappeared in some countries because of their failure to solve the problem of unemployment. Further more. democracy presupposes independ ence of the government and the economic system to a large degree. Even in normal times.

An economic sys tem should be self-regulating. we would be willing to be taxed to whatever degree is neces sary to pay as we go. like those on corporation incomes. The regulation of an economic system should not be a function of a political government. Trade will be free between all countries. for convenience in col lection and as a practical political matter. and thus eliminate the necessity of the government taking in come from the people to pay for war goods. The true basis of taxation ought to be the amount of in come left over after taxes are paid. inequitable. through unemployment insurance. rather than reduce it. Con sumer cooperatives could do a better job of it as they have proven in other nations and in some cases in our own. When a government does not tax away or borrow away a sufficient amount of the income of the people to pay for its expenses and for its war purchases. The second kind of taxation is that of payroll taxes. as no one will attempt to profit from another. accordingly. There will be no excess savings flowing into the hands of a few and becoming stagnant. Each nation will produce what its natural resources and the skills which the people have developed make most economical. The third type of taxation which gov ernments resort to in order to reduce to tal net income is that of sales taxes. The fourth type of taxation is that of personal income taxes. However. as none will be needed. one hundred million dollars. but immediately when they begin spending it. These taxes. While a certain amount of credit is required in order to spread payments for homes and other producer goods over a number of months and years. taxes are as sessed on corporation profits before be ing 'distributed. hav ing reached a total of nine billion. we must pay anyhow. Such taxes should be heavily graduated up ward. is to lower the tax exemption and thus penalize the small income receiver. It should provide for a constant increase in the pro duction of civilian goods and for their equitable distribution to all consumers. because of the fact that we have more money to spend. in the long run. 232 We have indicated the four major types of taxation which a government can adopt to reduce the net incomes of the people to whatever level is necessary to equal the normal price of the civilian products available for consumption. and thereby directly encour ages the process of inflation. When we pay as we go. And I pray God some day they will be strong enough to do this job without the necessity of govern mental action. it is a habit of governments to postpone the evil day of collecting suf ficient taxes to pay as they go and to bor row a part of the income of the people away from them instead. the most equitable of all. Consumers' Cooperation is the permanent remedy for inflation and deflation. ConConsumers' Cooperation sumer credit has already boomed. which dams up the stream of purchasing and production and December. or in other words. until it is the highest in America's history. The tendency. when we build a consumer-producer-cooperative economy in place of our present competitive-profit economy. This is the reason for the government attempting to take action to reduce the amount of consumer credit by requiring a larger down payment and shorter terms. 1941 causes periodic depressions even in nor mal times. // we were wiser. a large amount of the credit now extended for consumer goods is due to the inability of the competitive-profit system to distribute to all consumers an equitable share of the total national income. Payroll taxes are or dinarily assessed in order to take from those who have employment and dis tribute to those who have not. Consumers' Cooperation is the perma nent remedy for balancing price and in come—for a nation as a whole and for each individual. take income away from the people before they get it. If even 25 per cent of our American people were tonight organized into cooperatives. In fact. Thirdly. and then taxing them individually in proportion to their ability to pay. Such savings are accumulated by patriotic appeals. The Control of Credit Credit is also a form of income. These taxes take income away from the people after they receive it.distributing the profits from the corpora tion to the shareholders. However. old age pen sions. They automatically restrict credit to its legitimate uses for the purchase of producer goods and for emergency re quirements. when consumers cooperatives expand sufficiently in America to become the yardstick of private-profit business. Investments in cooperative shares and savings are the most effective way to prevent inflation and defla tion. Any amount charged in excess of actual cost of production and distribu tion will be returned to consumers in pro portion to their purchases and thus lower the price to actual cost. Consumers' Co operatives follow the policy of cash trad ing. First of all. Accordingly. should not overshadow the necessity of building a cooperative economy to permanently remedy the causes. and by resort to methods of public disfavor for those who do not voluntarily pur chase savings stamps or bonds. there is no ex cess expansion of credit which induces a boom and no sudden contraction of credit which produces a bust. while employees of corporations are usually poor. rather than to pay them out in increased prices for goods. while those who receive minimum subsistence incomes should be exempted. we would not need Government control of prices." 233 . The great difference between the two is that corporation shareholders are usually wealthy. For bank borrowings increase the amount of money available to spend. as more than a million of our families are now organized. however. then it must resort to borrowing from the banks. This will be done when the Consumers' Cooperative Movement expands sufficient ly to become the common denominator for all producer groups. If taxation is assessed on a just basis. Emergency measures to relieve the re sults of the disparities between price arid income caused by the competitive-profit system. The Permanent Remedy The further development of the Con sumers' Cooperative Movement is the permanent remedy for the lack of bal ance between total income and total price—for the prevention of inflation and deflation. the Consumers' Coopera tive Movement will eliminate profit on price. they are easily collectible and are assessed because of that reason and also because governments generally are controlled by the wealthy and not by the poor. As Congressman Voorhis declared in a recent radio address: "The only reason we must use this remedy is because the people have not organized to protect themselves. un questionably. and it would be far better to only have to pay normal prices for them rather than to pay inflated prices. there's no hangover of deflation to face afterwards. These are. In the second place. it would be far better to pay what ever excess incomes we receive to the government. the develop ment of the Consumers' Cooperative Movement will remove the economic causes of war inherent in the competitiveprofit system. and trade such products freely without profit for goods produced in other coun tries. we can only consume whatever civilian goods we produce dur ing a year. However. In the end. However. however. and must be controlled as well if total price and income are to balance. to use this form of taxation as a means of forced savings and thereby reduce the total net income available for immediate spending. and their comparative degree of equity. the proposal now is to use payroll taxes as a means of taking away more than is needed for such social insurances. Such taxes bear jar more heavily on the poor than on the rich in proportion to their in comes and are. We should turn to this perma nent remedy and build cooperatives stronger and faster in America. etc.

The Credit Corporation is in a position to use these short-term investments. OHIO OFFERS COMPLETE COOPERATIVE INVESTMENT PROGRAM E. Likewise. Savings carried on deposit in financial institutions over which the invester has no control are used and re invested at the will and desire of the controlling interest of the financial or ganizations. on the ques tions of the attempts by the national government to control price and income as an emergency measure. since we are the only effective economic organization of consumers ? As a minority. Savings accumu lated in the financial reserves of insur ance companies are reinvested at the will and desire of the controlling interest of the company. and the individual relin quishes control immediately upon making the deposit. do we not have an obligation to speak for all consumers. in the various ways outlined briefly in the foregoing. the apparent safety of the investment. since it makes loans to far mers for current operating expenses and to assist insurance policyholders in fi nancing new car purchases. through their joint legislative committee. are faced with the problem of what stand the Consumers' Cooperative Move ment should take. the amount available for investment. It is for these reasons that a complete investment program is both desirable and advantageous. his own mutual insurance companies. if any. The Ohio Farm Bureau has its own insurance companies—auto. This control is retained when you have your own organization insurance companies. how ever. and the avail ability of the money when needed if for any unforeseen reason it is needed quickly. They may be accumu lated and left on deposit or invested in the usual savings account. and we will also present to them any communications we may receive on this most important subject. are we or are we not strong enough to speak up for consumers in general on national legislation affecting all consum ers. The control of the use of December. The interest or dividend paid varies both with the amount and the maturity period of the certificate. or plans.What Stand Should the Consumers' Cooperative Movement Take on Emergency Control Legislation? The Directors of The Cooperative League and National Cooperatives. The Long View on Short Term Investments The "Investment Certificates" being issued by the Farm Bureau Agricultural Credit Corporation bear maturity dates of one year or more. and thus keep it working to their own advantage. Manager Farm Bureau Agricultural Credit Corporation T HE Ohio Farm Bureau has recently made available a short-term "Invest ment Certificate. The "Investment Certificates" of the Farm Bureau Agricultural Credit Cor poration now provide this opportunity to Ohio cooperators. These certificates are issued by the Farm Bureau Agricultural Credit Corporation. fire and life —and it has for several years been posConsumers' Cooperation sible for the Ohio cooperator to accumu late his savings in these. and are available in amounts of $50 or multiples thereof. K. Building Toward Financial Independence Such a complete program is required of cooperatives if they are to build to ward financial independence." which bears both a definite maturity date and a stated inter est income. and thus makes avail able a complete investment program. they may be used for the purchase of the stocks and bonds of commercial and business or234 ganizations. This ad'ded investment serv ice provides a complete investment pro gram for Ohio cooperators whereby all of their savings may now be invested in an acceptable and practical manner in their own cooperative projects and thus be kept constantly working to their own interests and benefits. Augustus. and the majority vote of this stock is usually retained by a comparatively small group and not by all of the in vestors on a cooperative "one man. namely. what should be our atti tude on the various emergency measures now being attempted arid under consid eration ? We are sure that the national Directors individually will appreciate your discuss ing these matters with them in advance of their next quarterly meeting. but relinquished when you insure with those companies in which you can not and do not have any contact or control. Have we arrived at the place where the organized Consumers' Cooperative Move ment should speak up for consumers in general? Granted that our numbers are less than a majority. These are short-term loans with maturity dates simi- A Ray of Hope 235 . The plan. for him to invest any portion of his «vings in short-term. when they will again be considered. and if so. it has been possible for him to invest both in the common and preferred stock of his own business organizations. Three Ways to Save Cooperatively There are three principal methods whereby an individual accumulates and invests savings. It has not before been possible. 1941 money so invested is relinquished when the stocks are purchased. Those with smaller amounts available usually keep their sav ings invested in such a manner that they can be quickly "cashed in" if and when necessary. and if the individual cooperators are to be able to so invest all of their savings that they can maintain the control of their money. followed by any particular individual varies with the interest rate or dividend income received. the Farm Bureau Cooperative Association and the local County Cooperative Associations. Savings invested in the stocks and bonds of independently owned business organizations and corporations are con trolled by the holders of the common stock. or they may be accumulated to the individual's credit in the financial reserves of insurance companies. the Farm Bureau Corporation. Few Coopera tives to date have provided any such plan or service whereby either the investor of large or small amounts can invest it so that it will be available on a short-term basis and at an established future date. Many individuals having com paratively large amounts available for in vestment use all three methods in order to diversify their risk. one vote" basis. quickly maturing cooperative investments.

and the in- terest now being paid to outside financial organizations will be paid to the cooperators making the investment." In the Transportation Act of 1940. we may agree that regulation by govern ment has failed as all attempts to create a profit motive arid then regulate out a profit motive must fail. to provide for enough scarcity so as to maintain a price. "Hot oil" is oil produced in violation of some law. it would seem insoluble. If there is any reasoning to justify a contrary opinion. But suppose we provide for public ownership of the rail roads. The announcement of this service and a complete investment program of the Ohio Farm Bureau is of significant im portance. the economy of force. Owners of more than 5. the govern ment will have. State ism marches on." Then. Congress created a temporary "transpor tation agency" which was to study the transportation problem and report on the services the various agencies of transpor tation—railroads. water carriers. It is awe-inspiring to think through on this program. although Connolly may have no realization of wherein its hypo critical aspects lie. the tide turned to trans portation. Just a brief horse back discussion was inspired by the ques tion one authority presented in a little forum recently when he said." and just about as diffi cult to handle as was bootleg liquor. It has an impossible task. State and federal officials like to refer to these laws as "conserva tion" laws. Even the most confirmed opponents of stateism will admit there may be reason—in a war situation—to provide for such regimentation.000 barrels of oil a day and he produced 1." The hypocrisy in this law—as well as in the state production control laws — is the affirmation. it has not yet been disclosed in Washington. Perhaps it was not this week. The money obtained through the sale of certificates will be used to replace money now being borrowed from outside finan cial institutions at an interest rate com parable to that of the certificates. When this questionnaire is completed. In fact. to get control of the agencies of transportation. gov ernment agencies move on. Connolly wants to make this law perma nent law. for "efficient routing" of traffic. it was not this year—it was of the long. little by little and much by much. and the avail ability of the vehicle for government use. whose name is attached to the Connolly "hot-oil" law. the states and the federal govern ment attempt to control as effectively as possible the law of supply and demand. and perhaps entirely under the compulsion of an existing condition. C—"Little by little and much by much.000. It is now discussed and offered as a plan to have these regional clearing agen cies become something of a central au thority "for shippers" and the word "for" is emphasized. It completes a desirable finan cial and investment set-up. "1 We wish you a VERY MERRY CHRISTMAS Senator Tom Connolly of Texas. In flows the tide as the forces of selfish individual profit capitalism. The obvious fact is that these laws can have and must have one effect. the capacity. and Secretary of the Interior Harold L. the dangerous implications begin liiii 236 to creep into the program—and for the purpose of this report the question of the need or the advisability of this effort is not presented. even the little trucks the farmer owns and uses? And if you say we should not. and so on. or this government agen cy hopes to have. I ask then if we should provide for public ownership of the motor truck lines ? And if you say we should. The law provides that any oil which is produced in violation of a state oil production control law can not be shipped across a state line without violating the federal "hot oil" law. A worth while goal of any cooperative. It is undoubtedly true that most of the government officials involved in this effort are not friendly to stateism. information concern ing the location of every truck and bus in the country. This agency is at work. creates the economic pulse of the world. These central authorities would attempt to make for "efficient use" of the vehicles. air carriers—should render and Consumers' Cooperation be permitted to render. ex cept that the cooperator may now invest his money not previously available for investment in cooperative projects in these short-term certificates on a basis which is acceptable and profitable. par ticularly on "the elimination of empty hauls. solemnly made by leg islators and state and national officials." and that best describes the atti tude of the most conscientious men to wards this work. Then it is proposed to classify these ve hicles. This week.100. that the laws must not be used to affect prices of oil. long ago when some very sin cere leaders of thought contended it was possible for a political agency of gov ernment to "regulate" the railroads.000 trucks and buses are now being asked to re spond to a questionnaire from the gov ernment's defense group. The Connolly "hot oil" law is born in hypocrisy. motor carriers. D. or fascism. if not purpose." to quote a Jeffersonian phrase. in this instance stateism closely wedded to private socialism or monopoly in own ership of oil natural resources—moves on.lar to those of the Investment Certificates. then I ask what we should do about a group of farmers who combine to use one or two or more trucks ?" The forum developed into a bedlam with talk about regulation only of "pub lic carriers. and to place them under the protecting wing of "regional transportation clearing houses. proposes to make this law permanent. One of the ablest men in the country refused to be considered for a place on this agency because he said he "could not assume to do a job which was impossible of accom plishment within any reasonable time limit. the extra 100 barrels would become potential "hot oil. If an oil producer in Oklahoma should be told by the state that he could produce only 1. John Carson Washington Representative The Cooperative League W ASHINGTON. and makes it possible for the Ohio Farm Bureau and its affiliated organizations to become more financially independent. They think in terms of doing things "for" someone. to group them. I ask if we should provide for public ownership of all trucks. and that is to regulate price. The problem is so tremendous. undoubtedly with good reason. There is nothing new about the procedure. Then should we provide also for public ownership of the water carriers? And if you say we should. the advance of stateism is recorded day by day." and then argument about competition of cooperatively owned car riers with publicly owned carriers. 1941 and n COOPERATIVE NEW YEAR 237 . Ickes agrees with him. ad infinitum. In it sweeps. The march of stateism—and December. "bootleg oil. Meanwhile. for the elim ination of empty hauls. Through these laws. "All right.

K. sociology and religion. 12th Street. Delaware. $2.. Ohio. January 16 and 17. "The values concomitant to cooperative recreation are found in the promotion of (1) group awareness. with the cooperation of Frank Harris of the Play Co-op." * * * To help persons interested in selecting folk dance records." These collections are $1 each and are available from The Cooperative League. Father Ross' conclu sions will give heart to all those who are struggling by peaceful and evolutionary means instead of sudden. FAVORITE SQUARE DANCES—A collec tion of Mid-western square dances as called by William A. and destructive revolutionary methods to cure the widespread evils of our present economic system. Coop eratives are successfully adopting recrea tion as a program for its own sake. and lecturer in re ligion at the Universities of Iowa and Illinois. In the opinion of this reviewer. The members have built benches and are now in the process of decorating their "home. General recrea tion programs of singing. the state and religion. for inspiring this December. he has most fearlessly stressed the role of the con sumer in the economy of the future and has not been afraid to picture what would be the effect on our civilization if cooperatives were dom inant. Herder Book Co. The author reviews the failure of legisla tion to cure these economic ills inherent in the present system. For the past twelve years Billy Foster has called the figures for the annual Farmers Week Recreation Hour and with his orchestra is in constant demand all over Ohio. for education through recreation is compatible with social laws. Expenses are shared by those participating in the pro gram. Wiscon sin. 167 W. Ohio. 1941 book. After two years of meeting in various schools and settlement houses. Pennsylvania. The book will be welcomed particularly by all who realize that cooperatives are more 239 . Father Ross has written most brilliantly on the relation of the Consumer Cooperative Movement to de mocracy." "The Right To Work. economy. The program of discussions. games. "the book would never have been written if Mr. Delaware. waltzes. It is published by Cooperative Recreation Serv ice. schottisches. mass pro duction. he prefers to examine these principles and their achievements in the light of sound philosophy. New York. These records in clude polkas. a The Cooperative Recreation Service." "Southern Singing Games" and "Joyful Singing. and provision fot scientific research— bring about a distribution of commodities and services that will give enough to each one. Mr. folk games and dances. from 8 to 11." He develops each of these points and draws the conclusion: "Recrea tion is essentially a part of cooperative education. that they have had little time in their books to phi losophize. philosophical approach to the whole subject that few authors have attempted. "Indeed. The Cooperative League. Forty-two calls for favorite square dances are given—some with music and descriptions. Kenkel. has prepared a list of suitable records. and an advanced folk dance group twice a month. "Cooperative Plenty. crafts and dramatics will be similar to the one recently conducted at Antigo. and folk dancing are held twice a week. * * * Consumers' Cooperation "Quadrilles." ''Mountain Dances. with activities every night. a year." 'American Folk Dances" and "Mid western Dances. supplies just lhat sound. The Cooperative Movement is fortunate to have its principles and achievements analyzed by one so ably equipped to do them justice. University of Southern Cali fornia. Delaware. analyze and discuss. the week-end of No vember 8-9. Elliot Ross. (Available from The Cooperative League) Most writers on consumers cooperatives have been so busy pounding home the fundamental principles and methods and recording the hislory of its progress throughout the world. Father Ross gives credit to Mr. In his preface. is now binding in a flexible binder which opens flat for piano.RECREATION Ellen Edwards "CORMER students of the National Co•*. The "Handy Country Dance Book. B. but its role is primarily educational. In the author's opinion the chief evil of the present system is that it is an economy predi cated on scarcity which has failed to balance production and consumption.. But best of all. several of the popular kits containing songs and dances. Now retired. He is well know for such essays as "Consumer and Wage Earners. Knowing well that there is ample liter ature teaching and explaining the Rochdale principles and telling the story of their success ful application in Europe and the United States." he says. Groups often find records useful when a piano or pianist is not available. based on plenty. by Rev." contains four Kits- 238 Plans are now under way for a week end educational and recreational confer ence to be held at Fond du Lac. a leadership training class meets once a week." "Christian Ethics." Treasurers from Abroad. Foster. (2) creativeness." It is hoped that the studio will become a full time recreation center. and as such it offers definite values to both individual cooperative members and to society at large. dramatics. socialistic or com munistic attempts at the solution of the prob lem." With this as its theme. and produces personalities that function in behalf of such values as mutual aid. BOOK REVIEWS COOPERATIVE PLENTY. the New York Play Co-op has taken a two-year lease on a studio of its own. Crosby states. gradu ate student. J. and available through The Cooperative League for 25 cents. and peaceful evolution of society. eliminate unem ployment.00. He points out that the Rochdale principles are fully competent to correct the most flagrant abuses of the profit system. he writes this volume as a re sult of reflections and observations on the so cial and economic problems of the period in which he has lived. playing games and folk dancing with occasional "time out" for discussion and exchange of experiences. he has had a wide and varied career as a writer and lecturer in social ethics and as a member of the faculty of the Catholic University of America. F.G. Forty-five students and friends attended the get-together and spent the two days singing. and group action. Kenkel's chron icling of the accomplishments of cooperatives had not led me to consider what cooperatives might accomplish if they ever became dom inant. 204 pages. Elliot Ross. In addition to his scholarly education as a member of the Paulists. P. Nearly all of the forty-six persons attending the Antigo conference are ac tive in local educational and recreational leadership. (3) organized personality and (4) interesting youth in cooperation." "Handy Play Party Book" contains "Play Party Games. And this seems to be cooperative recreation's ma jor contribution. The November-December issue of Sociology and Social Research contains an article on "Social Values in Coopera tive Recreation" by David Crosby. Norristown. crafts." "Sanctity and Social Ser vice" and numerous other authoritative writ ings. * * * kitchen and a cloak room. Membership is 50c.S. his career has spanned the period of the greatest development of co operatives in Europe and the United States." by Father J. The list may be secured without charge by writing to The Cooperative League. and while making the best use of the good elements of capital ism—such as its power machinery. sing ing games. Father Ross wisely begins where others have left off. He finds the real solution in an economy such as cooperatives. There is dancing space for eight squares (sixtyfour people) although ten or more squares are often on the floor at once. and abolish the social causes of pov erty. social justice. group thinking. quadrilles and square dance music. Teachers Col lege Columbia University. Ohio. If you're a beginner or an "old time" square dancer you will fine1 this collection extremely useful. Wiscon sin. Of all con temporaneous writers on cooperatives.operative Recreation School and the Eastern Cooperative Recreation School held a reunion at Camp Arcola. violent. he convincingly points out the failure of totalitarian.

__....... U... 3 in...... 1020 to 194(1 inclusive.... I cannot see at present any reason why things should get better there than why they should get better in England........ S........... .'.... '"ganizatiou and Management of Coopera tive Gasoline and Oil Associations with Mmlel by-laws.. .... The MacMillan Co.. of C.. 62... From the introduction...03 2............. They have to go on or they would be crushed so they keep in step.............. each ...... 125 The Doctor and The Public.... WPA . Rawe .............. P. E.... J........... i'n? or Collaborator..S..... Consumers Cooperatives.......... of Labor..... 2.05 I'be Cooperative Promise of Peace and I'lenty.......... Report of the \EA Committee on Cooperatives .....25 ... ...........25 ....... Hark! Sonquist ... for having presented the Co operative League Library with this book and calling it to our attention... La idler and O'lirpbell (1940 edition) ......... Minn...00 • The Church and The Cooperatives Cooperation and Religion.. Clar ence 1'nilor................ B... Ellis Cowling .. of L... ....... for Vomlary schools......00 Labor and Cooperatives A... of Labor .......... who attempts to use his own words.... F................... E... Webb ....... Order from the Cooperative League. Idea Worth Hundreds of Dollars.. of L............... Kazan ....................... Sherwood Eddy . Manager's Manual for Co-op Food Stores ........25 • Medicine I :imer of Cooperative MetHcine ........... or a psyche otherwise engaged......00 Review of International Cooperation ..... eggs... Regli .... Landis . IS........... We have always had the feeling that no re viewer of a book... War basse .. Resolution . 1937............................................... Paper .15 reers in Consumers Cooperation....... Bound Volumes... ^operative Primer........ James Myers .......... Sliailid.................... 5.. U.. I am ex perimenting in his philosophy.......... .S....S................................._.... Siegler ................ It................ Alanne ... meat. ft'orkbook on Consumer Cooperatives...... Cooperative Health Associations .....05 ..... And while we heap these benefits on them we cry out against them........... James Myers ........ J.............. James Myers Per Per Copy 100 .. I doubt if the victory of Hoover would have made any difference...25 "lier Peoples' Money............................ .....10 .... ' Pine Tree Emblem........ by those. can do as good a job of interpretation as to quote extracts from what the author him self said............... J..................... 1%" x l%" in. Carl Hutchirisoii .. $2.10 . gold and green .. each year ........ 60 "I don't think Roosevelt will make any dif ference..........10 Consumers Cooperation..50 Rural Il<mds to Security. IHln Aim New Homes for Old. afternoon tea was his evening meal...25 ....... ''eking a New World Through Coopera tion.. 1.............. Coop. Dept......... ....... per year (foreign and Canada $1.. Dept.... MACDoNALD... Nat'1 CatholicWelfare Conf. • Introductory .. '^iiiile for Discussion Circles.... Alanne (Revised......... Housing in Scandinavia.........' I'rimer on Consumer Co-ops........ Goslin... in other words................... A..... Trade Union Plus Credit Union A....65 2.................. We live badly to enable our eternal enemies to live cheaply and get our bacon.... Herman Stolpe ....Free LegaJ Phases of Cooperation..........S.......05 ........... liuweii . salaries and profits to enable those who get them to buy back what is produced and in every country the mechaniza tion of industry enables fewer people to pro duce the goods and food required by the rest.... V..25 .... %" diam eter....... 167 West 12th Street. P.10 ......... Rev.than a mere economic system..... Please send payment with order. butter....... U............. .. Stuart Chase ........... I think it would only increase egomania..05 ...00 Consumers' Cooperation........... Kagawa «nd Cooperatives..75 Miscellaneous Cooperative SticKers—for letters. Dr........... Arnold (Cloth $1..... and then tax imports from England so that everything here may be dearer and we may come more quickly to wear the hairshirt of the self torturing ascetics...... Lincoln and Bowen .................... Page 10.... Israel Packel ........ Antliony Lehner ....... I have long got past the idea that the heads of states except once in 240 a thousand years are really the shepherds of millions............... ECW .. John Graham ....................... ................03 '.........03 Inswers to Accusations Against Coopera tives ..... Starr and Norton... .25) . Carl Hutchinson ........40 0*^ 1....E. Organized Labor and Consumer Co operation.......10 I'rimer for Consumers...00 ... Dept... Powers ...... A little too late in life perhaps. lirntlicrlioocl Economies... M... 32 "I have always written to please myself.50 1.. Creative Pioneers... At present they are taxing us to give bounties on exports to England..............00 .. •' nsunier Cooperatives.......05 • iiy of Toad Lane. we are closest to the high gods whose attribute is to create........... Marriot . M........05 .. ILGWU ..... J.......10 -10 ..... Warbasse ........_..25 .....15 .......... The Worker as a Consumer.... 39 "But as the writing depends on intuition and imagination more than industry the industrious writer has to wait while the idle psyche.. There was a tall man with a sweeping brown beard whose heavy overcoat looked as though it had been put on with a shovel.............05 .... 45 "There is no news here except that our politicians grow more insane in their eco nomics........ Heusoii Landis .. They are swept along by the rest That they seem to mark in the first rank is nothing.....15 .. 94 Subscribe to CONSUMERS COOPERATION Special articles of timely interest Reviews of new books and pamphlets News of the progress of the Nation wide Co-op Drive $1 per year $2 for 27 months CO-OP LITERATURE An attractive complete catalogue of books and pamphlets on the consumers cooperative movement is now available.. Revised 1941 .............. ..... Msgr. I'uurse of Study..... S.... Ligutti and Rev....... DeWitt Wyckoff. which gave him the hours when day reluctantly and slowly was be ing conquered by night to wander under the ever-changing sky......... Organization and Management of Consum ers Cooperative Housing Assn............_.............05 .. Carlton J...... Fuiiil............. Benson Y................. ..... etc...... x 3% in. I only wish I was more pleased with myself over it... Louis Brandeis .. V....... Warbasse . Co op Edition (Paper) ......1" [''srovery of the Consumer..... 3..imeutals of Consumer Cooperation.10 ...... i....... A description of A.. cheaper than we can get them ourselves.........25 .......... ... ..................New nans for Medical Service ... who know that cooperatives have a soul as well as a body.....05 per 100 . 40 "I could almost imagine eternal justice had decreed that the civilians of the countries in the Great War who approved of it were to be visited with suffering equal to that endured by the men in the armies..... Kafrawa ... ...10 ..... At Janie's....15 .03 2.. Edgar Sclimeidler .... 36 "There is something in the air or stones or earth which kindles the imagination.. ——G........... ..10 ..... 2.. of Education .. Warlmsse .. Subscription.......... people who are intelligible and who don't say things the people can't understand. i -op Burial Associations .....15 . Do You Know Labor....... so the less one hears about oneself the better. Next Steps in Cooperative Organization... . ...25 -50 Doctor for The People.25 ' Education ''imperative Education..15 'nrt Introduction to Consumers Coopera'ion...... Dr..................00)........03 ' operative Economic Democracy.................... Coady In Kusihess For Service........ 1..... P. Consumers Cooperation........... says Simon Magus................. Either praise or blame does it.. F.... E.......... Harry Frank .. Mary E... A..... P.................. lint Every Cooperator Ought to Know....... Reed and Ogg .. '.. But better luck next life! 77 "Do you really think Ramsay MacDonald 01 Baldwin or Simon or Chamberlain have more brains than Roosevelt or Hoover? They are all really forceful mediocrities................. Mannnl for Cooperative Directors..... J... Organized Labor — Organize as Con sumers ....................i hat Is Consumers Cooperation...........15 -25 1-00 1.........Free Abstracts of the Laws Pertaining to Co operation.. WPA .... Cooperative Housing in Sweden..25 ........50 • Organization and Management I w to Organize a Buying Club........ 50 assorted ..._. Edition ....... Sliadid ......' lestious Pacing the Consumer....'........ Co-op Law (model state law) ...... Write for your free copy to: THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street New York City Consumers' Cooperation STUDY CONSUMERS' COOPERATION cunts of 20% oil 10 or more of any single book or pamphlet except as noted and on foreign books.. I'rimer of Bookkeeping for'Coops.. New York City H^^M 1 ........00 Order from THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE...15 .............. I scussion Guide on Consumers' Cooperalion. W... 14.10 ... 81 "Let the motive for action be in the action itself and not in the event"... Marc Koseiiblum .. Howen .............. ... Benson Y...00 Magazines Consumers' Cooperation. S. 102 pp.. of L...... ...2i> 'imperatives....... In no country do the producers dis tribute enough in wages.. % inch diam eter.............02 1.............. AE's LETTERS TO MINANLABAIN......... Simon says we have all the powers of the high gods in latency and by creating we grow like them and into their being.... V.......... of Labor ........ A......... .......... Dr...... ('decalconiaiiia) ....05 ...................... 66 "When we create.......10 operation Between Producers and Con sumers............10 Window Signs....... E.......10 Lapel Pins (League Emblem)....._.......... .... A...e.......... ... Accordingly we are reviewing AE'S (the late George W....... Manual on the Church and Cooperatives.....Free Consumer Cooperative Statutes and De cisions............................00 ............................20 The Law of Organization and Operation of Cooperatives. 1941) .. A.. | 'Operative Medicine......... Headline Hook . Dept. It...50 • Cooperative Housing Cooperative Housing in the U. 5.... of Labor ........ We also express our appreciation and indebtedness to a valiant cooperator. ilrjianization and Management of Con sumers Cooperative Associations and Hubs with Model by-laws...... with Model By-Laws....... "I wonder why your American friends are optimistic about its economics.:-..................50 • Legal Aspects D............ Principles of Cooperative Medicine..25 Buttons (League emblem). Landis ....... Russell) latest book in his own words and giving the page numbers from which the quotations are taken for your convenience... so that unemployment becomes inevitable un der our present economic system....... "I do not subscribe to a press agency..... State Dept..S.......... U............. F......... thinks first to do its part in the work... Tlie Story of Tompkinsville...

S. postage size. Each person contributing a dollar will receive a hundred stamps in return. New York City 181 . BUY CO-OP RADIO FUND STAMPS AND HELP PUT THE CO-OPS ON THE "AIR. A." VOLUME XXVIII January—December 1942 Organize a radio committee in your local co-op. and it is urged that the stamps be used on all correspondence during the coming months to tell America about cooperatives. are printed one hundred to a sheet and sell for a dollar per sheet. 167 West 12th Street. See that every one has an opportunity to tell his neighbors about cooperatives by contributing to the radio fund. BOVE is an illustration of the stamps to be used in the Co-op Radio Fund Drive.CONSUMERS' COOPERATION OFFICIAL ORGAN Of The WE NEED FIFTY THOUSAND ONE DOLLAR A YEAR MEN A Consumers' Cooperative Movement in the U. green and white. Stamps and posters. A. S. may be obtained from: NATIONAL CO-OP RADIO FUND THE COOPERATIVE LEAGUE 167 West 12th Street New York City 181 Published by The Cooperative League of U. using the same design as the stamps. The first million stamps have been printed and are now available. 19" x 28". The stamps.