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Conquistadores Spanish Voyagers

Motives to gain control over the trade routes supplying the European market with
spices and other exotic merchandise from Asia.
Objectives God, Gold and Glory
The Beginnings
Filipinos are singing people discovered by Spaniards
Liturgical Music
Gregorian Chant first sound of the Christian church heard by natives
an austere, unaccompanied monophony or plain chant
established by Pope Gregory I in the 6 th century
Schola Cantorum in Rome central school for the teaching of sacred music
Colegio de Nios Tiples de la Sta. Iglesia Cathedral a full-fledged conservatory of music
in Manila
Pipe Organ queen of church instruments
1818 a native organ made of bamboo was constructed in Las Pias by the Recollects
Recollects established a school for organ builders; Father Diego Cera 950 bamboo were
used and great care was taken to ensure the proper treatment of the fragile material
Marcelo Adonay Pakil, Laguna; composer of original Filipino liturgical music; named as
Maestro di capella
Religious Folk Music
Pastores in Bicol Region; made up of twelve girls or boys headed by capitana
Mangangaluluwa singing groups in the November festivals for the dead
Sayaw in Makati, Rizal; performed annually on June 28 and 29; young women led by a
capitana; personal vows for San Pedro and San Pablo
Practices tend to exhibit both Asian and Spanish Influences; Pabasa chanting of pasyon,
long verse narrative on the life and death Jesus Christ.
Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Cristong Panginoon Natin na Tola wrote by Gaspar Aquino
de Belen; first published in 1703; first known Filipino to write a pasyon text in
Punto basic melodies resemble plainchant; describe melodic character, interesting
feature of pabasa singing
Hispanized Secular Music
Secular Music ritual music(native) plus music of the new faith
Berso Golpeado Ibanag of the Cagayan Valley; traditional greeting song in triple time
accompanied by a singko-singko guitar
Protest songs have been written in secular form; song for Father Tullo Favali
Kumintang most famous of all these hybrid song forms and styles; national song(19 th
century); originate in Batangas
First noted in a print Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay (1732)
Comintan de la Conquista example of notation; kinanluran and sinilangan awit
Strophic or a verse and refrain structure
Secular Music has an impact in the form of light, popular songs and dances; Aida(Italian
Operas) and Jugar con fuego(Spanish zarzuelas)
Tertulias informal parties held by prominent families; reading of Spanish Poetry
and the performance of light classical works


The Indigenized Forms

Kundiman lyrical song in moderate triple time; divided into two or three separate
sections; clear harmonic progression in the western sense and even modulation; lyrics
romantic love(love of country and sorrow over the loss of loved one)
Kundiman very soul of the beloved Motherland
Jocelynang Baliuag famous kundiman writer
Musicians and Musical Groups
Pandacan 19th century; known as Little Italy
Ladislao Bonus schooling of the Philippine secular musician
No formal system for music education existed outside of the church
Sandugong Panaguinip 1902; first Philippine opera; libretto by Pedro Paterno
Musikong Bumbong indigenous offshoot of the brass band
St. Anthony Original Bamboo Band of Tonsuya, Malabon, Rizal 4 th generation descendants
of a band of Katipunero musicians; Veteranos de la Revolucion theme piece
Wenceslao Retana and Manuel Walls y Merino gave detailed picture of musical life in
various parts of the Archipelago
Dolores Paterno, Ladislao Bonus, Julian Felipe well versed in Western compositional
Redentor Romero Philippine Portraits, anthologizes and interprets several folk songs


Liturgy a public duty

Seasons of the Roman Catholic Church
a. Advent
b. Christmas
c. Epiphany wise men
d. Lent Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday
e. Ascension earth to heaven
f. Pentecost Holy Spirit
Liturgical and Paraliturgical Musical Genres
Advent and Christmas
Pastores shepherds song
Villancicos Bicol Province
Tambora Cuyo Island
Daigon Christmas song in Visayas region
Panunuluyan re-enactment of Mary and Josephs search for lodging performed in
the streets
Pasyon versified story of Jesus death on the cross
Pabasa chanting of pasyon
Pasyon Lexicon aral, moral lessons; salaysay, narrative; punto, basic melodic
formulas; mababasa, pasyon chanters
Senakulo passion play that teaches the life of Jesus Christ
Salubong playlet about Mary meeting her newly risen son
Major Types
1. Dramatization of real events
2. Narration of the lives of Christian Saints or Episodes in the Bible
3. Lives and loves of royal characters and the conflict between Moors and
Christians in Medieval kingdoms of Europe and the Middle East
Spanish Comedia three part structure, use of verse, use of loas as curtain raisers
Jose de la Cruz prominent komedya playwright

Maytime Festivities with Music

May dedicated to Mary
Flores de Mayo unofficial ritual of presenting flowers to the Virgin each day in May
Santacrusan Dios te salve, Maria and Kruz na Mahal
Subli Mahal na Poong Santa Krus
Songs strophic, punto style
Sinulog in honor of Santo Nio in Cebu
Band a large instrumental ensemble consisting of brasswind and percussion instruments
Banda Zapat Gapan, Nueva Ecija; first locally organized band; founded by Lorenzo Zabat
y Chico
Concert Bands after WWII consists of brasses, woodwinds and percussion, saxophones
Philippine Constabulary Band 30 members; founded by Col. Walter Loving; played at St.
Louis Grand Exposition; received grand prize for its exceptional performance
Brass Band Brass drum, French horn, Trumpet, Trombone, Tuba
Symphony Orchestra instrumental group that was directly assimilated from the west;
strings, woodwinds
Kawayan native material
Musikong Bumbong instrumental group performing on bamboo tubes and percussion
instruments; latter type called banda de boca, founded by Felix Ramos
Pangkat Kawayan founded by Victor Toledo, ensemble consisting of angklung, marimba
and blown tubes
Philippine Society for Music Education (PSME), National Commission for Culture and the
Arts Committee on Music and UNESCO Philippines promotes manufacture,
creation/arrangement of music pieces
Rondalla orchestra composed of plucked instruments; known as comparza; came from
Spanish Murga
Main instrumental music group in most elementary and secondary schools in the
Bandurria plays the main melody; pear shaped, 14 strings
Piccolo Bandurria plays all forms of ornamental passages; smaller version of
bandurria, 14 strings
Laud plays the counter melody; bigger version of bandurria, 14 strings
Octavina plays the counter melody, fills in the harmony; smaller version of
guitar, 14 strings
Guitar plays the harmony, provides a permanent rhythm for the group using
chordal and arpeggio accompaniment; 6 strings
Bass Guitar/ Bajo de uas provides the fundamental group tone and
supports the rhythm; twice the guitar, played with pick called uas

The Music of the Philippine Revolution



Music a social process that reveals a particular image of man in a given period.
it reflects of their hopes and longings, frustrations and fulfilment, failures and
Patriotic marches were certainly written to inspire the revolution
Two kinds of marches (1) Military March and (2)Marcha Funebre
Julio Nakpil wrote marches in both forms
Military Marches Pamitinan, Biak-Na-Bato, Pasig Pantayanin
Funeral Marches Pahimakas
Marangal Na Dalit ng Katagalugan in request of Andres Bonifacio
Nakpils composition is perfect for an anthem
The composition is bad prosody since the text is not correctly reflected by the
Performed by the Manila Symphony Orchestra in 1931 under Dr. Alexander Lippay
Julian Felipe wrote a National March due to Aguinaldos Request
Inspired by Spains National Royal March
Actually glorified the anthem of the enemy of the revolution
First decade of American Rule era of suppressed nationalism; Americans referred
the anthem as funeral music
Wrote Viva La Independecia dedicated to Antonio Luna
Pattern of Felipe AA/BB/CC; Pattern of Spain AA/BB
Lucio San Pedro and Antonino Buenaventura prefer the work of Nakpil to Felipe
Kundiman not only expresses the lofty sentiment of love but also of heroism
Kundiman of Revolution wrote by Jocelynang Baliwag; favourite song of Katipuneros
Patriotic Music adopt songs which were haunting, fraught with melancholy and sadness
as themes for their epic struggle for freedom
Sa Iyo Ang Dahil appeared to be love songs but in reality were patriotic songs;
wrote for GomBurZa
Neneng symbolizes the country
Sword oppression of the Spaniards
Ang mga Martir talks about the killing of Rizal and the three priest

Philippines: Composer in the Philippines: Counterstreams in a Post-Colonial Epoch


Half of the 20th century emergence of New Philippine Cultural Imaginary
Marcelo Adonay 19th century Hispanic tradition
Nicanor Abelardo Musical Modernism
1950s Philippinizing; contemporizing; dialectic of looking inward into the local and native
at the same time looking outwards towards the new and modern
League of Filipino Composers (LFC) institutionalized the cultivation of newly composed
Filipino art music; October 1955; Dr. Eliseo Pajaro; became a member of Asian Composers
Jose Maceda realm of music composition; New Asian Musical Renaissance

Nicanor Abelardo
Born in San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan on February 7, 1893; died in Manila on 1934
Outstanding and prolific composer of the Kundiman

Mutya ng Pasig; Nasaan ka Irog?; Bituing Marikit

Playing the piano in pubs and theatres in Manila
1916 entered the UP CM under Robert Schofield and Guy Harrison
Modern composition Panoramas; Cinderella Overture; Sonata jor violin and piano
Antonino Buenaventura
National Artist 1938; born in Baliuag, Bulacan on May 4, 1904 and died on 1996
First wave of a kind of nativism
UP CM under NIcanor Abelardo, Francisco Santiago
UP ROTC Band; has active military service
Director of UST Conservatory; founded the UE School of Music and Arts
Symphonic poems Rhapsodietta on a Manobo theme; By the Hillside; Mindanao Sketches
Eliseo Pajaro
Born in Badoc, Ilocos Norte on March 21, 1915 and died on 1984
Utilize modern compositional techniques
Orchestral pieces The Cry of Balintawak; Life of Lam-ang; Himig BIsaya; Himig Igorot;
Himig Iloko No. 1 and No. 2; Himig Maynila
Lucio San Pedro
Angono, Rizal on February 11, 1913
Represents a conservatism for the 19th century European romantic tradition
National Artist
Orchestral works Moon over the Hills; Lahing Kayumanggi; Suite Pastorale; Sa Ugoy ng
Chamber Music Woodwind Quartet; Brass Quintet
Composer of solo vocal music, choral works and liturgical hymns
Lucrecia Kasilag
Born in San Fernando, La Union on August 31, 1918
Charter member of League of Filipino Composers
Fusing native Philippine music with neoclassic and contemporary idioms
Works Tocatta for percussions and winds, Divertisement for piano and Orchestra, The
Legend of Sarimanok
First Director of Cultural Center of the Philippines; Dalarawan-main integral work of CCP
National Artist, 1989
Jose Maceda
Born in Manila on January 31, 1917
Composition began with studies on musique concrete in Paris
Works - Ugma-ugma; Pagsamba; used and conceived for a circular hall
Used tape recorders and radio stations as musical instruments
Works Udlot-udlot; Ading
Music composition based on drone, a measure of time and a classification of things
VIII. Ramon Santos
Born in Pasig on February 25 1941
Contributions in exploring and defining new directions based on non Western traditions
in the Philippines and Southeast Asia
Exposed to various kinds of church music-Gregorian Chant
Opera- Ang Puting Waling-Waling; Five Pieces for Two Pianos
Organizing international music forums that serve as venues for the gathering of important
composers and music experts from around the globe
Francisco Feliciano
Morong Rizal in 1941
Guest conductor of Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Moscow State Symphony Orchestra, etc

Active director of music in several churches; composed a number of church hymns,

anthems and larger works
Founded the Asian School For Music, Worship and the Arts
Works String Quartet; Ulug; Isostasie II, Liturhiya sa Takipsilim, etc
Josefino Chino Toledo
Most prolific exponents of Philippine Music and a leading figure in the third generation of
Modern Filipino Composers
Member of Pangkat Kawayan
Has technical proficiency in percussion playing
Works Tutluhan; Dasalan at Tuksuhan; Samut-Sari; Pintigan; Kulambo: Isang Kayumanggi
Puntod, etc
Countrys most sought after conductor and music director
Jonas Baes
Works reflect a conscious interface of modern musical expression and social issues relative
to tradition and alternative musical values
Works Kalipay; Pangtawag
Field research among the Iraya Mangyan in the Island of Mindoro; work Yayeyunan
Musika: An Essay on the American Colonial and Contemporary Traditions in Philippine Music

1901 1946 American Colonial Period
Types of Music evolved
1. Classical Music
2. Semi Classical Music - folk songs, rondalla, sarswela
3. Popular Music western/local pop forms
Philippine musical forms evolved due to
1. The establishment of professional music schools
2. The introduction of formal music education in the public school system
3. The proliferation of musical organizations
4. The introduction of new musical idioms and the taste for music related to American
popular entertainment
5. The crystallization of a nationalist ideology in music
6. The introduction of new perspective and techniques in the study of indigenous music
Classical Music
Filipinos were already active in the performances of western zarzuela and opera by visiting
foreign companies
Western Classical Music
Achieving prominence abroad Jovita Fuentes, Isang and Ramon Tapales, Mercedes
Matias, etc
Works Nicanor Abelardos Piano Sonata, Francisco Buencamins Mayon Concerto, etc
High point in Filipino romanticism and chromatic harmonic writing in the classical
kundiman Abelardos Mutya ng Pasig and Nasaan Ka Irog?; Santiagos Pakiusap and Anak
ng Dalita
Significant season concerts of the Manila Symphony Orchestra under Herbert Zipper
Concerts are usually held in school auditorium
Treatment of classical forms programmatic or descriptive
Rhapsodietta on a Manobo Theme modern elements were used more as coloristic
dressing and programmatic effects
Eliseo Pajaro developed a neo-classic style based on counterpoint and fugal devices





Lucresia Kasilag learned the style and techniques of the Neo-Classic School; works Dularawan, The Legend of Sarimanok, etc
Filipinization use native instruments and scales in a generally neo-classic idiom
Semi Classical Repertoire
Evolving from the classical music tradition and the music for theatre and mass media that
had been introduced by the Americans
a. Folk Songs
Usually known as Native Music
Works Progressive Music Series by Norberto Romualdez, Filipino Folk Songs by Emilia
Cruz, etc
b. Music for Theater
Works Himno de Riego MoroMoro
Sarswela Severino Reyes Walang Sugat;Hermogenes Ilagan-Dalagang Bukid; Pantaleon
Lopezs Bagong Infierno
Sarswela went out of fashion due to advent of film, radio and alternative forms of live
Zarzuela Foundation of the Philippines Teodoro Valencia; to reproduce old sarswela and
commission new ones
c. Songs and Ballads
Came from the Filipino sarswela
Music is characterized by dance-oriented rhythmic patterns
Villar Recording Company burgeoning record industry that promoted Filipino music
Kundiman Sylvia La Torre
Ballads Filipino love songs in the lyric style of kundiman
d. Instrumental Music
Philippine band music has become an integral part of the life of every Filipino
Philippine Constabulary Band received the highest accolade at the St. Louis Exposition
Rondalla an ensemble consisting of plectrum instruments which evolved from the
Spanish Murga
Known as Comparsa
Works Bayanis De Leon Tatlong Bulaklak
Pangkat Kawayan attempt to revive Musikong Bumbong
Pinoy Pop Music
Caters youthful audience in the urban centers and disseminated widely through the
electronic media
Source of commercial profit
The Early Years
Popular music was first heard in the WWII dance halls called cabarets and in bodabil shows
Resurgence of popular music introduced new dance styles
Jukebox principal conduit in popularizing music from the USA
Mid 1950s to 1960s rock n roll
Battery operated transistor radio and 45-RPM records made popular music accessible to a
broader audience
Pinoy Ballads
Known as Middle of the Road
Popular music was Filipinized and made more earthy partly as a result of the nationalist
reawakening in that decade
Broadcast Media Council Resolution B76-31 requiring all radio stations to broadcast at
least one Filipino composition every hour

Resolution 77-35 requiring the playing of two original Filipino works for every hour
of broadcast
1980s to 90s flourish original Filipino music
Pinoy Rock
Groups equipped with electronic instruments known as combos
Juan de la Cruz Band Ang Himig Natin anthem of sorts for a generation of Filipino
Manila Sound
Filipinization of pop music characterized by mushy lyrics, taglish
Pinoy Disco
Introduction of salsa music in the Philippines
Copied the disco music styles that had been developed by foreign groups such as Bee
Pinoy Folk
Simple strophic melodies were combined with texts that could be poetic or steeped in
political rhetoric
Works - Anak by Freddie Aguilar-a semibiographical ballad
Specializes in protest music
Novelty songs
Yoyoy Villama his highly witty narrative poetry sung to simple folk song-style times and
in a heavy Cebuano accent
Mainstream Jazz
Flourished in hotels and cocktail lounges
UP Jazz Ensemble Dr. Joseph Howard; specializing in mainstream jazz and providing basic
training in the idiom to young progressive artists
Pinoy Jazz Fusion
The fusing of elements of rhythm amd blues and the heavy highly amplified variety of rock
Eddie Munji First Modern Pinoy Jazz Album
Pinoy Rap
Known as Hip-hop
Chanting of improvised verses over recurring rhythmic patterns, manipulating the disc
jockeys equipment
Ethnic Pop
Asin sang traditional folk songs to a rock beat
Seeks to integrate ethnic elements into pop music culture
Emil Sanglay promote ethnic sound
Ryan Cayabyab Bagong Tunog
Edru Abraham and Kontra-Gapi (Kontemporaryong Gamelang Pilipino) experiment on
new compositions by fusing various Philippine music tradition