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Tiffany Pang

Explain how and why the United States went to war with the British in what is
now called the War of 1812
In the history of mankind, war has been fought all over the world. In the War
of 1812, it was described as a victorious "Second War for Independence" and was
used to define American identity, but the British only remember 1812 as the year that
Napoleon Marched into England. To the British, the problem with America was just
an annoying sideshow.
It all started in year 1803, when Napoleon declared war on Europe. He
wanted to control the land of Europe and wanted to re-create the mighty French
empire in the earlier days. He made rulers of other countries to sign treaties with him
to recognize his conquests and supporting his economic warfare against Britain. He
showed his intentions by conquering all of Europe and creating puppet states with
his allied kings in neighboring countries.
In year 1807, France controlled most of Europe. The French soldiers had
driven the British troops from the European continent and defeated most of Britain's
European allies. It seemed like a close French victory, but the British Navy still "ruled
the waves."
During this war, many American merchants enjoyed a rich trade selling war
supplies to both France and Great Britain, but great Britain later tried to cut off the
American trade with France. France had a big problem with this because America
was France's major source of supply.
To cut off the American trade with France, the British Parliament passed the
Orders in Council. They were laws that forbids American ships to enter French
controlled parts. Also, the British used this as a justification so their British Navy
could illegally stop and search American merchant ships on open seas. They
searched for French-bound cargo and many American sailors born in England were
accused of having betrayed the British navy. They also captured and kidnapped
these sailors to force them to serve in their army. They even took the cargos to use
for themselves because of their greediness. This British policy of impressment or
seizure, of American sailors deeply offended America's pride.
The Orders in Council was a foolish law. The British cannot pass a law that
only affects America. They could not enforce it, so it was pretty useless. Instead, they
used it to threaten the Americans with it. The government also made the Orders in
Council to look good in front of their people, but this did not stop the Americans from

. the U. many lost jobs and became poor from not earning money off of shipping goods. 3 killed and 4 were kidnapped. Since this was an action against American rights. Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia. Since he refused the Chesapeake sunk. the U. They preferred to remain neutral in the European war. The Captain's refusal was an example of nationalism which is actually stupidity. If he did not refused the whole crew would have been safe. Also. Instead they were mutual.S refused to take sides. it removed American ships from the open seas. President Thomas Jefferson looked for peaceful ways to protect the American ships from an enemy attack because the government's number one responsibility is to protect their people. Jefferson closed the American ports to the British Navy. During that time. Still. This angered many Americans. many American merchants asked for a repeal of the Act because it canceled the trading and selling of merchandise which harmed the economy. So later on to the reaction of the Orders in Council.S. He suggested an embargo which was an order that forbids any trade with foreign countries.S was really neutral. but that does not mean they were really neutral. The U. After the Embargo Act was made. the captain of the U. the British attacked the U.selling and trading supplies. but at the risk of getting attacked.S was not really neutral.S Chesapeake refused to allow the soldiers of the British ship Leopard on board. It is to have pride in your country or place.S "preferred" to be neutral. Then in the Summer of 1807. France also threatened to seize any ship carrying British cargo that entered French ports. Then many farmers unable to sell their crops to foreign markets lost money and many American sailors were put out of work.S because there were water routes that could be easily accessed and used to stop ships from getting out.S. If the U. the British could not blockade France because it was part of a continent. On the other hand. So.S was supplying both sides with food and war supplies. The textbook did state that the U. So then Congress finally gave in to the pressure and lifted it on March 1. So still. 1809 which was a few days before Jefferson left the office.S. This explains how many Americans are arrogant which makes them think America will protect them. Americans felt its ships were free to sail the open seas. All these American merchants cared for was the money involved with selling war supplies. So. This blockade caused Napoleon to forbid all nations to trade with Great Britain. But. the British did a blockade on the U. Napoleon's plan was to form a blockade around England using ships and he could easily do this because England was a island. They continued to do trading. Leopard opened fire which 20 American sailors were wounded. many American merchants took up the risky practice of blockade running. a government official like a president would announce a war. When the Embargo Act was put up. but some merchants still ended up smuggling stuff. which means to be in both circles. Instead. Napoleon declared a blockade against Great Britain.

S declared a war on them. Western settlers favored the war as a way to stop the British from lending support to the Native Americans in the Northwest. The U.S more. many American merchants strongly disapproved of that and pushed strongly for war. Concerning this. so Madison stopped trade with Britain. but it was too late. more Americans were being seized by the British after the Embargo Act was repealed. These are examples of what caused the War of 1812 to start.As for this. the British withdrew their Orders in Council. Also. The British also kidnapped sailors to scare the U. Napoleon agreed to lift the French blockade. So. But. Other reasons are that American merchants lost money from the Embargo Act and many complained about national pride.S. President James Madison then promised to stop trade with the other nation if one of them (Britain/France) lifted their blockade. This led British to have a difficult time because of poor harvests and many manufactures were failing without supplies from the U. 1812. on June 23.S was already going to declare a war on the British because they were telling the Americans what to do with the Orders in Council by threatening them. Overall. So much that they earned the name War Hawks. the U. After. . the War Hawks true intention was to have war so they would get a bigger demand on war supplies. One group protested that Congress should uphold America's honor on the seas by forcibly removing the British camps that stayed in America's Northwestern areas.