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Created by Ankur Sharma, Gurudayal Srivastava, Vikram Singh, Sanket Tamhane

(1). Explain construction and working of ship’s refrigeration plant.
The refrigeration plants on merchant vessels play a vital part in carrying refrigerated cargo and provisions for the crew on board. In
reefer ships, the temperature of the perishable or temperature sensitive cargo such as food, chemical, or liquefied gas, is controlled
by the refrigeration plant of the ship. The same plant or a smaller unit can be used for maintaining the temperature of different
provision rooms carrying food stuffs for crew members.
The main purpose of ship’s refrigeration plant is to avoid any damage to the cargo or perishable material so that the cargo in
transported in good and healthy condition. Refrigeration prevents growth of micro-organisms, oxidation, fermentation and drying
out of cargo etc.
Main Components of Refrigeration plants
Any refrigeration unit works with different components inline to each other in series. The main components are:
1. Compressor: Reciprocating single or two stage compressor is commonly used for compressing and supplying the refrigerant to
the system.
2. Condenser: Shell and tube type condenser is used to cool down the refrigerant in the system.
3. Receiver: The cooled refrigerant is supplied to the receiver, which is also used to drain out the refrigerant from the system for
maintenance purpose.
4. Drier: The drier connected in the system consists of silica gel to remove any moisture from the refrigerant
5. Solenoids: Different solenoid valves are used to control the flow of refrigerant into the hold or room. Master solenoid is provided
in the main line and other solenoid is present in all individual cargo hold or rooms.
6. Expansion valve: An Expansion valve regulates the refrigerants to maintain the correct hold or room temperature.
7. Evaporator unit: The evaporator unit act as a heat exchanger to cool down the hold or room area by transferring heat to the
refrigerant.
8. Control unit: The control unit consist of different safety and operating circuits for safe operation of the refer plant.

Working of Ship’s Refrigeration Plant

Low Pressure Cut Out To protect the compressor against low pressure in the system and to avoid the ingress of air into the system if a vacuum is generated in the lines a low pressure cut out is provided. the expansion valve is controlled by a diaphragm movement due to the pressure variation which is operated by the bulb sensor filled with expandable fluid fitted at the evaporator outlet. When the high pressure gas enters the bellow. the return gas comes in the inlet of the compressor and the suction pressure rises. the control system starts the compressor. In case of sudden stoppage of compressor. High Pressure Cut Out High pressure can be caused in a refrigeration plant due to various causes like over charge. The master solenoid is fitted after the receiver. 1. high ambient temperature. a high pressure cut out is provided that take a pressure tapping from the discharge line and when it detects an over pressure. and then the low pressure switch cuts in the compressor. the low pressure cut out is activated. The switch arm can be pressed and the cut out reset after the cause of the over pressure has been found and rectified. It has a bellows that is set against a spring. Also when the refrigerated compartments are cut off by the solenoids and there is no return gas. When the pressure on the suction side drops below the set valve. the master solenoid also closes. the compressor stops and when the suction pressure rises again. The nut at the end of the spring is used to adjust the cut out pressure. the compressor trips.The compressor acting as a circulation pump for refrigerant has two safety cut-outs. The room or hold solenoid and thermostatic valve regulate the flow of the refrigerant in to the room to maintain the temperature of the room. The receiver can be used to collect the refrigerant when any major repair work has to be performed. For this. it stops the compressor. HP or high pressure cut out is provided with manually re-set The hot compressed liquid is passed to a receiver through a condenser to cool it down. The thermostatic expansion valve supplies the correct amount of refrigerants to evaporators where the refrigerants takes up the heat from the room and boils off into vapours resulting in temperature drop for that room. the bellow expands and presses the spring. which is controlled by the control unit. . For protecting the compressor from high pressure and subsequent failure. or other incompressible gases in the system. when the suction pressure drops. This is how temperature is maintained in the refrigeration plant of the ship. 2. The HP cut out is not resettable automatically but has to be reset manually by the operator. This is because the high pressure is a serious fault and the cause must be investigated and corrected before the plant is started again. At the cut off pressure the movement of the bellow against the spring releases the catch and the contact is broken and the compressor cuts off. and obstruction in the discharge line of the compressor.Low pressure (LP) and High Pressure (HP) cut outs. avoiding the flooding of evaporator with refrigerant liquid. air. When the solenoid of the refrigerated compartments open.e.  Operation of a High Pressure Cut Out The high pressure cut out as shown in the diagram is of a simple construction. the control unit stops the compressor and when the pressure on the discharge side shoots up. loss of cooling water. LP or low pressure cut out is controlled automatically i. (2) Safety devices on refrigeration system.

the differential pressure will increase and activates a trip signal to safeguard the bearing and crankshaft. Solenoid valves: Master solenoid valve is fitted in the common or main line after the condenser discharge. Relief valves: Relief valves are fitted in discharge side of compressor and will lift and safeguard the compressor in the event of over pressure. 3.  4. Any fall in the pressure will activate the cut out which will stop the compressor. It closes when compressor stops or trips to avoid over flow of refrigerant in to evaporator. One relief valve is also fitted in the condenser refrigerant line to avoid damage to the condenser if there is high pressure in the discharge line.Unlike the high pressure cut out. 4(a).  Oil differential cut out: This safety is again for compressor as it is the only machinery in the circuit having rotational parts which requires continuous lubrication. Low Oil Pressure Cut Out The oil is pumped under pressure by an attached oil pump that supplies oil to the bearings for lubrication. Oil heater: Oil heater is provided for the compressor crank case oil and prevents compressor from getting excessively cold which may effect the lubrication of the parts. It should be as high as possible and certainly above the maximum expected condenser temperature. .  Oil Separator Construction  5. 6. the low pressure cut out is self-resettable and does not need to be reset manually. All holds or rooms are fitted with individual solenoid valve which control the flow of refrigerant to that room. It basically consists of baffle plates that separate the oil from the refrigerant and feed it back to the compressor. Any problem in the lube oil pressure can jeopardize the bearings and therefore a tapping is taken from the pump outlet and fed to the oil pressure switch. In the event of low supply or no supply of lube oil to the bearing.It undergoes change of physical state during its working cycles. 7. To avoid the oil from going to the evaporator where it can form a layer inside or cause obstruction an oil separator is used.  3. Oil Separator As oil is miscible with the refrigerant and often goes out of the compressor with it. A float valve is provided so that short circuiting of the refrigerant should not take place. What is critical temperature ? Critical temperature above which it is impossible to liquefy the refrigerant regardless of pressure. it can go to the evaporator where it can cause a decrease in heat transfer. What is the primary refrigerant ? It is a medium which is used in a vapour compression cycle to remove heat from a low temperature region and convey it to a high temp: region .

c.  How Thermostatic Expansion Valve Works? During the normal working of the refrigeration plant the thermostatic expansion valve remains opened in certain position. (Freon 11&12 are CFC and are banned now. high critical temperature. It should have low specific volume. . the temperature inside the evaporator also increases. Due to this the diaphragm of the TEV moves down and tends to open the valve further to increase the flow of the refrigerant to the evaporator. The pressure P3 is the spring pressure that tends to close the opening of the valve. This allows for the increased flow of the refrigerant to the evaporator to take care of the extra load. This pressure tends to close the valve. P1 is the pressure at the top of the thermostatic expansion valve acting inside the power element above the diaphragm. This causes the downward movement of the needle to open the valve The pressure P2 is the pressure acting on the lower side of the diaphragm due to the refrigerant pressure inside the evaporator. d. The increased temperature in the evaporator is sensed by the feeler bulb of the thermostatic expansion valve. 2) Evaporate at low temperature and at reasonable pressure 3) Condense at SW temperature at reasonable pressure 4(b). HFC-404 will be in use later) 6. Due to this pressure the diaphragm tends to move down due which the needle also moves down and the valve tends to open. Thus if the valve has to open P1 should be greater than combined forces of P2 and P3. What is secondary refrigerant ? It is a substance which is transferred heat by conduction and convection. 2) Cooled inside Refrigeration Machinery Room and pumped around the ship to batteries in each cargo space 5. At the same time the pressure P2 below the diaphragm also increases due to superheating of the refrigerant inside the evaporator. HFC-134. e.   The pressures P2 and P3 act against the pressure P1. Explain thermostatic expansion valve diagram? Pressures Acting Inside the Thermostatic Expansion Valve or TEV The working of the thermostatic expansion valve can be explained with the help of the attached image of the valve.Its density 1250 kg /m2 1) It is a non volatile liquid during it working cycle and employed at large. The pressure P1 tends to open the valve while the pressure P2 and P3 tend to close the thermostatic expansion valve. This pressure tends to move the diaphragm upwards and close the opening of the valve. When the evaporator temperature becomes higher the gas in the feeler bulb expands due to which the gas pressure inside the power element increases. This pressure remains constant. and only HFC-133. When the refrigeration load increases. There are three pressures acting inside the thermostatic expansion valve. It should be environment friendly b. Freon 22 are HCFC and can be utilized by 1st Jan 2020. If the increase in the refrigeration load is much higher the pressure P1 overcomes pressure P2 and P3 leading to the further opening of the thermostatic expansion valve. The valve comprises of external body inside which various parts as shown in the figure are enclosed. It should have higher latent heat of evaporation. complex installation. It should have low critical pressure. In such cases there is need of the more refrigerant to take care of the increased load.1) Mostly volatile liquid and employed inside direct expansion closed system. This leads to the expansion of the gas in the feeler bulb and also in the power element of the TEV leading to the increase in pressure P1. There is also spring pressure P3 below the diaphragm that opposes the opening of the valve. Brine is a secondary refrigerant . What are the properties of an ideal refrigerant? a. to avoid circulation of expansive Primary Refrigerant in large quantities. It should not be fire hazard.

Stage 5 to 6: the high pressure liquid passes through an expansion device. Already explained above. vaccum will develop. drying out. *weigh bottle. 8. Dip the pipe inside the c/case of compressor. Close the receiver outlet valve and collect the gas in the receiver.: Reduce the L.  Check the liquid level. evacuation. 10. If air gets in. *make sure vaccum exists &all stop valve in circuit are open.  Connect the charging line to the connecting point and keep it loose.  Open the bottle valve slightly and purge the line into the collecting cylinder and then tighten the connection. then purge it in a separate bottle after charging of oil gets completed. Stage 2 to 3: the hot superheated vapour enters the condenser where the first part of the process is desuperheating. The stages in the cycle are as follows: Stage 1 to 2: the superheated vapour is compressed. to become a superheated vapour. * Once all gas is collected in receiver then shut the compressor suction valve. Explain HP cut out. Stage 3 to 4: the hot vapour is condensed back to a saturated liquid.  Open the charging valve and fully open the bottle valve. compressor will start sucking the oil. because it has got chances of sucking air. So.  Check the liquid level in the sight glass and make sure no air bubble present in the system.  Open the receiver outlet valve & start the compressor.  Check the weight of the refrigerant bottle & keep it upright. How to charge gas in refrigeration system? After leak test . The TEV constantly modulates the flow to maintain the superheat for which it has been adjusted by the spring. connect charging line & purge. How to add oil in refrigeration compressor? Method 1: Mostly ships have hand p/p provided which develop more pressure than the inside pressure. Stage 7 to 1: the refrigerant vapour absorbs more heat while in the evaporator and while in the pipework joining the evaporator to the compressor. Thus the TEV maintains the flow of the refrigerant inside the evaporator as per the refrigeration or air conditioning load. Explain refrigeration cycle on P-H graph.  Carry out leak detection test. . 9. Run compressor. Stage 6 to 7: low pressure liquid refrigerant in the evaporator absorbs heat from the air or water being cooled and evaporates to become dry saturated vapour.When the refrigeration load reduces. Make sure the pipe is diped fully. Stage 4 to 5: the liquid is subcooled before it enters the expansion valve (this may occur in the condenser. the magnitude of pressure P1 reduces and the combined pressures P2 and P3 overcome pressure P1 that allows for partial closing of the valve so the flow of the refrigerant to the evaporator reduces.  Close the charging valve and the bottle valve. * Open bottle stop valve open charging v/v slowly.  Check the suction pressure & discharge pressure. 7. Charging is reqd. a second heat exchanger or in the pipework connecting the condenser with the expansion valve). if it is below L/3. Method 2.P Cut out setting. check for proper refrigerant.

DO WE CHECK IF TEMPERATURE OF ANY ONE ROOM IS NOT COMING DOWN? 1. 2. EVAPORATOR OF THAT ROOM IS FROSTED. controller. Preventing contamination problems is extremely critical in the refining and handling of all refrigeration oils. Some major compressor manufacturers prefer alkyl benzene refrigeration oil for some applications with HCFC refrigerant blends such as R-22. 3. SOLENOID IS NOT WORKING FOR THAT ROOM. Very low flock points: The flock point is the highest temperature at which wax-like materials precipitate from the oil in the refrigeration system. 6. No contamination to prevent scarring of bearing surfaces. Service technicians must ensure that oil remains clean and dry. WHAT ALL THINGS TO BE CHECK IF ALL ROOM’S TEMPERATURE IS NOT COMING DOWN? 1. Because alkyl benzene is a synthetic lubricant. 4.11. it contains little or no paraffin or wax.P. 6. very low flock points and good compatibility: 1. alkyl benzene refrigeration oil with the proper viscosity can be used with most CFC and HCFC refrigerants as well as hydrocarbons and ammonia in most refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. . 3. 4. The benefits of high-quality alkyl benzene lubricants are high miscibility. It resists change under high temperatures. Low wax content to prevent separation of flocculent wax from the oil mixture at the low temperature points in the system. Chemical stability to resist chemical reaction with the refrigerant or other materials present in the system. COMPRESSOR? IT IS LOCATED NEAR THE SUCTION VALVE OF COMPRESSOR. This can be very desirable in low-temperature applications. even when diluted with refrigerant. 5. Alkyl benzene has excellent miscibility with CFC and HCFC refrigerants. which can plug up parts of a system. 12. PARTICULAR ROOM’S INSULATION IS BAD. 15. Explain L. Thermal stability to eliminate excess deposits at compressor hot spots. EXPLAIN THE PROPERTY OF LUBRICANT USED IN REFRIGERATION SYSTEM? 1. PRESENCE OF MOISTURE IN SYSTEM & DRIER IS NOT WORKING PROPERLY DUE TO THIS EXPANSION VALVE OF ALL ROOMS ARE GETTING BLOCKED. Proper viscosity. Low foaming: The low foaming quality of alkyl benzene reduces carryover at compressor startup and subsequent oil loss from the crankcase. 14. THIS CONSISTS OF BELLOW WHICH MONITOR THE PRESSURE IN THE COMPRESSOR SUCTION. reducing problems with sludge. resulting in the oil and refrigerant remaining as one mixture at a wide range of temperatures and pressures. High miscibility: Miscibility is the ability of the refrigerant and lubricant to stay together as one homogeneous solution. It will not affect motor insulation and is compatible with most elastomers and additives often used to improve lubricity. IF ROOM DOOR IS NOT CLOSED PROPERLY. 2. CONSTRUCTION: 1. plugging of lines or oil ports and general deterioration. where it belongs. 3. 5. Good compatibility: Alkyl benzene can be blended with mineral oil of the same viscosity. 4. 2. EXPANSION VALVE FOR THAT ROOM IS BLOCKED. 3. acids and copper plating. R-123 and R-401A. PARTICULAR ROOM’S FAN IS NOT RUNNING. COMPRESSOR IS NOT RUNNING WELL. 8. excellent thermal stability. WHERE IS POSITION OF UNLOADER IN A/C & REF. 2. LESS REFRIGERANT IN SYSTEM. 13. Low pour point to prevent separated lubricant from congealing and restricting flow. low foaming. Great care must be used to assure that refrigeration oil is free of moisture and other contaminants. to ensure high film strength at elevated operating temperatures and still provide good fluidity under coldest operating conditions. Good immiscibility and insolubility to assist in good oil return to the compressor. 5. Excellent thermal stability: Alkyl benzene can enhance the life of refrigeration systems by providing better thermal stability in the presence of CFC and HCFC refrigerants. However.

18.2. 2. WATER FLOW IN THE CONDENSER etc. 6. 3. 3. START FANS. OPEN THE CONDENSER COOLING VALVES. What is Defrosting and what are the methods? .. THE EXPLODING TUBE OF THE DETECTOR IS MOVED SLOWLY OVER THE SUSPECTED AREA AND PRESENCE OF THE LEAKAGED REFRIGERANT IS INDICATED BY CHANGE IN COLOUR OF THE FLAME. CHECK OIL LEVEL IN THE COMPRESSOR. OUWARD MOVEMENT OF THE PIN COMPRESSES THE SPRING AND THIS THEN FLIPS THE CONTACT TO CLOSE THE COMPRESSOR STARTING CIRCUIT. THE KING SOLENOID VALVE OPENS ALLOWING THE REFRIGERANT TO FLOW TO THE BOXES. OPERATION: 1. WHEN SET PRESSURE IS REACHED “LPCO” SWITCH STOPS THE COMPRESSOR. REFRIGERANT SYSTEM GENERALLY OPERATES AUTOMATICALLY ONCE STARTED. THE PUSH PIN OPERATES THE SWITCH THROUGH A CONTACT WHICH IS FLIPPED OPEN OR CLOSED THROUGH A COILED SPRING PLATE. OPEN ALL THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM VALVES EXCEPT THE COMPRESSOR SUCTION VALVE. OIL LEVEL IN THE COMPRESSOR. PROBE DRAWS THE AIR AND FLASHING OF THE LIGHT SHOWS PRESENCE OF GAS IN AIR 1. THIS SUCTION PRESSURE IS SENSED BY THE “LPCO” WHICH CUTSIN AT IT’S HIGH PRESSURE SETTING AND STARTS THE COMPRESSOR. 5. THE BOX THERMOSTAT CLOSES THE SOLENOID VAVE. THEN THE LEAK COULD BE INSIDE THE CONDENSER. How to start refrigeration plant? 1. WHEN INTENDED COLD TEMP.. WHEN TWO COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. 16. COMPRSSOR SUCTION PRESSURE BEGINS TO RISE. AS THE REFRIGERANT FLOWS THROUGH THE EVAPORATOR. THE COMPRESSOR OPERATION SHOULD BE CHANGED OVER EVERY WEEK. FIRST VENTILATE COMPARTMENT THOROUGHLY FOR ACCURACY IN LEAKE DETECTION. 3. IT ENERGISES THE BOX SOLENOID TO OPEN THE VALVE. 2. 3. What are the tests for refrigerant leakage? ELECTRONIC LEAKAGE DETECTOR: 1. SUCTION TUBE AND A CHIMNEY WITH COPPER REACTION PLATE. IS REACHED. UNLOADING THE CYLINDERS UNTIL THE SUCTION PRESSURE IS LOW ENOUGH TO ACTUATE “LPCO”. OBSERVE THE SYSTEM FOR ANY ABNORMAL OPERATION FOR TEN MINUTES BEFORE PUTTING IT IN “AUTO-MODE” 8. WHEN THE TEMP. WITH THE CONTACTS OPEN THE SPRING IS COILED. 3. 9. ENSURE THAT COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE IS OPEN . THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE SHOULD BE CHECKED FOR PROPER OPERATION BY LOOKING AT THE FROST DEPOSITION. NEEDLE VALVE.. INVESTIGATE IT.. 2. START COOLING WATER PUMP AND CLOSE AIR COCK AFTER PURGING OUT THE AIR. MOVE THE PROBE TIP OF THE INSTRUMENT SLOWLY ONE TO TWO INCHES PER SECOND IN THE SUSPECTED AREA. SMALL LEAK GIVES GREENISH TINGE AND A LARGE LEAK GIVES VIVID BLUE FLAME. IN THE BOX RISES. 2. BRINE PUMP etc. HALIDE LEAK DETECTOR: THIS CONSISTS OF A BURNER. 2. THIS STOPS THE COMPRESSOR WHEN LOW PRESSURE IS INDICATED ON SUCTION SIDE OF THE COMPRESSOR. 4. COMPRESSOR CONTINUE RUNNING. THE REFRIGERANT THEN FLOWS THROUGH THE EVAPORATOR. IF LEAK IS NOT FOUND WITH THIS METHOD. NOW OPEN THE SUCTION VALVE OF THE COMPRESSOR AND START THE COMPRESSOR. SHOULD BE CHECKED AT REGULAR INTERVAL AND LOGGED IN. 17. WHEN THE PRESSURE IN THE COMPRESSOR SUCTION SIDE RISES AGAIN. IT RESTARTS THE COMPRESSOR. ADJUST THE SENSITIVITY OF INSTRUMENT ACCORDING TO THE MAKER’S INSTRUCTIONS. 7. CLOSE THE DRAIN COCK. CHECK POWER SUPPLY TO THE COMPRESSOR AND SOLENOID VALVES. TEMP. Things to check during running of refrigeration plant: 1. ALL THE PARAMETERS SUCH AS PRESSURE.

ON COMPLETION OF DEFROSTING. GAS SUPPLY IS PUT-OFF AND WATER IS DRAINED FROM THE COMPARTMENT BEFORE STARTING THE SYASTEM AGAIN. Effect of sea water on refrigeration system? 20. 19. THE REFRIGERANT ENTERING THE EVAPORATOR COILS DOES NOT EVAPORATE COMPLETELY AND THERE IS DANGER OF UNEVAPORATED REFRIGERANT FLOODING BACK TO THE COMPRESSOR. THIS IS REQUIRED TO BE SEPARATED AND SENT BACK TO THE COMPRESSOR BEFORE IT REACHES THE CONDENSER. 4. FOR THIS FIRST CLOSE THE STOP VALVE BEFORE THE EVAPORATOR. FUNCTION OF OIL SEPARATOR : THE OIL WHICH IS USED TO LUBRICATE CYLINDER LINERS MIX WITH THE REFRIGERANT. THEN THROUGH THE DE-MISTER AND THEN AGAIN UPWARDS THROUGH THE DE-MISTER MADE OF PAD OF COPPER WOOL.TINY PARTICLE OF OIL STICK TO THE METAL AND FORM DROPLETS OF OIL. THE MIXTURE OF HIGH PRESSURE REFRIGERANT & THE OIL MIST IS MADE TO CHANGE IT’S DIRECTION OF FLOW. BECAUSE THIS OIL MAY GET COATED OVER THE HEAT TRANSFER SURFACE OF CONDENSER AND ALSO THE EVAPORATOR etc. Troubleshooting of refrigeration system Undercharging of Refrigeration System . WHICH MAY CAUSE DAMAGE. IF OIL LEAVING THE COMPRESSOR ALONG WITH REFRIGERANT IS NOT REPLACED. 3. ELECTRICAL HEATING: 1. WHICH DRIP DOWN TO THE BOTTOM OF HOUSING DUE TO GRAVITIONAL FORCE. 1. FIRST IT’S SPEED IS SLOWED DOWN BY FIRST MOVING DOWNWARDS THROUGH ANNULAR SPACE. 2. REFRIGERANT HOT GAS: 1. 2. WATER COLLECTED IN BILGES IS TO BE DRAINED BEFORE STARTING THE SYSTEM AGAIN. FROST HAMPERS THE HEAT TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF EVAPORATOR. IN THIS METHOD REFRIGERANT HOT GAS FROM THE COMPRESSOR IS DIRECTLY PASSED TO THE EVAPORATOR COILS WITHOUT PASSING IT THROUGH THE CONDENSER AND EXPANSION VALVE. OIL SEPARATOR IS ALSO NECESSARY TO PREVENT ANY DAMAGE TO THE COMPRESSOR DUE TO OIL STARVATION. 2. 3. Methods of Defrosting: HOT WATER SPRAY: 1.DEFROSTING IS PROCESS OF REMOVING THE ICE FORMED ON THE SURFACE OF EVAPORATOR.. ELECTRIC HEATING COILS ARE INSTALLED BETWEEN THE EVAPORATOR COILS. WHEN FROST IS FORMED. AS IT PASSES THROUGH THE DE-MISTER . 2. THESE COILS HEAT THE ATMOSPHERE AROUND THE EVAPORATOR AND DEFROST IT. SPRAY THE HOT WATER FROM ACCOMODATION WITH THE FLEXIBLE HOSE ON THE EVAPORATOR COILS UNTIL ALL THE FROST MELTS. Oil separator working in refrigeration cycle. OIL THUS COLLECTED FLOWS BACK TO COMPRESSOR 21. ON COPLETION OF DEFROSTING ELECTRIC COILS ARE PUT-OFF AND WATER IS DRAINED FROM THE COMPARTMENT BEFORE STARTING THE SYATEM AGAIN. 3. CONSTRUCTION & OPERATION OF OIL SEPARATOR: THIS CONSISTS OF A VESSEL FITTED WITH BAFFLE AND DE-MISTER. 2. 1. AND AFFECT THE HEAT TRANSFER RATE.

 Compressor is running for extended period of time. Causes:    Action: Leakage of refrigerant at the shaft seal. It may cause lubrication problems and breakdown of the lubricating oil in the refrigerant compressor. valve gland etc. starting the compressor. Expansion valve may be blocked at the strainer. Overcharge of Refrigeration System Indication:  The liquid level in the condenser is too high (high condenser gauge reading). Charge the system with fresh refrigerant as required.  High pressure switch of the refrigerant compressor activates and stops the compressor. Moisture in the System This normally comes with the ingress of air in the system. Causes:  It may be due to the reason that excessive refrigerant has been charged in the system.   There are possibilities of small air bubbles in the liquid sight glass of the condenser. This is done by connecting a cylinder to the liquid line charging valve. with corresponding increase in the saturation temperature and pressure.  Suction and discharge pressure of the compressor is low. Partial blockage of refrigerant at the filter or drier or evaporator may cause undercharging. Air in the System Indication:  This may cause the refrigeration compressor to overheat.  Rise in room temperature which is to be cooled. with a high discharge pressure and normal condensing temperature. giving some of the indication of under charging. Clean the filter and drier. Action:    Remove the refrigerant from the system. . Collect refrigerant and remove all air and moisture by vacuum pump if the amount is huge.  Air in the system may also cause over charging indication.  Ammeter reading for the compressor motor is lower than normal. Action:   Renew silica gel in case of minor moisture. Moisture may freeze at the expansion valve.  Large vapor bubbles in the liquid sight glass. Condensing pressure of the refrigerant in the condenser may be high.  Low gauge readings in the condenser. Remove ice from the regulator by using any of the defrosting methods.Indication:  Compressor is running hot and performance of the compressor falls off due to high superheat temperature at the suction side of compressor.    Identify and rectify the leakage of refrigerant from the system. Purge the air from the system and maintain effective cooling. This will reduce the available condensing surface. and then operating the charging valve. flange couplings.  It may also be due to the formation office on the regulator.  The suction and the discharge pressures are high. It will contribute to the corrosion in the system.

 Lubricating oil level in the compressor will drop. Flooding may lead to an iced up evaporator. Causes:  This may happen if the oil separator is not working properly. * Drier Choked. If Freon-12 is used air may leaks in to the suction line because the working pressure of the Freon-12 refrigerant is less than the atmospheric pressure. * L. Action:      Check the oil separator for proper functioning. it may reduce the cooling capacity of the system. increase the condenser and evaporator temperature differentials and remove excess frost on the suction pipe. air may enter in to the system. Action:      Air in the system can be removed by collecting the system gas in the condenser. Check the level of the refrigerant in the system.P Cut out setting not correct. Connect the collecting cylinder to the purging line of the condenser. . due to fact that oil act as insulation in the evaporator.  Refrigerant compressor runs for the extended period of time.P Cut out is defective. open the valve. Flooding of Refrigerant in the System This is seen as liquid getting back to the suction of the refrigerant compressor. Oil in the Refrigeration System Indication:  Temperature is not dropping in the cold rooms as normal. After purging the air from the system don’t forget to shut the purging valve.  It may cause excessive frost on the suction line. * Expansion valve filter choked or Expansion valve Malfunction.  Compressor may take high capacity current during starting.  Defective piston rings or worn out liner of the compressor may cause the oil to carry over along with the refrigerant. It may also result from overcharging of the refrigeration system.  Refrigerant level will fall if oil has caused blockage. Causes:   During charging. too low difficult for Cut In. Check the drier for proper cleaning and if its require cleaning clean it Evaporator coil should be drained to remove any trace of oil. * Evaporator Choked. charge the system with fresh refrigerant. If there is excessive air. * Lesser gas flow * Less gas in system. and collect air in the cylinder. Restart the compressor with all safety precautions. Heat pipes with blow torch. Short cycling: REASONS: * L. * Compressor valves leaking. If there is oil in the cooling coils. It may be due to a faulty or incorrectly adjusted expansion valve and also due to solenoid valve leakage. making the compressor to run for the extended period of time. If required.  It may cause the gauge pointer of the condenser to jump indefinitely. leaving the condenser cooling water on and venting out the air from the top of the condenser because air will not be condensed in the condenser but remains on top of the condenser above the liquid refrigerant.  Oil may carry over from the compressor and may not come back to the compressor due to blockage in the system.

Actions: a.Blow-thru evaporator with nitrogen. b. The changes that can occur in the air as it is subjected to these air conditioning process can be traced or analyzed by the use of Psychometric chart or table. The moisture present within the air is indicated by the vertical scale located towards the extreme right. The chart shows relationship between dry bulb temp (Db). 3) Wet Bulb (WB) Temperature Lines: The outermost curve along the left side indicates the Wet Bulb (WB) temperature scale. g. If no full flow. The horizontal lines starting from this vertical scale are constant moisture lines. Expansion valve filter choked. Expansion valve malfunctioning. then clean it. then charges gas. f. Relative humidity and dew point.  Various Lines and Curves in the Psychrometric Chart All the properties of air indicated in the psychrometric chart are calculated at the standard atmospheric pressure. What is Psychometric chart and its use? Air condition is used for conditioning the air by altering its temperature and moisture content to suit the specific requirement.  What is Psychrometric Chart? Psychrometric charts are graphic representations of the psychrometric properties of air. cut out setting. d. The vertical lines shown in the chart are the constant DB temperature lines and all the points located along a particular vertical line have same DB temperature. The constant WB temperature lines are the diagonal lines extending from WB temperature curved scale downwards towards the right hand side of the chart.   2) Moisture Content: Moisture content is the water vapor present in the air and is measured in gram per kg of dry air (gm/kg of dry air). Evaporator choked. The DB temperature increases from the left to the right. e.  1) Dry Bulb (DB) Temperature Lines: The dry bulb temperature scale is shown along the base of the shoe shaped psychrometric chart forming the sole. c. but is very easy to understand if you know the basic properties of air. You will also understand its worth when you actually use it considering the fact that you won’t have to use any formulae to find the properties of air in different conditions. The psychrometric chart looks complicated with vast numbers of lines and curves in it. For other pressures relevant corrections have to be applied. Therefore it is necessary to air behaves when it is subjected to cooling. Check L. The psychrometric chart looks like a shoe. all you will have to know is two parameters of air and the rest are easily found on the chart.either less gas or drier chocked. if low. If any two factors are known the remaining two can be obtained by using the chart. Check level in receiver. heating or humidifying process.  4) Dew Point (DP) Temperature Lines: . change the drier. Check flow of gas by seeing sight glass. 23. Wet bulb temperature(Wb).P.Change it. which should show full flow of refrigerant. cut out pressure OK. By using psychrometric charts HVAC engineers can graphically analyze different types of psychrometric processes and find solution to many practical problems without having to carry out long and tedious mathematical calculations. All the points located along the constant WB temperature line have the same temperature.

Thus the constant DP and WB temperature lines are different. constant moisture lines are also constant DP temperature lines. . the constant DP temperature lines are horizontal lines. The scale of the DP and WB temperature is the same. however.Since the dew point temperature of the air depends on the moisture content of the air. while the constant WB temperature lines are diagonal lines extending downwards.