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Ánh Ngọc 1Q12

The nation-state, globalization and state
The terms nation, state, country and nation-state are used to refer to political,
economic, social and cultural actors Thin the international system. The modern
nation-state refers to a single or multiple nationalities joined together in a formal
political union. The nation-state determines an official language(s), a system of law,
manages a currency system, uses a bureaucracy to order elements of society, and
fosters loyalties to abstract entities like "Canada," "the United States," and so on and
the nation state is "is one where the great majority are conscious of a common identity
and share the same culture" (Unesco, 2009). However, there is difference between
nation and state. A nation refers only to a socio-cultural entity, a union of people
sharing who can identify culturally and linguistically. This concept does not
necessarily consider formal political unions. A state refers to a legal/political entity
that is comprised of the following: a permanent population; a defined territory; a
government ; and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.
Globalization and nation state. Globalization has some effects on nation state. Firstly,
advanced capitalist states transforming from modern into post-modern states -involves
changes at level of economics/ politics/nationhood .Secondly, weak post-colonial
states created out of special circumstances: globalization of institution of sovereignty
in context of decolonization. Weak states also play special sovereignty game which
reflects fragility remain highly dependent on international community .Third modernizing states (China/ India/Russia/Brazil) amalgamate features of modern, postmodern & weak post-colonial statehood in different combinations

Federal, unitary and union state regionalism
Government includes fedaralism, confederation and unitary. Federalism is when
significant government powers are divided. Confederation is a form that states retain
ultimate authority and can veto major actions of the central government. Unitary is the
central government exercises all government powers and can change its constituent
units. There are differences between federal and unitary states that based on the
constitutional division of labor between the national and sub-national levels of
government. In federal states, as a general rule, local government does not have a
direct relationship with the federal government, but with the sub-federal mesogovernment. In unitary states, there is a usually a direct relationship between the
central and local levels.

Regionalization is a top down process in which central government develop a set of
policies directed toward regions of various kinds (administrative, statistical,
economics). It Set up administrative regions without necessarily. There are also
different kinds of regions (political, administrative, economic, cultural) which do not
always coincide with each other. In recent decades, there have been tendencies
towards strengthening regionalism as well as political decentralization.
Political decentralization
Political decentralization aims to give citizens or their elected representatives more
power in public decision-making. Participation and decentralization have a symbiotic
relationship - degree of local participation - to respond better to local needs and

efficiently match public spending to private needs if some sort of information flow between citizens and the local governments exist. . Citizen participation in some form is an essential part of successful decentralization (WB).