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Conquistadores – Spanish Voyagers
 Motives – to gain control over the trade routes supplying the European market with
spices and other exotic merchandise from Asia.
 Objectives – God, Gold and Glory
I.
The Beginnings
 Filipinos are singing people – discovered by Spaniards
II.
Liturgical Music
 Gregorian Chant – first sound of the Christian church heard by natives
– an austere, unaccompanied monophony or plain chant
– established by Pope Gregory I in the 6 th century
 Schola Cantorum in Rome – central school for the teaching of sacred music
 Colegio de Niǹos Tiples de la Sta. Iglesia Cathedral – a full-fledged conservatory of music
in Manila
 Pipe Organ – queen of church instruments
 1818 – a native organ made of bamboo was constructed in Las Piǹas by the Recollects
 Recollects – established a school for organ builders; Father Diego Cera – 950 bamboo were
used and great care was taken to ensure the proper treatment of the fragile material
 Marcelo Adonay – Pakil, Laguna; composer of original Filipino liturgical music; named as
Maestro di capella
III.
Religious Folk Music
 Pastores – in Bicol Region; made up of twelve girls or boys headed by capitana
 Mangangaluluwa – singing groups in the November festivals for the dead
 Sayaw – in Makati, Rizal; performed annually on June 28 and 29; young women led by a
capitana; personal vows for San Pedro and San Pablo
 Practices tend to exhibit both Asian and Spanish Influences; Pabasa – chanting of pasyon,
long verse narrative on the life and death Jesus Christ.
 Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Cristong Panginoon Natin na Tola – wrote by Gaspar Aquino
de Belen; first published in 1703; first known Filipino to write a pasyon text in
Tagalog
 Punto – basic melodies resemble plainchant; describe melodic character, interesting
feature of pabasa singing
IV.
Hispanized Secular Music
 Secular Music – ritual music(native) plus music of the new faith
 Berso Golpeado – Ibanag of the Cagayan Valley; traditional greeting song in triple time
accompanied by a singko-singko guitar
 Protest songs have been written in secular form; song for Father Tullo Favali
 Kumintang – most famous of all these hybrid song forms and styles; national song(19 th
century); originate in Batangas
 First noted in a print – Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1732)
 Comintan de la Conquista – example of notation; kinanluran and sinilangan awit
styles
 Strophic or a verse and refrain structure
 Secular Music has an impact in the form of light, popular songs and dances; Aida(Italian
Operas) and Jugar con fuego(Spanish zarzuelas)
 Tertulias – informal parties held by prominent families; reading of Spanish Poetry
and the performance of light classical works

V.

The Indigenized Forms

Rizal – 4 th generation descendants of a band of Katipunero musicians. Lives and loves of royal characters and the conflict between Moors and Christians in Medieval kingdoms of Europe and the Middle East  Spanish Comedia – three part structure. mababasa. Veteranos de la Revolucion – theme piece  Wenceslao Retana and Manuel Walls y Merino – gave detailed picture of musical life in various parts of the Archipelago  Dolores Paterno. lyrics – romantic love(love of country and sorrow over the loss of loved one)  Kundiman – very soul of the beloved Motherland  Jocelynang Baliuag – famous kundiman writer VI. moral lessons. libretto by Pedro Paterno  Musikong Bumbong – indigenous offshoot of the brass band  St. Pentecost – Holy Spirit II. salaysay. pasyon chanters  Senakulo – passion play that teaches the life of Jesus Christ  Salubong – playlet about Mary meeting her newly risen son  Komedya  Major Types 1. anthologizes and interprets several folk songs Liturgy  I. Ascension – earth to heaven f. Ladislao Bonus. Advent b. Malabon. first Philippine opera. Christmas c. Liturgy – a public duty Seasons of the Roman Catholic Church a. basic melodic formulas. Dramatization of real events 2. Anthony Original Bamboo Band of Tonsuya. narrative. Narration of the lives of Christian Saints or Episodes in the Bible 3. use of verse. Musicians and Musical Groups  Pandacan – 19th century. known as “Little Italy”  Ladislao Bonus – schooling of the Philippine secular musician  No formal system for music education existed outside of the church  Sandugong Panaguinip – 1902. divided into two or three separate sections. use of loas as curtain – raisers  Jose de la Cruz – prominent komedya playwright . Julian Felipe – well versed in Western compositional techniques  Redentor Romero – Philippine Portraits. Liturgical and Paraliturgical Musical Genres  Advent and Christmas  Pastores – shepherds’ song  Villancicos – Bicol Province  Tambora – Cuyo Island  Daigon – Christmas song in Visayas region  Panunuluyan – re-enactment of Mary and Joseph’s search for lodging performed in the streets  Lent  Pasyon – versified story of Jesus’ death on the cross  Pabasa – chanting of pasyon  Pasyon Lexicon – aral. punto. Epiphany – wise men d. clear harmonic progression in the western sense and even modulation. Kundiman – lyrical song in moderate triple time. Lent – Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday e.

fills in the harmony. French horn. Maria and Kruz na Mahal  Subli – Mahal na Poong Santa Krus  Songs – strophic. 14 strings  Guitar – plays the harmony. provides a permanent rhythm for the group using chordal and arpeggio accompaniment. founded by Col. Louis Grand Exposition. Nueva Ecija. received grand prize for its exceptional performance  Brass Band – Brass drum. Band  Band – a large instrumental ensemble consisting of brasswind and percussion instruments  Banda Zapat – Gapan. punto style  Sinulog – in honor of Santo Niǹo in Cebu III. ensemble consisting of angklung. woodwinds and percussion. founded by Lorenzo Zabat y Chico  Concert Bands after WWII – consists of brasses. Marches . smaller version of guitar. 14 strings  Piccolo Bandurria – plays all forms of ornamental passages. Tuba  Symphony Orchestra – instrumental group that was directly assimilated from the west. Maytime Festivities with Music  May – dedicated to Mary  Flores de Mayo – unofficial ritual of presenting flowers to the Virgin each day in May  Santacrusan – Dios te salve. woodwinds  Kawayan – native material  Musikong Bumbong – instrumental group performing on bamboo tubes and percussion instruments. Trumpet. latter type called banda de boca. pear shaped. strings. played with pick called uǹas The Music of the Philippine Revolution I. 6 strings  Bass Guitar/ Bajo de uǹas – provides the fundamental group tone and supports the rhythm. known as comparza. creation/arrangement of music pieces  Rondalla – orchestra composed of plucked instruments. Trombone. 14 strings  Laud – plays the counter melody. first locally organized band. marimba and blown tubes  Philippine Society for Music Education (PSME). came from Spanish Murga  Main instrumental music group in most elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines  Instrument  Bandurria – plays the main melody. National Commission for Culture and the Arts Committee on Music and UNESCO Philippines – promotes manufacture. founded by Felix Ramos  Pangkat Kawayan – founded by Victor Toledo. Walter Loving. twice the guitar. 14 strings  Octavina – plays the counter melody. played at St. smaller version of bandurria. bigger version of bandurria. saxophones  Philippine Constabulary Band – 30 members.

– it reflects of their hopes and longings. favourite song of Katipuneros  Patriotic Music – adopt songs which were haunting. 1893. fraught with melancholy and sadness as themes for their epic struggle for freedom  Sa Iyo Ang Dahil – appeared to be love songs but in reality were patriotic songs. became a member of Asian Composers League Jose Maceda – realm of music composition. failures and triumphs  Patriotic marches were certainly written to inspire the revolution  Two kinds of marches – (1) Military March and (2)Marcha Funebre  Julio Nakpil – wrote marches in both forms  Military Marches – Pamitinan. October 1955. dialectic of looking inward into the local and native at the same time looking outwards towards the new and modern League of Filipino Composers (LFC) – institutionalized the cultivation of newly composed Filipino art music. Bulacan on February 7. Biak-Na-Bato. Alexander Lippay  Julian Felipe – wrote a National March due to Aguinaldo’s Request  Inspired by Spain’s National Royal March  Actually glorified the anthem of the enemy of the revolution  First decade of American Rule – era of suppressed nationalism. Music – a social process that reveals a particular image of man in a given period.       Introduction Half of the 20th century – emergence of “New Philippine Cultural Imaginary” Marcelo Adonay – 19th century Hispanic tradition Nicanor Abelardo – Musical Modernism 1950’s – Philippinizing. Americans referred the anthem as funeral music  Wrote “Viva La Independecia” dedicated to Antonio Luna  Pattern of Felipe – AA/BB/CC. contemporizing. Nicanor Abelardo  Born in San Miguel de Mayumo. Dr. New Asian Musical Renaissance II. Pattern of Spain – AA/BB  Lucio San Pedro and Antonino Buenaventura – prefer the work of Nakpil to Felipe II. Pasig Pantayanin  Funeral Marches – Pahimakas  Marangal Na Dalit ng Katagalugan – in request of Andres Bonifacio  Nakpil’s composition is perfect for an anthem  The composition is bad prosody since the text is not correctly reflected by the rhythm  Performed by the Manila Symphony Orchestra in 1931 under Dr. died in Manila on 1934  Outstanding and prolific composer of the Kundiman . wrote for GomBurZa  Neneng – symbolizes the country  Sword – oppression of the Spaniards  Ang mga Martir – talks about the killing of Rizal and the three priest Philippines: Composer in the Philippines: “Counterstreams in a Post-Colonial Epoch” I. Eliseo Pajaro. frustrations and fulfilment. Kundiman  Kundiman – not only expresses the lofty sentiment of love but also of heroism  Kundiman of Revolution – wrote by Jocelynang Baliwag.

Eliseo Pajaro  Born in Badoc. Cinderella Overture. 1915 and died on 1984  Utilize modern compositional techniques  Orchestral pieces – The Cry of Balintawak. 1913  Represents a conservatism for the 19th century European romantic tradition  National Artist  Orchestral works – Moon over the Hills. born in Baliuag.Ugma-ugma. By the Hillside. Francisco Santiago  UP ROTC Band. used and conceived for a circular hall  Used tape recorders and radio stations as musical instruments  Works – Udlot-udlot. Lahing Kayumanggi. Ading  Music composition based on drone. La Union on August 31. Ilocos Norte on March 21. 1989 VII. Himig Igorot. Himig BIsaya. Brass Quintet  Composer of solo vocal music. Francisco Feliciano  Morong Rizal in 1941  Guest conductor of Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 2.Ang Puting Waling-Waling. Dalarawan-main integral work of CCP  National Artist. choral works and liturgical hymns VI. Lucrecia Kasilag  Born in San Fernando. Lucio San Pedro  Angono. Pagsamba. Mindanao Sketches IV. 1 and No. The Legend of Sarimanok  First Director of Cultural Center of the Philippines. 1918  Charter member of League of Filipino Composers  Fusing native Philippine music with neoclassic and contemporary idioms  Works – Tocatta for percussions and winds. Antonino Buenaventura  National Artist 1938. Sa Ugoy ng Duyan  Chamber Music – Woodwind Quartet. Mutya ng Pasig. Five Pieces for Two Pianos  Organizing international music forums that serve as venues for the gathering of important composers and music experts from around the globe IX. Bituing Marikit  Playing the piano in pubs and theatres in Manila  1916 – entered the UP CM under Robert Schofield and Guy Harrison  Modern composition – Panoramas. Rizal on February 11. a measure of time and a classification of things VIII. Life of Lam-ang. Nasaan ka Irog?. has active military service  Director of UST Conservatory. Bulacan on May 4. Jose Maceda  Born in Manila on January 31. Moscow State Symphony Orchestra. founded the UE School of Music and Arts  Symphonic poems – Rhapsodietta on a Manobo theme. Suite Pastorale. Sonata jor violin and piano III. Ramon Santos  Born in Pasig on February 25 1941  Contributions in exploring and defining new directions based on non – Western traditions in the Philippines and Southeast Asia  Exposed to various kinds of church music-Gregorian Chant  Opera. Himig Iloko No. 1917  Composition began with studies on musique concrete in Paris  Works . Divertisement for piano and Orchestra. Himig Maynila V. 1904 and died on 1996  First wave of a kind of nativism  UP CM under NIcanor Abelardo. etc .

The introduction of new perspective and techniques in the study of indigenous music II. The crystallization of a nationalist ideology in music 6. rondalla. The establishment of professional music schools 2. Kulambo: Isang Kayumanggi Puntod. etc X. Josefino Chino Toledo  Most prolific exponents of Philippine Music and a leading figure in the third generation of Modern Filipino Composers  Member of Pangkat Kawayan  Has technical proficiency in percussion playing  Works – Tutluhan. Liturhiya sa Takipsilim. Jonas Baes  Works reflect a conscious interface of modern musical expression and social issues relative to tradition and alternative musical values  Works – Kalipay. Isostasie II.  Introduction 1901 – 1946 – American Colonial Period  Types of Music evolved 1. The proliferation of musical organizations 4. Semi Classical Music . Samut-Sari. work – Yayeyunan Musika: An Essay on the American Colonial and Contemporary Traditions in Philippine Music I. The introduction of new musical idioms and the taste for music related to American popular entertainment 5. Ulug. Active director of music in several churches. Western Classical Music  Achieving prominence abroad – Jovita Fuentes. anthems and larger works  Founded the Asian School For Music. sarswela 3. Santiago’s Pakiusap and Anak ng Dalita  Significant season concerts of the Manila Symphony Orchestra under Herbert Zipper  Concerts are usually held in school auditorium  Treatment of classical forms – programmatic or descriptive  Rhapsodietta on a Manobo Theme – modern elements were used more as coloristic dressing and programmatic effects  Eliseo Pajaro – developed a neo-classic style based on counterpoint and fugal devices . etc  Country’s most sought after conductor and music director XI. Pintigan. Popular Music – western/local pop forms  Philippine musical forms evolved due to 1. The introduction of formal music education in the public school system 3. etc  Works – Nicanor Abelardo’s Piano Sonata. composed a number of church hymns. Dasalan at Tuksuhan.folk songs. Worship and the Arts  Works – String Quartet. Isang and Ramon Tapales. Mercedes Matias. Francisco Buencamin’s Mayon Concerto. Classical Music  Filipinos were already active in the performances of western zarzuela and opera by visiting foreign companies III. Classical Music 2. Pangtawag  Field research among the Iraya – Mangyan in the Island of Mindoro. etc  High point in Filipino romanticism and chromatic harmonic writing in the classical kundiman – Abelardo’s Mutya ng Pasig and Nasaan Ka Irog?.

radio and alternative forms of live entertainment Zarzuela Foundation of the Philippines –Teodoro Valencia.Hermogenes Ilagan-Dalagang Bukid. Folk Songs Usually known as Native Music Works – Progressive Music Series by Norberto Romualdez. etc Filipinization – use native instruments and scales in a generally neo-classic idiom Semi Classical Repertoire Evolving from the classical music tradition and the music for theatre and mass media that had been introduced by the Americans a. Louis Exposition Rondalla – an ensemble consisting of plectrum instruments which evolved from the Spanish Murga  Known as Comparsa  Works – Bayani’s De Leon – Tatlong Bulaklak  Pangkat Kawayan – attempt to revive Musikong Bumbong Pinoy Pop Music Caters youthful audience in the urban centers and disseminated widely through the electronic media Source of commercial profit The Early Years Popular music was first heard in the WWII dance halls called cabarets and in bodabil shows Resurgence of popular music introduced new dance styles Jukebox – principal conduit in popularizing music from the USA Mid 1950’s to 1960’s – rock n roll Battery operated transistor radio and 45-RPM records made popular music accessible to a broader audience Pinoy Ballads Known as Middle of the Road Popular music was Filipinized and made more earthy partly as a result of the nationalist reawakening in that decade Broadcast Media Council – Resolution B76-31 requiring all radio stations to broadcast at least one Filipino composition every hour .    Lucresia Kasilag – learned the style and techniques of the Neo-Classic School. The Legend of Sarimanok. Instrumental Music Philippine band music has become an integral part of the life of every Filipino Philippine Constabulary Band – received the highest accolade at the St. to reproduce old sarswela and commission new ones c. Music for Theater Works – Himno de Riego – MoroMoro Sarswela – Severino Reyes – Walang Sugat. Songs and Ballads Came from the Filipino sarswela Music is characterized by dance-oriented rhythmic patterns Villar Recording Company – burgeoning record industry that promoted Filipino music Kundiman – Sylvia La Torre Ballads – Filipino love songs in the lyric style of kundiman d.      b. Filipino Folk Songs by Emilia Cruz. works Dularawan. Pantaleon Lopez’s Bagong Infierno Sarswela went out of fashion due to advent of film. etc b.  IV.   a.                V.

manipulating the disc jockey’s equipment Ethnic Pop Asin sang traditional folk songs to a rock beat Seeks to integrate ethnic elements into pop music culture Emil Sanglay –promote ethnic sound Ryan Cayabyab – Bagong Tunog Edru Abraham and Kontra-Gapi (Kontemporaryong Gamelang Pilipino) – experiment on new compositions by fusing various Philippine music tradition   c.   g. specializing in mainstream jazz and providing basic training in the idiom to young progressive artists Pinoy Jazz Fusion The fusing of elements of rhythm amd blues and the heavy highly amplified variety of rock music Eddie Munji – First Modern Pinoy Jazz Album Pinoy Rap Known as Hip-hop Chanting of improvised verses over recurring rhythmic patterns.  a.   VI.    c.Resolution 77-35 – requiring the playing of two original Filipino works for every hour of broadcast 1980’s to 90’s – flourish original Filipino music Pinoy Rock Groups equipped with electronic instruments known as combos Juan de la Cruz Band – Ang Himig Natin – anthem of sorts for a generation of Filipino youths Manila Sound Filipinization of pop music – characterized by mushy lyrics.      . Joseph Howard. taglish Pinoy Disco Introduction of salsa music in the Philippines Copied the disco music styles that had been developed by foreign groups such as Bee Gees Pinoy Folk Simple strophic melodies were combined with texts that could be poetic or steeped in political rhetoric Works .   b.  d.Anak by Freddie Aguilar-a semibiographical ballad Specializes in protest music Novelty songs Yoyoy Villama – his highly witty narrative poetry sung to simple folk song-style times and in a heavy Cebuano accent Mainstream Jazz Flourished in hotels and cocktail lounges UP Jazz Ensemble – Dr.   f.   e.