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Lecture Notes for

436-351 Thermofluids 2
Unit 1: Potential Flow
Jones M.B. & Ooi A.
March 10, 2003

Preliminaries
Main Text
• Anderson J. D. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, McGraw-Hill

Suggested Reading
• Vallentine H. R. Applied hydrodynamics
• Lamb Hydrodynamics
• Streeter Fluid dynamics
• Milne & Thomson Theoretical Aerodynamics

Assessment (Unit 1 only)
70 % End of semester examination
20 % Assignment
10 % Prac

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .10 Vortex pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 31 31 32 34 35 38 41 43 44 47 47 48 49 53 56 59 60 61 64 69 70 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . .2 Pathlines and Streamlines . .1. . . .1 Concept of steady and unsteady flow . .3 Singularities . . . . .1 Some simple solutions . . . . . . . 4. . .4 Vorticity and Angular Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Magnus effect . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Source and Sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Flow past a circular cylinder with circulation . . . . . . . . . . 15 4 Velocity Potential and Stream function 4. . . 17 17 18 19 19 23 26 27 5 Some Simple Solutions 5. . . . . . . . . . .1 Superimpose flow right to left . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Velocity Field in terms of velocity potential function φ 5. . . . . . . . 10 3 Momentum equations: Euler’s equations of motion 13 3. . . . . .1 Pressure Forces: Bernoulli’s Equation . . 5. . . .2 Superimpose flow left to right . . . . . . . .3 Concept of total derivative (substantial 2. . . . . . . . . .2 General equation for ψ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 How does ψ behave alone a streamline . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .2 More complex flow solutions . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 5. . . . . derivative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v and ψ 4. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5. . . . . .3 What is the relationship between u. 5. . .7 The point vortex . . . .1. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Source flow . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 Introduction 5 2 Some Preliminary Concepts 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Circulation . . . . . . . . .3 Sink flow .1 The doublet .1 Concept of a stream function ψ . . . 5. . . . . 5. . . . 2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or Lagrangian . . . . . .4. .1 Parallel flow . . 2. . . . . .4 Concept of velocity potential φ . . . . . .2 What is the physical meaning of ψ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .9 Method of images . . . . .1 Pressure distribution . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .12 Electrical analogy . . .2 Doublet with uniform flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .5 Flow past a circular cylinder . . . . .5. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Concept of a scalar point function . 7 . . . 5. . . . . . .

. . . . .4 6 The 6. Example: flow over a circular cylinder . .1. . . . 89 7. . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Conformal Transformation of velocities . . .4 complex potential function Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example-Flow over a Flat Plate . . . . . . . . 90 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . Velocity components from w .2 6. . . . . . 73 73 75 76 77 7 Conformal Transformations 85 7. . 93 . . . . . .Stagnation point flow . . . .2 Flow Over An Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example . . . . . . . . . . .

lift and drag). that is the flow patterns and associated forces they create (eg. ie. For example consider flow around a cylinder. Classical model Drag= 0 5 . Analytical  Simplify equations Computational Experimental MB OC C B C Model the physics that is not understood B Test scale models Here we will consider the analytical method known as classical hydrodynamics. by ideal we mean incompressible and frictionless (inviscid). ρ =constant and µ = 0. In many cases this is a difficult task and several different approaches may be required. This involves the study of ideal fluids.Chapter 1 Introduction We wish to predict fluid motion.

A more useful application would be a streamlined body. Engineers initially largely ignored the classical approach. Outside of these regions the fluid may be considered frictionless. However in many fluid flows friction is only important in regions such as boundary layers and wakes. Classical Model Better agreement Actual flow thin wake .6 Actual flow Vortex street Vorticies are shed Large drag due to large wake Theory breaks down due to influence of viscosity The discrepency between the above is known as d’Alembert’s paradox.

z.1 Concept of steady and unsteady flow In general the velocity field consist of three velocity components. Consider continuity ∼ ∼ α dA Control volume surface A Control volume V From last year. y.Chapter 2 Some Preliminary Concepts 2. z).e. V = V(x. ie V = V(x.2) ∼ If the velocity components are a function of space alone and are not a function of time we have steady flow. Z A ρV cos α · dA =0 (steady flow) Z d =− ρdV (unsteady flow) dt V 7 . ∼ (2.1) ∼ ∼ is a function of space and time i. V = u i + v j + wk ∼ ∼ (2. t). y.

They do not coincide for unsteady flows. we can also write it in differential form. For unsteady flows the streamline pattern is different at different times. • A pathline is the line traced out by fluid particle as it moves through the flow field. it is critical that one comprehend the concept of streamlines and pathlines. ρ =constant)  ∇ · V = 0  ∼ steady or unsteady ∂u ∂v ∂w ∴ + + = 0 .  ∂x ∂y ∂z Note we are using the Cartesian coordinate system where k ∼ z NB: j w ∼ y v u x i ∼ V = i u + j v + kw ∼ 2. In order to “visualise” the flow field. pathlines and streamlines coincide. ∇ · ρV =0 (steady flow) ∼ =− ∂ρ ∂t (unsteady flow) Since we limit ourselves to incompressible flow (ie. It represent the path of a massless fluid particle moving in a flow field.2 ∼ ∼ ∼ Pathlines and Streamlines In Fluid mechanics. • A streamline is defined as a curve whose tangent at any point is in the direction of the velocity vector at that point. it is important to visualise the flow field. It is the snapshot of the flowfield at any instant in time.8 The above is in integral form. . Many fundamental concepts of Fluid mechanics can be understood by sketching how the flow looks like. For steady flow.

1: Show that for a three-dimensional (sometimes written as [3]) flow field.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 9 Exercise 2.2: Find the equations for streamlines and pathlines for the flow field given by the following expressions (a) V = x i − y j ∼ ∼ ∼ (b) V = x i + yt j ∼ 2. only the third relatioship is important vdx − udy = 0 (2.3) u is the velocity in the x direction and v is the velocity in the y direction and w is the velocity in the z direction. the mathematical equation for stream line can be written as wdy − vdz = 0 udz − wdx = 0 vdx − udy = 0 (2.4) Exercise 2.3 ∼ ∼ Concept of total derivative (substantial or Lagrangian derivative) Differentiation following the motion of the fluid. For two-dimensional (sometimes written as [2]) flows. y v+ A0 v dy A ∂v ∂v ∂v dt + dx + dy ∂t ∂x ∂y u+ ∂u ∂u ∂u dt + dx + dy ∂t ∂x ∂y u dx x .

D ∂ ∂ ∂ = +u +v Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y similarly in y−direction ay = Dv ∂v ∂v ∂v = +u +v Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y When we consider steady flow all derivatives of velocity with respect to time are zero Du ∂u ∂u =u +v Dt ∂x ∂y Dv ∂v ∂v ay = =u +v Dt ∂x ∂y ax = 2. ie.10 Particle goes from A to A0 in time dt so acceleration in the x−direction is.6) Vorticity and Angular Velocity Consider fluid element dx y v+ v ∂v dx ∂x ω1 dx x its angular velocity is ω1 = v+ ∂v = .4 (2. ∂x Similarly consider fluid element dy ∂v dx ∂x dx −v . ax = Note we use D Dt Du Change in u velocity = Dt dt     ∂u ∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y = + + ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂y ∂t ∂u ∂u ∂u +u +v = ∂t ∂x ∂y to denote the total derivative.5) (2.

. ∂y Hence ∂v ∂u − = ω1 + ω2 ∂x ∂y and the above is called vorticity or rotation and is denoted by ζ= ∂v ∂u − .7) It is defined to be the sum of the angular velocities of two mutually perpendicular fluid lines. ∂x ∂y (2.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 11 y u+ ∂u dy ∂y dy ω2 u x its angular velocity is ω2 = u−u− ∂u dy ∂y dy ∂u =− .

12 .

frictionless fluid and ignore body forces (gravity).Chapter 3 Momentum equations: Euler’s equations of motion Forces on a particle Consider [2] flow. ∂x similarly Fy = − ∂p dxdy . ∂y Now Newton’s equation of motion says max =Fx may =Fy 13 p+ ∂p dx ∂x .   ∂p Fx =pdy − p + dx dy ∂x ∂p =− dxdy . p+ ∂p dy ∂y dy p dx p Resultant external force in the x−direction.

14 and the mass of the element is m = ρdxdy. If we had considered unsteady flow ∂u/∂t 6= 0 and ∂v/∂t 6= 0 then ∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p +u +v =− ∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p ∂v +u +v =− ∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y These are the Euler equations of motion in [2] unsteady flow (Cartesian coordinates). R + δR δα Instantaneous streamlines R ≈0 z }| { ∂Vn ∂Vn ∂Vn Vn + dt + ds + dn ∂t ∂s ∂n Vn n dn s Vs ds ≈0 z }| { ∂Vs ∂Vs ∂Vs Vs + dt + ds + dn ∂t ∂s ∂n Note: dn = ds tan(dα) ≈ dsdα ≈ 0 ∂Vn Vs ≈ . ∂s R Vn = 0 .5) and (2. streamline curve linear co-ord. (2.5) the following two equations are obtained  ∂u ∂u ρdxdy u +v =− ∂x ∂y   ∂v ∂v ρdxdy u +v =− ∂x ∂y  ∂u 1 ∂p ∂u +v =− ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂v 1 ∂p ∂v u +v =− ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y ∂p dxdy ∂x ∂p dxdy ∂y u These are the Euler equations of motion in [2] steady flow (Cartesian coordinates). The above equations can be derived in other coordinate systems eg. Using Eqs.

Bernoulli’s equation is usually used to calculate pressure forces.2) Repeating similar steps for the y momentum equation gives 1 2 1 ∂p dv = − dy 2 ρ ∂y (3.3) Adding Eqs. it is important to calculate the pressure forces at various points in the fluid. Pressure Forces: Bernoulli’s Equation In many engineering applications. For inviscid flows.1) Proof: Consider the steady x momentum equation in [2] u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p +v =− ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x Multiply the above equation by dx gives u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p dx + v dx = − dx ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x Using Eq.2) and (3. (3. (2. Bernoulli’s equation is given by 1 p + ρV 2 = constant 2 For an inviscid fluid.1) is valid along a streamline.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes ∂Vs 1 ∂p ∂Vs + Vs =− ∂t ∂s ρ ∂s 2 ∂Vn Vs 1 ∂p + =− ∂t R ρ ∂n 3. (3.1 15 These are the Euler equations of motion in [2] unsteady flow (streamline curve linear coordinates). (3.3) gives  1 1 d u2 + v 2 = − 2 ρ  ∂p ∂p dx + dy ∂x ∂y  .4) on the second term on the LHS of the above equation gives ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p dx + u dy = − dx ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x   ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p u dx + dy = − dx ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x u udu = − 1 ∂p dx ρ ∂x 1 2 1 ∂p du = − dx 2 ρ ∂x (3. Eq.

1)) is valid only along a streamline.1: The analysis above show that Bernoulli’s equation (Eq.16  1 1 d V 2 = − dp 2 ρ dp = −ρV dV (3. it can be shown that Eq.5) Exercise 3.4) where V 2 = u2 + v 2 .1) is valid anywhere in the flow field. (3. (3. However. Prove that the previous statement is true. if the flow is inviscid and irrotational. we can integrate the above equation along a streamline to obtain Z p2 Z V2 dp = −ρ V dV p1 V1 1 1 p1 + ρV12 = p2 + ρV22 2 2 (3. If we assume that ρ is a constant. .

1 Concept of a stream function ψ The stream function is related to the rate at which fluid volume is streaming across and elementary arc. For Incompressible [2] flow. ds. This means dψ = V cos(α)ds = V · n ˆ ds ∼ I dψ = 0 17 ∼ . V ∼ α n ˆ ds From continuity we have I V | cos {zαds} = 0 ∼ I or V ·n ˆ ds = 0 ∼ ∼ dψ where V = |V| ∼ ie.Chapter 4 Velocity Potential and Stream function 4.

1 ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy ∂x ∂y How does ψ behave alone a streamline y A B O x I Z B dψ = OBAO Z A dψ + O Z O dψ + B dψ = 0 A =(ψB − ψO ) + (ψA − ψB ) + (ψO − ψA ) Along the streamline α = 90o ⇒ cos α = 0 A V ∼ n ˆ ∼ B ∴ dψ = V cos αds = 0 Hence along a streamline ψA = ψB . dψ = 4.18 where ψ a scalar point function and dψ is an exact differential ie.1.

1. This means that the difference in ψ between two points = the volume flux across any line joining the two points. v and ψ dψ = V cos α = V · n ˆ ∼ ∼ ds Say we move a small amount in the x-dir Have y V ∼ Here ds = dx α n ˆ ∼ x .3 What is the relationship between u.2 19 What is the physical meaning of ψ y A B O x ψA − ψO = volume flux crossing OA ψB − ψO = volume flux crossing OA If AB is a streamline the above fluxes must be equal.1. across which flow cannot occur. Therefore a streamline is like a fence.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 4. Also the volume flux across a path between two streamlines is independant of the path. 4.

20 then ds = dx and V·n ˆ = −v ∼ ∼ ∂ψ = −v ∂x ∴ Say we move a small amount in the y-dir V y ∼ Here ds = dy α n ˆ ∼ x then ds = dy and V·n ˆ=u ∼ ∼ ∂ψ =u ∂y ∴ Alternative derivation. B ds dy u A dx v Let dψ = flux crossing AB dψ |{z} flux in across AB = udy |{z} flux out side − vdx |{z} flux in bottom .

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 21 because dψ is an exact differential dψ = ∂ψ ∂ψ dx + dy . ∂x ∂y Equating coefficient of dx and dy gives ∂ψ = −v ∂x ∂ψ =u ∂y In polar coordinates uθ ur r θ Convention • ur = radial component • uθ = tangential component Note ur and uθ correspond with u and v when θ = 0 dr uθ B ds y dr uθ B ur A ds rdθ r dθ r θ ur rdθ x dψ = flux across AB dψ = ur rdθ − uθ dr ∂ψ ∂ψ but dψ = dr + dθ ∂r ∂θ A .

1) is 2m3 /s. Ψ = kxy (a) Find the value of k if you are given that the volume flow rate of a line drawn between (0. Find the pressure distribution along this wall. given that p = 0 at [0.0) and (1.22 Equate coefficients of dr and dθ ∂ψ = −uθ ∂r 1 ∂ψ = ur r ∂θ If we had considered compressible flow ∂ψ ∂ψ ρ ρ =− v = − uθ ∂x ρ0 ∂r ρ0 ∂ψ ρ 1 ∂ψ ρ = u = ur ∂y ρ0 r ∂θ ρ0 where ρ0 is some reference density arbitraily chosen at some point in the flow.1) (a) Obtain an expression for the velocity field. (c) Find the volume flow rate per unit width flowing between the streamlines y = 1 and y = 2. 0]. For incompressible flow ρ/ρ0 = 1 Exercise 4. (b) Is the flow field irrotational ? (c) Given that the pressure at (0.3: The flow around a corner can be defined with the streamfunction.3) is a wall. .2: An inviscid flow is bounded by a wavy wall at y = H and a plane wall at y = 0. (b) Is the flow rotational or irrotational ? (c) Find the pressure distribution on the plane wall surface. what is the pressure distribution along the two walls. The stream function is  ψ = A e−ky − eky sin(kx) + By 2 (4.0) is p0 . Exercise 4. (d) Pretend that the streamline going through the point (2.1: For the flow defined by the stream function ψ = V∞ y: (a) Plot the streamlines. (b) Find the x and y components of velocity at any point. Exercise 4.

2) wrt y and (4. Use Eulers equation of motion to determine a general equation for ψ.2) (4.3) wrt x ∂u ∂u ∂2u ∂v ∂u ∂2u 1 ∂2p = +u + +v 2 ρ ∂x∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y 2 2 ∂u ∂v ∂ v ∂v ∂v ∂2v 1 ∂ p = +u 2 + +v − ρ ∂y∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y − (4.6) n o ∂v The term ∂x − ∂u is the vorticity which was defined in section 2.5) and assume 1 ∂2p 1 ∂2p = ρ ∂x∂y ρ ∂y∂x ∂ 0=u ∂x  ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y  ∂ +v ∂y ie.2 23 General equation for ψ It has been shown that along a streamline ψ is constant. Therefore if we can determine the stream function we are then able to plot (or sketch) the streamlines for a given flow.4) from (4. Assuming steady flow we have.3) we want to eliminate pressure. so differentiating (4.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 4. ∂x ∂y ρ ∂y u (4.7) . p is a regular function  ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y   + ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y  ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y  but from continuity  ∂u ∂v + ∂x ∂y  =0 hence ∂ u ∂x    ∂ ∂v ∂u +v − =0 ∂y ∂x ∂y   D ∂v ∂u OR − =0 Dt ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y  (4.4) (4. ∂u ∂u 1 ∂p +v =− ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂v ∂v 1 ∂p u +v =− .6) says that Dζ =0 Dt (4.5) Subtract (4.4 ∂y Note in streamline coordinates ζ= Vs ∂Vs − R ∂n Therefore (4.

7) Since we have u = ∂ψ ∂y ∂x ζ=− ∴ ζ = − (∇ · ∇)ψ = − ∇2 ψ ∂2ψ ∂2ψ − 2 ∂x2 ∂y ∇2 = Laplacian operator ∂2 ∂2 = 2+ 2 ∂x ∂y ∇2 ψ = −ζ Equation (4. Hence streamlines are lines of constant ζ as well as ψ.4: Repeat the steps above and show that Helmholtz’s equation is valid for inviscid. incompressible AND unsteady flows. .24 This means if we follow a fluid element its vorticity (ζ) does not change. Since this is steady flow following a fluid element ⇒ travelling on a streamline. Exercise 4. Uniform vorticity upstream y u = ky u Here every streamline has the same vorticity and since ζ remains constant along a streamline then ζ is constant everywhere.8) . Poisson’s equation (4. ⇒ ∇2 ψ = −ζ = const. v = − ∂ψ substituting into (2.7) becomes D  2 ∇ ψ =0 Dt Helmholtz’s equation This is effectively the Euler equation and continuity expressed in terms of the stream function (ψ) for the case of incompressible [2] flow. Two special cases 1.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes

25

2. Zero upstream vorticity
Occurs quite a lot in practice ie
U1

U = U1

ζ=0
Velocity profile as seen
by observer moving with wing
Now ζ = constant along streamlines, therefore ζ = 0 everywhere. With ζ = 0
everywhere we have irrotational flow.
⇒ ∇2 ψ = 0

Laplace equation

(4.9)

This leads to what is know as potential flow and we can say if the flow is
irrotational (ζ = 0) the stream function (ψ) will satisfy the Laplace equation.
The beauty of the Laplace equation is that it is LINEAR. This means if we
have a series of simple flow solutions eg. ψ1 , ψ2 , ψ3 then the solution to more
complex flows can be obtained by superposition of the simple flows eg.
ψ
|{z}

complicated flow

= ψ1 + ψ2 + ψ3 + · · ·
|
{z
}
simple flows

Note: the Laplace operator in polar coordinates is 
2
1 ∂
∂2

1 ∂2
2
+ 2
+
∇ = 2 2+
r ∂θ
r ∂r ∂r
∂z 2
| {z }
In the case of polar cylindrical

Some more about vorticity
Vorticity is really a [3] vector Ω

Ω = i ξ + j η + kζ

it can be evaluated by taking the curl of the velocity vector ie.
Ω =curl (V)

=∇ × V

i

∼ ∼j .

=.

∂ ∂ .

∂x ∂y .

u v  ∂w =i − ∼ ∂y .

k .

.

∼ .

∂ .

∂z .

w .

     ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂u +j − +k − ∼ ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∼ .

∼ When this happens such a flow is called potential flow and φ is referred to as the velocity potential. y. y. φ = φ(x.3 ∼ ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y  . z) which possesses potential scalar function φ(x. eg. y. z) = ∇φ(x. ∼ V(x. z) . z). y. z) then surfaces of constant φ will form plates. . Often in fluid flow (but not always) the velocity field is a vector point function V(x. ∼ ∂x ∼ ∂z ∼ ∂y There are many vector fields in nature that can be defined this way. y. ie.26 hence for [2] flow  Ω=k ∼ 4. ∇= i Vector field Current flux Heat flux Gravitational force Scalar function Voltage potential Temperature Potential energy The scalar function is called the potential for the vector field and if a vector field possesses a potential it is called a conservative field. |Ω| = ζ ∼ Concept of a scalar point function If we have a scalar point function. surfaces of constant temp surfaces of constant voltage Vector field whose direction is perpendicular to the φ contours φ1 φ2 φ3 φ4 Often we can denote a vector field by V =∇φ ∼ =grad φ where ∂ ∂ ∂ +j +k .

but the velocity potential. φ is related to the rate of flow along ds. ds.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 4. The stream function is related to the rate of flow across an small arc. Let dφ = V ds sin α Z B then φA − φB = V sin αds A dφ = V sin α or ds B s ds V α n ˆ A ∼ Say we move a small amount in the x-dir y V ∼ Here ds = dx α n ˆ ∼ x then ds = dx and V sin α = u ∴ ∂φ =u ∂x Say we move a small amount in the y-dir .4 27 Concept of velocity potential φ The velocity potential is analogous to the stream function.

what goes in must come out)     ∂u ∂v udy · 1 + vdx · 1 = u + dx dy + v + dy dx ∂x ∂y . v+ ∂v dy ∂y u+ u ∂u dx ∂x dy dx v From volume flux balance (ie.28 V y ∼ α Here ds = dy n ˆ ∼ x then ds = dy and V sin α = v ∴ ∂φ =v ∂y Now V = i u + j v ∼ ∼ ∼ ∂φ ∂φ =i +j ∼ ∂x ∼ ∂y ∴ V =∇φ (= grad φ) ∼ This means that φ is the potential function of velocity To find the governing equation for φ use volume flux technique.

Hence we can use superposition of solutions.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y But ← 29 continuity equation u= ∂φ ∂u ∂2φ → = ∂x ∂x ∂x2 v= ∂φ ∂v ∂2φ → = 2 ∂y ∂y ∂y and ∴ ∂2φ ∂2φ + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 ⇒ ∇2 φ = 0 Therefore the velocity potential function φ like the stream function ψ follows the Laplace equation (harmonic functions). ie. to obtain a complex flow just add simple flows together. .

30

Chapter 5
Some Simple Solutions
5.1

Some simple solutions

We will find the solution (ie. stream function ψ) for some simple flows.

5.1.1

Parallel flow

For the parallel flow with uniform velocity U∞ shown in Figure 5.1, we have
u=

∂ψ
∂y

v=−

and

∂ψ
∂x

In this case u = U∞ , v = 0

∂ψ
= 0,
∂x

∂ψ
= U∞
∂y

This gives two partial differential equations which can be solved by integration
∂ψ
=0
∂x
ψ = f1 (y)
and
∂ψ
= U∞
∂y
ψ = U∞ y + f2 (x)
where f1 (y) and f2 (x) are functions of integration. These equations are compatible
only if f2 (x) = k where k is an arbitrary constant. For convenience the value of ψ
is normally set to zero when y = 0 ⇒ K = 0. Hence
ψ = U∞ y

parallel flow (left to right)
31

32

y

x

Figure 5.1: Parallel flow from left to right

5.1.2

Source flow

In source flow we have Q m3 s−1 emerging from a point and flowing in the radial
direction ie.

ur

r
θ

C.V

Source
Strength= Q m3 s−1
The volume flow rate through the control volume surface with unit depth is given
by
2πr · 1 · ur = Q
(vol. flux)
hence
Q
ur =
,
uθ = 0 By definition of a source
2πr
. We have
∂ψ
1 ∂ψ
= −uθ ,
= ur
∂r
r ∂θ

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 33 hence in this case ∂ψ =0. 2π These two equations are compatible only if f2 (r) = k usually k = 0 when θ = 0. ∂r 1 ∂ψ Q = r ∂θ 2πr ∂ψ =0 ∂r ⇒ ψ = f1 (θ) and Q 1 ∂ψ = r ∂θ 2πr Q ⇒ψ= θ + f2 (r) . ψ= Q θ 2π source in polar coordinates In cartesian ψ= y Q arctan 2π x Example: Q = 48 units gives the following ψ values when plotted at π/6 intervals 12 Usual to have π > θ > −π 16 These are the streamlines 8 ψ=4 20 24 ψ=0 -4 -20 Note the θ = π S/L has a discontinuity -16 -8 -12 .

y y y=-Uy y=Vx x x y y=W(y cos a-x sin a) a x Figure 5.3 Sink flow Show that for a sink ψ=− Q θ 2π Sink Strength= Q m3 s−1 Exercise 5.34 5.2.1.2: Examples of some typical stream function .1: Follow the steps outlined above and see if you can derive the stream function for typical flows shown in Figure 5.

which are points where u = v = 0. u= ∂ψ ∂y = − U∞ + Q 1 1   2π 1 + y2 x x2 = − U∞ + Q x 2 2π (x + y 2 ) (A) . The velocity components in the new flow are. To do this we first find the stagnation points. Q For uniform flow For source ψ1 = − U∞ y y Qθ Q ψ2 = = arctan 2π 2π x Since the Laplace equation is linear we can add these solutions to get the solution for the new flow ψ = ψ1 + ψ2 y Q ∴ ψ = −U∞ y + arctan 2π x We want to sketch this flow.2 35 More complex flow solutions Source combines with uniform stream Uniform flow.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 5. U∞ y x Source. plot lines of constant ψ. ie.

∞ Streamlines that pass through the stagnation points are called sepratrix streamlines. Lets plot this streamline y Q arctan ψ = 0 = −U∞ y + 2π x The solution has two branches y=0  and x = y cot 2πU∞ y Q  y Q 2U∞ Q 4U∞ Separtrix streamline x stagnation point Q x= 2πU∞ . stagnation point occurs on the x-axis 0= ∴ y0 = 0 and from (A) Q x 2π (x2 + y 2 ) Q ∴ x0 = 2πU∞ U∞ = Q So there exists one stagnation point at ( 2πU . The value of ψ on the sepratrix must be constant = ψ|x0 .y0 and in this case ψ|x0 . y0 .36 and ∂ψ ∂x   Q 1 −y   =− 2 2π 1 + y x2 v =− x2 = Q y 2π (x2 + y 2 ) (B) Lets assume the stagnation point(s) occurs at x0 . From (B) y Q 2 2π (x + y 2 ) ie.y0 = 0. 0).

the stagnation point. y → 2UQ∞ . source dominates) and in far field (ie.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 37 Locate x intercepts x =lim y→0 y tan  2πyU∞ Q  Use L’Hopital’s rule 1   x =lim y→0 2πU∞ 2 2πyU∞ sec Q Q x= Q 2πU∞ ie. • Find stagnation points and note at a stagnation point 2 streamlines come in and two streamlines come out • sketch sepratrix streamline • consider flow close to origin (ie. We can now sketch the overall flow pattern To aid sketching. uniform flow dominates) • streamlines cannot cross each other • adjacent streamlines must flow in the same direction. as expected Locate y intercepts (x = 0) Qπ =0 2π 2 Q ∴y= 4U∞ −U∞ y + Also for x → ∞. .

38 Now any streamline can be replaced by a solid boundary. Assume that Q/(2πU∞ ) = 1.3. In addition. Exercise 5. The solution to this exercise is shown in Figure 5. plot the pressure coefficient. we can replace the ψ = 0 streamline with a solid boundary.3 Singularities There are in general two types of singularities 1. Regular singularity (or saddle).2 with the free stream velocity going from left to right. Irregular singularity eg. eg. 5. u = v = 0 stagnation point Irregular singularity This is called an irregular singularity and we cannot Taylor Series expand about this point. Also a discontinuity exists Regular singularity . Source/Sink. Cp . Hence we have solved the flow field about a body whose shape is   2πU∞ y x = y cot Q and such a shape is called a Half-Rankine body (or semi-infinite body) ie. Vortex u = v = ±∞ 2. along the centerline of the body.2: Repeat the derivation outlined in Section 5.

5 -1.0 -5 Figure 5. This is what we see if we approach the singularity. 90o only if vorticity is zero.0 -0. This point is also known as a saddle. ie.5 Cp Y 436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 0. Note. rectangular hyperbolae.2 This is a regular sigularity and we can Taylor Series expand about this point Also all functions are continuous as we go through this point.5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -5 π 39 π/2 0 5 X 10 5 4 y 3 2 1 0 -5 0 x 5 10 0 x 5 10 1. .3: Solution to Exercise 5.0 0.

40 Note: Sources and sinks are called irregular singularities since they cannot occur in practice (ie. u = v = ∞). Example Fan approximated by sink Q2 Fume bed approximated by source Q1 . However they can be used to approximate certain practical situations.

.4 41 Source and Sink y x Sink Q Source Q y P α θA θB −s x s Have Q θA 2π −Q ψB = θB 2π ψA = hence ψ =ψA + ψB Q = (θA − θB ) 2π Q = α 2π Plot the streamlines. ie. It can be show that the locus of α = constant corresponds to circles all intersecting the x−axis at −s and +s. lines of ψ = constant ⇒ α = constant.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 5.

as  x Source Sink s Hence the streamline pattern is. s . α = const.) gives the family of equations    1 s 2 2 2 x + y− =s 1+ 2 a a where a = tan α = tan (2πΨ/Q) y s q 1+ 1 a  0.3: Show that lines of ψ = const.42 eg. α α 2s Exercise 5. (ie.

The solution for ψ = 0 has two branches.1) . tan θA − tan θB 1 + tan θA tan θB ) ( y y − ∴ θA − θB = arctan x−s yx+s 2 1 + x2 −s2 tan(θA − θB ) = therefore the stream function in cartesian coordinates is ( y ) y − Q ψ = −U∞ y + arctan x−s yx+s .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 5. 2π Know.1 43 Superimpose flow right to left Now let us add a flow from right to left. lets sketch it. y=0 and ie. then the new flow stream function is ψ = −U∞ y + Q (θA − θB ) .4. 2 2 2 x + y − s = 2ys cot     x2 y 2 2y U∞ s y + 2 −1= cot 2π s2 s s Q s  2πU∞ y Q  ψ = 0 ⇒ Oval shape (5. 2 2π 1+ 2 2 x −s It can be shown that the stagnation points lie on the ψ = 0 streamline and this is called the separatrix streamline.

1). Consider the case when the flow is from left to right Q ψ = U∞ y + arctan 2π ( y x−s 1+ y x+s y2 x2 −s2 − ) . . The shape of the body depends on the non∞s dimensional parameter UQ while the scale (size) depends on the length scale s.44 x2 s2 + y2 s2 −1= 2y s n   o y ∞s cot 2π UQ s Like before the ψ = 0 streamline can be replaced by a solid body. Exercise p 5.4: Show that the stagnation points for the full Rankine body occur at x = ±s Q/(U∞ πs) + 1. Full Rankine body This is called a full Rankine body. 5.2 Superimpose flow left to right The flow pattern changes dramatically if the free stream flow is in the opposite direction. Hence we have infact solved the problem of flow past a body whose shape is given by equation (5.4.

1. ψ= Q U∞ Q 2 ψ=0 .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 45 Find the stagnation points ie. u=0 ∂ψ =0 → ∂y and and v=0 ∂ψ =0 ∂x It turns out (exercise show this) that the location of the stagnation points depends ∞s on the strength of the parameter UQ . there are three cases. U∞ s Q > 1/π. then the stagnation points are on the x−axis at x = ±s p 1 − Q/(U∞ πs).

U∞ s Q < 1/π. then the stagnation points are at the origin (repeated root) this is a degenerate case (unstable saddle) Structurally unstable saddle (note 3 S/L in. 3 S/L out) 3. merge and split. then the stagnation points are on the y−axis at y = ±s p Q/(U∞ πs) − 1. . When this happens it is called a bifurcation. ∞s Note as the parameter UQ is varied the saddles (stagnation points) move.46 2. U∞ s Q = 1/π.

Q → ∞ so that Qs = K remains a constant. 5. Note as s → 0. s → 0).1 The doublet When a source and sink of equal strength are superimposed upon one and other we get a doublet. y P M α r Sink Q B θB x θA θ A −s s Source Q then let the source and the sink move together (ie. In Cartesian coordinates sin θ = y 1 (x2 + y 2 ) 2 1 r = (x2 + y 2 ) 2 . Then as s → 0 α= AM 2s sin θ = r r We know (from last lecture) Q α 2π Q 2s sin θ ∴ψ= 2π r ψ= Hence ψ= Qs sin θ K sin θ = πr πr Doublet .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 5.5 47 Flow past a circular cylinder This is a special case of the Rankine body where the spacing between the source and sink goes to zero.5. such that the product Qs remains constant (K). First consider source/sink pair spaced 2s apart.

exercise show stagnation points at r x=± K . Hence the stream function for this flow is ψ = −U∞ y + Ky π(x2 + y 2 ) Find stagnation points ie. u = 0 and v = 0. πU∞ y=0. Consider the sepratrix streamline.2 Doublet with uniform flow Now we are going to add parallel flow from right to left to the doublet. 5.5. it passes through the stagnation point and corresponds to the ψ = 0 streamline. whose centres lie on the y−axis and which pass through the origin. The solution for ψ = 0 has two branches y=0 K and x2 + y 2 = = a2 πU∞ r ← equation to a circle with radius a = K πU∞ .48 ∴ ψ= Ky π(x2 + y 2 ) Streamlines are a family of circles.

6: Two half cylinders of outer radius a are joined together in a uniform potential flow.6 Circulation We wish to solve flow about bodies that produce lift.5: Find an expression for the velocity on the surface of the cylinder (Ψ = 0 streamline). Exercise 5. Circulation is the line integral of velocity around a closed loop. Determine the angle θ assuming the internal pressure Pint to be equal to the static pressure on the external surface of the cylinder at the point where the hold is drilled.4. Exercise 5. A hole is to be drilled at an angle θ such that there will be no nett force between the half cylinders at the joints.1) and show that the lift and drag on a circular cylinder as predicted by potential flow theory is zero. Use this expression to find the pressure distribution and hence the lift and drag forces on the cylinder.1) Exercise 5. as shown in figure 5. This can be achieved by introducing circulation around the body.7: Integrate Eq. .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 49 x 2 + y 2 = a2 q K − πU ∞ q K πU∞ Again we can replace the ψ = 0 streamline with a solid body and hence we have solved for the flow past a circular cylinder. (5. Hint: Remember from potential flow theory that the predicted pressure on the surface of a cylinder is given by 1 2 2 P = P∞ + ρU∞ − 2ρU∞ sin2 θ 2 (5. 5. Suppose we are in a flow field where the velocity at one of the points is V .

A When the curve is closed it gives the circulation .4: Half-cylinder configuration described in Exercise 5.6 B s ds V α n ˆ A ∼ Line integral of velocity from A to B is equal to the component of velocity along the line from A to B.50 Joint t q Pint Joint Figure 5. A This expression is analogous do work done if we replaced V with force F Z B work done = F sin αds . and we will denote this integral by LAB ie Z B LAB = V sin αds .

infact Z Γ= ζdA A That is circulation is the area integral of vorticity. I I Γ = V sin αds = (udx + vdy) Proof: B y s β ds V x α γ A n ˆ ∼ udx + vdy = V cos γ ds cos β + V sin γ ds sin β | {z } | {z } | {z } | {z } u dx v dy =V ds(cos γ cos β + sin γ sin β) =V ds(cos(β − γ)) =V ds sin α Actually circulation is closely related to vorticity.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 51 line of integration ds I Γ= V sin αds The above expression can also be expressed in terms of the velocity components u and v ie. . Consider an infinitesimal fluid element and evaluate the line integral around this element.

52 y u+ ∂u dy ∂y dy v+ v ∂v dx ∂x u x dx   ∂v ∂u dΓ =udx + v + dx dy + u + dy (−dx) + v(−dy) ∂x ∂y   ∂v ∂u − dxdy ∴ dΓ = ∂x ∂y  ∴ dΓ = ζdxdy ⇒  circulation = vorticity × area Hence we can say vorticity ζ = circulation around an element per unit area. ZZ   ∂v ∂u − dxdy ∂x ∂y A ZZ   ZZ   ∂v ∂u = dxdy − dxdy . What is the area integral of vorticity over a finite area ? y yu v1 v2 Finite area dA yl x x1 (y) x2 (y) Integrate over the area. ∂x ∂y A A .

For a point vortex A → 0 while ζ → ∞ such that Γ remains finite. ie.7 The point vortex We wish to introduce circulation into potential flow problems but this requires we introduce vorticity since Z Γ= ζdA .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 53 Consider first term. ZZ  A ∂v ∂x  yu Z Z x2 dxdy = Zylyu = Zylyu = x1 (v2 − v1 )dy Z yl v1 dy v2 dy + Iyl = Similarly it can be shown that. A However we want a irrotational flow field so put all the vorticity at a single point called a point vortex (this will be a singularity in the flow field). vorticity is concentrated at a point. 5. I dxdy = − udx hence ZZ  A I dxdy = (udx + vdy) This expression implies the area integral of vorticity = line integral of velocity on a closed circuit around the area. ZZ  ∂u ∂y  ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y  A  ∂v dx dy ∂x yu vdy . H V sin αds = Γ Point vortex (Γ) H V sin αds = 0 .

∇2 ψ = 0 . I Γ = V sin αds Now for the point vortex V = uθ and α = π/2 ie. choose the constant such that ψ = 0 at r = b where b is some arbitrary value ψ=− Γ r ln 2π b stream function for a potential vortex Check whether the point vortex satisfies the Laplace equation ie. uθ Point vortex ur = 0 θ r Circulation = line integral around a closed circuit ie.54 Derivation of the stream function for a point vortex with circulation (or strength) Γ. ur = 0 Z 2π Γ= uθ rdθ 0 ∴ Γ =2πruθ In polar coordinates we have ∂ψ = −uθ ∂r and 1 ∂ψ = ur r ∂θ 1 ∂ψ =0 r ∂θ ⇒ ψ = f1 (r) and ∂ψ Γ = ∂r 2πr Γ ⇒ ψ = − ln(r) + f2 (θ) 2π − Above are compatible if f2 (θ) = const.

∂r 2πr Γ ∂2ψ = 2 ∂r 2πr2 and Hence. 1 ∇ψ= r =0 2  Γ − 2πr  + Γ 2πr2 ∂ψ 2 =0 ∂θ2 .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 55 In polar coordinates 1 ∂ψ 2 1 ∂ψ ∂ψ 2 ∇ψ= 2 2 + + 2 r ∂θ r ∂r ∂r For the point vortex we have 2 ∂ψ Γ =− .

anti-clockwise). 2π b Hence the combined flow is ψ =ψ1 + ψ2 a2 = − U∞ sin θ r − r   Γ r − ln 2π b . this can be achieved by introduction of a point vortex. To achieve positive lift for the above configuration we require positive circulation (ie.56 5. The stream function for a vortex placed at the origin is −Γ  r  ψ2 = ln .8 Flow past a circular cylinder with circulation It has been shown that flow around a cylinder can be generated from a doublet in a uniform flow ψ= ψ = −U∞ y y K 2 π x + y2 + K y 2 π x + y2   K 1 = − U∞ sin θ r − πU∞ r ψ1 = − U∞ y + and the radius (a) of the cylinder generated by the above is r K a= πU∞ Because the flow pattern is symmetrical there is no lift generated. In order to obtain lift we have to add circulation to the flow.

∞ πa ie.   a2 Γ U∞ sin θ 1 + 2 + =0 a 2πa −Γ Γ ∴ sin θ = solutions exist for <1 4U∞ πa 4πU∞ a This means when the non-dimensional parameter 4πUΓ∞ a < 1 there exists two stagnation points located on the surface of the cylinder (r = a) and at θ0 = sin−1 ( 4U−Γ ).2) Now we want to find the stagnation points ie.1) (5. ur = uθ = 0.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 57   1 ∂ψ 1 a2 ur = = − U∞ cos θ r − r ∂θ r r   2 a = − U∞ cos θ 1 − 2 r   Γ 1 ∂ψ a2 uθ = − = U∞ sin θ 1 + 2 + ∂r r 2π r (5. From (5.2). y Γ <1 For 4πU∞ a x θ0 .1)   a2 −U∞ cos θ 1 − 2 = 0 r π solutions are r = a or θ = 2 Check if uθ = 0 has solutions for r = a. from (5.

2).58 For Γ 4πU∞ a = 1 these two stagnation points merge and are both located at −1  θ = sin −4U∞ πa 4U∞ πa  π =− .  U∞ ∴ r2 + a2 1+ 2 r Γ r + a2 = 0 ⇒ 2πU∞  + Γ =0 2πr 2 real solutions exist for Γ >1 4πU∞ a This means when the non-dimensional parameter 4πUΓ∞ a > 1 there exists two stagnation points located on the y−axis (one at |r| < a and one at |r| > a) ie. 2 r=a ie. Γ For >1 4πU∞ a y x r = a. ψ = 0 . from (5. one stagnation point y Γ For =1 4πU∞ a x Now check if v 0 = 0 has solutions for θ = π2 .

r = a) also note q = uθ on the surface. θ) and q be the resultant velocity (q = u2r + u2θ ). Let pp be the static pressure at some point P1 (a. 1 0 1 2 p + ρv 2 = p∞ + ρU∞ = pt = total pressure 2 2 1 0 ∴ p = pt − ρv 2 2 .1 Γ >1 4πU∞ a Pressure distribution In order to determine the lift generated we need to know the pressure distribution around the cylinder. y q = v0 p∞ = patm U∞ P1 a θ x Applying Bernoulli along the streamline ψ = 0 (ie. If we looked at the streamlines inside the circle we would see. Γ =1 4πU∞ a Γ <1 4πU∞ a 5.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 59 Note for all of the above cases the shape of the ψ = 0 streamline is preserved as a circle of radius= a.8.

60 Now we know the velocity distribution on the surface is.8. The lift that results is called the Magnus effect.2 Magnus effect The cylinder with circulation flow can be approximately achieved by spinning a cylinder in cross flow. . uθ = 2U∞ sin θ + Γ 2πa  2 Γ 1 p =pt − ρ 2U∞ sin θ + 2 2πa   2ΓU∞ sin θ Γ2 1 2 2 =pt − ρ 4U∞ sin θ + + 2 2 2 πa 4π a Lift = normal force perpendicular to the free stream direction p a θ Z dθ 2π L=− padθ · 1 · sin θ (lift per unit length) 0   Z 2π  1 2ΓU∞ sin2 θ Γ2 2 3 = −pt a sin θ + ρa 4U∞ sin θ + + 2 2 sin θ dθ 2 πa 4π a 0   Z 2π  1 ΓU∞ Γ2 2 = −pt a sin θ + ρa U∞ (3 sin θ − sin 3θ) + (1 − cos 2θ) + 2 2 sin θ dθ 2 πa 4π a 0   1 ΓU∞ = ρa 2π 2 πa ∴ L =ρU∞ Γ If the cylinder had a length of l ⇒ total lift = ρU∞ Γl 5.

8: A cyinder of diameter 2.9 Method of images Often we want to study flow patterns in the vicinity of a solid plane boundary. Estimate the lift per unit length of the cylinder. For example say we have a sink located near a plane wall. . L FreeStream AngularVelocity 5. This can be achieved by treating the boundary as a mirror and placing images of the flow structures behind the mirror.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 61 ω Vorticity is contained in the boundary layers → bound vortex Wake L ≈ ρU∞ Γ D 6= 0 Exercise 5.5 cm rotate as indicated at 3600 rpm in standard air which is flowing over the cylinder at 30 ms−1 . To get the correct flow requires that the boundary corresponds to a streamline.

like looking into a mirror when there is another mirror behind you) . which must correspond to a S/L This would happen if it was a line of symmetry ⇒ acts as a mirror Sink Q A Image sink Q a a A0 For the above the stream function would be ψ =ψA + ψA0 Q Q θA − θA0 =− 2π  2π     Q y y =− arctan + arctan 2π x+a x−a which gives. in this case we get an infinite series of images (ie. We get the required S/L which represent5s the wall Another example is a source between parallel planes.62 Wall.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes a a 63 a and the stream function is a series  ∞  X Q ψ= θi 2π i=1 a .

64 5. We can analysis the flow pattern by finding the stagnation points and sketching the flow.10 Vortex pair Imagine we have a vortex pair held fixed in space with a uniform flow superimposed. U∞ Γ 2l Γ −Γ Γ ln rA + ln rB − U∞ y 2π  2π rA −Γ = ln − U∞ y 2π rB ! 1 −Γ (x2 + (y − l)2 ) 2 − U∞ y = ln 1 2π (x2 + (y + l)2 ) 2  2  −Γ x + (y − l)2 = ln − U∞ y 4π x2 + (y + l)2 ψ=  ∂ψ  u= = 0  ∂y  ∂ψ  v=− = 0 ∂x for stagnation points It turns out that we get different flow patterns depending on the strength of the non-dimensional parameter lUΓ∞ .

degenerate (unstable) .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 65 Γ <1 πlU∞ Γ 2l s s Using dimensional analysis it can be shown that s =f l Γ =1 πlU∞ Bifurcation  Γ lU∞  6 way saddle .

66 Kelvin Oval Γ >1 πlU∞ To find the shape of the Kelvin Oval consider ψ = 0 streamline. This is because the vortices induce each other along with a velocity. show this gives " #1  (y − l)2 exp 4πUΓ∞ y − (y + l)2 2  x= 1 − exp 4πUΓ∞ y In real physical situations we cannot have vortex pairs fixed in space hence the pattern is unsteady. Γ uθ = Γ 2π(2l) l l Γ uθ = Therefore each vortex moves with a velocity u= Γ 2π(2l) Γ 2π(2l) .

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 67 In order to achieve steady flow we must analyse the pattern in a frame of reference moving with the vortex pair.174l . this implies we see a uniform flow of U= Γ 4πl right to left The strength of the non-dimensional parameter Γ =4 πU∞ l and hence the shape of the Kelvin Oval is fixed and the streamline pattern looks like y 2l √ −l 3 √ l 3 For a stationary observer the pattern is unsteady. streamline pattern looks like x However the instantaneous 4.

As before we can have a range of flow patterns. The velocity of propagation depends on the size of the vortex core  Γ V = πD  4D 1 ln −  4  Vortex core V K D  . However the maths is more complicated. owing to the vorticity being distributed over a finite area → the vortex core.68 y  x A smoke ring is an axisymetric version of this.

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 5. Source As an exercise show that the velocity potential for a source is given by φ = ψ3 ψ4 Q ln r 2π ψ2 φ3 ψ5 φ1 and lines of constant φ and ψ look like → ψ6 φ2 ψ1 ψ8 ψ7 . ur = 0 = uθ = ∂φ ∂r Γ 1 ∂φ = 2πr r ∂θ integrating gives Γ θ+c 2π Sketching lines of constant φ and ψ gives φ= φ3 φ4 φ2 ψ3 φ5 ψ1 ψ2 φ6 φ1 φ8 φ7 The stream function ψ and the velocity potential φ are orthogonal to each other. ⇒ Conjugate harmonic functions.11 69 Velocity Field in terms of velocity potential function φ Point vortex Have.

Therefore we can use the electrical analogy to obtain the flow pattern through a conduit. Flow Method 1.12 ln p Γ 2π arctan(y/x) = x2 + y 2 = K x π x2 +y 2 = Q 2π Streamfunction.70 The table below shows the velocity potential and stream function of some simple cases. Cut a piece of conducting material into the shape of the conduit. clockwise bottom) 5. φ U∞ y Q 2π Source Potential vortex (anticlockwise circulation) Doublet (anticlocwise top. Flow Uniform flow Velocity potential. Qθ 2π K sin θ π r . Ψ U∞ x Q 2π ln(r) Γθ 2π Γ − 2π ln K cos θ π r arctan(y/x) = p Γ x2 + y 2 = − 2π ln(r) y K π x2 +y 2 = Electrical analogy The flow of electrical current in a two dimensional conductor is analogous to irrotational flow and follows the Laplace equation ∇2 V = ∂2V ∂2V + =0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 where V is the electrical potential and is the counterpart of the velocity potential φ.

Insulator Conducting strip Conducting strip Conducting material Probe V Voltage source Voltage divider 2. conducting strip Insulator V Line of constant ψ . 3. Use a potentiometer or voltmeter probe to locate line of constant potential.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 71 Line of constant potential ⇒ φ = const. To locate the lines of constant ψ we swap the conducting strips with the insulators and repeat the above. Establish a voltage drop along the conductor between the flow entrance and exit boundaries.

72 .

Differentiate with respect to x ∂w dw ∂z dw = = ∂x dz ∂x dz differentiate with respect to y ∂w dw ∂z dw = =i . ie put w = f (z) where f is an analytic function (⇒ finite number of singularities).Chapter 6 The complex potential function 6.1 Introduction In order to extend the range of patterns we can analyse it is useful to define the complex potential function w = φ + iψ    Potential function OC C C Stream function Applies only to flows which have both a stream function ψ ⇒ 2 dimensional and a velocity potential function φ ⇒ irrotational. We need to prove an analytic function given by w = f (z) = φ + iψ gives the solution to 2 dimensional irrotational flow (for example is w = cz 2 a valid solution ?) Consider w = A + iB = f (z) where z = x + iy. ∂y dz ∂y dz 73 . it can be interpreted as a position vector. The complex potential function can then be expressed as a function of the complex variable z. z is the complex variable z =x + iy =reiθ .

Hence we can choose A = φ and B = ψ and w = φ + iψ Example: complex potential function for a point vortex From earlier lectures we have derived that −Γ ln(r) 2π Γ φ= θ 2π ψ= Γ Γ θ − i ln(r) 2π 2π Γ = (θ − i ln(r)) 2π ⇒w= (6.74 Hence dw ∂w 1 ∂w = = dz ∂x i ∂y Also ∂w ∂A ∂B = +i ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂B ∂w ∂A = +i ∂y ∂y ∂y and Hence from (6. ∂2B ∂2A = ∂x2 ∂x∂y therefore ∇2 A = and ∂2A −∂ 2 B = ∂y 2 ∂x∂y ∂2A ∂2A + =0.1) . ∂x2 ∂y 2 Similarly show ∇2 B = 0 .1)   ∂A ∂B 1 ∂A ∂B +i = +i ∂x ∂x i ∂y ∂y ∂B ∂B ∂A ∂A ∴ +i = −i ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y Equating real and imaginary parts  ∂A ∂B   =  ∂x ∂y Cauchy-Riemann equations ∂B −∂A    = ∂x ∂y Hence.

2 Velocity components from w From earlier lectures ∂φ ∂ψ = =u ∂x ∂y ∂φ −∂ψ = =v ∂y ∂x .436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 75 Complex potential function w = U∞ z Flow pattern Uniform Flow Q 2π Source w= ln(z) iΓ w = − 2π ln(z) w= K πz =  µ z w = U∞ z +  w = U∞ z + a2 z  Potential vortex (anticlockwise circulation) Doublet a2 z −  iΓ 2π Flow past a cylinder of radius a ln(z) Flow past a cylinder of radius a with circulation Γ Table 6.1: Examples of complex potential functions.1: Follow the steps outlined in the above example and show that some complex potential functions of some of the flows you have seen before are as given in the Table 6. Now ln(z) = ln(reiθ ) = ln(r) + iθ ∴ −i ln(z) =θ − i ln(r) Hence w= −iΓ ln(z) 2π complex potential for point vortex Exercise 6. 6.1.

76 Now dw ∂w ∂x = · dz  ∂x ∂z  ∂φ ∂ψ = +i ·1 ∂x ∂x ∂ψ ∂φ = +i ∂x ∂x dw ∴ =u − iv dz To find stagnation points we then solve dw =0 dz 6.3 for z Example .Stagnation point flow w =cz 2 =c(x + iy)2 w =c(x2 − y 2 ) + i2cxy But w = φ + iψ. equating real and imaginary parts ) φ = c(x2 − y 2 ) ψ = 2cxy both satisfy Laplace equation Velocity dw =u − iv dz =2cz note stagnation point at z = 0 =2c(x + iy) equate real and imaginary parts ⇒ u =2cx v =2cy .

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 77 y  ψ=2cxy  φ=c(x −y )  2 2 x NB: lines of constant ψ and φ intersect at right angles.1)). Remember that you HAVE TO use a sink image and a source image (the method of images) in order to correctly model the problem. the flow over a circular cylinder will be analyse using the complex potential function w introduced in the previous lecture. it was shown that the combination of a doublet with uniform flow gives a flow pattern that is similar to that of a uniform flow past a circular cylinder (see Fig.4 Example: flow over a circular cylinder From previous lectures. 6. At a height h directly above the vat. a long exhaust duct with uniform distributed openings along its length exist. (6. Exercise 6. (b) From your answer in part (a). (a) Write down the complex potential function for this problem. the complex potential function is given by the sum of the complex .2: A very long processing vat in a factor is giving off poisonous fumes at a rate of Qf cubic units per unit length of vat. For this flow. This vat is located at x = 0 and y = 0. In this example. derive expressions for the u and v components of the velocity field. The source of fumes from the vat can be regarded as a point source in two-dimensional flow and the exhaust duct can be regarded as a point sink. This duct is sucking Q cubic units/unit length.

2) where r a= µ U∞ is there radius of the cylinder. (6. Note that for large values of z. so  a2 w =U∞ x + iy + x + iy   a2 (x − iy) =U∞ x + iy + 2 x + y2  separate real and imaginary parts to get a2 w =U∞ x 1 + 2 x + y2 =φ  a2 +iU∞ y 1 − 2 x + y2 +iψ    Equating the real and imaginary parts to the the velocity potential and stream function for a flow past a cylinder going from left to right. The stream function and velocity potential for this flow in cartesian coordinates can be obtained by substituting z = x + iy into Eq. This mean that the flow pattern is approaches uniform flow at large distances from the origin.2).78 potential of uniform flow plus the complex potential of a doublet w= wuniform flow + =   = U∞ z + wdoublet µ z U∞ z+  µ U∞ z  Hence  w=U a2 z+ z  (6. a2 φ = U∞ x 1 + 2 x + y2  a2 ψ = U∞ y 1 − 2 x + y2    . limz→∞ w = U∞ z = wuniform flow .

2). From Eq.3: Show that the above expression simplifies to   dw a2 (x2 − y 2 ) =U∞ 1 − dz (x2 + y 2 )2 =u 2U∞ a2 xy +i (x2 + y 2 )2 +i(−v)  Hence   a2 (x2 − y 2 ) u = U∞ 1 − (x2 + y 2 )2 and −2U∞ a2 xy v= (x2 + y 2 )2    . (6.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 79 5 4 3 2 y 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 6. calculate dw/dz.1: Flow over a circular cylinder obtained from the complex potential function w = z + a2 /z To obtain the velocity field.   a2 dw = U∞ 1 − 2 dz z   a2 = U∞ 1 − (x + iy)2   a2 = U∞ 1 − 2 (x − y 2 + i2xy) Exercise 6.

Substitute this into Eq. (6. it is more convenient to work in polar coordnates (see Fig. Let z = reiθ . 6.2).2) to obtain  a2 −iθ re + e r   a2 r(cos(θ + i sin θ) + (cos θ − i sin θ) r w =U∞ =U∞ iθ  Grouping real and imaginary parts will give      a2 a2 w= r+ cos θ + i r − sin θ r r Hence.2: Cartesian and polar coordinate system Sometimes.80 y r θ x Figure 6. the velocity potential and the stream function are given by  φ= a2 r+ r  a2 r− r   ψ= cos θ sin θ .

of the fluid at any point is given by V 2 = u2 + v 2 2  2 2  a a2 2 2 sin(2θ) = U∞ 1 − 2 cos(2θ) + U r r2   a2 a4 2 2 2 2 = U∞ 1 − 2 2 cos (2θ) + 4 (cos (2θ) + sin (2θ)) r r   2 a a4 2 = U∞ 1 − 2 2 cos(2θ) + 4 r r   2 a a4 2 = U∞ 1 − 2 2 cos(2θ) + 4 r r On the surface of the cylinder.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 81 To obtain the velocity field. so 2 V 2 = U∞ (2 − 2 cos(2θ)) 2 = 2U∞ (1 − cos(2θ)) 2 = 2U∞ (1 − cos(2θ)) 2 = 4U∞ sin2 (θ) (remember that cos(2θ) = cos2 θ − sin2 θ) .4) r2 Note that u and v are the Cartesian velocity components and NOT the radial and tangential velocity components.3) r  2  a v = −U∞ sin(2θ) (6. r = a. Exercise 6.3) and (6.4) the speed.4: Prove that  u = U∞    a2 a2 (x2 − y 2 ) 1 − 2 cos(2θ) = U∞ 1 − r (x2 + y 2 )2 and  v = −U∞    a2 −2U∞ a2 xy sin(2θ) = r2 (x2 + y 2 )2 From Eqs. (6.  dw = U∞ 1 − dz  = U∞ 1 −  = U∞ 1 −  a2 z2  a2 −i2θ e (use z = reiθ ) r2  a2 (cos(2θ) − i sin(2θ)) r2 = u − iv Equating real and imaginary parts will give   a2 u = U∞ 1 − 2 cos(2θ) (6. V .

The velocity of the fluid is zero at θ = 0o and θ = 180o . 6. if the flow is steady. As the side of the cylinder. Maximum velocity occur on the sides of the cylinder at θ = 90o and θ = −90o . Thus. Pressure distribution on the surface of the cylinder can be found by using Benoulli’s equation.5 1 0.5 3 V 2 2.82 4 3. 6. θ = π/2 and the value of Cp drops to -3.5: Determine the points on the cylinder where pcylinder = p∞ . Exercise 6. Cp then increases to 1 at the rear stagnation point of the cylinder (θ = π ).3: V 2 distribution of flow over a circular cylinder V 2 distribution on the surface of the cylinder is shown in Fig.3. and the pressure at a great distance is p∞ .5 2 1. 1 2 1 p∞ + ρU∞ = pcylinder + ρV 2 2 2 1 2 = pcylinder + ρ4U∞ sin2 (θ) 2 therefore 1 2 pcylinder = p∞ + ρU∞ (1 − 4 sin2 θ) 2 and Cp = pcylinder − p∞  = 1 − 4 sin2 θ 1 2 ρU ∞ 2 A plot of Cp vs θ is shown in Fig. The value of Cp is 1 at the front stagnation point (θ = 0).5 0 −150 −100 −50 0 θ (degrees) 50 100 150 Figure 6.4.

Cp .6) – Differentiate Eq.6: • Show.4: Cp distribution of flow over a circular cylinder Exercise 6.5) • The complex potential function. that the radial and tangential velocity components of the flow is related to the complex potential function.5 −1 −1.6) and use Eq. on the surface of the cylinder. w. from first principles.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 83 1 0. of the flow over a circular cylinder can be expressed a combination of free stream velocity U∞ and doublet with strength.5 −3 −150 −100 −50 0 θ (degrees) 50 100 150 Figure 6. . µ.5) to find the expression for ur and uθ on the surface of the cylinder expressed in cylindrical coordinates. (6.5 0 Cp −0. w by eiθ dw = ur − iuθ dz (6. (6.5 −2 −2. w = U∞ z + µ z (6. – Find the pressure coefficient.

(c) Sketch the flow pattern for various values of Qf /Q and Q/U∞ .84 Exercise 6. .7: A mathematical model of the flow in a factory with an exhaust duct (of strength Q) and a fume bed (of strength Qf ) with cross flow (U∞ ) is given by the complex potential function Qf Q ln z − [ln(z − ih) + ln(z + ih)] π 2π where h is the distance between the exahust duct and the fume bed.f. refer to your Control Theory lecture notes) to locate the stagnation points in the flow field. w = U∞ z + (6. (b) Indicate how the location of the stagnation point changes for different values of Qf /Q and Q/U∞ .7) (a) Use the Root Locus analysis (c.

x and y are related by x2 + y 2 = r 2 .Chapter 7 Conformal Transformations A large amount of airfoil theory has been developed by distorting flow around a cylinder to flow around an airfoil. hence. 85 . substitute z = x + iy into the expression above to get ζ = ξ + iη = z + c2 z c2 = x + iy + x + iy c2 (x − iy) (x + iy)(x − iy) + = (x + iy) (x + iy)(x − iy) (x + iy)(x − iy) (x + iy)(x2 + y 2 ) + c2 (x − iy) = (x2 + y 2 )     c2 c2 =x 1+ 2 + iy 1 − 2 x + y2 x + y2 This means that c2 ξ =x 1+ 2 x + y2  c2 η =y 1− 2 x + y2   and  For a circle of radius r in the z plane. The most common Conformal transformation is the Jowkowski transformation which is given by c2 f (z) = z + z To see how this transformation changes flow pattern in the z (or x − y) plane. The essential feature of the distortion is that the potential flow being distorted ends up also as potential flow.

. In the special case where r = c. it will be transformed to an infinitely thin plate of length 4r in the ζ-plane.  c2 ξ =x 1+ 2 r  c2 η =y 1− 2 r  and  So in the z plane. In this figure. f (z) = z + c2 /z. applied to a circle on the z-plane of radius r.  x 2 r +  y 2 = 1. (7.1: Jowkowski Transformation. provided c < r. r and in the ζ plane ξ2 r+  + c2 2 r η2 r−  c2 2 r =1 The circle of radius r in the z-plane is seen to transform into an ellipse with semiaxes a = (r + c2 /r) and b = (r − c2 /r) in the ζ-plane (see Fig.86 iη iy ζ -plane z-plane -r r a b ξ x Jowkowski Transformation Figure 7. a = (r + c2 /r) and b = (r − c2 /r). a = 2c and b = 0. This means that if the circle in the z-plane that we wish to transform has a radius c.1)).

8. The top figure was calculated with c=0.0.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 87 5 4 3 2 y2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 0 x2 1 2 3 4 5 2 5 4 3 2 y2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 2 5 4 3 2 y2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 Figure 7.2: Flow over an ellipse obtained by applying the Jowkowski transformation on flow over a circular cylinder. .9 and the bottom figure with c = 1. middle figure with c = 0.

.3: Figure showing the various conformal transformation used to obtain the flow over a flat plate.88 5 4 3 2 0 y z1 plane 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x 1 2 3 4 5 z2 =-iz 1 5 4 3 2 z2 plane 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 a z3 =z 2 + z 2 5 4 3 2 z3 plane 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 7.

7. (7.6) into Eq.7) .3).2) Using Eq. dζ (7. the flow in the z2 -plane will still be a flow over a circular cylinder but with the main flow direction going from top to bottom (see Fig. the components of velocity. We will just let dz = A + iB. we substitute Eq. (7. uˆ and vˆ. (7. are given by the expression dw = u − iv.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 89 Exercise 7.6) From Eq.1 a2 z2 Conformal Transformation of velocities In the z-plane.4)  = (u − iv) dz dζ  (7. we can determine the velocity in the ζ-plane knowing the velocity in the z-plane. The successive transformation leading the flow over a flat plate is w = z1 + a2 z1 z2 = −iz1 z3 = z2 + 7. The result above could be used to analyse the flow over a flat plate. are given by dw = uˆ − iˆ v.3) (7. the flow pattern perpendicular to the flat plate is observed. Eq. (7. dζ (7.1) rotates a flow 90o in the clockwise direction. dz In the ζ-plane. (7. the components of velocity. dz/dζ is a complex quantity. If the flow in the z1 plane is rotated by −90o by the transformation z2 = −iz1 . (7.2) can be rewritten as dw dζ dw dz = dz dζ uˆ − iˆ v= (7.5) to obtain uˆ − iˆ v = (u − iv) (A + iB) .1: Show that the following transformation z2 = −iz1 (7. If the z3 = z2 + a2 /z2 is now applied to the flow in the z2 -plane.5) In general.1). To determine that.5). u and v.1) (7.

(7.8) Multiplying Eqs. (7.7) and (7.9) Hence .8) gives uˆ2 + vˆ2 = u2 + v 2   A2 + B 2 .90 Take the complex conjugate of Eq.7) we get uˆ + iˆ v = (u + iv) (A − iB) . (7. (7.

.

.

dz .

qˆ = q .

.

.

.

√ q = u2 + v 2 qˆ = (7.11) (7.10) where √ uˆ2 + vˆ2 .12) and . dζ (7.

.

.

dz .

√ .

.

= A2 + B 2 (7.13) .

dζ .

we obtain dζ a2 = −i − i 2 dz z a2 = −i(1 + 2 ) .10) shows that the velocity in the ζ-plane can be obtained from the fluid velocity in the z-plane by multiplying the fluid velocity in the z-plane by |dz/dζ|. (7.14) a2 z2 (7.15).15) ζ = z3 = z2 + From Eqs.14) and (7.1 Example-Flow over a Flat Plate From the previous lecture. it has been found that the flow over a flat plate can be obtained from the following sequence of transformation z2 = −iz1 = −iz (7. 7.1. Equation (7.

.

.

.

z 2.

.

dζ .

.

a .

.

= .

1 + .

.

dz .

.

z2 .

.

.

2 .

.

a = .

.

1 + 2 i2θ .

.

r e .

.

2 .

.

a −i2θ .

= .

.

1 + 2 e .

r .

.

.

.

a2 .

= .

1 + 2 (cos(2θ) − i sin(2θ)).

.

r .

436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 91 on the surface of the cylinder. r = a .

.

.

dζ .

.

.

= |1 + cos(2θ) − i sin(2θ)| .

dz .

q = [1 + cos(2θ)]2 + sin2 (2θ) p = 4 cos2 (θ) = 2 cos(θ) Hence. .

.

.

dz .

.

.

= .

1.

.

dζ .

.

dζ .

10) and remembering from the previous lecture that the velocity on the surface of the cylinder is V = 2U∞ sin(θ). we get . dz 1 = 2 cos(θ) Using Eq. (7.

.

.

dz .

qˆ = q .

.

.

.

dζ = 2U∞ sin(θ) 1 2 cos(θ) = U∞ tan(θ) We now need to express tan(θ) in terms of the variables in the ζ-plane.14) and (7.15). From Eqs. we obtain a2 ζ = −iz + −iz ia2 = −iz + z ia2 = −ireiθ + iθ re ia2 −iθ = −ireiθ + e r On the surface of the cylinder r = a. (7. ξ and η. so ζ = −iaeiθ + iae−iθ = ia(e−iθ − eiθ ) = ia(cos(θ) − i sin(θ) − cos(θ) − i sin(θ)) = ia(−2i sin(θ)) ξ + iη = 2a sin(θ) .

2: √ Show that pplate = p∞ at ξ = 2a Exercise 7.92 Equating real and imaginary parts gives ξ = 2a sin(θ) (7.e. use Bernoulli’s theorem 1 1 2 p∞ + ρU 2 = pplate + ρˆ q 2 2 1 2 ξ2 = pplate + ρU∞ 2 4a2 − ξ 2 Hence. pplate − p∞ Cp = = 1 ρU 2 2  ξ2 1− 2 4a − ξ 2  Exercise 7.17) 4a2 − ξ 2 We know previously that qˆ = U∞ tan(θ) ξ = U∞ p 2 4a − ξ 2 To obtain the pressure distribution on the plate.3: The complex potential function for flow past a circular cylinder (with flow downwards i.16) Using Pythagoras theorem gives tan(θ) = p ξ (7. in the negative y-direction is given by     a2 ia2 w = U∞ iz + = U∞ iz − iz z Show that the velocity on the surface of the cylinder is given by V = 2U∞ cos(θ) Use the Jowkowski transformation to show that the velocity on a the flow past a horizontal flat plate is given by U∞ ξ Vˆ = p 4a2 − ξ 2 .

7.4. ζ =z+ . The circle of radius c in the z-plane is the Jowkowski transforming circle. It can be seen that when the circle of radius a touches the Jowkowski transformation circle. that point transforms to a very sharp trailing edge of an airfoil shaped body. If we make c = a.2 93 Flow Over An Airfoil We have shown that the Jowkowski transformation c2 z transforms a circle of radius a¡c into an ellipse. The effects of moving a circle of radius a in the z-plane closer and closer to the Jowkowski transformation circle is shown in Fig. then we find that the Jowkowski transformation changes the circle into a flat plate.436 351 Fluid mechanics lecture notes 7.

94 2 2 1 1 0 A 0 -1 -1 -2 -2 2 B -1 0 1 -2 -2 2 -1 0 1 2 -1 0 1 2 -1 0 1 2 2 B 1 1 Jowkowski A 0 0 transformation -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 0 1 2 -2 -2 2 2 1 1 B A 0 0 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 0 1 2 -2 -2 Figure 7.4: Figure showing the effects of moving a circle in the z-plane closer and closer to the Jowkowski transformation circle. .