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# Ezhilarasu P et al | IJCSET(www.ijcset.

net) | May 2015 | Vol 5, Issue 5,116-119

Applications of Finite Automata in Text Search –
A Review
Ezhilarasu P1, Krishnaraj N2, Suresh Babu V3
1

Associate Professor/CSE
Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India.
2

Head of the Department/IT
Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India
3

Assistant Professor/ECE
Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India.

Abstract -- In this paper, we discuss the text search application
of finite automata. First Nondeterministic Finite Automata
designed,
based
on
the
given
keywords.
Then
Nondeterministic
Finite
Automata
converted
into
Deterministic Finite Automata. Then given keywords are
searched using given paragraph. The transition function used
to explain the text search of finite automata.
Keywords -- Finite Automata, Text search, Keywords.

I. INTRODUCTION
Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and
automata. It also includes the computational problems that
can be solved using them [1]. In the theory of computation,
the simpler abstract machine is finite automata. The other
important abstract machines are 1. Pushdown Automata
2.Turing Machine. The finite automata proposed to model
brain function of the human. The simplest example for finite
automata is the switch with two states "on" and "off" [1].
The Finite Automata is the five tuples combination
focusing on states and transition through input characters. In
figure 1 the ending state is ON, starting state is OFF and
collection of states are OFF and ON. It is having only a
single input PUSH for making the transition from the state
OFF to ON, then ON to OFF. The switch is the simplest
practical application of finite automata.

The finite automata concepts also used in numerous
fields. Those include lexical analysis, ticket vending
machine, pattern recognition, game designing. It also
applied to the communication protocol, DNA matching.
II. RELATED WORK
Hopcroft, Motwani and Ullman [2001] listed the
applications of finite automata. Finite automata are the
useful model for many software and hardware. They used in
software for digital circuits, finding text pattern in web
pages and verifying systems (Example Communication
protocol) [2]. Many research papers [3,4,5,6] and books
[7,8,9] published on the application of finite automata.
III. FINITE AUTOMATA APPLICATIONS
Finite Automata concepts used in many applications. In
this paper, we discuss text search applications. If, the given
problem is to construct the finite automata for accepting the
keywords "ezhil", "hills", and "lssbus".
A. CONSTRUCTION OF NONDETERMINISTIC FINITE
AUTOMATA
The Nondeterministic Finite Automata can be built
quickly for the given problem. It presented as a
transition diagram in figure 2 and as a table in Table 1.

Fig . 2. Transition Diagram for Nondeterministic Finite
Automata for accepting the Keywords "ezhil" "hills" and "lssbus".

Fig. 1. A Finite Automaton for the switch with on/off states

116

12 1.7 1.13 1 1 1.ijcset.13 1.5. Here the state 1612 obtained as an output state for three times. State Transition Table for Nondeterministic Finite Automata for accepting the Keywords "ezhil" "hills" and "lssbus".2 1. If the given input is “Dr.7 1.7 1.14 1 1.6. It represented through state transition table as in the table 2.2 1.7 1.17 e z h i l s b u 1. B.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.2 1.10. character by character the output state obtained.net) | May 2015 | Vol 5.2 1.13 1 1.2 1.12 1.7 1.2 1.4. 2.16 1 1 1 1 Σ-e-z-hi-l-s-b-u 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table .12 1.12 1 1 1 1. as given in table 3.12 1.12 1. C.2 1.7 1 1.2 1.7 1.7 1 1 1.2 1.13 1.116-119 Input  States 1 2 3 4 5 *6 7 8 9 10 *11 12 13 14 15 16 *17 e z h i l s b u 1. 11113 obtained as an output state for three times and 117 state for two times.2 1. The word "lssbus" for two times.2 1.8 1 1 1 1 1. TEXT SEARCH The input and transition table used for performing the text search. The output state 1612 shows that the keyword "ezhil" accepted.2 1.12 1 1 1 Σ-e-z-h-il-s-b-u 1 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 Table .15 *1.12 *1.7 1.7 1.12 1.7 1.12 1. on the way.14 1.12 1.3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1." Then by taking input 117 .7 1. Input  States 1 1.16 *1. CONSTRUCTION OF DETERMINISTIC FINITE AUTOMATA The Deterministic Finite Automata derived from the Nondeterministic Finite Automata.2 1. The entire processing has given in the table 3.8 1.13 1 1 1.12 1. The output state 11113 indicates that the keyword "hills" accepted.11.5.10.ezhilarasu umadevi palani went to nilgiri hills by lssbus.2 1.12 1.15 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1.3 1.12 1.7 1.2 1 3 1. Issue 5.12 1. The output 117 shows that the keyword "lssbus" accepted.2 1.Ezhilarasu P et al | IJCSET(www.7 1. State Transition Table for Deterministic Finite Automata for accepting the Keywords "ezhil" "hills" and "lssbus".12 1.7 1.8 1.17 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.9.12 1. ezhil visited many places in that hills.2 1.9.2 1.2 1 1.12 1.7 1.12 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.12 1.12 1.13 1.7 1.12 1.14 1. It shows that the words "ezhil" and "hills" occur in the input paragraph for three times.4.11.6. he saw one flex which has the word ezhillssbus.

74. 100. 76. 33. 8. 18. 71. 80. 77. 132. 36. 43. 110. 119. 38. 52. 86. 99. 25. 3. 85. 10.NO 1. 88. 53. 35. 91. 56. 94. 128. 2. h e s a w o n e f l e x w h i c h OUTPUT STATE 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 1 1 1 17 18 1912 11012 11113 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 112 12 1 1 1 17 18 1 17 . 98. 73. 120. 95. o n t h e w a y . 15. 51. 117. INPUT STATE 1 1 1 1 12 13 147 158 1612 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 112 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 1 1 1 1 1 17 18 1912 11012 11113 1 1 1 1 112 113 114 115 116 117 1 1 12 13 147 158 1612 INPUT CHARACTER D r . 92. 101. 118 INPUT STATE 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 1 1 1 17 18 1912 11012 11113 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 112 1 1 1 1 17 18 1 INPUT CHARACTER v i s i t e d m a n y p l a c e s i n t h a t h i l l s . 129. 60. 105. 27. 97. 112. 113. 107. 22. 134. 31. 30. 131. 121. 72. 127. 46. 109. 9. 84. 63.116-119 S. 58. e z h i l a r a s u u m a d e v i p a l a n i w e n t t o n i l g i r i h i l l s b y l s s b u s . 19.ijcset. 42. 66. 87. 70. 125. 83. 65. 4. 82. 48. 122. 5. 13. 133. 89. 55. 64. 16. 23. 103.net) | May 2015 | Vol 5. 45. 34. 62.Ezhilarasu P et al | IJCSET(www. 81. 123. 68. 29. 135. 111. 44. 24. 104. 21. 54. e z h i l OUTPUT STATE 1 1 1 12 13 147 158 1612 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 112 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 112 1 1 1 1 1 17 18 1912 11012 11113 1 1 1 1 112 113 114 115 116 117 1 1 12 13 147 158 1612 1 S. 12. 106. 124. 57. 61. 17. 37. Issue 5. 116. 96. 7. 20. 118. 126. 115. 11.NO 69. 50. 49. 102. 28. 6. 41. 108. 59. 40. 93. 67. 47. 78. 130. 26. 14. 79. 75. 90. 39. 32. 136. 114.

. The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook. H. K. Lecroq. INPUT STATE 17 1 17 1 1 1 1 17 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 13 147 158 1612 11012 11113 114 115 116 117 INPUT CHARACTER h a s t h e w o r d e z h i l l s s b u s .B. 141. 162. 144. In Theory a Techniques”. R. Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. A. 143. Tucker. 159. Vol. H. Baeza-Yates. Papadimitriou. CONCLUSION This paper is useful for the students. 4. 2003. Mindek. Springer-Verlag. Crochemore.” Image Compression Using Weighted Finite Automata. 138. 142. 501524.ijcset. 154. The Deterministic Finite Automata possibly constructed from the Nondeterministic Finite Automata.wikipedia. R. CRC Press. in Fractal Image Compression. 155. “Improving an Algorithm for Approximate String Matching. ed. 30(4) 2001 S. Navarro. pp 243-258. 161.org/wiki/Automata_theory Hopcraft J E. ISBN: 80-248-0457-3 G. Prentice Hall 1981. 3. 147. Elsevier Science Published 1990.V. 157. Boca Raton.116-119 S. pp. OUTPUT STATE 1 17 1 1 1 1 17 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 13 147 158 1612 11012 11113 114 115 116 117 1 Table . Lewis.Ramasubramanian and Kamala Krithivasan. M.”. "Introduction to Automata Theory.NO 137. C. 2000. “Finite Automata”. 150. Culik II and J. 1994. 153. IJPRAI. pp 132-143 (2004). those who are going to study the subject Formal Languages and Automata Theory / Theory of Computation. Motwani R and Ullman J D [2001]. D. T. 149. “Finite State Automata and Image Recognition” DATESO 2004. 156. 160.net) | May 2015 | Vol 5. Jr. 151. Text processing for finding keywords IV. Kari. 158. “Pattern Matching and Text Compression Algorithms”. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] REFERENCE http://en. 119 . Languages and Computation"... Perrin. 14. 139.”Elements of the Theory of Computation”. 152. No. 146. Issue 5. Chapter 8. 148..Ezhilarasu P et al | IJCSET(www. 140. AddisonWesley second edition. Based on the number of keywords and its length the size of the Nondeterministic Finite Automata may vary. 145. Students will be able to construct Nondeterministic Finite Automata for the given keywords. M.“Finite Automata and Digital Images”.Algorithmica.