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The human body is made up of different systems that coordinate with one another in order to perform their functions as well.
If any part of these organ systems malfunctions, the body will become unbalanced. The instability caused by the malfunctioning of
one system cannot be made stable by other systems because each system has its own function in the body.
The nervous system connects all body parts and transmits signals from one part to another. It is a system of cells, tissues and
organs that regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli.
Functions of the nervous system
Man controls or regulates body processes in two ways: through a nervous system and by means of chemicals known as
The functions of the nervous system are the following:
1. We receive information about our surroundings from the sense organs (or receptors) by way of sensory nerves
2. We process that information in the brain and spinal cord
3. We react or respond to that information through a command from the brain or spinal cord by way of motor nerves to the
The things in the environment that cause an organism to react or respond is referred to as stimuli (singular: stimulus). A receptor is a
cell or organ that perceives a stimulus, while an effector is a cell or organ that demonstrates the body’s response to whatever incites it
to action.
Major divisions and parts of the nervous system
1.Central Nervous System (CNS)
The CNS serves as the main processing center for the entire nervous system. It consists of two main components: the brain
and spinal cord
The human brain weighs about one kilogram and is made up of billions of neurons (nerve cells) and a large number of
supporting cells. These cells are wonderfully arranged in an intricate structure (with hundreds of billions of synapses) that allows the
brain to function more efficiently than the best possible computer. This is an organ located within the skull that functions as an
organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has gyrus (plural: gyri) and sulcus (plural: sulci)
Gyri – ridges and folds in the brain
Sulci – furrows or depressions in the brain

The brain has three main parts, namely:
a.Forebrain-where major processing centers in the brain can be found
1.Cerebrum – large, upper part of the brain that controls activity and thought. The
largest and highly convoluted gray matter consists mostly of around 10 billion neurons, also known as cerebral cortex,
the seat of thinking, reasoning and the power of imagination. The cerebrum has two division: the left and right cerebral hemispheres,
joined together by a thick band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Each of two hemispheres has four lobes (frontal lobe,
parietal lobe, temporal lobe and occipital lobe), each of which contains association areas used for primary motor and sensory
functions like seeing, hearing, tasting and smelling.
2.Thalamus – sorts out all information from the sense organs as well as other parts of
the brain before relaying them to the cerebrum
3.Hypothalamus – plays a very important role in homeostasis (internal balance). It
controls the secretion of many hormones. It regulates blood pressure,
temperature and responses to satisfy physiological needs like hunger and thirst. It also controls emotions.
b.Midbrain – it also relays information from the sense organs to the cerebrum. It coordinates
eye reflexes and helps regulate sleep.
c.Hindbrain – also known as the brain stem. The medulla oblongata and pons of the hindbrain
contain the sensory and motor neurons between the spinal cord and the forebrain. It relays information between the spinal cord and the
brain. It regulates breathing, heartbeat and digestion. It also coordinates walking and other movements of the entire body.
2.Medulla oblongata
3.Cerebellum – the part under the cerebrum that controls posture, balance and

It consists of a cell body which contains the nucleus and two types of projections called nerve fibers – the shorter. Axons conduct signals away from the cell body. sweating. Two types of cells make up the nervous system: (a) nerve cells or neurons for transmitting messages from one part of the body to another and (b) supporting cells for protecting and assisting the neurons. A stimulus is any factor in the environment that may trigger a nerve impulse. learning and many body functions are carried by nerve impulses in the neurons. The dendrites relay signals toward the cell body. the backbone is gently curved like a double S. Messages do not travel in both directions along the same neuron. etc. The spinal cord is being protected by the backbone/spine or vertebral column. The Nerve Impulse Neurons are cells with the special ability to carry signals or impulses. Sympathetic nerve – it is activated when the body is in a dynamic role or stress. Thought. The two important parts of somatic nervous system are spinal nerves and cranial nerves. emotions. pancreas. A response is a reaction to a stimulus. It has two main divisions: somatic and autonomic nervous system A. dilation of pupil. thereby protecting the brain from being jarred.). 2. A single dendrite can be over one meter long.Associative neurons or interneurons at the central nervous system integrate data from sensory neurons and then relay commands to motor neurons .Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) The PNS connects the central nervous system to the organs and limbs and to the different parts of the body. tongue and skin. lungs.Somatic nervous system It connects the brain and spinal cord to voluntary muscles (skeletal muscles).Sensory neurons carry impulses to the brain or spinal cord b. A nerve impulse cannot jump from one neuron to another. Examples: increased heart rate and breathing. it produces the chemical called neurotransmitter to be released. B. When viewed from the side. These sense organs are constantly receiving information from the environment and sending messages to the brain. These senses aid in the survival of human beings. The nervous system is assisted by five sense organs – the eyes. Axons can be grouped together into cable-like bundles called nerves. A nerve impulse is not a flow of electricity but rather an electrochemical signal moving along a neuron. Reaction time is the length of time between application of a stimulus and detection of a response. The chemical crosses the space between neurons called synapse and stimulates the nerve impulse to start in the next dendrite.Autonomic nervous system It connects the brain and spinal cord to involuntary muscles (internal organs-heart. ears. thinner and more numerous and highly branched dendrites and the longer and thicker axon with fewer branches. Only the axon of the neuron releases neurotransmitters that cross the space between neurons. It is made up of 12 pairs of nerves originating from the brain (cranial nerves) and 31 pairs of nerves originating from the spine (spinal nerves). Neurons differ in the direction of the message and type of impulse they carry: a. liver.Spinal cord This serves as a channel for signals between the brain and the rest of the body. food tube. A cell may have as many as 200 dendrites carrying impulses toward the cell body. and controls simple musculoskeletal reflexes without input from the brain. Parasympathetic nerve – it maintains body functions and restores the body to normal or relaxed mode The Nerve Cell It is the basic unit of the nervous system. When a nerve impulse comes to the end of an axon. A nerve impulse is a combination of an electrical charge and a chemical reaction. salivary glands. This shape allows the backbone to act like a spring and thus absorb the shock whenever a person jumps. blood vessels.Motor neurons carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles c. Each internal organ has two autonomic nerves: a sympathetic nerve and a parasympathetic nerve. etc. An organism must be able to respond to a stimulus in order to survive. The actions of the two sets of nerves are opposite. A stimulus is received by the body and a response is made.B. nose.

it regulates reproductive hormones Hypothalamus (the control center of the endocrine system) Below the thalamus Oxytocin and Vasopressin Regulating the posterior pituitary Pituitary (posterior. anterior. it produces a notable effect. When a hormone in the blood reaches the target organ. TSH Regulates the activity of the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic Stimulates the adrenal . the effects can take a few hours. Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream which carries them throughout the body. months or years. The nervous system and endocrine system have the same function – control and regulation of the body processes.THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM The endocrine system composed of glands that secrete different types of hormones (chemicals produced by the body to control and regulate body functions) that affect almost every cell. Endocrine glands and their secretions Gland Pineal body Location In the center of the brain Hormones Released Melatonin Function Involved in activities with daily or seasonal rhythms associated with light conditions of the environment such as sleeping and breeding (especially in animals). weeks. organ and function of our body. much like the nervous system. GH or Somatotropin Stimulates growth (especially of the skeleton) and regulates metabolic functions Thyroid-stimulating hormone . middle lobe) Releasing and Inhibiting hormones At the base of the brain Oxytocin Regulating the anterior pituitary Controls contraction of the smooth muscles of the uterus and mammary gland cells Vasopressin or Antidiuretic Hormone. but unlike the instant responses activated by the nervous system. ADH Promotes retention of water by the kidneys Growth hormone. The endocrine system sends signals all over the body.

hence raises the blood glucose level . physical growth and mental growth Calcitonin Lowers blood calcium levels Parathyroid In the neck Parathyroid hormone. LH Thyroid Below the voice box Melanocyte-stimulating hormone. melanin Controls metabolic rates. cortisone maintains carbohydrate. FSH Luteinizing hormone. hence lowers the blood glucose level Glucagon by alpha cells Controls transformation liver glycogen into blood glucose. PTH or Parathormone Raises blood calcium level Thymus In front of the heart Thymosin Adrenal (adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla) On top of the kidneys Glucocorticoids: cortisol. aldosterone Promote reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in the kidneys Cortin Regulates sodium. ACTH cortex to secrete glucocorticoids Prolactin.hormone. PRL Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk Follicle-stimulating hormone. corticosterone and cortisone Stimulates T cells (controls formation of antibodies) Increase blood glucose. fat and protein metabolism Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) Between the kidneys Mineralocorticoids. thereby increasing blood pressure Epinephrine initiates the physiological changes in the “fight or flight” response Insulin by beta cells Controls transformation of blood glucose into liver glycogen. MSH Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) Regulates follicle formation in the ovary and sperm formation in the testis Stimulates ovaries and testes Increases production of the skin pigment. calcium and water balance in the blood Androgens Influence development of secondary sex characteristics Epinephrine (adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Both constrict blood vessels.

Inhibits secretion of both insulin and glucagon Testes Lower abdomen Ovaries Lower abdomen Somatostatin by delta cells Androgens: Testosterone. 3. .Some hormones have many targets Such hormones affect most tissues of the body (e. amines or steroids.H. Insulin lowers the blood sugar while Glucagon raises the blood sugar. which is characterized by protruding eyeballs. some affect only a few targets (e. longer chains Peptides – group of organic compounds containing C.Some hormones affect other endocrine glands For instance.O. shorter chains Amines – group of organic compounds containing C. control development and maintenance of female secondary characteristics Stimulates growth of the uterine lining Stimulates secretion of the gastric juice by gastric glands Stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice by pancreatic glands Characteristics of hormones 1. peptides. dihydrotestosterone.O. estrone. estriol Progesterone Stomach and Upper Intestine Abdomen Gastrin Secretin Controls sperm formation as well as the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics Stimulate growth of the uterine lining. Hormonal imbalance – unregulated production and secretion of hormones in the body that causes abnormality in body functions 2.Hormones are secreted by ductless glands directly into the blood. not enough thyroxine is produced. An example is the case of thyroxine which controls physical and mental growth and also metabolic rate.g. If iodine is lacking in the diet. androstenedione Estrogens: beta-estradiol. A vital component of this hormone is iodine. the TSH of the pituitary stimulates the thyroid gland while the adrenocorticotropic hormone. which is characterized by a swelling in the front part of the neck. the rest produce nonsteroid hormones 4. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids 6.N. The thyroid gland enlarges in an effort to produce more thyroxine.g. The result is exophthalmic goiter.N Steroids – its main building block is cholesterol that is being converted into bile salts by the liver Only a few endocrine glands produce steroids.Hormones have antagonistic effects Examples: Calcitonin lowers calcium levels while Parathyroid hormone raises the blood calcium level. The condition is called hypothyroidism.Hormones may be proteins. also of the pituitary. growth hormone).N. The result is simple goiter. The opposite condition is hyperthyroidism where there is more than the normal amount of thyroxine in the blood.Hormones function closely with the nervous system 7.H.H. Proteins – group of organic compounds containing C. prolatin) 5.Hormones act in very small amounts An increase or decrease in the said amount may result in a body disorder.

bulbourethral gland Function Produces sperm cells Sac of skin that holds the testis Deposits sperms into the vagina during mating Carries sperm from testes to urethra Carries sperm and urine out of the body Provide liquid in which sperm can swim -secretes a fluid that makes up most of the components of the semen -secretes a slightly alkaline milky fluid that is discharged as part of the semen -secretes a thick and clear mucus that lubricates and neutralizes any trace of acidic urine in the urethra Tracing the path of the sperm: 1. The pancreas is stimulated to release insulin into the bloodstream 4. the vas deferens from the two testes join and form a common duct) 4. For instance. To the vas deferens (behind the bladder. cake. the body keeps the following within normal range or level: Body temperature Amount of water in the body Amount of metabolic wastes in the cell Blood calcium level Hormones in the blood For example: Sugar level in the blood (normal level: 90mg glucose per 100 mL of blood) Suppose a student plays basketball during the noon break and incidentally misses his lunch. the pancreas stops releasing extra insulin THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM System involved in sexual reproduction The Male Reproductive System Part Testis Scrotum Penis Vas deferens (tube) Urethra Glands: a. The hypothalamus detects the situation and sends out appropriate signals 3. What may happen inside his body as a result? 1. The hypothalamus detects the situation and sends out appropriate signals 3. The blood glucose level goes down to normal. the pancreas stops releasing glucagon Suppose a student chooses for snacks a serving of spaghetti. The level of his blood glucose may rise beyond normal 2. Normal sperm count: 15 million to 200 million per millilitre (mL) of semen Sperm are sensitive to temperature.8. To the epididymis (where the sperm develops fully in 3 to 4 weeks) 3. The liver transforms glycogen into glucose and releases it into the blood 5.prostate gland c. and out of the body The composition of semen is approximately 95% secretions from the glands and 5% (around 200 million to 500 million) sperm. What may happen inside her body as a result? 1. while the muscles and other body tissues also take up additional glucose 5. The level of his blood glucose may drop below normal 2. In a healthy body. Hormones have big role in homeostasis The term homeostasis is used to refer to the state of internal equilibrium or balance. To the urethra. The liver transforms glucose into glycogen and stores it in its tissues.seminal vesicle b. The pancreas is stimulated to release glucagon directly into the blood 4. They do not develop at body temperature. homeostasis is possible because the body has efficient control mechanisms that oppose changes in its internal environment. The blood glucose level rises to normal. enables the sperm to develop to maturity. . Having the testes and epididymis inside the scrotum. ice cream and a bottle of softdrinks. From the testis 2. outside the abdominal cavity.

The female reproductive system. 7. Produce female sex cells Receives sperm cells from the male Nurtures the development of and provides nourishment for the new individual Part Ovary Oviduct Function Produces egg cells Serves as passageway of eggs from the ovary to the uterus. Ovulation stage – when a ripe follicle releases an ovum 3. After menstruation. other hormones still control the stretching of the uterus during pregnancy. the ovary itself releases a hormone called estrogen which causes the uterine lining to increases in thickness. is also regulated by hormones. The follicles produce hormones that control the growth and release of eggs from the ovaries. While other hormones prepare the uterus so a baby can grow in it. so the cells of the thickened uterine lining break off and leave the vagina. site of egg fertilization Serves as site of egg implantation. 2. 3. therefore. 6. The uterine lining becomes thicker so that the fertilized egg can attach to it. the brain and the pituitary gland. Shedding of the endometrium of the uterus results in the inflammation in the endometrial layer of the uterus and prostaglandins are produced as a consequence of inflammation. converts ruptured follicles into corpus luteum and causes the secretion of progesterone. The Role of Hormones in Female and Male Reproductive Systems The male reproductive system also has prostate glands. the uterine lining continues to thicken The egg has not been fertilized. 3. Important events during the menstrual cycle: 1. is where the fertilized egg develops Receives the penis of male during mating Uterus Vagina Puberty involves the onset of sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce.The Female Reproductive System Functions of the female reproductive system: 1. Meanwhile. 2. The egg moves through the oviduct and enters the uterus Meanwhile. Follicle Stage – when an ovarian follicle grows to full maturity 2. 8. The monthly changes that take place in the female reproductive system are called menstruation. the cycle starts again. The pituitary gland controls and starts the cycle The pituitary gland releases hormones that cause the egg in the ovary to mature. The monthly cycle continues for about 40 years. just like the male reproductive system. 5. The cramps can be caused by excessive secretions of prostaglandins. 4. This loss of cells from the uterine lining. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) assists in the maturation of the follicles and causes the secretion of estrogen from the follicles. Corpus luteum/ Luteal stage – when the uterus undergoes changes in preparation for the implantation of the embryo . The Menstrual Cycle On average. egg cells start to develop in her ovaries that produce the sex cells. it will not attach to the uterus The thick uterine lining is no longer necessary. an ovary releases only one egg every 28 days. The unfertilized egg is lost and some blood is lost too. Menstrual cramps are the results of the strong contraction of the uterine wall that occur before and during menstruation. Phases or Stages of Menstrual Cycle: 1. 9. The ovary releases an egg on day 14. Chemicals from these glands nourish the sperm cells and help them mature. The production of sperm cells and the release of semen can be regulated by hormones or special chemicals that come from the testis. Assume that no sperm is present. The cycle occurs every month from the onset which could happen when a female is between 10 to 13 years old. The luteinizing hormone (LH) initiates the maturation of the follicles. It is also the time when the body develops the capacity to conceive. When a female reaches puberty. blood and egg is called menstruation. These hormones keep the reproductive system properly functioning.

. which are exactly the same as the original. two identical copies of DNA molecules are produced. cytosine (C). and thymine (T)). and one of the nitrogenous bases. one sugar. guanine (G). Differences of DNA and RNA Basis of comparison Number of strands Location in the cell Type of sugar Nitrogenous base pair DNA 2 Nucleus Deoxyribose A. The structure of the DNA provides a mechanism for making accurate copies of the molecule. It is important that new copies are exactly like the original molecule. T. Replication DNA is copied during interphase prior to mitosis and meiosis. nitrogenous bases (adenine (A). G The Central Dogma The central dogma of the transfer of genetic information states that the sequence involved in the expression of hereditary characteristics is from DNA to RNA to proteins.4. sugar. U. and G with C. When DNA replicates. It is usually coded by a particular sequence of base triplet called codons. C. Remember: A always pairs with T. One nucleotide is composed of one phosphate group. G RNA 1 Cytoplasm Ribose A. C. Menstrual stage – when the lining of the uterus disintegrates and flows out of the body MODULE 2: HEREDITY: INHERITANCE AND VARIATION The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule is composed of three types of component molecules: phosphate group. The process of making copies of DNA is called replication.

mRNA binds to a ribosome. 2. Protein synthesis is completed. The tRNA anticodon pairs with the first mRNA (start) codon AUG to form the initiation complex. The two molecules temporarily join together. 1. The order of the mRNA sequence determines the proteins synthesized. 3.Replication – DNA makes a copy of itself. each with a parent strand and each with a new strand are formed. The DNA replication is known as semiconservative replication. AUG signals the start of protein synthesis. 3. As translation begins. Three major types of RNA: . approach the ribosome. When the process of base-pairing is completed. 1. The bases attached to each strand then pair up with the free nucleotides The complementary nucleotides are added to each strand by DNA polymerase to form new strands. It occurs in the ribosome. Then. 4. The two strands of DNA split. a chain of amino acid is formed and the ribosome reaches a stop codon (UAG. The polypeptide chain is released. 1. 2. each carrying a specific amino acid. UAA) on the mRNA strand. the RNA polymerase slides along the DNA strand and links free RNA nucleotides that pair with the nitrogenous bases of the complementary DNA strand. the ribosome slides along the mRNA to the next codon. happens in the RNA polymerase enzyme binds and opens the DNA molecule that will be transcribed As the DNA molecule opens. The RNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the cytoplasm Translation – is a process which determines the order of bases in mRNA of amino acids into protein. the first codon in mRNA is AUG. UGA. Two new DNA molecules. 3. Transcription – the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule. An enzyme called helicase breaks the bond between nitrogenous bases. the RNA molecule breaks away as the DNA strands rejoin. an enzyme joins them by forming a peptide bond between them As the process continues. A new tRNA molecule carrying an amino acid pairs with the second mRNA codon When the first and second amino acids are in place. 5. Usually. It cytoplasm. Then. which codes for the amino acid methionine. tRNA molecules. because one of the old strands is conserved in each new molecule. 2. It happens in the nucleus.

The gain or loss of chromosome material can lead to a variety of genetic disorders. sickle cell anemia 2. Karyotypes may reveal the gender of a fetus or test for certain defects through examination of cells from uterine fluid – a procedure called amniocentesis – or through sampling of placental membranes. 7. There are two types of mutations that can occur in gamete cells: 1.a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end Most mutations are harmful. A severe mutation can lead to cell death and may have no effect on the body.a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.Translocation – abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes b. to the creation of genetically modified crops that are resistant to pests. molecular biologists are finding applications for recombinant DNA technology: from medical applications. while mutations in sex cells can cause birth defects. When DNA from two different species is joined together. there are also ethical issues and limitations to it. Edward’s syndrome – the second most common trisomy after Down syndrome. plants and animals. Steps: 1. This process uses restriction enzymes to cleave one organism’s DNA into fragments and other enzymes to splice the DNA fragment into a plasmid or viral DNA. and the condition is so named because affected babies make high-pitched cries that sound like a cat. Sometimes mutations may be useful for the species. it is called recombinant DNA. 1. 3. then the mutated gene becomes a part of the genetic makeup of the offspring. 4. DNA fingerprinting used to identify persons responsible for crimes and provide evidence for identity of dead persons. size and shape. c. mRNA (messenger RNA) – carries the information from DNA to the ribosomes tRNA (transfer RNA) – translates the genetic message carried by the mRNA through protein synthesis rRNA (ribosomal RNA) – forms the structural component of the ribosomes Mutation Mutation is any change in the sequence of the nitrogen bases in the DNA. Transgenic organisms are able to manufacture genetic products foreign to them using recombinant DNA. 6. The recombinant plasmid is inserted back into the bacterium The new gene directs the bacterium to make a new protein products When the bacterium divides and replicates. 5. If these cells are fertilized. 2. 6. Changes in the DNA sequence may delete such protein or change its structure. Mutation may be induced by factors called mutagens. 4. Mutation can occur in two different types of cells: reproductive cells and body cells. The restriction enzyme cuts the DNA at specific sites.Inversion . Most have a bleeding disorder called Paris-Trousseau syndrome Klinefelter’s syndrome – an extra X chromosome (XXY) Turner’s syndrome – X instead of XX or XY Human Karyotyping A karyotype is an image of the full set of chromosomes of an individual that displays the normal number. For example. Genetic engineering has already been applied to bacteria. A plasmid (ring of DNA) is isolated from a bacterium. including gene therapy and vaccines. a mutation in blood proteins prevents viruses or parasites to thrive in host organisms. 2. It is a French term. While the application of recombinant DNA technology is numerous. is a trisomy of chromosome 18. the resulting protein may be non-functional and the embryo may not be developed. 3. Chromosomal mutation – occurs at the chromosome level resulting in gene deletion. Mutations affect the reproductive cells of an organism by changing the sequence of nucleotides within a gene in a sperm or an egg cell. or that make extra vitamins and minerals. 2. Jacobsen syndrome – is also called terminal 11q deletion disorder. The Genetic Code Table Genetic code is a set of rules that specify the codons in DNA or RNA that corresponds to the amino acids in proteins . it makes copies of itself and the recombinant DNA Today. where it fits exactly to form the recombinant DNA. Mutagens are commonly in the form of toxic chemicals and harmful radiation.\ A gene of interest is taken from another cell and is cut with the same enzyme The gene is inserted into the plasmid. Examples: albinism. to bacteria that can clean oil spills. duplication or rearrangement that may occur during the cell cycle and meiosis. a. Some mutations in a body cell are known to cause cancer. any mistake in the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA or pairing of codon and anticodon.1. 5.Deletion . Only mutations in sex cells pass on to offspring. It may be caused by parts of chromosomes breaking off or rejoining incorrectly. If mutation is severe. Gene mutation – is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Genetic Engineering It is a modern biotechnology that produces transgenic or genetically modified organisms. 3. Down syndrome – is usually caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). Human examples are the following: Cri du chat – caused by deletion of part of the short arm (p-arm) of chromosome 5.

Era is the largest division of the Geologic Time Scale. Divergent evolution is the splitting of an ancestral population into two or more subpopulations that are geographically isolated from one another. It also shows the appearance of various kinds of organisms in a particular period of time on earth. C14 starts to decay. Most fossils were commonly found in sedimentary rocks.Embryonic Development An embryo is an early stage of development in organisms. In convergent evolution.Theory of need – states that organisms change in response to their environment. The Geologic Time Scale shows the major events in the Earth’s history.Fossil records Fossils are examples of evidences that paleontologists use in studying evolution. They are traces of organisms that lived in the past and were preserved by natural process or catastrophic events. a. or it may have the same origin but different functions. Convergence is an increase in similarities among species derived from different ancestors as a result of similar adaptation to similar environment. Each Era is further divided into Period. analogous structures of unrelated organisms from different ancestors develop similar function such as butterfly wings and bird wings. The embryo of fishes. Mesozoic and Cenozoic. position and embryonic development are considered to be homologous. 2. Embryonic development includes stages such as blastula. Carbon dating is used to tell the age of organic materials.Comparative Anatomy Structures from different species which have similar internal framework. gastrula and organogenesis. lizard and whale which are structurally the same but functionally different. Examples: wings of birds. Theories of evolution Jean Baptiste de Lamarck – was the first evolutionist to believe that organisms change over time. They can be remains of organisms which include bones. Paleontologist is a person who studies fossils. teeth and also feces embedded in rocks. Homologous structures may perform different functions in the species living in the different environment. birds. namely Precambrian. Radiometric dating is a method used to determine the age of rocks using the decay of radioactive isotopes (Carbon 14) present in rocks. Studies show that species that are closely related exhibit similar embryonic development. peat. All organisms have decaying carbon-14 in it. They were from the hard parts of the organism like woody stem. Plants and animals that are still alive constantly replace the supply of carbon in their body and the amount of carbon-14 in their body stays the same. cats and humans are similar during the first stage of their embryonic development. When an organism dies. Analogous structures are structures of unrelated species that may evolve to look alike because the structure is adapted to similar function. Compression is the other side with more organic material. Another type of fossil is an imprint or impression. Examples: Forelimbs of dogs.MODULE 3: BIODIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION Evolution – change in species through time Sources of Evidence for Evolution 1. lizards. Even when in the adult stage. The presence of homologous structures is a strong indicator that the organisms evolved from common ancestors. Paleozoic. salamanders. bats and insects that have the same function but different in origin. their ability to survive helped them develop characteristics necessary for them to adapt in a given environment . shells. resin. bones or teeth. and ice. 3. This type of evolution is called divergent evolution. the organisms are quite different. and have similar homologous structures that are not present when the organisms are adults. Imprints are shallow external molds left by animal or plant tissues with little or no organic materials present. bird.

Different individuals in a population possess different characteristics and abilities.Theory of acquired characteristics – the acquired characteristics were believed to be inherited by their offsprings and propagated by the next generation Darwinian Theory/Theory of evolution– Charles Darwin Theory of Natural Selection – Darwin proposed this theory after his voyage to the Galapagos Island. In natural selection. they compete for food and space. An organism that is adapted and has structures fitted to survive in a given environment would likely produce offspring. In selective breeding. farmer identifies and selects the best and desirable trait to propagate. Organisms with favorable and advantageous characteristics survive and reproduce. He was fascinated by the diversity of organisms he found along the journey. He believed that giraffes before have short necks but because of the need to survive and in order to reach tall trees for food.Theory of use and disuse – organs not in use will disappear while organs in use will develop. selection also takes place in nature. Organisms struggle for existence in order to survive. they kept stretching their necks until these became longer and able to reach taller trees. He observed that finch species have different beak structures for different food types. This is called variation. Fitness refers to the ability of an organism to survive and produce offsprings.b. c. Marichu J. According to him. Adaptation – ability of an organism to adjust and thrive in a given environment “Organisms (students) that cannot adapt to extreme conditions (like difficult examinations) will soon become extinct” – Ma’am Chu  Prepared by: Ms. Aznar . environmental factors promote the survival of the fittest and eliminates the less fit. Variation among individuals in the population would likely to bring greater chance of survival.