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Editors : Fatih Konukcu & Seluk Albut - 2016

Address : Namik Kemal University, Tekirda, Turkey


Printed in Tekirdag, Turkey.
Copyright 2015 All right reserved.
This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The content of this
publication are the sole responsibility of the Editors & Authors and can in no way reflect the views of the
European Union

Integrated Land Use Management Modeling of Black Sea Estuaries


(ILMM-BSE): Ergene River Basin

ISBN : 978-605-4265-43-5

Integrated Land Use Management Modeling


of Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE):
Ergene River Basin
http://e-blacksea.net

Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of


Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project:
Ergene River Basin

Editor in Chief

Fatih KONUKCU
Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering
Department, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.
fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr http://fkonukcu.cv.nku.edu.tr/

Co-Editor

Seluk ALBUT
Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering
Department, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.
salbut@nku.edu.tr http://salbut.cv.nku.edu.tr/

Tekirda
January-2016

ISBN : 978-605-4265-43-5

Editors : Fatih Konukcu & Seluk Albut - 2016


Address : Namk Kemal University, Tekirda, Turkey
Printed in TOPRAK OFSET, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Copyright 2016 All right reserved.

This publication has been produced with the assistance of the


European Union. The content of this publication are the sole
responsibility of the Editors & Authors and can in no way reflect
the views of the European Union.

Publisher

NAMIK KEMAL UNVERSTY

Preface of the Rector

n behalf of Namk Kemal University, I would like


to express my deep gratitude to be one of the
prominent partners of ILMM-BSE Project. I believe
that the outcomes of this project will significantly
contribute to the solution of environmental problems of
Black Sea countries including Turkey and, particularly
Ergene River Basin.
All kinds of investment and industrial development promoting employment
opportunities for the people should be supported. However, sustainability of the
development in the aspect of environment should also be seriously considered.
Environmental pollution is a common problem of industrial and populated areas,
though the severity of problem varies. Ergene River Basin with fertile plains has
become the agenda of both Thrace Region and whole Turkey due to the pollution
problems occurring for the last three decades. This situation has been noticed by
the authorities and an action plan to save Ergere River and its Basin has put into
implementation. It seems that the improvement process will take times and need
costly investments. The cheapest and easiest way of dealing with this problem is
to take precautions before the problem emerges.
The best way to take action without polluting depends on the existence of the
tools to predict how and to what extent investments and land use change will
affect basin ecosystems. In this context, the outcomes of ILMM-BSE Project will
be extremely useful for local authorities and decision makers as a decision
support instrument.
The benefits of the Project are not limited by the research results obtained and
decision support system. It also provided capacity development and cooperation
opportunities to produce common solutions to our common problems in Black Sea
Basin.

Prof. Dr. Osman MEK


Rector of Namk Kemal University
Tekirdag-TURKEY

Preface of the Editor in Chief


and is a scarce resource increasingly affected by the


competition of mutually exclusive uses. Fertile land
in rural areas becomes scarcer due to population
growth, pollution, erosion and desertification, effects of
climate change, urbanization etc. On the remaining land,
local, national and international users with different socioeconomic statuses and power compete to achieve food
security, economic growth, energy supply, nature
conservation and other objectives. Land use planning can
help to find a balance among these competing and sometimes contradictory uses.
Within the scope of Integrated Land Use Management Modelling of Black Sea
Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) project, land use change was modelled in Ergene Basin and
its delta in Turkey as well as Ropotamo and Veleka rivers basins and their deltas
in Bulgaria; Danube, Dniester and Dnieper deltas in Ukraine and Guria region in
Georgia for their commonalities, regarding the view point of their current
conditions and characteristics.
Although the primary objective of the project was to model land use change, the
focus was on land use planning application to support sustainable development
within specified areas in order to ensure the protection of ecosystem services.
Other subject areas such as biodiversity and high conservation values, mitigation
of climate change and adaptation to it as well as food security issues were also
studied.
Additionally, impact assessment and management tools for sustainable land use,
new institutional legislation for land-use planning authorities, strategies for
public and stakeholders participation in the decision making process and guide
for the development of decision-support systems were investigated. I hope the
established network during the project will be successfully beneficial to solve our
common environmental problems.

Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU


Reseach Coordinator of ILMM BSE Project
Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering
Department, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.

Black Sea Joint Operational Programme (2007 -2013)

The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme 2007-2013 (hereafter Black Sea
JOP) is a programme under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership
Instrument (ENPI) of the EU.
The New Neighbourhood Strategy and JOP Black Sea Global objective of the Cross
Border Cooperation in the new Neighbourhood strategy is to support sustainable
development along both sides of the EUs external borders, to help ameliorate
differences in living standards across these borders, and to address the
challenges and opportunities following on EU enlargement.
Global objective of JOP Black Sea is to achieve a stronger regional partnership
and cooperation to promote sustainable economic and social development of the
regions of the Black Sea Basin, based on stronger regional partnership and
cooperation.
The Black Sea JOP covers three priorities and a technical assistance component.
Each of the three priorities has a number of Measures:
Priority 1: Supporting cross border partnerships for economic and social
development based on common resources
Measure 1.1: Strengthening accessibility and connectivity for new intra- regional
information, communication, transport and trade links
Measure 1.2: Creation of tourism networks in order to promote joint tourism
development initiatives and traditional products
Measure 1.3: Creation of administrative capacity for the design and
implementation of local development policies
Priority 2: Sharing resources and competencies for environmental protection
and conservation
Measure 2.1: Strengthening the joint knowledge and information base needed to
address common challenges in the environmental protection of river and
maritime systems
Measure 2.2: Promoting research, innovation and awareness in the field of
conservation and environmental protection for protected natural areas

Measure 2.3: Promotion of cooperation initiatives aimed at innovation in


technologies and management of solid waste and wastewater management
systems
Priority 3: Supporting cultural and educational networks for the establishment
of a common cultural environment in the Basin
Measure 3.1: Promoting cultural networking and educational exchange in the
Black Sea Basin communities.
Partner Countries and Covered regions of the Programme
Bulgaria: Severoiztochen, Yugoiztochen;
Greece: Kentriki Makedonia, Anatoliki Makedonia Thraki; Romania: South East
Region;
Turkey: TR10 (stanbul), TR21 (Tekirdag, Edirne, Kirklareli), TR42 (Kocaeli,
Sakarya, Duzce, Bolu, Yalova), TR81 (Zonguldak, Karabuk, Bartn), TR82
(Kastamonu, Cankr, Sinop), TR83 (Samsun, Tokat, orum, Amasya) ve TR90
(Trabzon, Ordu, Giresun, Rize, Artvin, Gmhane);
Russia: Rostov Oblast, Krasnodar Krai, Adygea republic;
Ukraine: Odesa, Mykolaiv, Kherson, Sevastopol, Zaporoshye and Donetsk Oblast,
Crimea Republic, Sevastopol;
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Rep. of Moldova - all regions.

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Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea


Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project

Applicant
Bourgas Regional Tourism Association (BRTA), Bulgaria
ENPI Partners
Bourgas Prof. Assen Zlatarov University, Bulgaria
Ukrainian Marine Environment Protection Assoc., Ukraine
Civitas Georgica, Georgia
IPA Financial Beneficiary
Hayrabolu Municipality (HBM), Turkey
IPA Partners
Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association, Turkey
Namk Kemal University, Turkey
Background
Deltas are the most valuable but also the most vulnerable components of coastal
area, both in terms of ecosystem and natural capital. The natural setting of
deltas is most often bounded by mountains on one side and coastal zones on the
other and may include post-industrialized zones. In consequence, the areas
surrounding deltas provides excellent opportunities and landscapes for
habitation; forestry, agriculture and the tourism sector, while deltas themselves
offer opportunities for fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, the direct and
indirect impact on sensitive ecosystems in Europe has considerably reduced their
ability to meet an ever-increasing demand for their utilisation and development.
In order to meet competing interests for the long term, an integrated, balanced
and multifunctional land-use management strategy for deltas must be defined
and implemented. Such a management approach must not only consider the
interests for their use in promoting socio-economic development, but also the
limits of such natural resources for the delivery of goods and services and the
potentially catastrophic consequences of over-utilization. Therefore, decisions on

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the land-use management of deltas should be based on scientific ecological and


socio-economic information and be applied using the best available tools and
models available. For these reasons, it has been agreed by the partners that it is
essential that such a project should be realised in order to develop, enhance and
integrate these tools and models to achieve a multifunctional approach within
the coordination umbrella of a Black Sea Basin (BSB) Centre of Excellence.
Need for the Project
Prior to the preparation of the proposal for the action, local authorities (local
municipalities, local government agencies, etc.) and universities have been consulted
about the objectives and possible outcomes of the project. They, almost in common,
emphasized the fact that;

there is significant level of development pressure placing target delta areas in


danger,

there is considerable management void in these areas, where already


prepared management plans are inapplicable,

there is significant lack of information and knowledge about ecosystems of


target areas,

there are initiatives to promote these areas for tourism purposes, without
proper land-use plans, which may endanger target deltas and their watersheds
areas.

Objectives of the Project

To develop and evaluate, impact assessment and management tools for the
sustainable land use of the watershed areas of coastal deltas, by integrating
existing expertise and resources, strengthening scientific and technological
excellence, creating a progressive and durable integration of research
capacities and advancing knowledge of the topic, via achieving;

creation of a well-designed integrated database system involving all relevant


European research and application practices to ensure lasting integration
studies and coordination of research and information exchange,

fostering communication and collaboration on land management for


sustainable use and development of estuaries and their watershed areas by
using advanced information and networking technologies,

development of land-use models for use in decision-making and in analysing

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the costs and benefits of each alternative land-use choice,

induction of a cooperative institutional structure (organization) that will


provide involvement for all stakeholders in resource management decisionmaking,

development of methodologies to promote inter-jurisdictional problem solving


in the sustainable management of estuaries and their territories and the
commitment of all levels of decision-making, by linking the sustainable
development strategies in participating countries, Turkey, Bulgaria, Ukraine
and Georgia,

creation of cooperation and networking among scientists, land developers and


decision makers in Black Sea basin to promote consensus of the means of
avoiding value loss and to further the application of participatory approaches
by joint congresses, workshops and training courses,

development of an environmental education program to ensure long-term


sustainability of a participatory process.

Activities of the Project


Main activities of the project may be classified into four,

Integrating activities,

Joint research programme,

Spreading excellence activities, and

Management activities.

Each activity has specific purposes and deliverables


Outcomes of the Project
The basic outcome will be sharing knowledge, ensuring the lasting integration of
information and data, networking experts and stakeholders throughout Black Sea
basin, expanding the use of scientific tools to promote sustainability in the use of the
territories of coastal deltas and to spread excellence worldwide.

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Research Objectives
Coastal deltas are shallow aquatic ecosystems, which develop at the interface
between coastal terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The rates of structural and
functional changes of both hydro geomorphological units and biological communities
of the estuaries are thus highly dependent on the very active exchanges on auxiliary
energy and mass, with the surrounding ecosystems, in particular. However, they
develop for themselves particular mechanisms for structural and functional
regulations, which in turn lead to specific productive and carrying capacities. This
group of activities aim at estimation of the carrying capacity which is extremely
important for sustainable land-use without adversely affecting future yields and the
integrity of ecosystems of these semi-enclosed coastal areas.

Expected Outputs of the joint Research Activities (JRA)


Project outputs of Joint Research Activities (JRA) are grouped into four Work
Packages (WP).
WP1
Research carried on, (i) Development of integrated GIS for coastal deltas and
associated watersheds as a tool for sustained management practices; (ii)
Establishments of a model bank; (iii) Assessment of carrying capacity and
potential for aquaculture production by modelling; (iv) Modelling possibilities of
future of deltas under climate changes, sea level rising and disaster; (v)
Assessment of the result of modelling and monitoring studies of existing projects;
(vi) Real-time monitoring strategies and methodologies.

WP2
Research carried on, (i) Assessment of ecosystem characteristics and biodiversity
of Black Sea deltas; (ii) Assessment of SES characteristics and biodiversity of
Black Sea deltas; (iii) Assessment of present transport, energy and natural
resources capacity in the territory of deltas within Black Sea basin; (iv)
Development of a methodology for estimation of NC value; (v) Assessment of
geological / geo-chemical characteristics of deltas; (vi) Soil characteristics and
their potential for various land-use options, including agriculture and forest;(vii)
Air-Land-Sea interaction problems; (viii) Classification of Black Sea deltas.

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WP3
Research carried on, (i) Review of existing EIA/SIA/CIA regulation for land-use
planning and the development of new regulations; (ii) Risk assessment of the
results of a lack of sustainable land use planning; (iii) Sustainability impact
assessment of land management and regional development strategies; (iv)
Evaluation of cost-benefit analysis; (v) Evaluation of cost-effectiveness
methodologies.

WP4
Research carried on, (i) Development and evaluation of criteria and standards for
implementation of integrated sustainable land-use planning and management; (ii)
Development of indices and index for assessing land-use impacts on delta
ecology; (iii) Erosion and desertification risks assessment for watersheds; (iv)
Development of tools for predictions required for decision-making; (v)
Methodologies for qualitative and quantitative accounting of the multifunctional
effects of land management and development strategies with regard to
environmental protection, rural development, land use, landscape, tourism,
recreation, agriculture and forestry activities; (vi) Assessment of trans-boundary
problems; (vii) Thresholds of sustainability; (viii) Guide for the development of
decision-support systems; (ix) Strategies for public and stakeholders
participation in the decision making process; (x) Institutional strengthening for
land-use planning authorities; (xi) New institutional legislation for land-use
planning authorities; (xii) Evaluation criteria for Natural Parks, Natural Assets,
and World Heritage Sites in estuary watersheds; (xiii) Development of an
integrated framework analysis; (xiv) Impact assessment and management tools
for sustainable land use; (xv) Development of P-S-R of indicators for the use of
decision makers.

Expected Results of Joint Research Activities


Both carrying capacity of sensitive target areas and level of these beneficial uses
for sustainable and cost-effective estuary ecosystems will be addressed by joint
research activities which are grouped in four work packages, i.e. WP1, WP2, WP3
and WP4. This will be through the development of an integrated and objectoriented model, coupled to GIS and through quantifying the all fluxes of various
land-use alternatives through the ecosystem, in order to assess potential impacts on
the function and structure of this ecosystem. For this, the approach is through

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enhanced/developed models and tools to be used for integrated sustainability


impact assessment. Consequently, the following research activities focuses on
understanding, analysis, integration and evaluation will be carried out.
Target Deltas/Estuaries/watersheds of ILMMBSE projects

Ergene River basin in Turkey;

Ropotamo and Veleka Rivers basins and their deltas in Bulgaria;

Danube, Dniester and Dnieper deltas in Ukraine,

Guria region in Georgia

were selected as target deltas, for the implementation of the activities of the
action, for their commonalities, from the view point of their current conditions
and characteristics.
The term river mouth is also used instead of estuary and delta since they
are types of river mouths. However, the research results of Ergene River basin in
Turkey, which is defined as watershed/river basin, were obtained and presented
as comparison between deltas and watershed and between Aegean Sea and Black
Sea.

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Project Partners
Applicant:

BOURGAS REGIONAL TOURIST ASSOCIATION


Bulgaria, 8000 Burgas; 29A, Ferdinandova, Str., floor 4; tel/fax: +359 56 841966; e-mail:
brta@abv.bg; www.brta.eu

BOURGAS REGIONAL TOURIST ASSOCIATION (BRTA) was established in 1998 as


an organization in public benefit. It unites the existing in Burgas region local
tourist organizations, regional tourist associations and local authorities
(municipalities). The goal of BRTA is to support and encourage the development
of tourism in Burgas region and alone or in cooperation with other organizations
working to develop the region as a tourist destination.
BRTA is registered in accordance with the requirements of the Tourism Act in
Bulgaria.
BRTA is the only regional tourism organization in Bulgaria, a member of the
National Board of Tourism in Bulgaria from its establishment until now. National
Tourism Board is a state public advisory and coordinating body to the Minister of
Economy and Energy (MEE).
BRTA is a member of the Regional Committee on Employment in Burgas region.

ENPI Partners:
Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov University
Bulgaria, 8010 Burgas; 1, Prof. Yakimov, Bul., tel/fax: +359 56 86 00 41; e-mail: rector@btu.bg,
www.btu.bg

Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov University is the only state university in Southeast


Bulgaria. It was founded on 6th October 1963 by Decree 162 of the Council of
Ministers as a Higher Chemico-technological institute Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov
which connected forever it with the name of its patron. Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov
University was ratified as such by a resolution of the National Assembly in 1995.

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More than 320 highly qualified lecturers, 127 of them habilitated, teach at the
university. Organization and management of the educational process at the
university comply with the European requirements and criteria for qualitative
educational and research process. A university evaluation and education quality
maintenance system has been worked out. The University has been rated among
the first in Bulgaria according to the quality of the research on Hirsch system for
scientific contribution. Carrying out the policy of the university management for
rejuvenating and heightening the qualification of the academic staff, there has
been a practice established for announcing competitions on all levels from
assistant professor to professor.

Ukrainian Marine Environment Protection Association


Ukraine, 65023 Odessa; 6, L. TolstoyStr., tel/fax: +38 0482 333 888; e-mail: info@ukrmepa.org;
www.ukrmepa.org

Ukrainian Marine Environment Protection Association


of the International Association for the Protection of
INTERMEPA. In 2008, it was formally recognized by the
and the Marine already internationally successfully
affiliates INTERMEPA.

(UKRMEPA) is a member
the Marine Environment
international community
cooperated with other

UKRMEPA created on the basis of Odessa National Maritime Academy, Nautical


Institute of Ukraine - Department of Marine Institute UK, the Institute of
Postgraduate Education, maritime executives and specialists of Water Transport
of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Central design Bureau "Slipway" with the support of the
Odessa regional organization "Green Party".
Its main goal is to consolidate the capabilities of members of the Organization for
the advancement of the marine environment and the coastal zone of the Black
Sea and the Azov Sea, as the basis for the existence and further development of
civil society.
International Association Civitas Georgica was established in 1996 by those, who
believe that Georgia is a country of European values. Our mission is to promote
establishment of democratic and efficient local government in Georgia, to assist
democratic reforms and to advance the competent public participation in local
decision-making.

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Civitas Georgica
Georgia, 0164 Tbilisi; 97, Tsinamdzgvrishvili Str., tel: +995 32 951991, fax: +995 32 911948; email: office@civitas.ge; http://www.civitas.ge/

Civitas Georgica specializes in effecting policy change through institution


building, organization and management development and training. Civitas
Georgica has already conducted over 50 large and small-scale projects in sectors
including public sector reform, local government capacity building,
regional/community development, pre-school and primary education, youth
empowerment and engagement in public life, civic participation and advocacy.
To achieve its goals, Civitas Georgica enters in strategic partnership with other
organizations. We are the members of Central and Eastern European Citizens
Network (CEE CN), European Network of Training organizations (ENTO), the
national NGO coalition on decentralization.

IPA Financial Beneficiary:

Hayrabolu Municipality
Turkey, Hayrabolu Municipality, TR2; tel: +90 282 315 4471; e-mail: baskan@hayrabolu.bel.tr;
www.hayrabolu.bel.tr

Hayrabolu is one of the oldest settlements in Thrace. Hayrabolu Municipality


(HBM)will be the IPA Lead Beneficiary of the project. HBM will be responsible for
project coordination activities in Turkey. Its public institutions are established to
meet the common needs of people in this city. The primary mission of the
municipality is to provide services based on the common goals as effectiveness,
efficiency, and quality of service. Also, it works on improving the quality of life
in the area and the municipalities nearby.
Hayrabolu Municipality try to implement the idea that allmunicipalities, towns
and village organizations have to meet the common needs of the people in a
healthy and sustainable way, and must satisfy the needs of the people of the
city.

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IPA Partners:

Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association


Turkey, Istanbul; 1 34674 Aziz Bey Sokak; tel: +90 0216 310 9301, fax: +90 0216 343 2177;
www.turmepa.org.tr

Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association (TURMEPA) is a civil


society movement founded by Rahmi M. Ko and the Shipping Chamber of
Commerce on April 8, 1994 with the objective of making the protection of our
coasts and seas a national priority and creating a legacy of a sustainable Turkey
for future generations.
TURMEPA's mission is to contribute to the preservation of seas and coasts as a
national priority and to create a country that has reached sustainable
development goals for future generations.

Namk Kemal University


Turkey, 59030 Tekirda; Namk Kemal Mahallesi, Campus Street, No:1, Deirmenalt Campus; Tel:
+90 (282) 250 00 00, Fax: +90 (282) 250 99 00;e-mail: intrelations@nku.edu.tr;
http://www.nku.edu.tr

Namk Kemal University was founded in 2006, with the Act numbered 5467,
under the administration of the Higher Education Council. The University is based
on a strong and old background of more than 30 years. Faculty of Agriculture,
opened in 1982, and orlu Faculty of Engineering, founded in 1992, build up the
academic foundation with their education, researches and publications.
The University offers Postgraduates degree with three Institutes,
Undergraduates degrees with its nine faculties and three schools, and associate
degrees with eleven vocational schools to nearly 32000 students. It has more
than 1000 academic and 500 administrative staff. The University is a member of
the European University Association and is in the Balkan Universities Network.

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Outline of the Book

In this Book, the research results of ILMM-BSE project on Ergene River Basin
covering all issues listed under four work packages were presented while the
results on Ropotamo and Veleka Rivers basins and their deltas, Danube, Dniester
and Dnieper deltas and Guria region were presented in the research books
published in Bulgaria, Ukraine and Georgia, respectively.
A wide range of data for Ergene River basin including, Corine land use and land
use change data, elevation vector layer, detailed hydrologic data (catchmentmicrocatchment boundaries, lakes, dams, drainage network, etc.), soil map,
geological map, protected area map, forest map, erosion map were created for
sustained management practices (Chapter 1) The created data were integrated
by GIS-based web software as a decision support system and the guide of decision
support system for land use planning authorities were given in Chapter 2.
Ergene River Basin has different development axes due to agricultural and
industrial activities hosted within the basin. Rapid industrial development for
about 25 years in the southern part of the Basin, which comprises majority of
Saray, Corlu, Cerkezkoy, Muratli and Luleburgaz towns close to Istanbul, has
brought population growth and intensive urbanisation. Recently realised
rehabilitation of organised industrial zones (OSB) has revealed that only 45-50%
of industry allocated zone is occupied presently. However, it is believed that
land use changes are inevitable in the future. This part of Ergene River basin has
a dynamic land use change and defined as hot spot of the basin. In this part,
land use changes of 2023, 2030 and 2050 were simulated considering the
demands for land determined in accordance with the linear trend analysis using
the modelling approach of CLUE-s (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at
Small regional extent) in Chapter 3.
In Chapter 4, the brief information on the the existing Project on Land Use
managemet in Europe (PEGASO, IASON, EnviroGRIDS) and Action Plan of Ergene
River Basin under application were reviewed.
Soil characteristics, land use classes and their potential for various land-use
options and the extent of miss use or miss managed land in Ergene River basin
were discussed in Chapter 5 whereas geology and geochemical structure of the
basin was reviewed in Chapter 6.
Biodiversity is one of the most important and the most fragile issue to be taken
into consideration in watershed and land use management. Biodiversity of Ergene

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River Basin was investigated with the assessment of ecosystem and Social
Environmental Status (SES) characteristics into two parts: fauna (Chapter 7a) and
flora (Chapter 7b).
In the development of watershed management policy, much data are needed.
Real-time monitoring produce more frequent and prolonged data in comparison
to the classical monitoring methods. Additionally, classical monitoring methods
are vulnerable to produce more deviation during sampling, carrying, analysing
process. Therefore, real-time monitoring should be preferred to manage
watersheds correctly. Real-time monitoring systems are very new system.
Depending on the technological development, much more sensitive devices and
systems capable of performing analysis of more parameters will emerge. In this
context, real time monitoring, present real time monitoring status and real time
monitoring strategy of Ergene River Basin were analysed in Chapter 8.
Atmosphere, ocean and biosphere are one interconnected system and air-landsea interactions are the most important mechanisms for the changes in the
atmosphere-ocean-biosphere system. In Chapter 9, air-land-sea interaction
problems in Maritsa-Ergene River Basin are evaluated in the aspect of pollutant
transport and deposition cases.
Present natural resources (soil and water), energy (solar, wind, biomass, coal,
oil) and transport (highway, rail, sea, air) capacity in the territory of Ergene
River basin were evaluated in Chapter 10.
In Chapter 11, existing EIA/SIA/CIA regulation for land-use planning and the
development of new regulations and sustainability impact assessment of land
management and regional development strategies were reviewed.
Ecological thresholds defined as the points at which there is an abrupt change in
an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or where small changes in an
environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem, were determined
for four threshold issues as suggested by European Commission (DG Environment)
and the European Environment Agency (EEA): eutrophication, freshwater
quantity, soil erosion, and non-renewable resource use of Ergene River basin in
Chapter 12.
Erosion and Desertification Risks Assessment for Ergene River Basin were made
using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in Chapter 13.
The potential climate change and its effects on water resources and the yield of
both wheat and sunflower, the two vital plants for the Thrace Region were

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predicted in Chapter 14a and flood risk assessment was made and flood risk map
was created in Chapter 14b for within the context of disaster management.
Transboundary problems may emerge by land, water and air. Since Ergene River
has no connection to Greece and Bulgaria. Therefore, the hydrologic
transboundary problem of Ergene River Basin is not considered. The air born
transboundary problem was discussed in Chapter 15 as well as in Chapter 9.
In chapter 16, the risks as a result of lack of sustainable land use planning were
assessed for Ergene River Basin in terms of territorial development, natural
resource management, protection of biodiversity, national park and buffer zone
management, food security, disaster risk management, adaptation to and
mitigation of climate change, development in a drugs environment conflict
prevention and resolution, responsible land governance.
Development of P-S-R (Pressure-State-Response) of indicators for the use of
decision makers and development of indices and index for assessing land-use
impacts on delta ecology were discussed in Chapter 17.
Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Methodologies were evaluated in
Chapter 18 whereas strategies for public and stakeholders participation in the
decision making process and institutional strengthening for land-use planning
authorities were discussed in Chapter 19.
An integrated framework analysis was developed and new institutional legislation
for land-use planning authorities was evaluated in Chapter 20.
Criteria for national parks, natural assets and important species areas in general
and in Gala Lake National Park in Maritsa-Ergene River Basin were evaluated in
Chapter 21.
Development of a methodology for estimation of Natural Capital (NC) value was
evaluated for Ergene River Basin in Chapter 22.
Ecosystem Education Program developed within the in Chapter 23.
A list of all relevant publications on Ergene River Basin and land use management
and land use change modelling were provided in Chapter 24.

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24

Content and Authors


Page
Chapter 1

Development of integrated GIS for coastal deltas and


associated watersheds as a tool for sustained
management practices: Ergene River Basin. Fatih
KONUKCU, Seluk ALBUT, Reat AKGZ.

29-68

Chapter 2

Development of Software as a Tool for Sustainable


Land Use Management and Guide for Decision Support
System. Seluk ALBUT, Fatih KONUKCU, Reat
AKGZ.

69-88

Chapter 3

Land Use Change Modelling of Erene River Basin for


Future Scenarios and Sustainability impact assessment
of land management and regional development
strategies. Bahadr ALTRK, Fatih KONUKCU, Seluk
ALBUT.

89-114

Chapter 4

Assessment of the Result of Modelling and Monitoring


Studies of Existing projects. Fatih KONUKCU, Bahadr
ALTRK.

115-126

Chapter 5

Soil Characteristics and Their Potential for Various


Land-Use Options. Fatih KONUKCU, srafil KOCAMAN,
Ahmet STANBULLUOLU.

127-136

Chapter 6

Assessment of Geological/Geo-chemical Characteristics of Deltas: Ergene River Basin. Fatih KONUKCU.

137-140

Chapter 7

Assessment of Ecosystem Characteristics


Biodiversity of Black Sea Deltas:

and

A. Fauna of Ergene River Basin. Deniz RN, Nadim

141-160

YILMAZER.
B. Plant Diversity of the Ergene River Basin. Evren
CAB, R. Murat AYDINKAL.

161-176

Chapter 8

Real-Time Monitoring Strategies and Methodologies of


Ergene River Basin. Blent DKMEN, kran DENZ.

177-186

Chapter 9

Air-Land-Sea Interaction Problems of Maritsa-Ergene


River Basin. Lokman Hakan TECER, Asude HANEDAR.

187-196

25

Chapter 10

Assessment of Present Natural Resources, Energy and


Transport Capacity in the Territory of Deltas within
Black Sea Basin. Fatih KONUKCU.

197-214

Chapter 11

Review of Existing EIA/SIA/CIA Regulation for LandUse Planning and the Development of New
Regulations and Sustainability Impact Assessment of
Land Management and Regional Development
Strategies. Mamuka GVILAVA, Fatih KONUKCU.

215-240

Chapter 12

Thresholds of Sustainability for Ergene River Basin.


Fatih KONUKCU.

241-250

Chapter 13

Erosion and Desertification Risks Assessment for


Watersheds: Ergene River Basin. Reat AKGOZ, Fatih
KONUKCU, srafil KOCAMAN.

251-268

Chapter 14

Climate Change and Flood Risk Assessment:


A. Prediction of Climate Change and Its Impact on

Water Resources and Crop Yileds in Ergene River


Basin. Huzur DEVEC, Fatih KONUKCU.
B. Flood Risk of Ergene River Basin. Erol Aptoula
MOUSTAFA, Fatih KONUKCU.

269-282

283-290

Chapter 15

Assessment of Trans-Boundary Problems. Emilia


GEORGIEVA, Ilker ORUC, Elena HRISTOVA, Krum
VELCHEV, Hristina KIROVA, Dimiter SYRAKOV, Maria
PRODANOVA, Rozeta NEIKOVA, Blagorodka VELEVA,
Damyan BARANTIEV, Anton PETROV, Maria
KOLAROVA,
Valeri
NIKOLOV,
Ekaterina
BATCHVAROVA, Hristomir BRANZOV.

291-308

Chapter 16

Risk Assessment of the Results of a Lack of


Sustainable Land Use Planning of Ergene River Basin.
Fatih KONUKCU.

309-322

Chapter 17

Development of P-S-R (Pressure-State-Response) of


Indicators for the Use of Decision Makers and
Development of Indices and Index for Assessing LandUse Impacts on Delta Ecology. Mamuka GVILAVA,
Fatih KONUKCU, Seluk ALBUT, Andriy VOLKOV,
Valentin NENOV, Husein YEMENDZHIEV.

323-346

26

Chapter 18

Evaluation of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Evaluation of


Cost-Effectiveness Methodologies. Harun HURMA.

347-356

Chapter 19

Strategies for Public and Stakeholders Participation


in the Decision Making Process and Institutional
Strengthening for Land-Use Planning Authorities.
Fatih KONUKCU.

357-366

Chapter 20

Development of an Integrated Framework Analysis


and New Legislation. Fatih KONUKCU.

367-382

Chapter 21

Evaluation Criteria for National Parks, Natural Assets


and Important Species Areas in the delta of MaritsaErgene River Basin. Elif Ebru MAN.

383-394

Chapter 22

Development of a Methodology for Estimation of


Natural Capital (NC) Value. Harun HURMA.

395-406

Chapter 23

Integrated Land-Use Modelling Management of Black


Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project Ecosystem Education
Program TURMEPA.

407-424

Chapter 24

Further Reading.

425-432

Annex

433-452

27

28

Chapter

Development of integrated GIS for coastal deltas


and associated watersheds as a tool for sustained
management practices: Ergene River Basin

Fatih KONUKCU1

Seluk ALBUT1

Reat AKGZ2

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr; salbut@nku.edu.tr

1OGS Geographical Information Technology Inc., Geographical Information System Department,


Ankara-TURKEY. resatakgoz@ogs.as

1. Introduction
Black Sea is under pressure with the industry that needed for supply of human
necessities and it becomes polluted every passing year. Bulgaria, Ukraine,
Georgia and Turkey taking place in Black Sea basin contain important deltas.
Governmental boundaries prevent continuous management of these deltas.
Deltas are geographic structures and each country applies different protection
and production activities in their boundaries. Therefore, a common integrated
GIS for coastal deltas and associated watersheds as a tool for sustained
management practices is needed.

29

The Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE)


Project was realized in the areas, which cover the Ergene basin in Turkey,
Rapotamo and Veleka River basins and deltas in Bulgaria, Dnieper, Dniester and
Danube river basins and deltas in Ukraine and Guria region in Georgia.
Within the scope of the Project, in the areas mentioned above, various data
obtained from the partner countries were gathered in a common standard to
form a databank as a tool for advanced land use modellings in sustainable land
use management of associated deltas and watersheds. Modelling land use change
and its impact using this database is extremely useful for decision support
system.
A wide range of data, particularly for Ergene River basin, has been collected,
analysed using GIS and Remote Sensing technics and added into the system. The
following integrated GIS data for sustained management practices were created
for the associated deltas and Ergene River Basin (the case of Ergene River basin is
presented in this Book, while other deltas/watersheds is presented in the related
countries):

Corine land use/cover data of 1990-2000-2006 and 2012 for Ergene River
basin were obtained.

Land use change between the years 1990 and 2000; 2000 and 2006; 2006
and 2012 were modelled.

1/25000 Scale Elevation vector layer was formed.

Detailed hydrologic data (catchment-microcatcment boundaries, lakes,


dams, drainage network, etc.) was created.

Precipitation and Climate data were obtained.

Soil map of Ergene River basin were created.

Geological map of Ergene River basin was produced.

Protected area map was created.

1/100000 Scale Forest map was created.

Erosion map was produced (detailed report was presented in 13)

The created data were integrated in a WebGIS software and used in modelling
land use change of Ergene River Basin under different future scenarios by using

30

ArcSWAT tool (Chapter 2). A user based website was developed to access
information produced and to generate presentation of the outputs
1.1. Development of Corine Land Cover Model
The satellite and ancillary data used in the Corine Land Cover and Land Use
Modelling were:

1990 year Landsat5-TM satellite image, 30m resolution

2000 year Landsat7-ETM satellite image, 30m resolution

2006 year satellite image Spot4&5 / IRSP6 satellite image, 20m resolution

2012 year satellite image Spot5, 5m resolution

1/25000 scale raster topographic map

State Hydraulic Works Irrigation data

1/100000 scale forest map

1/25000 scale soil map used at the pocess.

Satellite images were classified as 1990 - 2000, 2000 - 2006, 2006 - 2012 years
basically. Then, the images were investigated considering the years by using
visual interpretation technics. Initially, land cover map of year 1990 was
produced and then differences were determined within 1990-2000 years and
finally both maps were combined with the help of GIS methods to get land cover
data of year 2000. During land cover interpretation, data mentioned above were
used as auxiliary data.
1.2. Corine Technical Details
Mapping Land Cover Changes in CLC2006 Project: CLC-Changes is the primary
and most important product of the CLC2006 project. CLC-Changes is a separate
product (i.e. not derived from CLC2000 and CLC2006) having a smaller MMU (5
ha) than CLC2000 and CLC2006 (25 ha).
The aim of producing CLC-changes is to have European coverage of real land
cover changes that:

are larger than 5 ha;

are wider than 100 m;

31

occurred between 2000 and 2006;

are detectable on satellite images.

This should be regardless of their position (i.e. connected to existing CLC2000


polygon or being 'island'-like).
The method chosen (updating approach) to be used for derivation of the CLCChanges database is to produce the change database directly, by means of
computer-aided visual image interpretation.
Photo-Interpretation of Changes
Figure legends and definitions: In the following part of this cahpeter, schematic
figures give guidance on how to interpret changes. On these illustrating figures
(Figures 726) the same legend is applied. Colour polygons represent patches
visible on the satellite image(s). Polygons with thick solid outlines represent land
cover patches that form a CLC polygon. These are also marked with the
corresponding CLC code. Polygons with dashed outlines show patches that
changed land cover. Patches without an outline represent patches of land cover
that do not form valid polygons.
Each explanatory figure consists of four boxes:

first box shows the land cover status visible on IMAGE2000 and the polygon
outlines in CLC2000 database;

second box shows the land cover status visible on IMAGE2006 without
polygon boundaries. Dashed outline marks patches that have changed;

third box shows polygons to be drawn in the CLC-Changes database.


Polygons marked with red T will be deleted from the final change
database (see term 'technical change' below);

fourth box shows the polygons as present in CLC2006 database.

Patch
Patch is a continuous area having a common Corine land cover type and being
recognizable on the satellite image(s). A patch becomes a valid CLC polygon only
if its size exceeds the MMU.

32

Direct delineation of changes


Change polygons are drawn directly over the corresponding image by means of
CAPI and are not generated by a GIS operation (intersection of databases).
Human expertise has control over the whole process avoiding the creation of
false change polygons.
Real change: Unlike in CLC2000 project, change layer in CLC2006 project is
interpreted directly, thus change polygons do not necessarily have to inherit
their code2000 and code2006 from the corresponding CLC2000/CLC2006 polygon,
but can be modified. Interpreter is supposed to attribute to the change polygon
the code2000/code2006 pair that best describes the process that the given land
cover patch has undergone in reality. Code pairs thus reflect real processes
instead of differences of two databases. The real process is the building-up (133)
of a small park (141) (being generalized into discontinuous urban fabric (112) in
CLC2000), thus the code pair should be 141-133 instead of 112133. In product
CLC2006 this polygon will be generalised, too.
Technical change (T): A Technical change polygon is an auxiliary change polygon
used for avoiding some major (minimum 5 ha, maximum 25 ha) inaccuracies of
the CLC2006 database. They are applied exclusively in the cases listed in the
change which means that they should not be numerous. Technical change
polygons do not represent a change of land cover in reality, but are
consequences of the two different MMUs of CLC-Changes (5 ha) and CLC2006 (25
ha). They are used only in order to allow for the creation of a new polygon in
CLC2006 by a GIS operation, after which they are deleted from the CLC-Changes
database.

33

Technical change polygons are drawn by the interpreter during change mapping
over those
patches < 25 ha and > 5 ha:

whose land cover has NOT changed between 2000 and 2006 (although
might include changed patches < 5 ha);

that are not present as a polygon in CLC2000;

but we still want them to exist as polygon/part of polygon in CLC2006.

Technical change polygons must be givenidentical code 2000 and code 2006 and
an additional that makes possible to select them automatically. The attribute
added to each change polygon should be named technical', having value 1 if the
change polygon is technical, and value 0 if not.
The operation of identifying and delineating technical changes requires the
interpreter to foresee the CLC2006 database.

Figure 1. Landsat7 ETM 2000 Resolution 30 m

34

Figure 2. 1/25000 Scale Topographic Maps (General Command of Mapping)

Figure 3. State Hydraulic Works Irrigated Area Maps

35

Figure 4. Forest Map


1.3. Corine Classification
European Environment Agency determined 5 basic, 44 sub-classes of land use and
European Union shape the land cover as part of these classes. This classification
system below is explained in detail.

36

1. Artificial Surfaces
1.1. Urban Fabric
111 Continous urban fabric
1121 Discontinues urban in cities *
1122 Discontinues urban in rural areas *
1.2. Industrial, commercial and transport units
121 Industrial and commercial units
122 Roads and rail networks and associated lands
123 Port areas
124 Airports
1.3. Mine, dump and construction sites
131 Mine extraction sites
132 dump sites
133 Construction sites
1.4. Artificial, non-agricultural vegetated areas
141 Green urban areas
142 Sports and leisure facilities
2. Agricultural Areas
2.1. Arable Land
2111 Non-irrigated arable land *
2112 Non-irrigated arable land, green houses *
2121 Irrigated arable land *
2122 Irrigated arable land, green houses *
213 Rice fields

37

2.2. Permanent Crops


221 Vineyards
2221 Fruit trees and berry plantations, non-irrigated *
2222 Fruit trees and berry plantations, irrigated *
223 Olive gloves
2.3 Pastures
231 Pastures
2.4 Heterogeneous Agricultural Areas
241 Annual crops associated with permanent crops
2421 Complex cultivation, non-irrigated *
2422 Complex cultivation, irrigated*
243 Land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of
natural vegetation
244 Land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of
Forest
3. Forests and Semi-Natural Areas
3.1. Forests
311 Broad leaved forest
312 Coniferous forest
313 Mixed forest
3.2. Open spaces with little or no vegetation
321 Shrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations
322 Moors and Heathland
323 Sclerophyllous vegetation
324 Transitional woodland shrub

38

3.3 Beaches, dunes and sand plains


331 Beaches, dunes and sand plains
3321 Bare rocks *
3322 Bare rocks with very high salt content *
333 Sparsely vegetated areas
334 Burnt Areas
335 Glaciers and perpetual snow
4. Wetlands
4.1. Inland marshes
411 Inland marshes
412 Peat Bogs
4.2. Coastal wetlands
421 Salt marshes
422 Salines
423 Intertidal flats
5. Water Bodies
5.1. Inland Waters
511 Water courses
512 Water bodies
5.2. Sea Waters
521 Coastal Lagoons
522 Estuaries
523 Sea and ocean

39

Extra Corine Classes in Turkey


Before this project, other National Land Cover projects were based on
classification system developed by European Environment Agency, at the same
time 12 specific class were built up for Turkey. As it is know that because of the
geographical position of our country, it has different climate and plant features.
So, as the fourth stage codes additional land use classes developed for Turkey.
Codes for TURKEY
1121. Discontinues urban in cities
1122. Discontinues urban in rural areas
2111. Non-irrigated arable land
2112. Non-irrigated arable land, green houses
2121. Irrigated arable land
2122. Irrigated arable land, green houses
2221. Fruit trees and berry plantations, non-irrigated
2222. Fruit trees and berry plantations, irrigated
2421. Complex cultivation, non-irrigated
2422. Complex cultivation, irrigated
3321. Bare rocks
3322. Bare rocks with very high salt content.
1.4. Corine Land Use Maps and Land Use Change Maps of Ergene River Basin
The created corine land use/land cover maps of Ergene River basin for 1990,
2000, 2006 and 2012 are presented in Figure 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively whereas
land use change maps between 1990 and 2000; 2000 and 2006; 2006 and 2012 are
given in Figures 9, and and 11, respectively. The land use statistics for 1990,
2000, 2006 and 2012 are presented in Table 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectiveley, while
the land use change matrix between 1990 and 2000; 2000 and 2006; 2006 and
2012 are given in Table 5, 6 and 7.

40

Figure 5. Corine Land Cover Map 1990

41

42

Figure 6. Corine Land Cover Map 2000

Figure 7. Corine Land Cover Map 2006

43

44

Figure 8. Corine Land Cover Map 2012

Figure 9. Corine Land Cover Change 1990 - 2000

45

46

Figure 10. Corine Land Cover Change 2000 - 2006

Figure 11. Corine Land Cover Change 2006 2012

47

Table 1. Ergene Basin Corine Land Cover Statistics 1990.


Code 1990
1
111
1121
1122
121
122
124
131
132
133
142
2
2111
2121
2221
2222
2421
2422
213
221
231
243

3
311
312
313
321
323
324
331
333
334

48

Code Explanation
Artificial Surfaces
Continuous urban fabric
Discontinues urban in cities
Discontinues urban in rural areas
Industrial or commercial units
Road and rail networks and associated
land
Airports
Mineral extraction sites
Dump sites
Construction sites
Sport and leisure facilities
Agricultural Areas
Non-irrigated arable land
Irrigated arable land
Fruit trees and berry plantations, nonirrigated
Fruit trees and berry plantations,
irrigated
Complex cultivation, non-irrigated
Complex cultivation, irrigated
Rice fields
Vineyards
Pastures
Land principally occupied by
agriculture, with significant areas of
natural vegetation
Forests
Broad-leaved forest
Coniferous forest
Mixed forest
Natural grasslands
Sclerophyllous vegetation
Transitional woodland-shrub
Beaches, dunes, sands
Sparsely vegetated areas
Burnt areas

Area (ha)
34.764,26
483,00
609,31
28.343,61
3.454,61
25,16

Area (%)
0,03
0,04
1,96
0,24
0,00

148,87
697,52
61,28
832,59
108,32
1.154.121,93
693.977,58
148.839,04
765,92

0,01
0,05
0,00
0,06
0,01
47,93
10,28
0,05

329,82

0,02

19.711,08
21.189,75
75.706,64
825,20
87.358,41
105.418,49

1,36
1,46
5,23
0,06
6,03
7,28

246.875,37
65.927,95
13.677,72
10.829,63
24.545,76
1.286,53
123.056,63
25,25
3.647,71
3.878,18

4,55
0,94
0,75
1,70
0,09
8,50
0,00
0,25
0,27

Table 1. continued.
Code 1990
4
411
5
511
512

Code Explanation

Area (ha)

Wetlands
Inland marshes
Water Bodies
Water courses
Water bodies

5.053,15
5.053,15
6.948,36
1.377,60
5.570,76

Area (%)
0,35
0,10
0,38

Table 2. Ergene Basin Corine Land Cover Statistics 2000.


Code 2000 Code Explanation
1
Artificial Surfaces
111
Continuous urban fabric
1121
Discontinues urban in cities
1122
Discontinues urban in rural areas
121
Industrial or commercial units
122
Road and rail networks and associated
land
124
Airports
131
Mineral extraction sites
132
Dump sites
133
Construction sites
142
Sport and leisure facilities
2
Agricultural Areas
2111
Non-irrigated arable land
2121
Irrigated arable land
2221
Fruit trees and berry plantations, nonirrigated
2222
Fruit trees and berry plantations,
irrigated
2421
Complex cultivation, non-irrigated
2422
Complex cultivation, irrigated
213
Rice fields
221
Vineyards
223
Olive groves
231
Pastures
243
Land principally occupied by
agriculture, with significant areas of
natural vegetation

Area (ha)
Area (%)
45.184,91
495,38
0,03
1.315,76
0,09
30.844,58
2,13
7.691,28
0,53
1.886,53
0,13
213,81
1.847,24
156,94
585,44
147,95
1.144.458,65
643.509,95
131.553,13
765,92

0,01
0,13
0,01
0,04
0,01
44,45
9,09
0,05

329,82

0,02

18.631,15
20.804,19
77.038,86
825,20
63.115,00
82.446,49
105.438,94

1,29
1,44
5,32
0,06
4,36
5,69
7,28

49

Table 2. continued.
Code 2000 Code Explanation
3
Forests
311
Broad-leaved forest
312
Coniferous forest
313
Mixed forest
321
Natural grasslands
323
Sclerophyllous vegetation
324
Transitional woodland-shrub
331
Beaches, dunes, sands
333
Sparsely vegetated areas
334
Burnt areas
4
Wetlands
411
Inland marshes
5
Water Bodies
511
Water courses
512
Water bodies

Area (ha)
Area (%)
2.458.22,99
70.541,05
4,87
19.331,36
1,34
19.383,01
1,34
24.502,07
1,69
1.286,53
0,09
107.212,91
7,41
25,25
0,00
3.480,66
0,24
60,15
0,00
3.684,74
0,25
3.684,74
0,25
8.611,78
1.377,60
0,10
7.461,37
0,52

Table 3. Ergene Basin Corine Land Cover Statistics 2006.


Code 2006 Code Explanation
1
Artificial Surfaces
111
Continuous urban fabric
1121
Discontinues urban in cities
1122
Discontinues urban in rural areas
121
Industrial or commercial units
122
Road and rail networks and associated
land
124
Airports
131
Mineral extraction sites
132
Dump sites
133
Construction sites
142
Sport and leisure facilities
2
Agricultural Areas
2111
Non-irrigated arable land
2121
Irrigated arable land
2221
Fruit trees and berry plantations, nonirrigated
2222
Fruit trees and berry plantations,
irrigated

50

Area (ha)
Area (%)
46.169,25
495,38
0,03
1.315,76
0,09
31.011,53
2,14
8.420,41
0,58
1.886,53
0,13
213,81
2.059,53
156,94
461,41
147,95
1.143.562,06
643.743,98
131.224,49
765,92

0,01
0,14
0,01
0,03
0,01
44,46
9,06
0,05

329,82

0,02

Table 3. continued.
Code 2006 Code Explanation
2421
Complex cultivation, non-irrigated
2422
Complex cultivation, irrigated
213
Rice fields
221
Vineyards
223
Olive groves
231
Pastures
243
Land principally occupied by
agriculture, with significant areas of
natural vegetation
3
Forests
311
Broad-leaved forest
312
Coniferous forest
313
Mixed forest
321
Natural grasslands
323
Sclerophyllous vegetation
324
Transitional woodland-shrub
331
Beaches, dunes, sands
333
Sparsely vegetated areas
4
Wetlands
411
Inland marshes
5
Water Bodies
511
Water courses
512
Water bodies

Area (ha)
Area (%)
18.440,07
1,27
20.852,55
1,44
78.253,15
5,41
870,68
0,06
63.044,07
4,35
80.195,57
5,54
105.841,77
7,31

245.743,62
70.369,12
19.395,81
19.737,42
24.294,33
1.286,53
107.154,51
25,25
3.480,66
3.449,17
3.449,17
8.838,97
1.377,60
7.461,37

4,86
1,34
1,36
1,68
0,09
7,40
0,00
0,24
0,24
0,10
0,52

Table 4. Ergene Basin Corine Land Cover Statistics 2012.


Code 2012 Code Explanation
1
Artificial Surfaces
111
Continuous urban fabric
1121
Discontinues urban in cities
1122
Discontinues urban in rural areas
121
Industrial or commercial units
122
Road and rail networks and associated
land
124
Airports
131
Mineral extraction sites
132
Dump sites
133
Construction sites

Area (ha)
Area (%)
48460,67
495,38
0,03
1409,80
0,10
31627,74
2,18
8914,18
0,62
1909,02
0,13
213,81
2951,41
156,94
634,43

0,01
0,20
0,01
0,04

51

Table 4. continued.
Code 2012 Code Explanation
142
Sport and leisure facilities
2
Agricultural Areas
2111
Non-irrigated arable land
2121
Irrigated arable land
2221
Fruit trees and berry plantations, nonirrigated
2222
Fruit trees and berry plantations,
irrigated
2421
Complex cultivation, non-irrigated
2422
Complex cultivation, irrigated
213
Rice fields
221
Vineyards
223
Olive groves
231
Pastures
243
Land principally occupied by
agriculture, with significant areas of
natural vegetation
3
Forests
311
Broad-leaved forest
312
Coniferous forest
313
Mixed forest
321
Natural grasslands
323
Sclerophyllous vegetation
324
Transitional woodland-shrub
331
Beaches, dunes, sands
333
Sparsely vegetated areas
4
Wetlands
411
Inland marshes
5
Water Bodies
511
Water courses
512
Water bodies

52

Area (ha)
Area (%)
147,95
0,01
1.141.081,66
643917,47
44,48
130803,66
9,03
765,92
0,05
329,82

0,02

18114,62
20514,96
79737,21
870,65
63034,45
77220,15
105772,75

1,25
1,42
5,51
0,06
4,35
5,33
7,31

244509,39
75051,53
19959,33
19905,82
24013,74
1290,88
100782,19
25,25
3480,66
3432,98
3432,98
10275,21
1304,23
8970,98

5,18
1,38
1,37
1,66
0,09
6,96
0,00
0,24
0,24
0,09
0,62

Table 5. Ergene Basin 1990 - 2000 Land Cover Change Matrix

53

54

Table 6. Ergene Basin 2000 - 2006 Land Cover Change Matrix

Table 7. Ergene Basin 2006 - 2012 Land Cover Change Matrix

55

It seems that natural areas were turned into agricultural areas or settlements
generally in terms of variations in land cover. Important variations were occurred
especially in 231 (pasture) and 2111, 2121, 2421 (different agricultural areas)
coded regions. Also, change of agricultural areas into urbanized or industrialized
areas is widely observed. When the development of both Turkey and Ergene basin
after 1990 is investigated, it seems that the urbanization rate also increases
accordingly. Rapid increases in industrialization and building industrial areas on
agricultural land and pastures are the main problems in Ergene basin. Pressure on
agricultural areas and pastures and decrease in their sizes can be easily seen
from the matrix. This also means to the increase in contamination. In each time
periods, changes towards 512-water bodies can be observed. These changes
correspond to the newly constructed dams and ponds. Because of industrial
forestry in northern part of the basin, change of 324 (changes in vegetation) into
311, 312, 313 widely seen in time periods. Afforestation works in the last decade
has a big impact on forestry.
As a result, the most important pressure in Ergene basin is on 231 (pasture) and
2111 (dryland agricultural). Maximum decrease were observed in those areas.
1.5. Collecting and Interpreting General Database
Data for Ergene River basin were collected from different instutitions. Therefore,
projections, attributes and features of databases differ according to the
instutitions. Projections were fixed as WGS-84 and content of databases were
revised. Errors in topology were eliminated and data were joined and stored into
a single database.
Obtained data:

1/25.000 Scale Elevation Line

1/25.000 Scale Soil Map

1/100.000 Scale Forest Map

Lake & Dams

Province & District Border

Settlement Point

Protected Area Map

56

1.6. Elevation, Soil, Forest, Protected Area and Hydrologic Maps of Ergene
River Basin
Elevation, soil, forest, protected area and hydrologic maps of Ergene River Basin
are presented in Figure 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, respectively.
3D model was produced from digital contour lines data. By using 3D model DEM
(Digital Elevation Model) was obtained. DEM map was widely used as a base map
during the project. Especially, it was used in erosion and hydrological models.
Hydrological Analysis in Project Area
Archydro and Arcswat softwares were used in hydrological analysis in Ergene
basin. Initially, DEM was produced before analysis conducted in basin. Stream
flow lines, microbasins, river outlets and points of tributary junctions were
obtained by using DEM. Also, average slope and state of stream flow of each
microbasin were revealed. During hydrological analysis soil, forestry and land use
maps were used as an auxiliary data. Flow directions, accumulation areas and
depressions in the project area were determined.
1.7. Development of Catchment Erosion Model
In the scope of the Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea
Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) for Ergene Basin USLE/RUSLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation /
Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) methods have been selected due to their
database suitability and also availability of integration to Geographic Information
Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS ) and geo-statistics (spatial statistics). By this
way, the current and potential erosion hazard areas maps have been created for
whole basin (Figure 17). The erosion model was discussed in detail in Chapter 13.

57

58

Figure 12. General Data of Ergene River Basin

Figure 13. Soil Map of Ergene River Basin

59

60

Figure 14. Forest Map of Ergene River Basin

Figure 15. Protected Area Map of Ergene River Basin

61

62

Figure 16. Hydrology Map of Ergene River Basin

Figure 17. Sediment Reaching River (RUSLE-A4) Map

63

1.8. Golobal Land Cover Data


Two land cover data layer (2000-2010, Figure 18 and 19, respectively)
downloaded from global land cover website. After all layers corrected and
prepared to be use.
GlobeLand30 refers to the land cover of the earth between latitude 80N to 80S.
Presently, website has provided the browsing and downloading services for
GlobeLand30-2010 (GlobeLand30-2010) in baseline year of 2010. The brief
information of this data product is as follows (Figure 18 and 19).
Images and Auxiliary Data
The images utilized for GlobeLand30 classification are multispectral images with
30 meters, including the TM5 and ETM + of America Land Resources Satellite
(Landsat) and the multispectral images of China Environmental Disaster
Alleviation Satellite (HJ-1). Besides multispectral images, plenty of Auxiliary data
are also used in the process of data production such as sample collection and
classification, etc. They mainly contains: the existing land cover data (global and
regional), MODIS NDVI, global geographic information, global DEM, thematic data
(global mangrove forest, wetland and glacier, etc.) and online resources (Google
Earth, Bing Map, OpenStreetMap and Map World) and so on.
Classification Scheme
The classification system includes 10 land cover types, namely cultivated land,
forest, grassland, shrubland, wetland water bodies, tundra, artificial surfaces,
bareland, permanent snow and ice. Please classification scheme is as follows:
1. Cultivated Land. Lands used for agriculture, horticulture and gardens,
including paddy fields, irrigated and dry farmland, vegetation and fruit
gardens, etc.
2. Forest. Lands covered with trees, with vegetation cover over 30%,
including deciduous and coniferous forests, and sparse woodland with
cover 10 30%, etc.
3. Grassland. Lands covered by natural grass with cover over 10%, etc.
4. Shrubland. Lands covered with shrubs with cover over 30%, including
deciduous and evergreen shrubs, and desert steppe with cover over 10%,
etc.

64

5. Water bodies. Water bodies in the land area, including river, lake,
reservoir, fish pond, etc.
6. Wetland. Lands covered with wetland plants and water bodies, including
inland marsh, lake marsh, river floodplain wetland, forest/shrub wetland,
peat bogs, mangrove and salt marsh, etc.
7. Tundra. Lands covered by lichen, moss, hardy perennial herb and shrubs in
the polar regions, including shrub tundra, herbaceous tundra, wet tundra
and barren tundra, etc.
8. Artificial surfaces. Lands modified by human activities, including all kinds
of habitation, industrial and mining area, transportation facilities, and
interior urban green zones and water bodies, etc.
9. Bareland. Lands with vegetation cover lower than 10%, including desert,
sandy fields, Gobi, bare rocks, saline and alkaline lands, etc.
10. Permanent snow and ice. Lands covered by permanent snow, glacier and
icecap.
Data Composition and Format
GlobeLand30 data adopts raster data format for storage, with the nondestructive GeoTIFF compression format and the 256 indexed color pattern of the
8 Bit. The data consist of 5 parts, namely classification result file, coordinate
information file, map setting file of classification image, metadata file and
illustrative file.
1.9. Geological Map of Ergene River Basin
The Geological map of Ergene River basin is presented in Figure 20.

65

66

Figure 18. Global Land Cover 2000 Map.

Figure 19. Global Land Cover 2010 Map.

67

68

Figure 20. Geological map of the Ergene River Basin.

Chapter

Development of Software as a Tool for Sustainable


Land Use Management and Guide for Decision
Support System

Seluk ALBUT1

Fatih KONUKCU1

Reat AKGZ2

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. salbut@nku.edu; fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1OGS Geographical Information Technology Inc., Geographical Information System Department,


Ankara-TURKEY. resatakgoz@ogs.as

1. Introduction
Decision Support System (DDS) provides a custom, flexible and dedicated
management system, to assist managers, decision makers and policy makers in:

provide timely, transparent, well informed and reproducible answers to


important questions

quickly and effectively land use planning, reduce time and cost requirements

transform data and information into knowledge and produce understandable


results and decisions.
69

Typical DSS interactive and integrated components are data and information
management, analysis and modelling and scenario management and alternative
formulation (Kjelds et al. 2007)
Data and information management. The data and information component is key
and central in developing a DSS. The integrated database for the studied
deltas/watersheds was developed. The integrated GIS database for coastal deltas
and associated watersheds as a tool for sustainable management practices includes
land cover, land use, soil map, forest, protected areas, topography,
geomorphology, DEM, Hydrological network, erosion, land use change (see
Chapter1)
Analysis and modeling: The data framework provides the basis for further analysis
and interpretation of data and information. Depending on stage and scope of the
DSS the analysis can range from simple to complex including statistical and
numerical models, economic and cost/benefit as well as User Defined and Custom
tools as given in this Chapter.
Scenario management and alternative formulation: The DSS framework is capable
of supporting and providing information for present and future land use change
under different scenarios (see Chapter 3).
Decision making: Customizable GIS and Web based interfaces are tailored to meet
specific needs and requirements. Advanced graphics, on-line access, custom rules
and interpretations can be embedded into the DSS to support and provide the basis
for decision makers to make timely, reproducible and well informed decisions (se
Chapter 1 and this Chapter).
GIS-Based Web Software was developped to supply the Corine Land Cover 19902000-2006-2012 data, to present the results of the models created within the scope
of Integrated Land Use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuarie ILMM-BSE
Project BlackSea project and to make spatial analyses using geographic data.
Application is comprises of two parts. One of them is geographic information
system services that present the data and the other one is geographic information
system interface that use for monitoring of the presented data and make analyses.
GIS services let to present Corine Land Use layers 1990-2000-2006-2012, model
outputs, to supply the usage of spatial data services as base, to supply the
geographic analyses on data and sharing. Also, GIS services supply to spatial queries
on presented data and geographic analyses.

70

2. General Structure f ILMM-BSE GIS-Based Web Software


ILMM-BSE GIS-Based Web Software was designed over ArcGIS Silverlight API. In this
designed structure, geographic data is stored in central database. Data storage in
central database is published on ArcGIS Server. Published services are presented
over ArcGIS Silverlight API and it is possible to make analyses on it. Application
could be published online and thus platform could work separately.
GIS based architectural approach of ILMM-BSE WebGIS system is presented in Figure
1.

Figure 1. GIS Based Architectural Approach of Monitoring and Evaluation System


Within the scope of software development, dynamic software development
methodologies are used. Thus, a software product working from the early stages of
the project with iterative approach and information can provide the business
objectives of final product.
In an iterative project;

The project is cut into mini-projects (modularity)

71

Each mini-project is named as iteration

Each mini-project contains different activities/discipline (for example: needs


analysis, design, programming, test, etc.) in different proportions

The main object of end of every iteration creates an iteration version that
belongs to a system which is steady, integrated, tested and partially
completed.

ILMM-BSE system is designed in 3-layered architectural structure that contains


Presentation, Application and Data Layer (Figure 2).

Figure 2. 3-Layered Architectural Structure


WebGIS application was designed as a developable model structure. This modular
structural application could be updated on demand without interfering in main
structure. In this application there are designed objects and the management
objects that control the objects. Thus, developed objects could be integrated to
application by associating with management objects.

72

3. User Interfaces of ILMM-BSE GIS-Based Web Software


By using web base application, the following items could be done by end-users
(Figure 3):

Users could monitor the different kind of Google Earth Layers,

Users could monitor Corine Land Cover Layers 1990-2000-2006-2012, general


landuse data,

Users could monitor hydrological model outputs, general databases, soils,


different year and kind image datasets etc.,

Users could monitor the land cover change statistics in different interface,

Users could change the map scales,

Users could make zoom in and zoom out to maps,

Users could set the layer transparency,

Users could display fullscreen,

Users could change the direction and reset again,

Users could display the Google Earth maps in 3D,

Users could center the maps,

Users could monitor the statistics about landuse and landuse graphics,

Users could reach the help document on WebGIS,

Users could reach the different sources on WebGIS,

Users could print the statistical data and graphics,

Users could change the web page in five languages.

One can acces to the WebGIS application at http://www.e-blacksea.com and


when users click on black sea WebGIS statistic module, they reach the WebGIS
interface (Figure 4).

73

74

Figure 3. WebGIS Access

Figure 4. General view of web-based application interface

75

3.1. Map Menu


With this menu, it is possible to display all layers, zoom in zoom out, make
transparency settings, and change direction of map. Also users could enable or
disable the layers that would like to display. Map menu takes place on the left side
(Figure 4, 5 and 6) the web page and it is possible to see the functions of the map
menu on the right side (Figure 5 and 6).

Figure 5. Map Menu Function


This tool is used for reset the map rotation
This tool is used for drag to skew map view
This tool is used for changing the opacity of the map menu
This tool is used for zoom in the map
This tool is used for zoom out the map
This tool is used for displaying the map in full extent
This tools are used for collapse or expand the wings of map manu
76

Figure 6. Map Menu Layer


3.2.

Layer Function

By using layer function, end users display governmental boundaries, Corine 1990,
2000, 2006, 2012 land use data, land use change maps and hydrological model
outputs. Also it is possible to set the transparency of the layers by using this tool.
By setting transparency of the layers, it is possible to display multi layers
synchronously.
3.3. RoadMap Function
With roadmap function, end user could display the only road layer or roads with
other layers (Figure 7).
3.4. Physical Map Function
With physical map function, end user could display the only physical map layer or
with other layers (Figure 8).
3.5. Satellite Image Layer Function
By using Satellite Image Layer Function, end user could display Google satellite
images for their study area. It is possible to display both satellite image and other
land use images simultaneously (Figure 9).

77

78

Figure 7. Roadmap Layer

Figure 8. Physicalmap Layer

79

80

Figure 9. Satellite Image Map Layer

3.6. Language Function


Language Function lets end-users to change the language of the web application in
5 languages. Participant users and all users could use the web application in their
language easily (Figure 10).

Figure 10. Language Tools


4. ILMM-BSE Statistics Menu
By using stats menu, end-user could get general information about project
estuaries. This Menu contains 4 sub-function.
To enter the statistical module click stats from upper parts of webgis application
(Figure 11).

Figure 11. Stats Menu Entry


81

4.1.

General Information Menu

General information menu contains a short history of project, general geographic


structure of Turkey and other project areas, general climate properties, geographic
position of project areas, etc. End-user could get general information about their
study area by using this men (Figure 12).
4.2. Statistical Table Menu
With statistical table menu, it is possible to get information about land use, land
use changes and the statistics about land use changes in the associated estuaries or
watersheds in the Project for the years 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012. End-user could
see the land use types and changes in percent and could use this information in
their studies (Figure 13).
4.3. Statistical Graphic Menu
With statistical graphic menu, it is possible to get information about land use, land
use changes and the statistics about the land sue changes in the associated
estuaries or watersheds in the Project for the years 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012.
This menu contains 1990, 2000, 2006, 2012 land cover data and 1990-2000, 20002006 2006-2012 land use change data. End-user could see the land use types and
changes on graphics and could use these graphic images in their studies (Figure 14).

4.4. Print Function


This function supply to print the requested display on web application. Users could
print any maps, general information or statistical data by using this tool.
5. Integrated Management System of ILMM-BSE
The subject of Integrated Management Systems (IMS) in terms of quality,
environmental and occupational health and safety management is becoming
increasingly seen as part of the organizations management portfolio. Integrated
Management Systems (IMS) have been discussed and written about by both quality
professionals and academic researchers for a number of years (Olaru, 2014).
Interest in this subject indicates that "integrated management systems" are seen as
"management systems of the future" being outlined the idea of transforming them
into organizational concepts.

82

Figure 12. General Information Page

83

84

Figure 13. Statistical Table Screen

Figure 14. Statistical Graphic Screen


85

5.1. Integrated Management Systems


According to the Chartered Quality Institute, UK, integration means a combination;
that is putting all the internal management practices into one system in such a way
that the components of the system are not separated but linked to form one
integral part of the companys management system. In simple words, an integrated
management system (IMS) is a management system, which combines all
components of a business into one coherent system so as to enable the
achievement of its purpose and mission (Olaru, 2014).
Integrated Management System is a single structure used by organizations to
manage their processes or activities that transform inputs of resources into a
product or service which meet the organization's objectives and equitably satisfy
the stakeholders quality, health, safety, environmental, security, ethical or any
other identified requirement (Patience, 2008).
Geographic information systems (GIS) have emerged as powerful tools for handling
spatial data for decision-making in several areas including engineering and
environmental fields. Geographical information system (GIS) and process simulation
models needs to be integrated to develop sustainable agriculture management.
Over the past years, studies of land-use management were mainly conducted
within watershed and regional contexts (Ren, 1997; Wang et al., 2004), focusing on
urban area (Rossi- Hansberg, 2004; Svoray et al., 2005), agricultural area (Lopez et
al., 1994; Carsjens and van der Knaap, 2002; Klocking et al., 2003), forest land
(Ells et al., 1997; Sharawi, 2006) and land-use allocation of farming and forestry
land (Riveiro et al., 2005). A number of innovative approaches were applied in
land-use management, covering land-use suitability assessment, land-use change
forecasting, land evaluation and land-use allocation. In the field of land-use
suitability assessment, GIS techniques are acknowledged to be a powerful tool as
implied by recent studies (Pereira and Duckstein, 1993; Bojorquez-Tapia et al.,
2001; Collins et al., 2001; Joerin et al., 2001; Phua and Minowa, 2005). Collins et
al. (2001) reviewed the application of GIS-based methods in land-use suitability
analysis in the United States, and grouped them into computer-assisted overlay
mapping, multicriteria analysis method (MCA) and artificial intelligence method (Y.
Liu et al., 2007).
Any single method will not be effective for land-use management of
estuaries/deltas. A comprehensive method and analysis system is essential for
tackling the problems of land-use management. In this respect, an integrated GISbased analysis system will be developed in this project. An integrated GIS-based
analysis system covers land-use suitability assessment, land-use change and
demand analysis, and land evaluation and allocation.

86

Land-use management of estuaries/deltas areas is a multi-component and


multidisciplinary process that requires more than a single method for successful
results. Thus, an integrated GIS-based analysis system was developed in this
project for a more efficient and scientific management of such areas from a
holistic point of view.
6. References
Kjelds J., Jacobsen T., Hughes J. and Krejcik J. 2007. Decision Support Tools for Integrated
Water Resources Management. International Congress on River Basin management. 2224 March Antalya, Turkey. 512-5217.
Liu, Y., X. Lv, X. Qin, H. Guo, Y. Yu, J. Wang and G. Mao. 2007. An integrated GIS-based
analysis system for land-use management of lake areas in urban fringe. Landscape and
Urban Planning 82 (2007) 233246
Olaru, M., D. Maier, D. Nicoara and A. Maier, 2014. Establishing the basis for development
of an organization by adopting the integrated management systems: comparative study
of various models and concepts of integration. Procedia - Social and Behavioral
Sciences, Volume 109, 8 January 2014, Pages 693-697.
Srivastava, P.K., R.M. Singh. GIS based integrated modelling framework for agricultural
canal system simulation and management in Indo-Gangetic plains of India. Agricultural
Water Management 163 (2016) 3747

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88

Chapter

Land Use Change Modelling of Erene River Basin for


Future Scenarios and Sustainability Impact
Assessment of Land Management and Regional
Development Strategies

Bahadr ALTRK1

Fatih KONUKCU2

Seluk ALBUT2

Namk Kemal University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.


balturk@nku.edu.tr

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr; salbut@nku.edu

1. Introduction
Ergene River Basin has different development axes due to agricultural and
industrial activities within the basin hosted. Rapid industrial development for
about 25 years in the southern part of the Basin, which comprises majority of
Saray, Corlu, Cerkezkoy, Muratli and Luleburgaz towns close to Istanbul, has
brought population growth and intensive urbanisation. Recently realised

89

rehabilitation of organised industrial zones (OSB) has revealed that only 45-50%
of industry allocated zone is occupied presently. However, it is believed that
land use changes are inevitable in the future. This part of the Ergene River basin
has a dynamic land use change and defined as hot spot of the basin.
Land use change models are useful tools to understand causes and effects of
future land use/land cover change dynamics. Modelling approach of CLUE-s
((Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent) was developed
for local and regional scales studies as part of CLUE model designed for the
studies in national and continental scales (Verburg et al., 2002). In this part,
land use changes of 2023, 2030 and 2050 were simulated considering the
demands for land determined in accordance with the linear trend analysis.
2. Materials and methods
2.1.

Research area

Ergene River basin constitutes of 26 main sub watersheds. This pilot study covers
two of these sub-watersheds: Corlu and Ergene Creeks Watersheds. Some
physical characteristics of the watersheds are presented in Table 1 whereas the
delineation of sub-watersheds is shown in Figure 1.
Table 1. Some physical characteristics of Corlu and Ergene Creeks Watersheds
Physical parameters
Watershed Area (km2)

1.504,92

Watershed Perimetre (km)

342,22

Watershed Max Altitute (m, hmax)

490,00

Watershed Min. Altitute m (m, hmin)

50,00

Watershed Longitude
Watershed Latitude

90

2744-2815 East L
4111-4147 North L

Figure 1. The delineation of sub-watersheds


2.2.

Maps

Maps with 30,0 m resolution, 7,0 m multispectral band dated 07.08.1990


LANDSAT TM and 9,0 m multispectral band dated 10.09 2014 LANDSAT 8 were
used. Soil maps with 1/25.000 scale was obtained from Ministry of Food
Agriculture and Livestock Tekirdag Provincial Directorate.
2.3.

Methods

The CLUE-S model was developed to simulate land-use change by quantifying


empirical relationships between land use and its driving factors by Peter H.
Verburg in Wageningen University (Pontius and Schneider 2001; Verburg et al.
2002).
2.3.1. Spatial Analysis
The list of assumed driving forces is based on prevalent theories on driving
factors of land-use change (Lambin et al., 2001, Kaimowitz and Angelsen 1998,
Turner et al., 1993) and knowledge of the conditions in the study area. The

91

relations between land use and its driving factors are thereafter evaluated using
stepwise logistic regression (Verburg et al. 2002). Logistic regression is an often
used methodology in land-use change research (Geoghegan et al., 2001, Serneels
and Lambin 2001).

Figure 2. Schematic representation of the procedure to allocate changes in land


use in CLUE-S model (Verburg et al. 2002)
In this study we use logistic regression to indicate the probability of a certain
grid cell to be devoted to a land-use type given a set of driving factors following:

where Pi is the probability of a grid cell for the occurrence of the considered
land-use type and the Xs are the driving factors.
2.3.2. Decision Rules
For each land-use type decision rules determine the conditions under which the
land-use type is allowed to change in the next time step (Verburg et al. 2002).
The relative elasticity ranges between 0 and 1. The higher the defined elasticity,
the more difficult it gets to convert this land-use type (Verburg et al. 2002).
2.3.3. Competition and Actual Allocation of Change
For each grid cell i the total probability (TPROPi,u) is calculated for each of the
land-use types u according to: TPROPi,u = Pi,u + ELASu + ITERu, where ITERu is an
iteration variable that is specific to the land use. ELASu is the relative elasticity
for change specified in the decision rules and is only given a value if grid-cell i is
already under land use type u in the year considered. ELASu equals zero if all
changes are allowed (Verburg et al., 2002).

92

Figure 3. Flow chart of the allocation module of the CLUE-S model


2.3.4. Land demands and scenarios
For the land demand module, different alternative model specifications are
possible, ranging from simple trend extrapolations, scenario approach, to
complex economic models (Verburg et al. 2002). In this study, scenarios are set
to simulate the land-use pattern of 2050 based on land use of 2014.
Assuming the effect of driving factors on land-use change keeps stable in 1990
2050 and land-use requirement of 20152050 keeps the linear change on base of
the trend in the period of 19902014: In this situation, the annual area of landuse types of 20152050, in one hand, could be extrapolated from the annual
land-use area in the period 19902014.
In the assessment of the results for the scenarios of 2023, 2030 and 2050; it was
assumed that:

No protection measures will be applied in the land use/land cover


structures of the study area,

The Organised industrial zone in the current targeted plans will not be
modified/increased in the future

3. CLUE-s Modelling Process


3.1. Creating Data Set for Land Use/Land Cover
Land use/land cover map of 2014 was used as reference to produce maps for
modelling process. Modelling process was based on the investigation of the

93

relationship between present land use/land cover structure and driving forces
affecting this structure. In this research, the land use types not listed in the
model but existed in the study area were placed in others. The classes forming
the general structure of the study area were indicated as agricultural land,
residential area, forest, and industrial area. The maps was separated into
100x100 m pixels.
3.2. Creating Data Set for Driving Factors
Driving forces are the factors determining the land use/land cover spatially.
They are classified into two: natural and social forces.

Table 2. Driving factors of research area


Driving Factors

FACTORS

SOCIO-ECONOMIC

NATURAL
FACTORS

Elevation

UNIT
m

Slope

degree

Aspect

degree

Great Soil Groups


Distance to 1.Degree Roads

Distance to 2.Degree Roads

Distance to Rivers

Distance Industry Development Zones

Population Density

Person/km2

3.3. Determination of Land Use/Land Cover demand


In this part, non spatial demands are investigated. Many different statistical
methods are used to quantify the magnitude of future land use change. Linear
trend analysis is one of the most widely used method. In this method, demand
of each year increases linearly, in the form of y=a+bx (Nalbant et al., 2005),
where, y is the value of the variable in time series for a given year; x is the year
in question, a and are the constants of linear analysis. The demands for land
cover/land use are given in Table 3.

94

Table 3. Demands for land use/land cover


Year

Residental
Area (ha)

Agricultural
Area (ha)

Forest Area
(ha)

Industrial
Area(ha)

Other Area
(ha)

2014

9025.13

129595.34

46116.60

6169.81

2328.12

2015

9225.68

129399.12

46112.28

6169.81

2328.12

2016

9426.22

129202.89

46107.96

6169.81

2328.12

2017

9626.77

129006.66

46103.64

6169.81

2328.12

2018

9827.32

128810.44

46099.32

6169.81

2328.12

2019

10027.86

128614.21

46095.00

6169.81

2328.12

2020

10228.41

128417.98

46090.68

6169.81

2328.12

2021

10428.95

128221.76

46086.36

6169.81

2328.12

2022

10629.50

128025.53

46082.04

6169.81

2328.12

2023

10830.05

127829.31

46077.72

6169.81

2328.12

2024

11030.59

127633.08

46073.40

6169.81

2328.12

2025

11231.14

127436.85

46069.08

6169.81

2328.12

2026

11431.69

127240.63

46064.76

6169.81

2328.12

2027

11632.23

127044.40

46060.44

6169.81

2328.12

2028

11832.78

126848.17

46056.12

6169.81

2328.12

2029

12033.32

126651.95

46051.80

6169.81

2328.12

2030

12233.87

126455.72

46047.48

6169.81

2328.12

2031

12434.42

126259.50

46043.16

6169.81

2328.12

2032

12634.96

126063.27

46038.84

6169.81

2328.12

2033

12835.51

125867.04

46034.52

6169.81

2328.12

2034

13036.06

125670.82

46030.20

6169.81

2328.12

2035

13236.60

125474.59

46025.88

6169.81

2328.12

2036

13437.15

125278.36

46021.56

6169.81

2328.12

2037

13637.69

125082.14

46017.24

6169.81

2328.12

2038

13838.24

124885.91

46012.92

6169.81

2328.12

2039

14038.79

124689.69

46008.60

6169.81

2328.12

2040

14239.33

124493.46

46004.28

6169.81

2328.12

95

Table 3. continued.
Year

Residental
Area (ha)

Agricultural
Area (ha)

Forest Area
(ha)

Industrial
Area(ha)

Other Area
(ha)

2041

14439.88

124297.23

45999.96

6169.81

2328.12

2042

14640.43

124101.01

45995.64

6169.81

2328.12

2043

14840.97

123904.78

45991.32

6169.81

2328.12

2044

15041.52

123708.55

45987.00

6169.81

2328.12

2045

15242.06

123512.33

45982.68

6169.81

2328.12

2046

15442.61

123316.10

45978.36

6169.81

2328.12

2047

15643.16

123119.88

45974.04

6169.81

2328.12

2048

15843.70

122923.65

45969.72

6169.81

2328.12

2049

16044.25

122727.42

45965.40

6169.81

2328.12

2050

16244.80

122531.20

45961.08

6169.81

2328.12

3.4.

Decision Rules

Decision rules are two parts, namely, transformation elasticity and


transformation matrix. In transformation elasticity, 1 is the state of nonallowed to conversion and 0 is the state of easily allowed to conversion. The
other state is the value between 0 and 1. 0 and 1 values are also used
in transformation matrix, with the same meanings. For instance, residential area
cannot be re-conversed to agricultural area, therefore it takes 0 value. In this
study, decision rules given in Table 3 and Table 4 were used.
Table 4. Conversion Elasticity
Conversion
Elasticity

96

Agriculture
areas

Forest
areas

Urban areas

Industry areas

0.8

Table 5. Conversion Matrix


Conversion Matrix

Agriculture
areas

Forest
areas

Urban areas

Industry areas

Agriculture areas

Forest areas

Urban areas

Industry areas

4. Results
4.1 Model Calibration
The calibration process was carried out on the basis of 1990 and 2014. The
obtained simulation map of 2014 was overlapped with the actual land use/land
cover map and evaluated 1x1 grid. The accuracy of simulation results was found
to be 96%.
The actual and simulated land use/land cover maps are presented in Figure 4
and Figure 5, respectively.
4.2 Driving Factors
The maps were formed for the driving factors of elevation, slope, aspect, soil
group, distance to first degree roads, distance to second degree roads, distance
to rivers, distance to industrial development area and population density and
presented in Figures 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14, respectively.
4.2. Future Scenario Results
Following the methods given in the Methodology section, the land use/land
cover scenarios of the selected hot spot area in the Ergene River Basin were
simulated for 2023 (Figure 15), 2030 (Figure 16) and 2050 (Figure 17).

97

96

Figure 4. Land use/Land cover 2014

Figure 5. Simulation Land use/Land cover 2014

97

98

Figure 6. Digital Elevation Map

Figure 7. Slope Map

99

100

Figure 8. Aspect Map

Figure 9. Soil groups map

101

102

Figure10. Distance to 1st degree roads for 2014

Figure 11. Distance to 2st degree roads -2014

103

104

Figure 12. Distance to rivers

Figure 13. Distance to industry development areas

105

106

Figure 14. Population Density -2014

Figure 15. Land use/Land Cover -2023

107

108

Figure 16. Land use/Land Cover -2030

Figure 17. Land use/Land Cover -2050

109

4. Discussion
Land use/land cover change forms under the force of socio-economic and natural
driving factors in spatial and time extent.
In the assessment of the results for the scenarios of 2023, 2030 and 2050; it was
assumed that:

No protection measures will be applied in the land use/land cover


structures of the study area,

The Organised industrial zone in the current targeted plans will not be
modified/increased in the future

It was concluded that urbanisation will develop into the areas around the
industrial and present settlement areas. Linear trend analysis revealed that
agricultural areas will be invaded by urbanisation and forest area will not be
affected significantly by the urbanisation.

6. References
Geoghegan, J., S. C. Villar, P. Klepeis, P. M. Mendoza, Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger, R. R.
Chowdhury, B. L. Turner II, and C. Vance. 2001. Modeling tropical deforestation in
the southern Yucatan peninsular region: Comparing survey and satellite data.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 85:25 46.
Kaimowitz, D., and A. Angelsen. 1998. Economic models of tropical deforestationA
review. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor.
Lambin, E. F., B. I. Turner, H. J. Geist, S. B. Agbola, A. Angelsen, J. W. Bruce, and
others. 2001. The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the
myths. Global Environmental Change 11:261269.
Nalbant, A., Aslan, Y. ve Yaar, C., 2005, Ktahya li Elektrik Puant Yk Tahmini, 11.
Ulusal Elektrik Elektronik Bilgisayar Mhendislii Kongresi, Bildiri Kitap, I,
stanbul, 211-214.
Pontius, R. G., & Schneider, L. C. (2001). Land-cover change model validation by an
ROC method for the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA. Agriculture
Ecosystems & Environment, 85(13), 239248.

112

Serneels, S., and E. F. Lambin. 2001. Proximate causes of land use change in Narok
district Kenya: a spatial statistical model. Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment 85:6582.
Turner II, B. L., Ross R. H., and D. L. Skole. 1993. Relating land use and global land
cover change. IGBP Report 24, HDP Report 5.
Verburg, P. H., Soepboer, W., Veldkamp, A., Limpiada, R., Espaldon, V.,&Mastura, S. S.
A. (2002).Modeling the spatial dynamics of regional land use: The CLUES model.
Environmental Management, 30(3), 391405.

113

114

Chapter

Assessment of the Result of Modelling and


Monitoring Studies of Existing projects

Fatih KONUKCU1
1

Bahadr ALTRK2

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

Namk Kemal University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.


balturk@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
In this chapter, the brief information on the the existing Project on Land Use
managemet in Europe (PEGASO, IASON, EnviroGRIDS) and Action Plan of Ergene
River Basin under application were reviewed.
2. Existing Project in Europe
2.1. PEGASO Project
The information about PEGASO Project was obtained at:

115

http://www.pegasoproject.eu/images/stories/WP4/D4.2%20LEAC_UAB_140401.pdf,
http://www.pegasoproject.eu/ and http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/peg4.pdf

The main objectives of the PEGASO project are: to identify the instruments
needed, and build the capacity for implementing the principles of ICZM
(Integrated Coastol Zone Management) Protocol in order to help countries to put
the Protocol into practice.
To support the implementation of the ICZM Protocol, PEGASO will work with
policy makers, scientists and planners to develop a range of tools and new
approaches to achieve a sustainable regional coastal planning and
management.
Key tasks of PEGASO Project are: In order to achieve its objectives, the core of
PEGASO is the development of an ICZM Governance Platform that: Will be used
to share data and information to bridge the science and decision-making. Test
sustainability tools developed by PEGASO through case studies. Build a common
understanding on priority issues and institutional perspectives affecting the
coastal zones and the sea of the two regional seas.
The outcome of the PEGASO Project: In the accounting framework that has been
developed, three innovative complementary axes have been produced:

i.

An accounting methodology based on a land cover map, PEGASO LAND


COVER (PLC), done with different remote sensing data, to determine and
measure stocks. Produced at two dates (2000-2011), the PLC allows
measuring changes in land cover flows and identifying their drivers over the
Mediterranean and the Black Sea coast. These basic accounts have been
associated to the change in the quality of ecosystems, approximated by a
biodiversity indicator.

ii.

A methodology allowing spatial explicit quantification of human activities


pressures, measuring also potential impacts of each activity over coastal
and marine ecosystems. In this methodology, land based pressures are
calculated on the basis of land cover/land use changes at the coast and in
the catchments. Therefore any improvement of land cover mapping done in
the LEAC part will allow improving the index. Moreover, the ability to
calculate land use changes for the all Mediterranean, should allow to model
where land based pressures are mostly increasing.

iii.

Spatial pattern metrics provide an interesting and innovative approach to


sea ecosystem accounting byquantifying changes in the quality and quantity
of benthic ecosystems. This tool requires spatial data of coastal and marine
habitats which serves as a proxy for the stocks and flows of these

116

ecosystems. Using this approach, baselines of coastal and marine habitats


can be characterized and monitored to determine where benthic ecosystem
state is improving or degrading, natural capital 135
The work on LEAC/SEAC has represented a real challenge for the team, as most
of these methodologies have had to be re-invented, in relation with available
data, (1) to extend PEGASO Land Cover to all coastal areas of the two basins,
Mediterranean and Black Sea. It is the first time that such a product is achieved.
(2) to link land ecosystems and sea ecosystem accountings.
The impossibility for applying the same methodology used at land to the sea has
been explained in the introduction. The most similar to LEAC is the work done on
measuring changes in benthic ecosystems. As it focuses on the seascape as a
whole, it can be easily compared with landscapes, and interconnexions should be
applied to assess the quality of coastal landscape through land cover and
ecosystem changes with the quality of marine ecosystems, even though the
methods for monitoring and measuring are different.
The emerging field of seascape ecology provides the multi-scale tools necessary
to quantify seascape structure and can be used as a proxy for biodiversity.
Furthermore, seascape structure can be linked to ecosystem services. A
framework for sea ecosystem accounting is produced.
A cumulative Impact and Pressure Index was developped reviewing Halpern
methodologies that have been already applied at global scale, and at regional
scales in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The conceptual frame is more focused
on appraisal of stressors and on the cumulative pressures and impacts they
exerced on the coastal marine ecosystems. A mapping of coastal and marine
ecosystems was done based on sea bed EUNIS communitiy map (EUSEAMAP). At
present it has been produced only for the Western Mediterranean, but it is
planned to be extended in the future to the whole Mediterranean. This has
represented a gap in coverage, but the methodology is robust and reproducible
when data will be available.
After many team discussions and exchanges, to drive the work in a real
integrated direction, it was decided that first a better appraisal of each method
was needed, as they had per se a hight level of technicality. Therefore
development of those methodologies run in parallel during the PEGASO project,
to get the best results from each, validate them and identify the uncertainty
threasholds together with the stakeholders, and therefore analyse at how they
can relate together in an accounting exercise.

117

2.2. IASON Project


The information about
fp7.eu/index.php/en/

IASON

Project

was

obtained

at:

http://iason-

IASON Project has the ultimate goal to establish a permanent and sustainable
Network of scientific and non-scientific institutions, stakeholders and private
sector enterprises belonging in the EU and third countries located in two
significant areas: The Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions. The main focal
points of the project will be the usage and application of Earth Observation (EO)
in the following topics: i) climate change; ii) resource efficiency; and iii) raw
materials management.
IASON aims to build on the experiences gained by 5 FP7 funded projects,
OBSERVE, enviroGRIDS, GEONETCab, EGIDA, and BalkanGEONet. All of the above
projects focused on enhancing EO capacities, knowledge and technology in the
EU and in neighborhood countries. During their execution time they managed to
establish links with a critical mass of research institutions, organizations, public
organizations, stakeholders, and policy makers in the Balkan region, the
Mediterranean, and the Black Sea Basin.
IASON intends to create the proper conditions for enhancing knowledge transfer
capacity building, and market opportunities in using EO applications and
mechanisms in specific research fields that are addressing climate actions
resource efficiency and raw materials management.
Project Results: The current status in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Regions
was defined. A database of stakeholders, existing thematic networks, and
finished and ongoing research efforts in the two regions was created. Thus The
framework and metrics to perform a meaningful and concrete gap analysis was
defined. Furthermore a roadmap for capacity building and technology transfer
based on the EGIDA methodology was successfully developed for the
Mediterranean and Black Sea regions.
In addition an EO Applications Information package and toolkit, that is aiming to
provide users with information and tools primarily focused in coastal monitoring,
water and soil resources management, and mining and mineral exploration and
also in H2020 Societal Challenge 5 theme along with GEOSS 9 societal benefit
areas, was also developed.
A database containing information about Funding Organizations and Institutes
along with funding programmes focusing on Earth Observation in the
Mediterranean and Black Sea Region was developed and populated. Furthermore

118

actions were taken for the implementation of the research and funding agendas
watch and the sustainable funding toolkit.
The approach R&I Uptake of Applications Results in Fostering collaborative
Future action in MED and BS regions activity is applied at three levels:
Data/Metadata level, Capacity Building level, and Model/methodology level. The
main results achieved. 1) the development of a prototype visualization toolkit
for facilitating the gap analysis, 2) the development of a prototype application
for extracting enviroGRIDS input and output data, 3) the development of a
prototype Business Process Broker use case for uptaking enviroGRIDS tools.
For the successful dissemination of the projects vision, aim, and results D6.1
was produced laying out the guidelines for IASONs dissemination strategy plan.
Furthermore the IASON fact sheet was created and distributed. In addition the
first two newsletters of the project were distributed through the projects
website. During the first year a series of dissemination actions were taken
informing the scientific community and the general public about IASON through
the participation of IASONs consortium partners to international and national
events.
Actions regarding the implementation of the IASON PNF, and CIP were also
taken. http://iason-fp7.eu/index.php/en/
2.3. EnviroGRIDS Project
The
information
about
http://www.envirogrids.net/

PEGASO

Project

was

obtained

at:

General objectives: The scientific aim of the EnviroGRIDS project is to assemble


an observation system of the Black Sea catchment that will address several GEO
Societal Benefit Areas within a changing climate framework. This system will
incorporate a shared information system that operates on the boundary of
scientific/technical partners, stakeholders and the public. It will contain an
early warning system able to inform in advance decision-makers and the public
about risks to human health, biodiversity and ecosystems integrity, agriculture
production or energy supply caused by climatic, demographic and land cover
changes on a 50-year time horizon.
Scenarios of change

To create spatially explicit scenarios on demographic changes

To create spatially explicit scenarios on climate change

119

To create spatially explicit scenarios on land cover changes

To integrate the outputs of the three scenarios


These individual scenarios will be integrated with a descriptive storyline
in concordance with global scenarios such as those proposed in the UNEP
Global Environment Outlook or the IPCC reports.

To gather, format, and bring into ArcGIS the necessary data for the
application Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model water spatial
distribution of water quantity and water quality in the Black Sea
Catchment.

To calibrated and validate hydrological models, and perform uncertainty


analysis using EGEE network for distributed computations.

To run land use/cover and climate change scenarios generated in WP3


using EGEE network for distributed computations.

New advances in computing technology plus data availability from the Internet
have made high resolution modelling of distributed hydrologic processes
possible. Using the program Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) (Arnold, et al.,
1998) (http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat/), it will be applied a high-resolution
(sub-catchment spatial and daily temporal resolution) water balance model to
the entire Black Sea Catchment (BSC). The BSC model will be calibrated and
validated using river discharge data, river water quality data, and crop yield
data. Looking at the hydrological components, calibration and validation based
on ET and RO ensure a correct aquifer recharge and soil water storage
component. As part of the modelling work, uncertainty analysis will also be
performed to gauge the confidence on all model outputs. As SWAT is an
integrated model containing a large agricultural management component, the
spatial variation in the quality of water balance components will provide a good
indication of critical regions across the BSC. Subsequent analysis of land use
change, agricultural management change, and/or climate change can then
predict the consequence of various scenarios.
Impacts on selected Societal Benefit Areas

To identify key areas of impact and vulnerability in GEO Societal Benefit


Areas based on existing analysis and through dialogue with relevant
stakeholders,

To provide in-depth analysis of vulnerability based on interactive models,

120

To identify policy responses and adaptation options focused on key


vulnerabilities based on quantitative model results and consultations with
stakeholders, and

To assess sustainability based on criteria and indicators and the analysis of


inter-linkages among key emerging pressures and vulnerabilities using
modeling results and stakeholder validation.

This involves the analysis of the impacts of the climate, land use and
demographic scenarios on river catchment processes, primarily water quality and
quantity. Based on this analysis the impacts of all these changes will be assessed
on selected Societal Benefit Areas in the present and the future.
Methodologies will be grounded in integrated environmental assessment (IEA)
and the analysis of impacts in the context of the Driving force-Pressure-StateImpact-Response (DPSIR) framework, as applied in UNEPs GEO-4 report (UNEP
2007) at the global scale and as subsequently translated into sub-global
applications. In order to ensure the analysis reflects policy priorities and
stakeholder perspectives, participatory methods in the form of stakeholder
dialogues will be embedded throughout the process, from the identification of
major impact areas to the mapping of impact pathways. Analysis of projected
vulnerability will be synthesized based on the relevant results of WP3 and 4,
including projected impacts through the analysis of thematic scenarios.
A key goal of to build a solid analytic foundation for the identification of
adaptation options at multiple scales, which will firmly connect the project to
actual users of the information where real life positive impacts can be realized.
Adaptation options will be developed at thematic, place based and at higher
region-wide levels. The development of policy and management responses will
build on the adaptive management and resilience school of thought. While it will
respond to the challenges arising from climate change, it will go beyond that and
reflect a more synthetic reality where impacts and adaptive responses emerge in
the context of a wider range of interacting forces of local and global change that
includes, but that is not limited to climate change (Leichenko and OBrien,
2006).
3. Existing Project in Turkey
3.1. Ergene Deep Discharge Project
The Deep Discahrege Project (DDP) is part of the Action Plan to Protect Ergene
River Basin by Turkish Ministry of Environmeny and Urbanisation. The following

121

actions are targetted within the scope of Action Plan to Protect Ergene River
Basin:
Action 1. Works on rehabilitation of stream beds will be maintained.
Action 2. Municipal waste water treatment plants will be constructed by
Directorate General for State Hydraulic Works.
Action 3. Rehabilitation Organized Industrial Zones will be established.
Action 4. Advanced joint waste water treatment plants for industry will be
constructed.
Action 5. Processing less polluting raw materials and using less water will be
supported.
Action 6. Works on forestation and combating soil erosion will be maimtained.
Action 7. A well planned and organised era will be commenced in Ergene,
1/25.000 plans will be implemented.
Action 8. Solid and hazardous waste processing, recovery and disposal plants
will be established.
Action 9. Pollution from agriculture will be controlled.
Action 10. Ergene River is going to be monitored online continually.
Action 11. Intimate inspections will be maintained.
Action 12. Practicing environmental friendly production will be started.
Action 13. Early warning system against floods will be established.
Action 14. Ground water consumption will be controlled.
Action 15. Dams, ponds and irrigation facilities will be constructed.
With DDP, scattered ten industrial areas in Tekirdag Province will be unified
under "Rehabilated Organized Industrial Zone. This unification will provide 4
advanced waste water treatment plants. The treated waste water will be
transported through canals and tunels into Marmara Sea at a pint 4.5 km off the
seashore and 47 m below the seasurface. Therefore, both water quality and
industrial production will be improved in the basin. The length of treated waste
water collecteor line is 87.0 km, 20 km of which is tunnel to make the
convayence of treated water possible by gravity. Due to sudden elevation lost in

122

two places, two hydralectric power plats, 2.5 MW and 1.0 Mg, were planned
(Figure 1 and Figure 2)).

Figure 1. General Plan of The Deep Discahrege Project


(http://ergenederindeniz.com/)
The Feasibility reports of DDP were prepared by Istanbul Technical University
(ITU). The reports on environmental impact assesment, transport model and
consequences of deep discharge into sea prepared by ITU Sea and Marine
Sciences Technologies Application and Research Center was approve by the
Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs in April 2013.
It is estimated that the treated waste water will cause no problem since the
amount of discharged into the Marmara Sea (5.0 m3/s) may be negligeable in
comparison to the flow rate of Marmara Sea (12 000 m3/s), i.e. 1/2500 in ratio.
Presently, discharging waste or treated water into the reiver system causes
salinity problem whereas discgarge into the sea will not. Surface discaharge will
lead the contaminants to reach the coast.

123

Figure 2. Location of advanced teretment plant (AAT) of industrial wase water in


Deep Discahrge Project (http://ergenederindeniz.com/).
So far, ground was examined and related maps were formed/collected,
Expropriation maps were prepared, budget was prepared, officail permission for
waste water treatment unit was obtained, consruction plan of transport line was
completed, fee collection from the company partners was commenced.
In the future, a total of 287 million m3 water with 9.1 m3/s from Maritsa and
Tunca River, is planned to transfere into the Ergene River Basin (Action Plan,
2008) in order to decrease the groundwater withdrawn. The groundwater level is
decreasing 1.0 m down per yer. The feasibility works are going on now.
4. References
Action Plan to Protect Maritza-Ergene River Basin. Turkish Ministry of Environment and
Forestry, General Directorate of Environmental management (November
2008).http://www.uhabtsgp.com/resim/file/Ergene_Havzasi_Koruma_Eylem_Plani
%5B1%5D.pdf
TR21 Thrace Region 2013-2014 Regional Draft plan. Thrace Devolopment Agency (June
2013). http://www.trakya2023.com/uploads/docs/trakya20142023.pdf

124

Revised Environmental Settlement plan for Ergene River Basin (1/100000 scaled).
Turkish
Ministry
of
Environment
and
Forestry
(August
2009).
http://www.trakyaka.org.tr/uploads/docs/1109201286q6MO.pdf
http://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/157247_en.html
http://iason-fp7.eu/index.php/en/
http://iason-fp7.eu/index.php/en/
http://ergenederindeniz.com/
http://www.pegasoproject.eu/images/stories/WP4/D4.2%20LEAC_UAB_140401.pdf
http://www.pegasoproject.eu/
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/peg4.pdf
http://www.envirogrids.net/

125

126

Chapter

Soil Characteristics and Their Potential for Various


Land-Use Options

Fatih KONUKCU1

srafil KOCAMAN1

Ahmet STANBULLUOLU1

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030

Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr; ikocaman@nku.edu.tr; aistanbulluoglu@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Land capability is the inherent physical capacity of the land to sustain a range of
land uses and management practices in the long term without degradation to
soil, land, air and water resources (Sonter and Lawrie 2007; State of NSW and
Office of Environment and Heritage, 2012).
Using land beyond its capability may have serious consequences for the land and
soil resources as well as broader environmental impacts on water, air and
biodiversity. Impacts can include loss of valuable soils by water and wind erosion
on agricultural land, soil structure decline, soil acidification. All these are

127

general indications of land degradation. Characteristics of land capability classes


for various use were given by State of NSW and Office of Environment and
Heritage (2012) in Table 1.
Table 1. Characteristics of land capability classes for various use were given by
the State of New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage (2012)
Capability
Class

Characteristics of Land Capability


Land capable of a wide variety of land uses (cropping, grazing,
horticulture, forestry, nature conservation)

Extremely high capability land: Land has no limitations. No special land


management practices required. Land capable of all rural land uses and land
management practices. Class 1 land is usually uniform with deep, often
productive soils. It has very gradual slopes. No special land management
practices to control water and wind erosion are required.

Very high capability land: Land has slight limitations. These can be managed
by readily available, easily implemented management practices. Land is
capable of most land uses and land management practices, including
intensive cropping with cultivation. Class 2 is very good cropping land with
often fertile soils and short, gradual slopes (13%, less than 500 m in
length). This gently sloping land is capable of a wide variety of agricultural
uses that involve cultivation. This land can be subject to sheet, rill and gully
erosion as well as wind erosion and soil structure decline.

High capability land: Land has moderate limitations and is capable of


sustaining high-impact land uses, such as cropping with cultivation, using
more intensive, readily available and widely accepted management
practices. However, careful management of limitations is required for
cropping and intensive grazing to avoid land and environmental degradation.
Class 3 land has limitations that must be managed to prevent soil and land
degradation. Included are sloping lands (310%) with slopes longer than 500
m that will require earthworks to control runoff and erosion if used for
regular cultivation. Class 3 land includes sloping land that is capable of
sustaining cultivation on a rotational basis. This land can be subject to
sheet, rill and gully erosion as well as wind erosion and soil structure
decline. However, these limitations can be controlled by land management
practices that are readily available and easily implemented. Included are
conservation tillage and farming practices such as retaining stubble,
reducing tillage, sowing with minimum ground disturbance and the use of
pasture rotations in the cropping system

128

Table 1. continued
Capability
Class

Characteristics of Land Capability

Land capable of a variety of land uses (cropping with restricted cultivation,


pasture cropping, grazing, some horticulture, forestry, nature conservation)

Moderate capability land: Land has moderate to high limitations for highimpact land uses. Class 4 land has moderate to severe limitations for some
land uses that need to be consciously managed to prevent soil and land
degradation. This land is generally used for grazing, and is suitable for
pasture improvement. Acidification can be a problem under introduced
annual legume pastures. Class 4 land can be cultivated occasionally for
sowing of pastures and crops. However, it has cropping limitations because
of erosion hazard, weak structure, salinity, acidification, shallowness of
soils, climate, wetness, stoniness or a combination of these factors.
Moderatelow capability land: Land has high limitations for high-impact
land uses. Will largely restrict land use to grazing, some horticulture
(orchards), forestry and nature conservation. The limitations need to be
carefully managed to prevent long-term degradation.

Class 5 land has severe limitations for high impact land management uses
such as cropping. Class 5 land includes sloping lands (1020% slope) with
highly erodible soils and/or significant existing soil erosion, or land that
will be subject to wind erosion when cultivated and left bare. This land is
not capable of supporting regular cultivation due to the various
limitations.
Land capable for a limited set of land uses (grazing, forestry and nature
conservation, some horticulture)
Low capability land: Land has very high limitations for high-impact land
uses. Land use restricted to low-impact land uses such as grazing, forestry
and nature conservation. Careful management of limitations is required to
prevent severe land and environmental degradation.

Class 6 land has very severe limitations for a wide range of land uses and
few management practices are available to overcome these limitations.
Land generally is suitable only for grazing with limitations and is not
suitable for cultivation. Class 6 land includes steeply sloping lands (2033%
slope) that can erode severely even without cultivation,

129

Table 1. continued
Capability
Class

Characteristics of Land Capability

Land generally incapable of agricultural land use (selective forestry and nature
conservation)

Very low capability land: Land has severe limitations that restrict most
land uses and generally cannot be overcome. On-site and off-site impacts
of land management practices can be extremely severe if limitations not
managed. There should be minimal disturbance of native vegetation. This
land has extremely severe limitations for most land uses. It is unsuitable
for any type of cropping or grazing because of its limitations. Class 7 land
includes slopes of 3350% Class 7 land is not capable of any cultivation or
grazing by stock. It also has severe to very severe site limitations for other
land uses, but may be suitable for wood production, passive tourism or
honey production.

Extremely low capability land: Limitations are so severe that the land is
incapable of sustaining any land use apart from nature conservation. There
should be no disturbance of native vegetation. Class 8 land is not suitable
for any agricultural production due to its extremely severe limitations.
Class 8 land includes precipitous slopes (>50% slope) and cliffs, areas . This
land is unusable for any agricultural purposes. Recommended uses are
restricted to those compatible with the preservation of natural vegetation
including water supply catchments, wildlife refuges, national and State
parks, and scenic areas.

2. Ergene River Basins Soil and Land Use Capabilities


Most of the basin soils are deep, fertile and suitable for agricultural production
and mechanization. Limeless brown forest, limeless brown, brown forest,
alluvial, vertisol, rendzina, holomorphic and hydromorphic great soil groups are
taken part in the basin. As for the textural classes, 8.19 %, 49.07 %, 39.04 % and
3.7 % of the basin soils are sandy, loamy, clay loam and clayey, respectively. 77
% of the soils is poor in organic matter content (less than 1 %) while 25 % of it
shows acidic characteristics (Eyupoglu et al., 2001). The soil map of Ergene River
basin produced within the scope of ILMM-BSE Project is presented in Figure 1.
The basin has a moderately fluctuated topography and smaller slope when
compared to the other basins in Turkey. Different slope groups and their
distribution within the basin are summarized in Table 2.

130

Figure 1. The soil map of Ergene River Basin produced within the scope of ILMM-BSE Project is presented.

129

130

Figure 2. Corine land cover map of Ergene River Basin in 2012.

Table 2. Different slope groups and their distribution within the basin (Kocaman
et al., 2007)
Slope (%)

<2

2-6

6 - 12

12 20

> 20

Total

Area (ha)

189 727

384 945

262 185

100 107

52 436

953 400

Area (%)

19.9

36.6

27.5

10.5

5.5

100

Corine land use/cover map of 2012 and land use classes produced in ILMM-BSE
Project were presented in Figure 2 and Table 3, respectively.
Considering land slope, production potential and other soil characteristics, land
use capabilities of Ergene River Basin was given in Table 4.
3. Conclusions
Miss-use and miss-management of the soils in the basin are more common than
in the other basins of Turkey. While 81.76 % of the total basin area is potentially
cultivated area, present cultivated area occupies %65 of the total basin area,
which reveals the 22.776 % of this area is miss-used and managed, i.e., used
beyond their capability classes.
Table 3. Corine and land use classes of 2012 produced in ILMM-BSE Project
Code 2012 Code Explanation
1

Artificial Surfaces

111

Continuous urban fabric

1121

Discontinues urban in cities

1122

Discontinues urban in rural areas

121

Area (ha)

Area (%)

48460.67
495.38

0.03

1409.80

0.10

31627.74

2.18

Industrial or commercial units

8914.18

0.62

122

Road and rail networks and associated land

1909.02

0.13

124

Airports

213.81

0.01

131

Mineral extraction sites

2951.41

0.20

132

Dump sites

156.94

0.01

133

Table 3. continued.
Code 2012 Code Explanation

Area (ha)

Area (%)

133

Construction sites

634.43

0.04

142

Sport and leisure facilities

147.95

0,01

Agricultural Areas

2111

Non-irrigated arable land

643917.47

44.48

2121

Irrigated arable land

130803.66

9.03

2221

Fruit trees and berry plantations, nonirrigated

765.92

0.05

2222

Fruit trees and berry plantations,


irrigated

329.82

0.02

2421

Complex cultivation, non-irrigated

18114.62

1.25

2422

Complex cultivation, irrigated

20514.96

1.42

213

Rice fields

79737.21

5.51

221

Vineyards

870.65

0.06

223

Olive groves

63034.45

4.35

231

Pastures

77220.15

5.33

243

Land principally occupied by


agriculture, with significant areas of
natural vegetation

105772.75

7.31

Forests

311

Broad-leaved forest

75051.53

5.18

312

Coniferous forest

19959.33

1.38

313

Mixed forest

19905.82

1.37

321

Natural grasslands

24013.74

1.66

134

1141081.66

244509.39

Table 3. continued.
Code 2012 Code Explanation

Area (ha)

Area (%)

323

Sclerophyllous vegetation

1290.88

0.09

324

Transitional woodland-shrub

100782.19

6.96

331

Beaches, dunes, sands

25.25

0.00

333

Sparsely vegetated areas

3480.66

0.24

Wetlands

411

Inland marshes

Water Bodies

10275.21

511

Water courses

1304.23

0.09

512

Water bodies

8970.98

0.62

3432.98
3432.98

0.24

Table 4. Land use and their capability classes of Ergene River Basin (Kocaman et
al., 2007).
Capability Classes

Land use
I
Cultivated

II

III

IV

Total area
VI

VII

131.235 378.533 223.705 32.700 600 10.505 2.196

VIII

ha

779.474 81,76

Grassland
and upland

4.450

12.380 14.500 3.800

5.600 3.500

44.230

Woodland

700

25.105 35.180 12.545

40.752 2.050

116.332 12,20

2.200

3.300

1.950

650

420

Out of f
Cultivation*
Other
Total

244 2.000 10.764


-

2.600 2.600

4,64

1,13
0,27

138.585 419.318 275.335 49.695 600 57.277 7.990 4.600 953.400 100,00

*: Land out of cultivation due to miss-used and miss-managed

135

Referneces
Eyupoglu, F., F. Avsar, C. Arcak and I. Yurdakul, 2001. Fertility state of Thrace soils.
Symposium on Thrace Soil and Water Resources Potential. 24-27 May 2001.
Kirklareli.
Kocaman I., Konukcu F. and Istanbulluoglu A. 2007 Research on the Sedimentation and
Erosion Problem of the Ergene River Basin in Western Turkey and Precautions to
Control It. Eurasian Soil Science, 40(10), 1110-1116.
State of NSW and Office of Environment and Heritage, 2012.The land and soil capability
assessment scheme Second approximation.A general rural land evaluation system
for
New
South
Wales.
Sydney-Australia,.
pp.56.
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/soils/20120394lsc2s.pdf.
Sonter RO and Lawrie JW 2007. Soils and rural land capability, in Soils: Their properties
and management, 3rd edition, PEV Charman and BW Murphy (eds). Oxford
University Press, Melbourne-Australia.

136

Chapter

Assessment of Geological/Geo-chemical
Characteristics of Deltas: Ergene River Basin

Fatih KONUKCU
Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030
Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Geological / geo-chemical characteristics of deltas


The first survey on the geology of Ergene River Basin was done by State Hydraulic
Works (DSI) in 1958, which was followed by Erguvanl (1958), Kuran (1959), Alkan
(1967) and Congar (1967), Okten (2004) and Senguler (2008). These references are
suggested for further information. The geological map of the Ergene River basin is
given in Figure 1.
The geology of Ergene River basin was summarised in: http://www.inweb.gr/
workshops2/sub_basins/13_14_15_Evros_Ardas_Ergene.htm: ..The Thrace basin in
north-western Turkey is a triangle-shaped Tertiary sedimentary basin formed by
extension in late Middle Eocene to latest Oligocene times. Basement-related
normal block-faulting then caused rapid subsidence, and the deposition of
thousands of metres of thick marine clastics. Some basement faults evolved into

137

138

Figure 1. Geological map of the Ergene River Basin.

boundary faults separating shelf areas from deep basinal realms, and greatly
affected the rate of sedimentation and facies distribution in the basin. The most
important boundary fault, at the northern margin of the basin, strikes north-westsouth-east. It shows rapid variations in throw on seismic data. Large quantities of
volcanic material poured onto the basin from the fault zone in the late Eocene.
Fault activity was intense along the basin margins in latest Eocene times, causing
continued sub-sidence in the deep basinal areas, whereas minor uplift and erosion
took place along the shelf and basin margins. Many basement faults, including the
north boundary fault were reactivated and underwent strike-slip motion in late
Miocene times. Miocene tectonism caused intense deformation and erosion at the
southern margin of the basin, obliterating the earlier sedimentary record and
tectonic regime. Sedimentation in the basin was turbiditic during middle and late
Eocene times. Contemporaneous reefal to shallow-marine carbona-tes were
deposited on shelves and over intrabasinal palaeohighs. Alteration of marine and
non-marine clastic deposition continued until the end of the Oligocene. Eocene and
Oligocene sands are widespread in the basin and form good reservoirs. Although
limited in areal extent, Eocene reefal carbonates form the other reservoir facies.
Intraformational shales in the Eocene-Oligocene series form the source and seal
facies. Organic matter in the shales is mostly of gasprone type. The generalized
columnar section of the Ergene River Basin was presented in Figure 2.

2. References
Alkan, N., 1967, Ergene Basin groundwater reserve report, Devlet Su leri Genel Mdrl,
Ankara.
ongar, B., 1967, Hydrogeology of the Ergene River Basin, Association Internationale des
Hydrogeologoues Memoire., Vol. 8, Istanbul.
DS, 2004, 2005 yl DS XI. Blge Mdrl Program- Bte Toplants Takdim Raporu, Jeoteknik
Hizmetler ve Yeraltsular Dairesi Bakanl, Edirne, 220 pages.
Erguvanl, K., 1958, Hydrogeologic study of the Edirne-Tunca-Meri- Tatarky plain, Devlet Su
leri Genel Mdrl, Ankara.
Okten, S (2004). Investigation of the safe and sustainable yields for the sandy complex aquifer
system in Ergene River Basin. The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East
Technical University. MSc Thesis.
engler, ., 2008, Trakya Havzas Kmr Aramalar Projesi Raporu (2005-2006- 2007 Yl Sondajlar),
MTA Genel Mdrl Rapor No: 11069, Ankara, (yaymlanmam).

139

Figure 2. Generalized columnar section of the Ergene River Basin (Modified from
the MTA and TPAO works by Senguler (2008)).
140

Chapter

Assessment of Ecosystem Characteristics and


Biodiversity of Black Sea Deltas:
A - Fauna of the Ergene River Basin

Deniz RN1
1

Nadim YILMAZER1

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Biology, Tekirdag/Turkey.
dsirin@nku.edu.tr, nyilmazer@nku.edu.tr

Human beings started to influence the future of not only themselves but also the
whole ecosystem when they ended hunter-gatherer ways of life and adopted a
sedentary life. In settled life, their subsistence was based on the cultivation and
domestication of plants and animals (Moore et al. 1986). Moreover, they fulfilled
most of their distinct necessities to develop a healthier and more comfortable
life in time. Early on, all the activities that people sustain themselves did not
cause any environmental problems, and the resulting pollution could be
tolerated by the ecosystem. When conditions become favorable for growth and
reproduction, the number of human population, like any animal species, was
increased. The world population was around one billion in the beginning of
1800s, but it rapidly started to rise in the midst of the same century, and today
it has reached 7 billion (Yldz et al. 2011). As it is well known, the main causes

141

of rapid population growth are the industrial revolution and the transition from
simple production lines to automated systems. With these developments, man
was converted from a species which lives in peace with his environment to a
species which commands his environment and changes it at will. In fact, lands
which were rich in minerals and occupied by several organisms in food pyramid
had been turned into cultivated and/or industrial areas, consequently ecosystem
had been destroyed or almost irreversibly damaged. An example of this in our
country is the Ergene basin.
The Ergene basin is situated in the central part of Thrace, European part of
Turkey. While a large part of the basin is within the provincial boundaries of the
cities of Tekirda, Krklareli and Edirne, only a very small part is located in the
provinces of stanbul and anakkale (http://ergene.ormansu.gov.tr;
https://anahtar.sanayi.gov.tr/). It occupies a total area of 12.438 km2, and its
most important above ground water source is the Ergene River which has a
whole length of 283 km (http://ergene.ormansu.gov.tr). The river emerges from
the Istranca (Strandja or Strandzha) Mountains which border the basin in the
northeast, and flows in a northeast-to-southwest direction, passing through the
center of the basin (http://ergene.ormansu.gov.tr).
There are around 2037 industrial plants, some 600 of which are factories, in the
Ergene basin in which the rapidly growing industry is concentrated mainly in
erkezky, orlu, Muratl and Lleburgaz quad located along D-100 (formerly
named as E-5) road (zkan and Kuba 2008, Anonymous 2014a). Unfortunately,
intense industrialization gave rise to rapid population growth and a big load of
pollution in the basin. Additionally, since agriculture is one of the main sources
of livelihood for a section of people in the basin, uncontrolled pesticide use
related to agricultural activities led to pollution of soil and of both ground and
above ground waters, consequently the disruption of ecological balance. Despite
the fact that some clean up action plans of the Ergene River have been prepared
and put into practice, it is obvious that it will take long years to restore and
rehabilitate the Ergene basin.
In order to understand how high pollution levels affect both terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystems in the Ergene basin, it is essential to determine the areas
existing biological diversity. When examining faunal biological diversity,
vertebrates and invertebrates should be taken into account as two major groups.
Our world is known to have around 63.000 vertebrate (Pogh et al. 2013) and
1.000.000 invertebrate species (Pechenik 2010). In case of the Ergene basin,
although many species of vertebrates have been discovered up to date (Szen
and Karata 2010, http://edirne.ormansu.gov.tr/ zkan 2013,; Anonymous
2014b), studies to reveal the whole animal diversity are not numerous. On the

142

other hand, it is almost unlikely to give a precise number concerning the


invertebrates in the area.
The previous studies and reported observations which were carried out in the
provinces of Edirne, Krklareli and Tekirda were reviewed in an attempt to
present a preliminary list of the vertebrate and invertebrate animals of the
Ergene basin in this study. In addition, some studies and observations based on
different methodologies which are varied according to the relevant animal
species were performed by the researchers in the Department of Biology, Namk
Kemal University, Tekirda.
1- The specific methods used for each fauna group
A- Mammals
It is quite difficult to observe most of wild land mammals in the field since they
prefer to hide due to their nature. Yet, those which appear in the field are not
easy to detect and identify as they move very fast and escape from humans.
Therefore, along with limited direct observations, the signs and markings of the
given species, including nests, footprints, droppings, food and prey remains,
hiding and resting places, should be checked out. By employing all methods of
research, some information on the existence and degree of abundance of
mammal species in the Ergene basin was obtained directly and indirectly.
Besides, an in-depth interview with the inhabitants has contributed to our
knowledge of wild mammal species in the area (Figure 1).
B- Birds
Birds, some of which are migratory while the others are resident, have the
ability to fly quickly. When they are in the air, it is much easier to locate and
observe them compared to many other animals such as reptiles and mammals.
Much of the bird species in the Ergene basin were visually identified using
binoculars; however unobtrusive species were aurally detected by their speciesspecific songs and sounds. Furthermore, some species, especially nocturnal ones
were identified from nests, nest remains, eggs, egg remains, feathers, dead
individuals etc (Figure 2 and Figure 3).
C- Reptiles and Amphibians
It is often difficult to observe and monitor most species of amphibians and
reptiles in the wild because they are small and spend most of their time in their
nests. Information on amphibian and reptile species of the Ergene basin was
provided both with direct observations and data collection (Figure 4 and Figure
5).

143

Figure 1. Some specimens of mammals from the Ergene basin.

D- Fishes (Vertebrata, Osteichthyes=Bony fishes)


Concerning this animal group, sampling was not carried out in the Ergene basin.
E- Invertebrate animals
Some insect species of the orders Orthoptera, Mantoptera, Odonata,
Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera were sampled
using sweep net. Specimens of Coleoptera and Dermaptera (and some
specimens of the abovementioned orders) were collected by hand from the

144

Figure 2. Some specimens of birds from the Ergene basin.

145

Figure 3. Some specimens of birds from the Ergene basin.

146

Figure 4. Some specimens of reptilies from the Ergene basin.

147

148

Figure 5. Some specimens of amphibians from the Ergene basin.

plants, ground and under stones. As to aquatic forms arthropods, sampling was
done using a hand net (also called a scoop net or dip net) mesh size of which
varies depending on the targeted species. The specimens collected were
transferred to the laboratory in ethanol or in proper containers. Identification of
the collected specimens was done employing routine morphological keys (Figure
6, Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9).
BERN (Bern Convention) Annex II: Strictly Protected Fauna Species, Annex III:
Protected Fauna Species
IUCN (The International Union for Conservation of Nature) Threatened Species
Categories: ENdangered, VUlnerable, Near Threatened, Least Concern
2- The obtained faunistic results
A- Mammals
From the previous studies performed within the limits of the Ergene basin and in
its surroundings, 70 mammal species are known to occur (Doramac and Tez
1991, Demirsoy 1992, Kuru 1994, Demirsoy 1996, Demirsoy et al. 2006, Szen
and Karata 2010, zkan 2013, Anonymous 2012, Anonymous 2014b, Doan 2010,
http://www.tramem.org). Of these, 35 were observed in their natural habitats
in our studies. Most of the mammals of the basin are listed as LC in the IUCN Red
List category (http://www.iucnredlist.org. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Version 2015.3.). However, taxa, including Rhinolophus mehelyi (En: Mehely's
Horseshoe Bat, Tr: Meheylnin Yarasas), Myotis capaccinii (En: Long-fingered
Bat, Tr: Uzun Ayakl Yarasa), Myomimus roachi (En: Roach's Mouse-tailed
Dormouse, Tr: Fare Benzeri Yediuyur), Spermophilus citellus (En: European
Ground Squirrel, Tr: Gelengi), Vormela peregusna (En: Marbled polecat, Tr:
Alaca Kokarca) and Capra aegagrus (En: Wild Goat, Tr: Yaban Keisi) are
included as VU in the IUCN Red List category, while Miniopterus schreibersii (En:
Schreiber's Bent-winged Bat, Tr: Uzun Kanatl Yarasa), Rhinolophus euryale (En:
Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat, Tr: Akdeniz Nalburunlu Yarasas), Myotis
bechsteini (En: Bechstein's Myotis, Tr: Byk Kulakl Yarasa), Lutra lutra (En:
Otter, Tr: Su Samuru) and Oryctolagus cuniculus (En: European Rabbit, Tr: Ada
Tavan) as NT. The fact that some species reported previously could not or
rarely be observed during our study period may refer to damaged populations
because of agricultural and/or industrial activities in the area. When the present
species are considered in respect to the Bern Convention, Annexes II and III
cover 26 and 18 mammal species, respectively, whereas the remaining 26
species are not included in the lists. None of the mammals of the Ergene basin
are endemic.

149

Figure 6. Some specimens of Coleopteran and Mantopteran insects from the


Ergene basin.

150

Figure 7. Some specimens of Orthopteran insects from the Ergene basin.

151

Figure 8. Some specimens of Orthopteran insects from the Ergene basin.

152

Figure 9. Some specimens of Orthopteran and Lepidopteran insects from the


Ergene basin.

153

B- Birds
The Ergene basin sits upon one of the important migration routes (Demirsoy
1992, Kizirolu 2008). Although Kizirolu (2008) reported over 300 bird species
from the basin, the other present studies did not reveal such a number, in that
146
species
were
reported
from
Gala
Lake
in
Edirne
(http://edirne.ormansu.gov.tr/), while 197 species from the province of Edirne
(Anonymous 2012). Likewise, 125 and 183 species were recorded in the province
of Krklareli (zkan 2013) and Krklareli side of the Istranca (Yldz) Mountains
(http://yildizdaglari.cevreorman.gov.tr/), respectively, and 143 species were
found in the province of Tekirda (unpublished data from NKU Biology
Department). From those studies and our observations, one can state that the
possible number of bird species in the basin is 243. Most of the species are
classified as LC in the IUCN Red List category. On the other hand, Branta
ruficollis (En: Red-breasted Goose, Tr: Kzlgerdan Kaz), Melanitta fusca (En:
Velvet Scoter, Tr: Kadife rdek), Neophron percnopterus (En: Egyptian Vulture,
Tr: Beyaz Akbaba) and Falco cherrug (En: Saker Falcon, Tr: Uludoan) are listed
as EN, and Anser erythropus (En: Lesser White-fronted Goose, Tr: Kk Sakarca
Kaz), Pelecanus crispus (En: Dalmatian Pelican, Tr: Tepeli Pelikan),
Marmaronetta angustirostris (En: Marbled Teal, Tr: Dar Gaga), Aquila heliaca
(En: Eastern Imperial Eagle, Tr: ah Kartal), Clanga clanga (En: Greater Spotted
Eagle, Tr: Byk Bargan Kartal) and Otis tarda (En: Great Bustard, Tr: Byk
Toy Kuu) as VU. Included in the list as NT are the species Aythya nyroca (En:
Ferruginous Duck, Tr: Pasba Patka), Milvus milvus (En: Red Kite, Tr: Kzl
aylak), Circus macrourus (En: Pallid Harrier, Tr: Bozkr Doan), Aegypius
monachus (En: Cinereous Vulture, Tr: Kara Akbaba), Falco vespertinus (En: Redfooted Falcon, Tr: Kzl Ayakl Doan), Tetrax tetrax (En: Little Bustard, Tr:
Mezgeldek), Numenius arquata (En: Eurasian Curlew, Tr: Kervan ulluu),
Limosa limosa (En: Black-tailed Godwit, Tr: amurulluu), Gallinago media (En:
Great Snipe, Tr: Byk Bataklk ulluu), Coracias garrulus (En: European Roller,
Tr: Kuzgun) and Sitta krueperi (En: Krueper's Nuthatch, Tr: Anadolu Svacs).
Wetlands in the basin, which have the big importance in the life of the birds, are
subjected to a serious threat of pollution, posing dangerous conditions both for
migratory and resident species. The Ergene basin encloses many ideal places for
bird watching (Dr. Leyla zkan, personal communication). In order for the basin
to become a bird watching tourism area, both underground and above ground
pollution should be prevented or reduced in the area. Both our observation and
the present literature (Szen and Karata 2010, Anonymous 2012, zkan 2013,
Anonymous 2015, http://www.trakus.org, ) reveal that the birds constitute
dense populations in wetlands and open areas where agricultural fields are
located. It is likely that they may be affected from both pesticides and polluted

154

waters proximately. The bird species of the Ergene basin are among the
conserved species by IUCN, Bern Convention and Ministry of Forestry and Water
Affairs (Turkey) at the different level of conservation.
C- Reptiles and Amphibians
A recent study of Baran et al. (2012) reported the presence of 129 reptile
species in Turkey. Of these, 27 species are distributed across the Ergene basin
(Kuru 1994, evik 1999, Ilgaz and Kumluta 2005, Szen and Karata 2010,
Anonymous 2012, Baran et al. 2012, Jablonski and Stloukal 2012, zkan 2013).
Included in Testudinata (Turtles, Terrapins and Tortoises), Testudo hermanni
(En: Herman's Tortoise, Tr: Trakya Tosbaas) and Emys orbicularis (En:
European Pond Terapin, Tr: Benekli Kaplumbaa) are listed as NT, whereas
Testudo graeca (En: Mediterranean Spur-Thigted Tortoise, Tr: Tosbaa) and
Mauremys rivulata (En: Western Caspian Turtle, Tr: izgili Kaplumbaa) as LC in
the IUCN Red List category. The number of Lacertilia (Lizards) species recorded
from the basin is 11. Of these, Lacerta trilineata (En: Balkan Green Lizard, Tr:
ri Yeil Kertenkele) is listed as NT in the IUCN Red List category, but the other
10 species are considered as LC. The remaining 12 species are involved by
Ophidia (Snakes). Of these, one species, Elaphe quatuorlineata (En: Four-lined
Snake, Tr: Sar Ylan) is classified as NT, and the others are included as LC in the
IUCN Red List category. Vipera ammodytes (En: Transdanubian Sand Viper or
Horned Viper, Tr: Boynuzlu Engerek) and Montivipera xanthina (En: Rock Viper,
Tr: eritli Engerek) are poisonous species, and are difficult to meet by chance
because they are active at nightfall and in places largely undisturbed by humans.
The reptile species of the Ergene basin are covered by Bern Convention Annexes
II and III, the former involving five species, while the latter eight species.
Reptile species play an important role in balancing populations of small
mammals, especially those which cause agricultural damage. Considering that
the Ergene basin covers large agricultural fields, reptiles in there deserve a
special attention. However, insensible use of pesticides and unnecessary killing
of non-poisonous snakes mistaken for poisonous ones have reduced their
abundance.
Different biotopes in the Ergene basin provide living places for amphibian
species. Our observations and available species lists reveal that there are 10
amphibian species distributed throughout the basin (Ylmaz 1983, Kuru 1994,
Ilgaz and Kumluta 2005, Szen and Karata 2010, Anonymous 2012, Baran et al.
2012, Jablonski and Stloukal 2012, zkan 2013). Of these 10 species, seven were
discovered in their natural habitats during our excursions to the basin. The
whole of the species are classified as LC in the IUCN Red List category. However,
according to BERN Convention, three anuran species, Bufo bufo (En: Common

155

Toad, European Toad, Tr: Siilli Kurbaa), Pelophylax ridibundus (En: Marsh
Frog, Tr: Ova Kurbaas) and Rana dalmatina (En: Agile Frog, Tr: evik Kurbaa)
are covered by Annex III, whereas Annex II includes 5 species: Pseudepidalea
viridis (En: European Green Toad or Green Toad, Tr: Gece Kurbaas), Hyla
orientalis (En: Eastern Tree Frog, Tr: Aa Kurbaas), Pelobates syriacus (En:
Eastern Spadefoot or Syrian Spadefoot, Tr: Toprak Kurbaas), Pelobates fuscus
(En: Common Spadefoot, Garlic Toad, Common Spadefoot Toad or European
Common Spadefoot, Tr: Trakya Toprak Kurbaas) and Bombina bombina (En:
Fire-bellied Toad or Red-bellied Toad, Tr: Krmzl Kurbaa or Kzlca Kurbaa).
Two newt species, Triturus karelini (En: Southern Crested Newt, Tr: Prtkl
Semender) and Lissotriton vulgaris (En: Smooth Newt or Common Newt, Tr:
Kk Semender), are included as VU in the IUCN Red List category and Annex II
Bern Convention. None of these species are endemic to the basin. Rana
dalmatina is commonly found in forestlands, and Pelophylax ridibundus is a
species which is dominant in wetlands in the basin. However, population size of
the other species has decreased significantly in many places of the basin. This
could be a consequence of the pollution of water sources.
D- Fishes (Freshwater Fishes)
There are currently 270 fish taxa in inland waters in Turkey (Kuru 2004, Geldiay
and Balk 2007). However, 35 fish species have been established in the Ergene
basin so far (Erkakan 1983, Balk 1985, Demirsoy 2001, Kuru 2004, Geldiay and
Balk 2007). The species Anguilla anguilla (En: European Eel, Tr: Ylan Bal) is
listed as CR in the IUCN Red List category, and its population tends to decrease
in the basin. Classified as VU in the same list are the species Barbus tauricus
(En: Crimean Barbel, Tr: Krm Bykl Bal) and Cyprinus carpio (En: Wild
Common Carp, Tr: Sazan), while the remaining species are treated as LC.
Cobitis taenia (En: Spined Loach, Tr: Ta Yiyen Bal), Alburnoides bipunctatus
(En: Chub, Tr: Noktal nci Bal) and Rhodeus amarus (En: European Bitterling,
Tr: Ac Balk) which live in clean, clear streams and creeks in the basin are
among the freshwater fishes included in Bern Convention Annex II.
Fish are among the most important biological components of aquatic
ecosystems. They feed on a variety of organisms, and occupy the upper levels of
the food chain. Furthermore, since many fish species are food with high
nutritional value, they are of economic importance and take an important place
in human nutrition. Therefore, most of the countries develop projects related to
their water sources and fisheries. Concordantly, necessary conservation
strategies should be implemented for fish species in the Ergene basin in terms of
not only biodiversity but also economy of the basin. To provide a basis of
conservation strategies, the pollution of underground and above ground waters

156

of the basin should be prevented, especially by prohibiting discharge of


residential and industrial waste to the streams and creeks.
E- Invertebrate animals
Invertebrate animals constitute more than half of the present animal species
identified in the world up to date. The class Insecta belonging to the phylum
Arthropoda is the most species-rich class represented by approximately
1.000.000 species (Pechnik 2010). Members of this class (insects) can be found
almost everywhere on earth, excluding deep-sea habitats. It is quite difficult
and costly to determine diversity of such a large group in a given geographic
region. Although there are still some insect orders, which have not been studied
yet, in Anatolia and Thrace, faunistic list of most of the insect orders has been
almost supplemented. In fact, it is known that Turkey holds 114 species of
dragonflies (Odonata), 600 species of Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets),
270 of which are endemic to Turkey, 10.000 species of beetles (Coleoptera),
1.400 species of true bugs (Heteroptera), 1.500 species of Homoptera (cicadas,
planthoppers, leafhoppers, whiteflies, mealybugs, aphids, and scales) and 6.500
species of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), 600 of which are butterflies
(UBSEP 2007).
Studies of determining invertebrate fauna of Thrace and the Ergene basin which
is a part of Thrace are quite restricted. Obviously, most of the present studies
are concentrated on insect species (Demirsoy 1982, Akta et al. 1994, Hacet and
Akta 1997, Tanatm 1997, Gbekiolu and Akta 1998, Gbekiolu and Akta
1999, Dellacasa and Kirgiz 2002, Koak and Kemal 2006, zkan 2006, Fent and
Akta 2009, Hacet et al. 2010, Szen and Karata 2010, Harmanc 2012, Mol et
al. 2014), and therefore it seems not possible to provide an accurate number of
the invertebrates of the basin at this stage. However, a review of the current
literature and our observations reveal 600 identified taxa of insects, although
that number is so far from the actual number of species.

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160

Chapter

Assessment of Ecosystem Characteristics and


Biodiversity of Black Sea Deltas:
B - Plant Diversity of the Ergene River Basin

Evren CAB1*

R. Murat AYDINKAL1

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Biology, Tekirdag/Turkey.
ecabi@nku.edu.tr; evrencabi@gmail.com, *Corresponding Author

The importance of conserving Turkeys flora


The second paragraph of this study contains a classic explanation of why Turkey
is important in floristic geography. Following Davis monumental work on flora of
Turkey and East Aegean Islands, this explanation is often given as an opening
statement in most talks, presentations, and texts. Following the scientific
custom, I am also providing in the next paragraph the famous statement to
stress again the importance of our countrys plant richness, especially to
decision-makers and superintendents at all levels in our society.

161

Turkey is a huge peninsula, covering an area of 814,578 square kilometres and


linking Asia to Europe at the juncture of Thrace and Anatolia. It has a diverse
ecology, and, in terms of plant diversity it is one of the richest countries by
area, with over 11,466 species, 31,82% of which are endemic to the country
(Gner et al., 2012). It falls into three floristic regions (Euro-Siberian,
Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian), and is the meeting place of the floras of
Europe and Asia. The wild progenitors of some cultivated crop plants such as
lentil, chickpea, wheat, peach, almond and pistachio, are native to Turkey (Kaya
and Raynal, 2001).
Turkey, because of its geographical position, overlaps with three of the worlds
34 biodiversity hotspots: the Caucasus, Irano-Anatolian, and Mediterranean.
These biodiversity rich areas are defined not only by their exceptional species
endemism, but also by extensive loss of habitat (Mittermeier et al., 2005;
ekerciolu et al., 2011).
All these aspects of our country make us the headquarters for taking
responsibility for nature conservation. However, important plant areas are being
threatened by overgrazing, urbanisation, unsustainable agricultural practices,
over-use of resources, and a general lack of public awareness of biodiversity
issues. Turkey is still ranking as 66th out of 178 countries in the 2014
Environmental Performance Index and 133rd in biodiversity and habitat
conservation (Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, 2014). Many
conservation projects should be initiated to engage with site conservation and
consciousness raising.
One of the few studies designed to determine Turkeys hotspots of rich plant
diversity was conducted as a cooperative effort between Doal Hayat Koruma
Dernei (DHKD) and its partners, namely Istanbul University, Faculty of
Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany (ISTE), and Flora Fauna
International (FFI). This resulted in identifying some 144 Important Plant Areas
(IPAs) within Turkey. IPAs are internationally important sites for wild plants and
fungi, identified at a national level using standard criteria.
These 144 IPAs cover 11,301,000 hectares - 13% of Turkeys total area - the sites
ranging in area from 154 to 1,545,632 hectares. Over 50% of the selected sites
qualify as IPAs by meeting more than one criterion. 3,442 rare plants occur
within the IPAs. Within the Thrace region, the Ergene basin, Istranca Mountains,
Ineada Longoz Forest, Terkos Basin, Meri delta, Saroz Bay, Aal and Kilyos
sand dune were identifed as Important Plant Areas of Turkey (zhatay et al.,
2003).

162

Plant diversity in Thrace Region


Turkey is divided into two geographic regions by the Bosphorus and Dardanelles
straits. The smaller region on continental Europe is known as Thrace (3% of the
countys land area), also referred to Thrace region Turkish Thrace or European
Turkey. The other located in Asia Minor, is known as Anatolia (ekerciolu et al.,
2011).
The Thrace area lies at the south-eastern extremity of Europe, abutting the
Aegean Sea to the west and the Black Sea to the east. In comparison with the
Anatolia, the topography in Thrace is generally lower in elevation. The Yldz
Mountains (Istranca Mountains) lie in north-eastern Thrace, the highest point
being Mahya Da (1,035 m). This mountain range borders the Black Sea and
represents a continuation of Anatolia's northern Black Sea Mountains, which
extend into south-eastern Bulgaria. In the south-west of Thrace, features the
Ganos Mountains (Tekir Mountains) and Koru Mountain, which continue
southwards into the Gelibolu Peninsula (Webb, 1966; Davis et al., 1971; zhatay
and Byfield, 2005; YMBP, 2010).
Climate in the Thrace Region can be said to be a hybrid between the
Mediterranean and Black Sea climates. The Black Sea coast has a mild oceanic
climate. The northern and inner side of the Thrace Basin is also influenced by
the Balkan continental climate. On the contrary, the western parts of the Biga
and Gelibolu peninsulas have a Mediterranean climate, with an average
temperature of 15 C and annual rainfall of 737 mm (Kantarc, 2011; Akgn et
al., 2013).
This region is important from a phytogeographical point of view, since the
oriental component of the Balkan flora reached southeast Europe via the
Thracian plain, whereas some plant species only reach Thrace and do not pass
further to the west or north. It was therefore expected that the vegetation
would intermediate between the vegetation of Anatolia and that of the Balkans
(Kavgac et al., 2010). Although Thrace occupies a small part of Turkey, covering
an area some 23,500 km2, being somewhat smaller than Sicily and less than onethird the size of Ireland, it hosts considerable number of plant taxa (Figure 1).
There are numerous studies dealing with the flora of European Turkey. Among
them Turrill (1924), Hayek (1931), Davis (1965-1985), Webb (1966), Baytop
(1968, 1973), Tutin et al. (1976), Eliin (1983), Davis et al. (1988), Semen and
Leblebici (1991), zhatay et al. (1996) and Kavgac et al. (2010) are the main
publications. Webb (1966) listed 2006 vascular plant species for the Thrace
region and he also added that further work could bring this up to at least 2100.
He also noted that among them, Trifolium (Figure2), with 52 species, is by far

163

the largest genus, and it would seem to have European Turkey as its centre of
diversity. zhatay and Byfield (2005) recognized approximately 2500 vascular
plant species for the area.

Area: 26.000 km2

Area: 84.421 km2

Area: 23.500 km2

Total vascular plants:

Total vascular
plants: ~2.008

Total vascular plants:

>3.000

~2.500

Figure 1. Illustrated maps of Sicily, Ireland and Turkish Thrace showing their
sizes and vascular plant richnesses.

Figure 2. Trifolium taxa A. Trifolium resupinatum L. B. Trifolium grandiflorum


Schreb.

164

The relatively high plant diversity in Thrace can be explained by the wide
ranging climatic conditions and diversity of habitats. It is estimated that over
300 nationally rare or threatened species occur within Turkish Thrace (YMBP,
2010).
Current information concerning the floristic diversity of Turkey reveals that in
most cases, endemism at high-altitudes (alpine subalpine zone) is higher
compared to low altitude. Thrace region, however, as a low territory with
scarcely any land above 1000 m, and also much native vegetation having been
destroyed for industrial and agricultural purposes, should have much lower
endemism ratio than other parts of Turkey. Yarc (1998) gave the endemism
ratio for the central part of the Istranca mountains as 0.20% and for the Ganos
mountains as 3.27%.
Several habitats within the region are of high national and even international
importance to nature conservation, notably the following: sand dunes along the
Black Sea shoreline; wetlands comprising flooded longos forests and reedfringed coastal lagoons; humid Thracian-Euxine forests on the northern slopes of
the Istranca Mountains; and fragments of heathland and dry calcareous
grassland, exhibiting characteristics typical of the middle European steppes
(YMBP, 2010).

Figure 3. Comperative bar graph showing the plant richness of Thrace region and
of the whole Turkey.

165

Ergene Basin
Ergene basin is situated at the north-west part of Turkey. The basins territories
lay entirely within Thrace. The western boundaries of the basin are also
international boundaries between Bulgaria and Turkey, and between Greece and
Turkey. Istanbul, the most urbanized and industrialized city in Turkey, ocupies
the eastern boundary of the basin. In the South, there is the Aegean Sea; in the
south-east there is Marmara Sea (an inland sea of Turkey); and in the northeast,
there lies the Black Sea. The Ergene River traverses the basin from west slope of
the Istranca mts and drains to the west, joins into the Meric River at a point 50
km before discharging into the Marmara Sea (Figure 4).
A continental type of climate occurs in the basin with cool and rainy winters and
dry and hot summers. The basin has a moderately fluctuating topography, and
lower slopes when compared to the other basins in Turkey. Generally, it
occupies undulation lowland less than 200 m. elevation drained by the Ergene
river and almost cultivated.
The surface area of the basin including Edirne, Krklareli and Tekirda provinces
is 1.944.100 ha. 63.7% of this area are utillized as agricultural land. The
distribution of the total land usage comprises; agricultural crop land: 1.239.102
ha, 63.7%; pasture: 109,512 ha, 5.6 %; forest: 512.380 ha, 26.4%; nonagricultural land: 422.600 ha, 22.3 %. (Tok, 2003) (Figure 5).

Figure 4. Map of Thrace showing the boundries of Ergene basin.

166

The distribu,on of the total land usage


22.3%
(422.600 ha)

63.7%
(1.239,102 ha)
26.4%
(512.380 ha)

Agricultural land
Pasture
Forest

5.6%
(109.512 ha)

Non-agricultural land

Figure 5. Land usage distribution of The Meric-Ergene Basin (Tok, 2003).


Generally the basin has deep and fertile soils which are suitable for mechanized
agricultural production. Cangir et al. (1996) mentioned that grumusol, brown
forest, limeless brown, alluvial, rendzina, halomorfic, and hydromorfic soil
groups take part in the basin (Kocaman et al., 2007).
There are about 2500 leather and textile factories on the basins teritories. The
water sources that feed Ergene River and the agricultural lands that are irrigated
with this water are being threatened by industrial and domestic wastes
originating from these and other regional factories, the quarries established in
Istranca Mountains, unregulated industrialization, and unplanned urbanization of
the region.
As a result, Thraces centuries historial agrarian structure is coming to an end
and the pollution in Ergene River is jeopardising the habitat of all living
creatures that depend on its water. The inhabitants of the region are facing
severe costs every single day.
Plant diversity in the basin
There is no comprehensive floristic study covering the entire basin because of
the time and budget limitations to prepare one. Additionally, abundance of
agricultural lands and degradation of native habitats, the area has not been
studied enough in terms of plant diversity and overlooked by the botanists. So
there is no comprehensive plant list showing exactly in which plants occur in the
basin. Using floristic records for the Edirne, Tekirda and Krklareli provinces we

167

provide a list of the endemic plants potentially distributed in the basin (Table
1). However, as everyone knows, plants do not recognise political boundries.
Some of them (Allium rumelicum M.Koyiit & zhatay, Jurinea turcica B.Doan
& A.Duran and Verbascum degenii Halacsy.) in our list may not be found within
confines of the basin. Threat categories are given following the Ekim et al.
(2000), Doan et al. (2010), zhatay et al. (2010) and Yzbaolu et al. (2015);
on the basis of the list, Ergene basin hosts approximately 30 endemic taxa.
Table 1. The list of endemic taxa distributed in Edirne, Krklareli and Tekirda
provinces.
Family

Taxa

Amaryllidaceae

Allium proponticum Stearn & zhatay subsp. proponticum

LC

Allium rhodopeum Velen. subsp. turcicum Brullo, Guglielmo &


Terrasi

EN

Allium rumelicum M.Koyiit & zhatay

CR

Galanthus plicatus Bieb. subsp. byzantinus (Baker) D. A.Webb

EN

Centaurea hermannii F.Hermann

EN

Centaurea kilaea Boiss.

EN

Cirsium baytopae P.H.Davis & Parris

EN

Cirsium steirolepis Petr.

EN

Echinops emiliae P.H.Davis

LC

Jurinea turcica B.Doan & A.Duran

EN

Taraxacum pseudobrachyglossum Soest

NT

Tripleurospermum hygrophilum (Bornm.) Bornm.

EN

Uechtritzia armena Freyn & Sint. ex Freyn

EN

Erysimum sorgerae Polatschek

CR

Isatis arenaria Azn.

EN

Anchusa leptophylla Roemee et Schultes subsp. incana (Ledeb.)


Chamb.

LC

Onosma nigricaulis Riedl

CR

Asteraceae

Brassicaceae

Boraginaceae

168

IUCN

Table 1. Continued.
Family

Taxa

IUCN

Symphytum pseudobulbosum Azn.

CR

Caprifoliaceae

Knautia byzantina Fritseh

NT

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia amygdaloides subsp. robbiae (Turrill) Stace

NT

Fabaceae

Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. variegata (Boiss.) Cullen

LC

Melilotus bicolor Boiss. & Balansa

LC

Trifolium kilaeum (Zohary & Lerner) Keskin

VU

Crocus pestalozzae Boiss. (Figure 6A)

VU

Crocus thracicus Yzba & Aslan (Figure 6B)

EN

Crocus adamioides Kerndorff & Pasche

CR

Lamiaceae

Lamium purpureum var. aznavourii Gand. ex Aznav.

CR

Linaceae

Linum tauricum Willd. subsp. bosphori

CR

Rubiaceae

Asperula littoralis Sm.

VU

Scrophulariaceae

Verbascum degenii Halacsy.

CR

Iridaceae

(LC)Least Concern, (NT)Near Threatened, (VU)Vulnerable, (EN)Endangered, (CR)Critically


Endangered.

The most part of the basin is characterized by scattered fragments of heathlands


and dry calcareous grasslands, exhibiting characteristics typical of the middle
European steppes. From the phytosociological point of view, these steppe areas
are unique for Turkey and they are different from the ones found in Anatolia
(Baak et al., 2003). The basin deserves intensive botanical research for this
reason alone.
Byfield and zhatay (1998) added Mibora minima (L.) Desv. (Poaceae) and
Trifolium ornithopodioides (L.) Sm. (Leguminosae) taxa as new to the Turkish
flora from localities in Ergene basin. They noted that native sites of these taxa
are threatened by conversion to arable land (M. minima at Pehlivanky),
secondary housing construction (T. ornithopodioides at Mecidiye), and drainage
issues (T. ornithopodioides at Enez).
Cabi et al. (2015) carried out intensive field studies in the basin between 2012
and 2015 and collected large numbers of herbarium specimens belonging to

169

different plant families. During these field studies Agropyron pinifolium Nevski
(Poaceae) was added as new for the Flora of Turkey and also for the basin
(Figure 7).

Figure 6. Two endemic Crocus species distributed in the Ergene basin A. Crocus
pestalozzae Boiss. B. Crocus thracicus Yzba & Aslan

Figure 7. Agropyron pinifolium in its habitat, calcerous stony places at the


openings heatland.
Baak et al. 2003 identified the basin as an IPA and featured the IPA as covering
relictual grasslands found on calcerous and acidic, sandy and clayish soils, and
located in the middle of Thrace. These relictual grasslands are dominated by a
carpet of plants such as Bromus L, Festuca L. and Stipa scattered Paulirus spina-

170

christi populations. They gave a list that includes rare taxa found in the Ergene
Basin IPA (Table 2). Among the rare taxa in the region is Paeonia tenuifolia
which is listed in the Bern Agreement Additional List I. So the localities of which
need priority conservation according to the Biodiversity Act.
Table 2. Rare taxa found in the Ergene Basin IPA and some notes related theirs
distribution and threat categories (Baak et al., 2003).
Taxa

Family

Fritillaria stribrnyi
Velen

Liliaceae

EN

Limited distribution of the species;


low density of the individuals; poor
reproduction; grazing; clearance of
forests and shrubs; construction
projects; collecting of cut flowers or
extirpation for cultivation.

Mibora minima (L.)


Desv.

Poaceae

VU

Very frequent locally, growing in very


short and open turf within sandy
grassland at the tops of hills
(apparently acid sands and clays form
a cap on otherwise calcareous areas
of hills (Byfield & zhatay 1998)

*Onosma propontica Azn. Boraginaceae

EN

Bern Convention Appendix 1:

Paeonia tenuifolia L.

Paeoniaceae

EN

Bern Convention Appendix 1:

Salvia nutans L.

Lamiaceae

LC

In Turkey it is only found in the basin


(Figure 8).

Silene frivaldszkyana
Hampe

Caryophyllaceae

VU

Endemic to Balkans only found in


Thrace in Turkey

Trachelium jacquinii
subsp. dalgiciorum
zhatay & Dane
(=Campanula rumeliana
(Hampe) Vatke.)

Campanulaceae

VU

Subsp. dalgicorum has a limited


distribution in Edirne, Mecidiyeky on
sea shore rocks, up to 20 m. (Dane
and zhatay, 2001; Ekim et al.,
2000)

EN

Byfield and zhatay, 1998

Trifolium
Fabaceae
ornithopodioides (L.) Sm.

IUCN
Notes on the taxa
Threat
Category

(LC)Least Concern, (NT)Near Threatened, (VU)Vulnerable, (EN)Endangered, (CR)Critically


Endangered

171

Unfortunately, the IPA area is not under official protection, and shrub and
grassland communities developed on fertile clay soils are being threatened by
human activities such as urbanization, industrial infrastructures, the expansion
of agricultural lands, road construction and so on.

Figure 8. A souvenir photo of the first author with Salvia nutans L., (Nodding
Sage) a characteristic plant of meadow steppe lands (Lleburgaz, Kepirtepe).
Acknowledgements: The floristic investigation covering the Thrace region is a
product of the intellectual environment of the whole team, whose members,
namely Dr. Ersin Karabacak, Medine Mnevver Uma, Burin ngay, Engin
Kabata, Ekrem Kurt, Mustafa Kaya, Melisa Balc have contributed in various
degrees. Special thanks to Assoc. Prof. Petru Golban and Dr. Robert J. Soreng
(Smithsonian Institution, USA) for critical reading of the manuscript and to
Namk
Kemal
University
Scientific
Research
Projects
Unit
(NKUBAP.00.10.AR.12.10 and NKUBAP.00.10.AR.14.04) for their financial
assistance for the study.

172

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176

Chapter

Real-Time Monitoring Strategies and Methodologies


of Ergene River Basin

Blent DKMEN1

kran DENZ1

Turkish Republic Forestry and Water Affairs Ministry General Directorate of Water Management
ANKARA. sukrandeniz@ormansu.gov.tr

1. Introduction
Real time monitoring may be defines as taking records onsite in real time in the
investigation of earth and natural resources by a suitable system and transfer of
the measured records to the related unit using a communication protocol
supported by an actual technology. Real time monitoring for water management
is done for the following purpose:

Detect pollution onsite quickly,

Prevent the sudden discharge through the alarm system,

Access to real-time data of any desired time zone easily,

Monitor large number of stations simultaneously from a single centre,

177

Access to historical data in a short time,

Convert variation of all data obtained into meaningful tables and graphs
for the desired time interval easily through suitable software,

Eliminate human factor, effective during the period from sampling to


doing analysis by classical method, using the same apparatus and method,

Opportunity of intervention in case of emergency, and

Ensure implementation of the measure program prepared without delay.

2. Establishment Stages of Real-Time monitoring stations


2.1.

Location of the station in most suitable place

The followings must be generally considered in the selection of the most suitable
place.

178

The geographical and physical location of the site (geology,


hydrogeology, demographic structure, flow properties, point and nonpoint pollution discharges along the river, structures on the river such as
dams, etc) should be well known,

Accessibility must be easy.

It must have the opportunity of energy and water (for cleaning purposes)
supply required for the station,

Communication infrastructures (ADSL, GSM,


completed during the selection of station place,

The ownership status of the location should be clarified (private land,


public land, etc.),

Natural disasters (flood, etc) should be accounted,

The real time monitoring station to be established should represent the


place well in terms of contamination load. To do this, the represented
area for pollution load is gradually narrowed from upstream to the
downstream. Therefore, pollution intensive place is likely to be chosen to
build the station, and

Security of the station must be ensured by cameras, fences, etc.

satellite)

should

be

2.2.

Preparation of Station Infrastructure:

The required infrastructures should be started after the selection of station


place. The ground should be adjusted (subbasement, concrete, etc.) if a cabin
like structure is thought. Then, water supply, electricity and GSM connection
should be made.
2.3.

Determination of the Parameters to Be Monitored

Parameters to be monitored by real-time monitoring system should be


determined. It should be noted that all parameters may not be monitored by
real-time monitoring system
2.4.

Selection of a Suitable Apparatus for Each Parameter

To choose the most suitable apparatus, measurement interval, methods, cost


and hardware should be taken into account. First, measurement interval is taken
into consideration. The apparatus should be tested using samples taken from the
location where it is set up. Then, a suitable method is decided according to the
interval. Finally, a right apparatus is chosen
2.5.

Apparatus and Hardware Set up

The apparatus and its hardware should be carefully set up.


2.6.

Operation of the System, Performing the Calibration and Verification of


Devices

After setting up the apparatus, the system is operated, calibrations are


performed and the device is verified by crosschecking the obtained results with
accredited laboratory test results.
2.7.

Central Monitoring Room Setup

Central monitoring room is the place where all real-time monitoring data are
transferred and evaluated, and when needed, emergency decision are taken and
prevention programme is prepared.
2.8.

Verification of the Communication Between Measurement Point and


Central Room

Having completed the set of central room and real-time monitoring system, the
verification of the communication and data transfer in safe from measurement
point to the storing computer should be done.

179

2.9.

Training of the Staff.

The staff should be trained on maintenance, calibration and usage of equipment


and software.
2.10. Evaluation of the Data and Reporting
The collected data are sent to the related institute in the required time interval
(instant 30-minute, daily, weekly, monthly) in a tabular or graphical form.
3. Present Status of Real-Time Monitoring in Turkey
Real-time monitoring systems started in Turkey with Water Pollution Control
Regulation issued in 10 October 2009 in Official Gazette. According to this
regulation, industrial foundations discharging more than 10 00 m3 wastewater
are obliged to construct a real time monitoring system at the discharge point of
their treatment units. Presently, 132 foundations out of 154 are real time
monitored. Inspection of these plants is carried out by the Ministry of
Environment and Urbanisation.
Municipalities construct real time monitoring systems at inlet and particularly
outlet of drinking water reservoirs. At the outlet, pH, electrical conductivity
(EC), dissolved oxygen and flow rate are monitored.
Real time monitoring in the river system started within the scope of a project
entitled with Central Real-Time Monitoring and River Pollution Control System
Research Project. Two real time monitoring stations were installed on
Yesilirmak and a central monitoring room at Ankara University Chemistry
Department
Presently, in Turkey, Maritsa-Ergene River is real-time monitored within the
scope of Automatic Continuous Measurement Stations Project, which is carried
out by the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, General Directorate of Water
management. Five real-time monitoring stations in Maritsa-Ergene River Basin
and central monitoring room at State Hydraulic Works (DSI) Technical Research
Quality Control Department were installed in 2013. Instant data can be accessed
with the aid of a software downloaded into the Ministry computers, which can
also
be
reached
at
www.sukalitesiizleme.ormansu.gov.tr
and
www.gercekzamanli.ormansu.gov.tr sites.
Four real-time monitoring stations were also installed in Great Menderes River
Basin within the scope of EU Project Material Supply Component: Capacity
Building for Water Quality Monitoring, carried out by the Ministry of Forestry

180

and Water Affairs, General Directorate of Water management. Data transfer


from the stations started in 2014.
4. Real-Time Monitoring of Maritsa-Ergene River Basin
In order to investigate the quality status of surface water and impact of instant
discharge on surface waters, five real-time monitoring stations were installed in
Maritsa-Ergene River Basin within the scope of Automatic Continuous
Measurement Stations Project. This enables 24 hour continuous measurements
and monitoring. The name these five stations, provinces and locations are
presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The name of five real-time monitoring stations, their provinces and
locations.
Station No

Station name

Province

Location

Inanli

Tekirdag

Ergene River

Yenicegoruce

Edirne

Ergene River-Downstream

Evrensekiz

Kirklareli
(Luleburgaz)

Evrensekiz Ahmetbey Creek

Aksa

Tekirdag

Corlu Creek Downstrem (just


before Ergene junction)

Yulafli

Tekirdag

Corlu Creek Upstream

Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, EC, total organic carbon and colour
parameters are monitored continuously in the stations installed. The location of
the station are illustrated in Figure 1.
4.1.

Sampling Line and Pump

Sampling pump is one of the important instruments for monitoring stations since
it takes the water into the station from the river. A submersible pump was used
in Maritsa-Ergene River basin. In submersible pump, motor is mounted adjacent
to the pump body and works under water. The sampling pump of Yulafli Location
and the sampling reservoir of Yenicegoruce Location are seen in Figure 2 and
Figure 3, respectively.
4.1. Measurement Devices
pH Measurement system: The installed pH device consists of a probe and
analyser system. The probe is mounted into the sample reservoir. The probe is

181

182

Figure 1. The location of installed real-time monitoring station in Maritsa-Ergene River Basin.

Figure 2. The sampling pump of Yulafli Location

Figure 3. The sampling reservoir of Yenicegoruce Location.


an electrochemical sensor doing the measurements in the sample chamber
within the cabinet. pH probe also consist of temperature sensor. The measured
pH and temperature data are transferred into the computer from the data
collectors (analyser) and recorded into the memory.

183

Electrical Conductivity Measurement System: The installed EC device consists


of a probe and analyser system. The probe is mounted into the sample reservoir.
It works by inductive measuring method. The data measured by EC device are
transferred into the computer from the data collectors (analyser) and recorded
into the memory.
Colour Measurement System: Colour measurement device measures the colour
by the method based on photometric RES. The sample is absorbed by the
analyser with integrated peristaltic pump through a membrane means and
sample reaches the analyser through a filter with pore diameter of 0,45m. To
prevent the entrance of undissolved material interference before measuring the
solute, water sample should be filtered.
Dissolved Oxygen Measurement System: The installed dissolved oxygen
measurement device consists of a probe and analyser system. The probe is
mounted into the sample reservoir. It makes the measurements continuously on
the pumped sample line. The data measured by dissolved oxygen measurement
device are transferred into the computer from the data collectors (analyser) and
recorded into the memory.
Total Organic Carbon Measurement System: The system measures according to
Catalytic Oxidation method. The device is in analyser structure and has NDIR
detector. It makes continuous measurements under any environmental condition
(clean, contaminated water). The data are transferred into the computer from
the data collectors (analyser) and recorded into the memory. The analyser can
be programmed. Detectors allowing measurements at different time intervals
depending on water characteristics. The analyser is connected to the data
collector and communication unit by using any of the digital communication
protocols and measured values are transferred to the software.

Figure 4. An outside view of installed real-time monitoring station in MaritsaErgene River Basin.

184

Figure 5. An inside view of installed real-time monitoring station in MaritsaErgene River Basin (dry section).

Figure 6. An inside view of installed real-time monitoring station in MaritsaErgene River Basin (wet section).
5. Conclusions
In the development of watershed management policy, much data are needed.
Water quality monitoring provides valuable data required for watershed
management. Real-time monitoring produce more frequent and prolonged data

185

in comparison to the classical monitoring methods. Additionally, classical


monitoring methods are vulnerable to produce more deviation during sampling,
carrying, analysing process. Therefore, real-time monitoring should be preferred
to manage watersheds correctly.
Real-time monitoring systems are very new system. Depending on the
technological development, much more sensitive devices and systems capable of
performing analysis of more parameters will emerge. Turkey should prepare
availability of personnel and technological infrastructure to adapt these new
systems. Installation of these new stations will serve to gain experience and
build capacity.
6. Acknowledgement
This chapter is part of the Specialisation Thesis of kran Deniz supervised by
Blent DKMEN entitled with Real Time Monitoring Systems: Case of MaritsaErgene River Basin

186

Chapter

Air-Land-Sea Interaction Problems of MaritsaErgene River Basin

Lokman Hakan TECER1

Asude HANEDAR1

Namk Kemal University , Corlu Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department,


TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY lhtecer@nku.edu.tr ahanedar@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Atmosphere, ocean and biosphere are one interconnected system and air-landsea interactions are the most important mechanisms for the changes in the
atmosphere-ocean-biosphere system. The basic driving force for the atmospheric
and oceanic motions is the uneven solar heating of the earth-atmosphere system
due to spherical geometry of the earths surface (low latitudes receive more
solar radiation, high latitudes receive less solar radiation) and the revolution of
the Earth around the sun. The actual rates of heating or cooling vary with
height, depth, altitude, longitude and time and day of the year. The magnitudes
of heating are also determined by the chemical composition and threedimensional distribution of gases and fluids in the earth-atmosphere system
(Shukla, 1985).

187

The airlandsea interaction is simulated and investigated using various model


systems. These models resolve atmosphereocean general circulation systems,
coastal processes, mesoscale and submesoscale features etc. (Levy et. al., 1998;
NRC, 1992). Land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere interaction studies have
been conducted either with offline land models or a land model coupled to an
atmospheric general circulation model. These studies have been extremely
helpful in realizing the importance of land-atmosphere interactions on climate
predictability and variability, have been extremely helpful in realizing the
importance of land-atmosphere interactions on climate predictability and
variability. (Misra and Dirmeyer, 2008).
In this chapter, air-land-sea interaction problems in Maritza-Ergene River Basin
are evaluated in the aspect of pollutant transport and deposition cases.
2. Fate of pollutants
In the aspect of environmental pollution, fate and behavior of contaminants
within the environment is an extremely complex issue. Air pollution trends are
strongly affected by atmospheric conditions such as temperature, pressure, and
humidity, and by global circulation patterns. For example, winds carry some
pollutants far from their sources across national boundaries and even across the
oceans. Transport is fastest along east-west routes: longitudinal winds can move
air around the globe in a few weeks, compared to months or longer for air
exchanges from north to south.
Local weather patterns also interact with and affect air pollution. Rain and snow
carry atmospheric pollutants to Earth. Temperature inversions occur when air
near the Earth's surface is colder than air aloft. Cold air is heavier than warm
air, so temperature inversions limit vertical mixing and trap pollutants near
Earth's surface.
Chemicals are emitted to the atmosphere by a range of sources. Anthropogenic
emissions come from human activities, such as burning fossil fuel. Biogenic
emissions are produced by natural functions of biological organisms, such as
microbial breakdown of organic materials. Emissions can also come from
nonliving natural sources, most notably volcanic eruptions and desert dust. Many
types of chemical reactions in the atmosphere create, modify, and destroy
chemical pollutants.
Materials in the atmosphere return to Earth, either because they are directly
absorbed or taken up in a chemical reaction (such as photosynthesis) or because
they are scavenged from the atmosphere and carried to Earth by rain, snow, or
fog.

188

The transport and cycling of both natural and anthropogenic chemicals in the
environment is an extremely dynamic process that is important for the well
being of all earth's inhabitants. The atmosphere plays a major role in the
transport and cycling of chemicals, especially those that are volatile or semivolatile in nature. Atmospheric water, in the form of snow, fog, and rain can
provide major transport pathways for chemicals that are distributed both
regionally and globally (Hart et. al., 1993)
Transports of pollutants, especially air pollutants, are an important issue in
understanding interaction problems. Surface winds flow from high pressure to
low pressure. Winds can carry pollutants far from their sources, so that
emissions in one region cause environmental impacts far away. Long-range
transport complicates efforts to control air pollution because it can be hard to
distinguish effects caused by local versus distant sources and to determine who
should bear the costs of reducing emissions.
3. Persistent pollutants
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemical compounds with
different origins but common characteristics: semi-volatility, lipophilicity,
bioaccumulation and great persistence in the environment (Betianu and
Gavrilescu, 2006; Smaranda and Gavrilescu, 2008).
Due to their persistence against photolytic, chemical and biological degradation,
persistent organic pollutants are mostly semi-volatile organic compounds
capable of not parting for extraordinarily long periods of times and deposition in
fat containing tissues of living organisms, including humans, due to their
characteristics of having low resolution in water and high resolution in lipid
tissues. Humans, animals and other organisms are being exposed to POPs for long
periods of times that in many cases possibly for generations and consequently,
both acute and toxic effects occur. Furthermore, these natural or anthropogenic
based organic compounds are being transferred to humans through the food
chain, passed on from mother to her child creating significant effects on neural
and reproduction systems and suspected of causing cancer.
As a consequence of characteristics, POPs are found and measured in all
environmental media, far from source regions, even in isolated areas with no
usage or direct emissions of these compounds. A simplified scheme of
environmental processes occurring during long-range transport of POPs are
given in Figure 1.

189

2003) (Fig. 2). This can occur passing through


volatilizations from the earths surface under high
temperatures driven out by soil moisture, or sudden
exposure of ocean water to the atmosphere after being
covered by ice, or by resuspension of dust or snow by
winds. Also, the transfer from low to high latitudes

multidisciplinary, dealing with a wide range of


pollutants undergoing complex biotic and abiotic
processes in the soil, surface water, groundwater,
ocean water, and atmospheric compartments of the
ecosphere (Table 1).

Fig. 1. Environmental processes occurring during long-range atmospheric transport of POPs

Figure 1. Environmental
Processes
occurring
transport of POPs
(adapted
upon Fernandez
andduring
Grimalt,long-range
2003)
(Smaranda and Gavrilescu, 2008)
744

The emergence and subsequent behavior of POPs in the atmosphere proved to


be processes as once in the environment and based on their semivolatile
character owing to their ability to associate with atmospheric particles or
distributed between these two phases as well (Smaranda and Gavrilescu, 2008).
During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants
(POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic. Features such as toxicity,
bioaccumulation and persistence of these compounds in the environment,
contributed for their inclusion in the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution Protocol (LRTAP) and on the Stockholm Convention as
unintentionally produced substances for which emissions must be reduced from
specific reference years (Augusto 2013).
By use of the data obtained as a result of these studies, pollutant databases are
created and used as basis for many studies in the scientific and management
level. These pollutants are in the mean time the pollutants subject to the
Stockholm Convention which was also signed by our country in 2001 and one of
the targets in the application plan carried out on this issue in our country is the
creation of an inventory on pollutants. Although limitations regarding POP group
parameters are determined in the newly effectuated regulations in our country,

190

there are limited numbers of studies available regarding the measurements of


these compounds in variable matrixes and this creates difficulties in the
management of pollutants in this group and fulfilment of requirements brought
by the regulations.
Previous studies have established that soils play an important role in supplying
and receiving persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the atmosphere.
Agricultural soils are clearly the source or reservoirs of agrochemical POPs acting
as the primary emissions or the re-emissions (secondary sources) to atmosphere
(Kurt-Karakus et al., 2006). Background soils solely receive inputs of POPs via
atmospheric deposition and are generally collected from locations remote from
potential sources, such as urban, industrial and agrochemical application areas
(Wang et. al., 2012). The distribution of POPs in background surface soils is a
complex function of proximity to source regions, the long-range atmospheric
transport (LRAT) of the POP in question, soil properties, degradation, climatic
conditions and processes of air-soil exchange. Due to its high storage capacity,
soil organic matter may act as a sink and has been a focus for the global POPs
distribution and budget evaluation (Wang 2012).
Therefore, a complex interaction between the environmental compartments in
relation with POPs transport and fate occurs, where the atmosphere is the main
actor (Figure 1). Many researches revealed that the atmosphere is the main
transport media for the global distribution of POPs in the environment, only days
to weeks being necessary for an air bundle to mix completely in the northern
hemisphere, while the transport times of ocean currents can be measured in
years and decades (Finlayson-Pitts et al., 1999). The scale of atmospheric
transport of POPs depends on the meteorological conditions, POPs
physical/chemical properties, and removal processes, which include
photochemically driven reaction and physical depositional mechanism. The
transfer of chemicals from land surface to atmosphere consists of two steps: i.
change from liquid or solid state to vapors; ii. subsequent dispersion by
turbulent mixing (Smaranda and Gavrilescu, 2008).
Heavy metals are also included among the hazardous pollutant groups due to
their toxicity and their permanence in the environment. The mobility of heavy
metals within the biosphere is a process that is particularly caused by human
activities and it constitutes a significant place in the geochemical evolution of
these metals. These pollutants that are released to the atmosphere from various
fixed and mobile sources particularly as a result of urbanization and energy
generation, construction activities, automobile exhaust, waste removal activities
and use of coal and other fuels as well as natural emissions, may accumulate
within the different parts of environment. Furthermore, these accumulated

191

metals generate airborne particles and dust, thereby can be transferred into
human body, may threaten public health and affect the environment negatively
(Hanedar, 2015).
4. Transport of pollution in Maritza Ergene River Basin
The anthropogenic pollution in the Ergene River that forms the Maritza-Ergene
Basin, has become striking in the recent years both at local population and the
national management levels, and many important steps have been taken since
the early 2000s in order to improve the status and render the basin a livable
place. The basin which had a rural and agriculture-based economy in the past
due to its qualities as embodying quite valuable agricultural lands and means of
underground water, witnessed an intense industrialization process particularly
focused on the high water-requiring textile and chemicals industries in the last
50 years, primarily because of its closeness to Istanbul and the means of
transportation it provides for import and export activities, and accordingly
received large amount of migration (Hanedar, 2015).
Until now there are some studies about determining and evaluating pollution
levels in the basin. Some of these studies are given below:

Dynamic of Chironomidae (Diptera) larvals in Maritza-Ergene Basin and in


some distributary (pHD Thesis, Ozkan 1998)

(10/2.6) Main Numbered Parliamentary Research Commission Report In


Relation With Searching of Pollution In Ergene River And Effect To The
Environment And Determination of Necessary Measures Established

Monitoring Of Surface Water Pollution By Environmental Information


System And Development Of Control Measures (pHD Thesis -Ordu, 2005)

Determination of Heavy Metals In Ergene River By Extraction Methods


(Gkdemir, 2006)

Determination Of Heavy Metal Concentration In Plants, Growing In Corlu


And Surronding Lands (Master Thesis -alkan, 2007)

Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration In Soil In Corlu and


Surronding Lands And Evaluation of the Result by Artificial Neural
Networks (Master Thesis -alkan, 2007)

Determination of Some Minor Elements In Sunflower, Growing In Ergene


River (Yrk, 2008)

192

Ergene Basin Environmental Management Master Plans (2008)

MaritzaErgene basin Protection Action Plans (2008)

Determination Of Minor Elements And Heavy Metals In Environmental


Matrixes by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Research Project: Dkmeci,
2008; Manuscripts: abudak vd., 2009; Ongen vd. 2009)

Revised Environmental Master Plan in Thrace Sub-area Ergene Basin (2009)

Developing Of Toxicity Parameters and Discharge Effect Index for Basins


(pHD Thesis -Hepsa, 2009)

Ministry of Environmental and Forest- MaritzaEegene Basin Industrial


Wastewater management Master Plan (2010)

Project on Control of Pollution Caused by Dangerous Substances, 01.2012


12.2013, Beneficiary: Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, General
Directorate of Water Management

Determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) in Soil, Atmospheric


Deposition and Bioindicator Samples From The Meri-Ergene Basin
(Hanedar,2014-, TUBITAK Research Project)

Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil and Lichen in


Maritza-Ergene Basin, (Hanedar, 2015)

5. Conclusions
The basin embodies approximately a total of 1300 industrial businesses serving in
various sectors. All of the industrial, domestic and agricultural wastewaters are either directly or indirectly- discharged to the Ergene River. Ergene River, which
passes through many settlement areas such as villages, towns and districts
within the region, is also utilized for agricultural irrigation purposes. As a result
cases of soil contamination, desertification and degradation of agricultural
product quality are also experienced as well as water pollution. Based on these
determinations it can be said that the most important air-land-sea interaction
problem in the basin is the transporting and distribution of pollutant in the
different environmental compartments. In this scope, many important
researches have been performed, both at academic and the national
management levels.

193

References
Augusto, S., Maguas, C., Branquinho, C., 2013. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent
organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.
Environmental pollution, 180, 330-338.
Betianu C., Gavrilescu M., 2006, Persistent organic pollutants in environment: Inventory
procedures and management in the context of the Stockholm Convention, EEMJ,
5, 1011-1028.
alkan, S., 2007. orlu ve Civarnda Yetien Bitkilerde Ar Metal Konsantrasyonunun
Belirlenmesi, (Master Thesis) Trakya niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits, evre
Bilimleri Anabilim Dal.
Dokmeci, ., 2008. orlu Blgesindeki, evre Bileenlerinde z Element ve Ar Metal
eriinin Grafit Frnl Atomik Absorpsiyon Spektrometresi le Belirlenmesi. Trakya
niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits, Bilimsel Aratrmalar Destekleme Birimi.
Finlayson-Pitts B.J., Pitts J.N., (1999), Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere:
Theory, Experiments, and Applications. San Diego CA: Academic Press.
Gkdemir, Y., 2006. Ergene Nehrindeki Ar Metallerin Ekstraksiyon Metodu le Tayini,
(Master Thesis), Trakya niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits, Kimya Anabilim Dal.
Hanedar, A. 2015. Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Soil and Lichen in
Maritza-Ergene Basin, Turkey. Environmental Technology, 36 (20), 2588-2602.
Hart, K. M., Tremp, J., Molnar, E., Giger, W., 1993. The Occurrence and the Fte of
Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 69. 91-112.
Hepsag, E., 2009. Havzalar iin Zehirlilik Parametresi le Dearj Etki ndeksi
Gelitirilmesi, (pHD Thesis), T, Fen Bilimleri Ens.
Kurt-Karakus, P.B., Bidleman, T.F., Staebler, R.M., Jones, K.C., 2006. Measurement of
DDT fluxes from a historically treated agricultural soil in Canada. Environmental
Science and Technology 40, 4578-4585.
Levy, I., Dayan, U., Mahrer, Y., 2008. A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its
effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region. Journal Of
Geophysical Research, 113, 1-14.
Misra, V. and Dirmeyer, P.A., 2008. Air, Sea and Land Interactions of the Continental US
Hydroclimate Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies.
National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Coastal Meteorology 1992, Coastal
Meteorology: A Review of the State of the Science, x, 99 pp., National Academy
Press, Washington, D. C.

194

Ongen, A. Dokmeci H., Celik S. O., vd., 2009. Copper and Cadmium Contents in Ground
and Surface Water in Corlu-Turkey, Journal of Environmental Protection and
Ecology, 10-2, 612-618.
Ordu, ., 2005. Ergene Havzasnda Yzeysel Su Kirlenmesinin evre Bilgi Sistemi
Yardmyla zlenmesi ve Kontrol Yntemlerinin Gelitirilmesi (Doktora Tezi) Yldz
Teknik niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits, evre Mhendislii Anabilim Dal,
stanbul, Turkey.
Ozkan, N., 1998. Meri ve Ergene Nehirleriyle Baz Kollarnda Chironomidae (Diptera)
Larvalarnn Dinamii, (Doktora Tezi), Trakya niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits,
Biyoloji Anabilim Dal, Edirne, Turkey.
abudak, T., Kaykolu G, Ongen A., vd., 2009. Determination of Nickel and Lead
Contents in Soil and Plant in Corlu-Turkey, Journal Of Environmental Protection
and Ecology, 10-2, 606-612.
Shukla, J., 1985. Air-Sea-Land Interactions: Global and Regional Habitability. Origins of
Life, 15, 353-363.
Smaranda, C., Gavrilescu, M., 2008. Migration And Fate Of Persistent Organic
Pollutants In The Atmosphere - A Modelling Approach. Environmental Engineering
and Management Journal, 7-6, 743-761.
Wang, X., Shenga, J., Gong, P., Xue, Y., Yao, T., Jones, K. C., 2012. Persistent organic
pollutants in the Tibetan surface soil: Spatial distribution, airesoil exchange and
implications for global cycling. Envirnmental Pollution, 170, 1145-151.
Yrk, O., 2008. Ergene Havzasnda Yetitirilen Ayiek Bitkisinde (Helianthus Annuus
L.) Baz Eser Element eriklerinin ICP-OES le Tayini, (Yksek Lisans Tezi), Trakya
niversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstits, Kimya Anabilim Dal, Edirne, Turkey.

195

196

Chapter

10

Assessment of Present Natural Resources, Energy


and Transport Capacity in the Territory of Deltas
within Black Sea Basin

Fatih KONUKCU1

Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Natural resources capacity of the Ergene River Basin


1.1. Water resources Potential of Ergene River Basin
Water resources of the basin may be investigated into two parts: surface water
resources and underground water resources.
Major surface water resources are constituted of Maritsa and Ergene Rivers and
their tributaries, which include 67 sub watersheds. The principle tributaries of
Ergene River are Corlu Creek, Suluca Creek, Luleburgaz Creek, Babaeski (Seytan)
Creek, Teke Creek, Hayrabolu Creek and main stream (Topal, 2000; Ordu, 2005;
Action Plan, 2008). The basin has an area of 11 00 km2 and length of 283 km
(Figure 1).

197

198

Figure 1. Hydrological map of Ergene River Basin.

Many karst resource features within the basin while their water potential varies
with the amount of seasonal precipitation. Kaynarca, Poyral, anad Pnarbas are
the most important ones.
The lakes in the region are Tekke, Harmanl, Bucurmene, Dalyan, Sgrcl, Gala,
Mecidiye-Tuzla, Erikli, Mert, Pedina, Hamam and Saka lakes.
The comparison of Turkeys and the Thrace Regions water resources is given in
Table 1.
Table 1. Water resources of the Thrace Region and Turkey and their distribution
(Konukcu et al., 2004).
Resources

Turkey

Thrace Region

Average precipitation (mm)

652.5

647.0

Brute water potential (billion m3)

508.0

15.3

Net water potential (billion m3)

188.0

5.7

Technically Usable amount (billion m3)

110.0

3.4

- surface

95.0

2.8

- underground

12.0

0.4

- outside of the country

3.0

0.2

30.0

1.7

Present consumption (billion m3)

Ergene underground water basin, whose boundiries coinside almost with the
Ergene River Basin boundaries, is an important godd quality water resource
forthe region. Babaeski impermeable formation takes palece around the center
of the basin. In this part, the aquifer echibits confined characteristic while in
the ather parts it is unconfined charecteristics (Candeger, 2010). Ergene
underground water basin is divided into two main parts, namely, CerkezkoyHavza-Hayrabolu part and Ahmetbey-Luleburgaz part. Total flow, inflow, base
flow, soaked underground flow and total discharge of incoming charge of Ergene
underground water basin are summarised in Table.2. As seen in Table 1, the
total water potential of the aquifer is about 409 million m3. The 343 million m3
of this water is potable water, 212 million m3 of which is allocated for drinking
and industry. Additionally, 15 585 ha agricultural area is irrigated by 347 well or
46 irrigation cooperatives in the underground water basin area.
Groundwater investigations are done regularly through seasonal measurements
in 13 observation wells scattered in the basin by Edirne Regional Directorete of

199

Table 2. Flow components of Ergene underground water basin


Aquifer

CerkezkoyHavsaHayrabolu
AhmetbeyLuleburgaz
Toplam

TotalFlow

Inflow

Base
Flow

Soaked

512.3

209.6

194.4

192.1

117.1

704.4

326.7

Under
ground Flow

Total
discharge

155.6

115.5

271.1

107.5

86.0

52.0

138.0

301.9

241.6

167.5

409.1

State Hydraulic Works. Serious declines in the water level of the aquifer was
obtained year by year: A drop of about 25 m has been reached near Marmarack
area while this is about 60 m around Upper Sevindik region. While the phreatic
surface below the surface in Cerkezkoy, intensive industrial area,was 45 m in
1990 but it has reached 105 m in 2010 (Candeger, 2010).
1.2.

Land Resources of Ergene River Basin

Land use classes of Ergne River Basin according to the Completed CORINE Land
Cover 2012 is presented in Figure 2.
The first level land use classes of Ergene River Basin and their ratio to the total
area is given in Figure 3 whereas all classes are summarized in Table 3.
1.7%

Agricultural land

0.5%

0.1%

Grass & Range


Forest &
Woodland
Settlement
Water body

27%

6%

65%

Other

Figure 3. The first level land use classes of Ergene River Basin and their ratio to
the total area according to the CORINE Land Cover 2000.

200

Figure 2. Land use classes of Ergne River Basin according to the Completed CORINE Land Cover 2012

201

Table 3. Land use classes of Ergene River Basin.


Land use classes

Alan (ha)

Swamps

3535

0.2

Plants changes areas

24604

1.5

Natural vegetation

126847

7.5

Natural meadows

46682

2.8

Industrial or Commercial units

8455

0.5

Shrubs

56931

3.4

Broadleaf forests

321193

19.1

Coniferous forests

41592

2.5

Highways, railways and stations

4200

0.2

Mixed forests

32518

1.9

Mixed Agricultural Areas

81324

4.8

Discrete city structure

30894

1.8

786

0.0

Pastures

43409

2.6

Orchards

207

0.0

13235

0.8

Beaches, coastal dunes,

510

0.0

Weak vegetation areas

16606

1.0

Water bodies

5817

0.3

Waterways

1209

0.1

Non-irrigated arable fields

732549

43.6

Continuous city Structure

5940

0.4

Continuous Irrigated Areas

79867

4.7

Vineyards

3098

0.2

1682008

100.0

Mine yards

Mixed forest agricultural areas

Total

Considerable part of the basin is arable land. Irrigated and rainfed area occupy
4.7 and 43.6 % of basin area, respectively. Distribution of the land resources for
the provinces according to their land use capacity classes is presented in Table
4.

202

Table 4. Distribution of the land resources for the provinces according to their
land use capability classes (ha)
Usage
Agricultural
land

II

III

175.843 605.880 341.718

IV

VI

VII

VIII

Total

63.638

605

3.0926

20.492

1.239.102

13.177

10.384

109.512

152.855 111.647

512.380

Grasslandpasture

3.902

37.174

33.608

10.834

433

Forest-bush

3.721

65.270

113.187

65.700

Non
cultivated

3.972

14.190

7.229

1.406

1.279

384

3.050

31.510

Othet land

2.532

2.532

Water
surface

9.383

9.383

Total
Ratio to
total area

187.438 722.514 495.742 141.578 1.038 198.237 142.907 14.965 1.904.419


9.8

37.9

26.0

7.4

0.1

10.4

7.5

0.8

99.9

Most of the basin soils are deep, fertile and suitable for agricultural production
and mechanisation. Grumusol, brown forest, limeless brown, alluvial, rendzina,
hallomorfic and hydromorphic great soil groups are taken part in the basin
(Cangir et al., 1996). As for the textural classes, 8.19 %, 49.07 %, 39.04 % and
3.7 % of the basin soils are sandy, loamy, clay loam and clayey, respectively. 77
% of the soils is poor in organic matter content (less than 1 %) while 25 % of it
shows acidic characteristics (Eyupoglu et al., 2001).
Miss-use and miss-management of the soils in the basin are more common than
in the other basins of Turkey. While 81.76 % of the total basin area is cultivated,
22.30 % of this area is miss-used and managed, i.e., used beyond their
capability classes.
2. Energy Capacity of Thrace Region
Energy consumption is one of the most important indicators of economic and
social development. Increases in energy consumption are inevitable with
population growth, industrialization, prosperity and the spread of technology.
Thrace region has been experiencing shortages in meeting energy demands in
the last decade due to unplanned rapid industrialization, population growth and
urbanization process. In Turkey, 70% of electricity requirement is met by fossil
fuels (40% natural gas, 20% coal and 10% oil). Europe is planning to meet 20% of
its energy requirement from renewable resources. Todays figure is only 7%,

203

most of which is from biomass. Turkey also intends to increase its energy
production from renewable energy resources (TR21 Energy Report, 2012).
The electricity production of Thrace Region by 2008 is about 4900 MW. The
produced energy is used mostly in the industry. The energy requirement by 2020
is
forecasted
to
reach
up
to
11000
MW
(TEIAS,
2011:
http://www.sayistay.gov.tr/rapor/kit/16TEias2011.pdf).
The Thrace Region has an important domestic coal potential to reduce our
dependence on imported electricity. Additionally, potential of electricity
production from biomass and Wind energy are significant. Present existing
electricity power plants of the region is given in Table 5.
Table 5. Present existing electricity power plants of Thrace Region (TR21 Energy
Report, 2012).
Place of
thepowerplant

Power
(MW)

Type of
source

Status

Lisans
tdate

Kesan/Edirne

12

Wind

Under
construction

22.03.2012

Malkara/Edirne

Wind

Under
construction

15.03.2012

Kesan/Edirne

33

Wind

Under
construction

14.02.2012

Konum Enerji Yatrm Uretim


ve Tic.A.S.

Suloglu/Edirne

60

Wind

Under
construction

16.03.2011

Meric Ruzgar Enerjisi Elektrik


Uretim A.S.

Lalapasa/Edirne

Wind

Under
construction

17.02.2011

Iberdrola Yenilenebilir Enerji


Kaynaklarndan Enerji Urt.
Tic.ve San. LtdSti.

Uzunkopru/Edirne

48

Wind

Under
construction

09.02.2011

Enez/Edirne

15

Wind

Operating

05.03.2007

Verim Enerji Yat. Uretim Tic.


A.S.

Sarkoy/Tekirdag

12

Wind

Under
construction

28.06.2012

Sarp Elektrik Uretim A.S.

Sarkoy/Tekirdag

881.5

Natural
gas

Under
construction

09.05.2012

Besiktepe Enerji Uretim ve


Ticaret Ltd. Sti.

Kykoy/Tekirdag

44

Wind

Under
construction

28.03.2012

Name of Company

Osres Elektrik Uretim A.S.


Sone Enerji Yatrm Uretim ve
Tic. A.S.
Canres Elektrik Uretim A.S.

Boreas Enerji Uretim Sistemleri


San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.

204

Table 5. Continued.
Name of Company

Place of
thepowerplant

Power

Tepe Enerji San. ve Tic. Ltd.


Sti.

(MW)

Type of
source

Status

Lisans
tdate

Corlu/Tekirdag

13

Wind

Under
construction

21.07.2011

Corlu/Tekirdag

50

Wind

Under
construction

31.03.2011

Merkez/Tekirdag

30

Natural
gas

Operating

20.05.2010

Corlu/Tekirdag

101

Natural
gas

Operating

31.07.2009

Corlu/Tekirdag

26

Natural
gas

Operating

31.07.2009

Cerkezkoy/Tekirdag

123

Natural
gas

Operating

25.06.2009

Ekolojik Enerji Anonim Sirketi

Corlu/Tekirdag

0.8

Biomass

Under
construction

24.09.2008

Alize Enerji Elektrik Uretim


A.S.

Sarkoy/Tekirdag

28.8

Wind

Operating

18.04.2007

Alenka Enerji Uretim ve


Yatrm Ltd. Sti.

Srakayalar/Tekirdag

12

Wind

Under
construction

04.04.2007

Burgaz Elektrik Uretim A.S.

Luleburgaz/Tekirdag

7.13

Natural
gas

Operating

28.11.2005

Akenerji Elektrik Uretim A.S.

Cerkezkoy/Tekirdag

96

Natural
gas

Operating

01.04.2005

Cerkezkoy Enerji Elektrik


Uretimi A.S.

Cerkezkoy/Tekirdag

52

Natural
gas

Operating

17.03.2005

Can Enerji Entegre Elektrik


Uretim A.S.

Corlu/Tekirdag

28

Natural
gas

Operating

25.11.2004

Global Enerji Elektrik Uretimi


A.S.

Corlu/Tekirdag

7.83

Natural
gas

Operating

30.10.2003

Global Enerji Elektrik Uretimi


A.S.

Corlu/Tekirdag

26.5

Natural
gas

Operating

30.10.2003

Tekirdag

66.35

Natural
gas

Operating

25.09.2003

Balabanl Ruzgar Enerjisinden


Elektrik Uretim Limited Sirketi
Can Enerji Entegre Elektrik
Uretim A.S.
Modern Enerji Elektrik Uretim
Anonim Sirketi
Sahinler Enerji Elektrik Uretim
A.S.
Ugur Enerji Uretim Ticaret ve
Sanayi Anonim Sirketi

Cebi Enerji Elektrik Uretimi


A.S.

205

Table 5. Continued.
Name of Company

Place of
thepowerplant

Power

Airres Elektrik Uretim San. ve


Tic. A.S.

(MW)

Type of
source

Status

Lisans
tdate

Vize/Krklareli

55

Wind

Under
construction

28.03.2012

Vize/Krklareli

120

Wind

Under
construction

09.02.2012

Merkez/Krklareli

15

Wind

Under
construction

28.12.2011

MB Elektrik Uretim Ltd. Sti.

Pnarhisar/Krklareli

30

Wind

Under
construction

17.11.2011

Aysu Enerji San. ve Tic. A. S.

Demirkoy/Krklareli

15

Wind

Under
construction

11.11.2011

Verbena Enerji Sanayi ve


Ticaret A.S.

Babaeski/Krklareli

900

Natural
gas

Under
construction

29.09.2011

Luleburgaz/Krklareli

199

Natural
gas

Operating

13.03.2008

Kykoy/Krklareli

27

Wind

Under
construction

04.04.2007

Krklareli

169.3

Natural
gas

Operating

07.07.2005

Camis Elektrik Uretim A.S.

Luleburgaz/Krklareli

32.88

Natural
gas

Operating

27.01.2005

Zorlu Enerji Elektrik Uretim


A.S.

Luleburgaz/Krklareli

152

Natural
gas

Operating

07.09.2004

Hamitabat Elektrik Uretimi ve


Tic. A.S.

Luleburgaz/Krklareli

1120

Natural
gas

Operating

13.03.2003

Evrencik Ruzgar Enerjisinden


Elektrik Uretim Ltd. Sti.
Iberdrola Yenilenebilir Enerji
Kaynaklarndan Enerji Uretimi
Tic.ve San. Ltd. Sti.

Delta Enerji Uretim ve Ticaret


A.S.
Alenka Enerji Uretim ve
Yatrm Ltd. Sti.
Altek Alarko Elektrik Santrallar
Tesis sletme ve Ticaret A.S.

According to the data of Mineral Research and Exploration General Directorate


(MTA), Thrace Region has a total of 639.9 million t of lignite coal reserve
(Senguler, 2008).
Research by Renewable Energy Resources General Directorate reveals that, in
Thrace Region, South of Edirne, South and east of Tekirdag and east of
Kirklareli are suitable for wind tribunes. According to Turkish Republic Energy
Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK), a total of 584 MW wind energy capacity

206

has been licensed. Of this capacity, 44 MW is operating the remaining part is


under construction or not yet started to constructed (TR21 Energy Report,
2012).
Oil and natural gas reserves intensify in Thrace and South Eastern Anatolia
Regions. According to the Turkish Petroleum Corporation (TPAO), In 2011, TPAO
produced 12.1 million barrels of crude oil from its fields, which constituted 74%
of the total crude oil production of Turkey. 71% of our total oil production is
from Batman Region, 28% is from Adiyaman Region and 1% is from Thrace
Region. Total domestic naturel gas production is 317.6 million sm. 97% of this
gas production is from Thrace Region, 2% is from Batman Region and 1% is from
Adiyaman Region. The oil equivalent of the gas output is 1.9 million barrels
(TR21 Energy Report, 2012).
As for the solar energy, Thrace Region is considered relatively poor in
comparison to the southern Turkey.
3. Transport Capacity of the Region
Thrace Region is of great importance for Turkey since it connects Turkey to
Europe. It has significant highways, railways and six cross border gates to
Bulgaria and Greece (Derekoy and Hamzabey in the North; Uzunkopru and Ipsala
in the West; Pazarkule and Kapikule within the border ofEdirne Province). This
important mission should be supported by well integrated transportation system.
The system to be planned should not only solve th existing transportation
problems but also sustain the interconnections between harbours and production
areas.Having considering the logistic centres, priorities should be given railway
and ship transportation, which cause relatively less damage to environment.
Schematic transportation of Thrace Region is given in Figure 5 (Thrace Logistic
Sector, 2011).
3.1. Highway transport system
Motorways and express roads: These are full and semi-access controlled roads
serving whole region. Full access controlled O1 Motorway connects Istanbul to
Kapikule Cross border gate via Edirne.
First degree roads: There are divided main roads connecting functioned areas
and access controlled roads in the planned area, namely, D100 Kinal-CorluEdirne state road; D110 Kinali-Tekirdag-Ipsala Sate road, D020 Kinali-CerkezkoyKirklareli_Edirne State road, Babaeski-Kirklareli First Degree Highway, EdirneCanakkale First Degree Highway, D555 State road with Hayrabolu-UzunkopruEskikoy 59-78 and 22-34 numbered First Degree Highway.

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208

Figure 4. Solar energy potential of Turkey. (TR21 Energy Report, 2012).

Figure 5. Planned transportation Scheme of Thrace Region (Thrace Logistic Sector, 2011).

209

Second degree roads: The roads functioning as main road axis between and
within residential areas
3.2. Railway Transport System
The existing commuter and rail lines for cargo and passengers connect Kapikule
to stanbul and Tekirdag to Muratli. The rail lines shown transportationscheme
and developed during settlement plan are: Proposed railway line between
stanbul and Bulgaria as part of Europe High-Speed Train Project; Proposed
railway line to strengthen Istanbul-Greece connection via Silivri, Marmara
Ereglisi, Tekirdag, Malkara, Kean, Ipsala; Proposed railway line connecting
Bulgaria to Aegean Sea Region via Krklareli, Babaeski, Malkara and Canakkale;
Proposed railway line connecting Corlu airport, Muratli, Corlu and Cerkezkoy
logistic area to Marmara Ereglisi Harbour; Proposed railway line connecting
Cerkezkoy-Buyukyoncali-Saray; Proposed railway line connecting TekirdagMuratli-Buyukkartran; Proposed railway line connectingKirklareli to Derekoy
cross border gate. The Planned Railway line is shown in Figure 6 (Thrace Logistic
Sector, 2011).

Figure 6. The Planned Railway line (www.ubak.gov.tr)

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3.3. Sea Transport System


Thrace is the only region having sides to three seas, Aegean Sea, Black Sea and
Marmara Sea. Therefore development of sea transportation in the regionshould
have priority. The location of existing harbours, namely, Asyaport,Akport NATO
Limani and Martas, are shown in Figure 6. The exported, imported and total
good from Thrace Region harbour are 1 185 848 t, 2 477 303 t and 3 663 151 t,
respectively.With the construction of Muratli-Tekirdag (Akport) Railway line, the
good brought to the harbour will be transported through the sea bypassing the
region as shown in Figure 7 (Thrace Logistic Sector, 2011).

Figure 7. Sea transportation from Tekirdag to South Marmara


(www.akport.com.tr)
3.4. Air Transportation System
Corlu airport serves to the region, which is 7/24 open to international air traffic.
It has capacity of 600 000 passengers, 2145 m2 passengers area, 3 000 x 45 m
concrete runway. Most of the aircraft are international commercial ones mainly
from Ukraine, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. About 7% air good
transportation of Turkey realises from this airport.
3.5. Transportation and Infrastructure Projects That Will Affect the Region
The following projects will affect the regions. These are Transport Corridor
Europe-Caucaus-Asia-TRACECA Project (Figure 8), Trans Europe Networks (TENs)

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(Figure 9), European High-Speed Train Network (Figure 10) and NabuccoProject:
Turkey-Austria Natural Gas Pipe Line (Figure 11).

Figure 8. Transport Corridor Europe-Caucaus-Asia-TRACECA Project.


(www.traceca.org.tr)

Figure 9. Trans Europe Networks (TENs) Project. (www.unece.org)

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Figure 10. European High-Speed Train Network Project. (www.dlh.gov.tr)

Figure 11. Nabucco: Project Turkey-Austria Natural Gas Pipe Line.


(www.wikipedia.org)

213

3. References
Action Plan to Protect Maritza-Ergene River Basin. Turkish Ministry of Environment and
Forestry, General Directorate of Environmental management 2008.
http://www.uhabtsgp.com/resim/file/Ergene_Havzasi_Koruma_Eylem_Plani%5B
1%5D.pdf.
Candeer, O. 2010. Dnden Yarna Trakya'da Yeralt Sular Konferans. Babaeski.
Cangir, C., Yksel, O & Boyraz, D.; 1996. Land usage beyond its capability classes in the
Thrace Region and planning land usage. Symposium on Industrialisation and
Environment in the Thrace.3-6 January 1996 Edirne.
Eyupoglu, F., F. Avsar, C. Arcak and I. Yurdakul, 2001. Fertility state of Thrace soils.
Symposium on Thrace Soil and Water Resources Potential. 24-27 May 2001.
Kirklareli.
Konukcu F., Istanbulluoglu A., Orta A.H. and Kocaman I. 2004. Land and water resources
of the Thrace Region and their problem. Turkish Chamber of Architectures and
Engineers: Istanbul and Water Symposium. 8-9 January 2004. Istanbul.
Ordu, S 2005. Ergene Havzasnda Yzeysel Su Kirlenmesinin evre Bilgi Sistemi
Yardmyla zlenmesi ve Kontrol Yntemlerinin Gelitirilmesi. Istanbul: T Fen
Bilimleri Enstits evre Mhendislii Anabilim Dal.
engler, I. 2008, Trakya Havzas Kmr Aramalar Projesi Raporu (2005-2006- 2007 Yl
Sondajlar), MTA Genel Mdrl Rapor No: 11069, Ankara, (yaymlanmam).
Topal, O. (2000). Ergene Nehrinin Kirlilik Durumunun ncelenmesi. Gebze: Gebze
Yksek Teknoloji Enstits Mhendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Enstits.
TR21 Thrace Energy Report 2012. Trakya Blgesi Enerji Raporu. Trakya Kalknma Ajans.
(http://www.trakyaka.org.tr).
Thrace Logistic Sector 2011. Trakya Blgesi Lojistik Sektr Raporu. Trakya Kalknma
Ajans (http://www.trakyaka.org.tr).

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Chapter

11

Review of Existing EIA/SIA/CIA Regulation for LandUse Planning and the Development of New
Regulations and Sustainability Impact Assessment of
Land Management and Regional Development
Strategies

Mamuka GVILAVA1

Fatih KONUKCU2

ICZM International Coastal Zone management National Focal Point for Georgia, GIS and
RS Consulting Center "GeoGraphic", Tbilisi, Georgia. MGvilava@ICZM.ge
2

Namik Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Background
In the European & Black Sea context the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in transboundary context are
addressed through Espoo Convention and its SEA Protocol.
The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

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(Espoo, 1991) or the The Espoo (EIA) Convention (see http://www.unece.org/


env/eia/eia.html) sets out the obligations of Parties to assess the environmental
impact of certain activities at an early stage of planning. It also lays down the
general obligation of States to notify and consult each other on all major
projects under consideration that are likely to have a significant adverse
environmental impact across boundaries.
The Convention was adopted in 1991 and entered into force on 10 September
1997. As of the date of writing of this report, the following is the ratification
status by the Black Sea countries, see Fig. 1 and http://www.unece.org/
env/eia/ratification/convmap.html. As one can see, Bulgaria, Romania and
Ukraine are parties to the convention, Russian Federation signed but not ratified
yet, while Georgia and Turkey so far did not sign the Protocol.
The Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context
has been supplemented by a Protocol on SEA (http://www.unece.org/env/eia/
sea_protocol.html), which was adopted and made opened for signature at the
Ministerial Environment for Europe Conference in Kyiv, Ukraine, on 21 May
2003 and entered into force on 11 July 2010. Although negotiated under UNECE,
the Protocol is open to all UN members. It requires its Parties to evaluate the
environmental consequences of their official draft plans and programmes.
SEA is undertaken much earlier in the decision-making process than project EIA,
and it is therefore seen as a key tool for sustainable development. The SEA
Protocol also provides for extensive public participation in government decisionmaking in numerous development sectors.

Figure 2. ESPOO ratification by Black


Sea Countries

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Figure 2. SEA Protocol ratification by


Black Sea Countries

Fig. 2 shows status of ratification today (refer to http://www.unece.org/env/


eia/ratification/protmap.html for latest update). As one can see, Bulgaria and
Romania both are parties, Georgia and Ukraine signed since the very beginning in
2003, but did not ratify yet, Russian Federation and Turkey did not sign it as yet.
The Black Sea Countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey
and Ukraine) are bound by the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea
Against Pollution in protecting the environment of the Black Sea (Bucharest
Convention of 1992). EIA and SEA are recognised as strong instruments for
controlling development and protecting the environment within the marine
domain as well as in catchments draining into the Black Sea, as recognised by
the Protocol on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Black Sea from
Land-Based Sources and Activities (http://www.blacksea-commission.org/
_od_LBSAProtocol.asp). More on regional cooperation in the Bucharest
Convention framework is provided in respective subsection.
International Financing Institutions (IFI) such as the European Investment Bank
(EIB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), The World
Bank Group (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or IBRD,
International Development Association or IDA and International Finance
Corporation or IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB) and bilateral donors (such as
KfW) have their own safeguards for environmental and social sustainability, to
address environmental impacts and resettlement.
Many larger scale projects in the Black Sea countries are frequently financed
through IFI-s or European funds, therefore European and international safeguards
in many important cases apply. Nevertheless, national legislation and regulations
are important factors in implementing best practices with regard to EIA. While
two Black Sea coastal European countries (Romania and Bulgaria) are obliged to
follow European Directives on EIA and SEA, situation is variable with regard to
other Black Sea countries, as they are not bound by EU Directives, while most if
not all of them are not bound with Espoo Convention or its SEA Protocol either,
which makes best practice of EIA and SEA implementation at the national
discretion only.
Attempt is made in this chapter to report on EIA and SEA and related public
participation arrangements in each of the Black Sea countries, as well as to
briefly present the status and practice of transboundary EIA and SEA in the
countries of the Black Sea.
Report and analysis contained in this chapter is mostly based on the recently
stock-taking on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), prepared by ICZM
National Focal Points from six Black Sea Countries. This stock-taking exercise on

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Integrated Coastal zone Management (ICZM) has been undertaken for the
Mediterranean and Black Seas within the EU 7th Framework Programme (FP7)
PEGASO project (http://pegasoproject.eu), structured around the ICZM
Implementation Audit Questionnaire, prepared to assess the status of the
Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries with regard to the contents of the newly
adopted Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean. The audit questionnaire
contained 53 questions, including those related to administrative rights for the
public to participate and challenge coastal strategies, programmes, plans and
projects; as well as the strategic and environmental impact assessment in
national in transboundary context. In this regard, national responses provided
during ICZM stock-taking effort are useful source for addressing EIA and SEA and
related public participation subjects covered in this report.
The organisation and methodology of stock-taking is fully described in Shipman
and Petit (2014), while synthesis results for the Black Sea are reported in
Antonidze et al. (2014). Summary results are reported in the recently released
high profile technical report by UNESCO IOC (Santoro et al., 2014).
In particular, during the period of October 2010 March 2011 the Black Sea ICZM
National Focal Points (NFPs) from the Black Sea countries Bulgaria, Georgia,
Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine were invited to answer the
stock-taking questions and to validate their responses at the national level. This
initial assessment was first compiled into the joint paper (Abaza et al., 2011).
The questionnaires filled in by or on-behalf of NFPs were then submitted to the
Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat (BSC PS), intergovernmental body
implementing the Bucharest Convention and partner of the PEGASO project, for
feedback and subsequent finalisation by the respective Black Sea countries NFPs.
For that purpose detailed comments were produced by BSC PS for each Black Sea
country in response to initial stock-taking reports. It was agreed to set the end
of 2012 as a cut off date for stock-taking and five countries reported with
updated stock-taking by end of March, 2013. National stock-taking audit
reported as of end 2012 formed the basis for this regional synthesis report (for
Turkey initial 2010 report was used), documented in PEGASO deliverable
(Antonidze et al., 2013).
As mentioned above, the questions asked during the ICZM audit included those in
relation to public participation, EIA, SEA and transboundary impacts. All stocktaking audit questions are well documented in the reference cited above
(Shipman and Petit, 2014), therefore are not reported here. At the same time,
each respective subchapter provided below is initiated with quotes from the
audit questionnaire, followed by slightly adapted texts based in principle on
validated responses of each country national representatives.

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The subsequent presentation is first considering responses in relation to EIA,


followed by SEA, some arrangements for public participation in each national
context, and after brief presentation of the SEA cases of transboundary
dimension, chapter is concluded with current state of the regional
arrangements, as well presentation of some conclusions and recommendations in
relation to EIA and SEA for the Black Sea region.
2. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
[Audit questions ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Are appropriate EIAs for public and private projects likely to have significant
environmental effects on the coastal zones required?]
Bulgaria
EIAs are required for any public and private projects, which are expected to
have significant effects on the environment of the whole country, including the
coastal zone, according to the Environmental Protection Act. According to the
Regulation on the conditions and procedure for environmental impact
assessment of investment projects, the investment projects are divided in two
groups: those, for which EIA is obligatory, and those, for which the necessity of
EIA implementation has to be determined on a case by case basis by the Regional
Inspectorates of Environment and Water.
The EIA and SEA processes in Bulgaria are synchronised with EIA Directive
85/337/EC (Consolidated version) and with Directive 2001/42/EC, respectively.
Both procedures include all traditional stages of the assessment process: initial
notification, screening, scoping, public consultations, public hearing and
decision making.
Georgia
The legal basis for EIA in Georgia is defined by Laws of Georgia on Licenses and
Permits (24 June 24 2005); Environmental Impact Permit (14 December 2007)
and Ecological Expertise (14 December 2007).
Serious deficiencies in EIA system are evident from simple comparison (see Box
1) of generic EIA process with the system currently in place in Georgia (absence
of scoping and screening stages, insufficient provisions for access to information
and right to challenge decisions, weak enforcement during implementation,
etc.).

219

220

Box 1. Comparing generic EIA process with EIA process currently in force in Georgia (source: OSCE sponsored Observer
Reports available at http://aarhus.ge/index.php?page=66&lang=eng, accessed in June 2012)

In light of the requirements of Aarhus Convention, the following deficiencies


were identified in the EIA system (see conclusions of the OSCE sponsored
Legislative and Institutional Analysis of the Implementation of Aarhus Contention
in Georgia, 2007, undertaken by Aarhus Centre in Georgia, available at
http://aarhus.ge/index.php?page=239&lang=eng, accessed in June 2012):
- A right of access to environmental information and public participation in
decision making process during the EIA should be guaranteed in relevant national
law.
- List of activities liable to EIA should be changed according to the relevant list
of activities defined in the Annex I of Aarhus convention.
- Arrangement of public hearings during the EIA and duty to inform public about
its consequences must be defined as governmental responsibility.
- Any exclusion from EIA procedure for the activities harmful for human health
and environment must be ruled out in the relevant legal act.
Examples of deficient cases of EIA for investment projects in the elsewhere in
the ICZM stock-taking report for Georgia are quite symptomatic and quality of
EIA for coastal projects remains the proliferating issue requiring urgent
intervention.
It was therefore recommended to introduce and apply voluntary EIA scheme for
projects which may affect environments and resources of coastal zone, guided
by EIA process as interpreted by the European Commission and published at
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/home.htm.
Romania
EIAs requirements for projects are contained in the Government Decision no.
1076/2004 for establishing a procedure for carrying out environmental
assessment for plans and programs, transposing the SEA Directive 2001/42/EC.
Russian Federation
According to the Federal Law "On Ecological Expertise" No. 174-FZ from
November 23, 1995 the procedure of EIA is envisaged for all projects that could
have significant environmental effect on the coastal zone.
Turkey
The By-law on EIA has been implemented since 1993 in Turkey. In the revised Bylaw on EIA (latest revision, Official Gazette: 17 July 2008, No. 26939), public

221

participation procedure was further strengthened and it has become fully


harmonized with the EU EIA Directive except the EIA application in a
transboundary context. EIA implementation is required both for public and
private projects according to the by-law on EIA.
Ukraine
EIAs for public and private projects likely to have significant environmental
effects are obligatory. Its a basic requirement of the Law on Ecological
Expertise (#45/95- of 09.02.1995) and other regulative acts.
According to the Law of Ukraine "On regulation of the Urban Construction
Activity" has been approved in 2011 ((#3038-VI of 17.02.2011), EIAs for public
and private projects is obligatory only for cases, envisaged by the Degree of
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine # 554 of 27 July 1995 "List of activities and
objects of high ecological dangers", for other cases EIA is not obligatory.
3. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
[Audit questions STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT
Are SEAs of plans and programmes affecting the coastal zone required? Legal
Instruments:
Are there specific guidelines for SEA for coastal zones? Reference:]
Bulgaria
According to the Environmental Protection Act, SEA is required for plans and
programs, which are expected to have a significant effect on the environment.
Therefore, it would also apply to the coastal zone.
Again, EIA and SEA processes in Bulgaria are fully synchronised with EIA Directive
85/337/EC (Consolidated version) and with Directive 2001/42/EC, respectively.
Both procedures include all traditional stages of the assessment process: initial
notification, screening, scoping, public consultations, public hearing and
decision making.
Georgia
EIA legislation, when first introduced in Georgia (Law on Environmental Permits,
15 October 1996, now replaced), contained important definition in the list of
category I projects (equivalent to internationally accepted category A). In
Article 2, Clause (k) concerned with "infrastructural plans, projects and
programmes", subjected to mandatory impact assessment were, inter alia, urban

222

development and land-use plans, industrial development programs, transport


infrastructure development programs, forestry plans, even long term programs
of protected areas. Ironically first and only application of this clause in this law
was to issue environmental permit against the EIA of the Kolkheti National Park
Management Plan.
Unfortunately there are no provisions in the Georgian legislation for SEA. Still,
this instrument was applied on a voluntary basis for the programmatic
assessment of strategic environmental impacts of economic sectoral plans only
once in Georgias Power Sector: Strategic Environmental Assessment, Final
Report, December 2007 - by SEEC - South East Europe Consultants Ltd, but this
opportunity for genuine SEA was used for mere justification of hydropower
energy sector (see review of this document by panel of expert at
http://bankwatch.org/documents/Khudoni_EIA_SEA_ind_panel_review.pdf. See
also BankWatch report at http://bankwatch.org/documents/risky_deal_risky_
business.pdf).
Again, as with EIA, it was recommended in the ICZM stock-taking report to
introduce and apply voluntary SEA scheme for sectoral development plans and
programs which may affect environments and resources of the coastal zone,
guided by SEA process as interpreted by the European Commission and published
at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/home.htm.
Currently there are no specific guidelines for EIA or SEA for coastal zones.
Reference was made in this regard to the fact that the Ministry of Infrastructure
and Regional Development of Georgia and Adjara Autonomous Republic
Authorities were willing to undertake Development of an integrated SEA , spatial
and territorial plan for Adjara AR 2010-2015 and received such an assistance
from The Netherlands (source: http://www.evd.nl/zoeken/showbouwsteenkvk
.asp?bstnum=255769).
Romania
Legal Instruments and Guiding documents on SEA are:
- GD 1076/2004 for establishing a procedure for carrying out environmental
assessment for plans and programs (transposing the SEA Directive 2001/42/EC)
- Order no. 995/2006 for approving the list with plans and programmes
concerned by GD 1076/2004, including those within coastal zone
- Order no. 117/ 2006 for approving the SEA methodology Handbook

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- SEA Handbook for cohesion policy 2007 2013


There are no SEA guidelines reported by the national focal point.
Russian Federation
Plans and programmes are subject of ecological expertise according to the
Federal Law "On Ecological Expertise" No. 174-FZ from November 23, 1995.
According to EIA procedure all documents are published in internet and mass
media before the expertise procedure for the public debates and hearings.
Drafts of the documents "Standards of Permissible Impact to the Black Sea
Rivers" and "River Basin Management Plan for the Black Sea Rivers" and protocol
of public hearings are still on the website of the Kuban Basin Water Directorate
http://www.kbvu-fgu.ru/bvu_ovos.
There are no any guidelines for SEA.
Turkey
Turkish stock-taking report of 2010 reported, that a draft by-law on SEA has
been prepared and the opinions and comments of the related institutions have
been received and reflected to the draft. It was going to enter into force, before
the end of 2011.
As Annex I of draft legislation on SEA includes ICZM plans, it is going to be
mandatory to implement SEA to the ICZM plans in Turkey when the draft is
adopted and enforced.
A project namely Adaptation of Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive of
Turkey was implemented between 2003-2005. Within the scope of that project,
a manual which includes a general framework for the implementation of SEA to
plans and programs has been prepared.
There is not a specific guideline for ICZM. However, guideline for land use was
prepared in 2008.
Ukraine
Currently, there is no legal act being in force, which requires SEA of strategies,
plans and programmes in Ukraine. It means that SEA is not mandatory and is
encouraged only.
In 2003, Ukraine has signed the Protocol on SEA to the Convention on the EIA in
transboundary context, however this Protocol is not ratified yet (draft Law of

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Ukraine on the Ratification of the Protocol on SEA was uploaded on the webportal of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine,
http://www.menr.gov.ua/content/article/48, accessed in March 2013).
Currently there is no guidelines on SEA including that for plans and programs
affecting the coastal zone.
Following is provided in this regard on this source (http://epl.org.ua/en/
lawnbspnbspnbsp/international-activity/sea-protocol ):
In accordance with p. 12 and 19 of the Action Plan on Implementation of the
State Program of Adaptation of Ukrainian Legislation to the EU Legislation in
2013, approved by the decision of the Cabinet Ministers of Ukraine on 25 March,
2013, 157-, the Ministry of Environment prepared draft laws On ratification
of the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to the Convention on
Environmental Impact Assessment In a Transboundary Context and On
Strategic Environmental Assessment.
In accordance with art. 9 of the Law of Ukraine On state regulatory policy in
the sphere of commercial activity, for the provision of comments and
suggestions from citizens and legal entities, and members of the public the
drafts were posted on the web-site of the Ministry of Environment on
22.04.2013.
The Law of Ukraine On main directions (strategy) of the state environmental
policy until 2020 in chapter . Instruments of the national environmental
policy, pp. 4.2 Assessment of the impact of strategies, plans and programs on
the environment mentions about the necessity to improve environmental
legislation to stipulate application of SEA as obligatory instrument of strategic
planning at national, regional and local levels. Strategy also stresses that SEA
should be used as important instrument of the environmental impact
assessments, including in transboundary context.
4.

Public Participation in EIA/SEA

[Audit questions PARTICIPATION


Are the following measures used to ensure the involvement of stakeholders in:
- the formulation and implementation of coastal and marine strategies, plans
and programmes or projects,
- the issuing of authorizations?

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(b) inquiries or public hearings Examples:


(d) mediation or conciliation procedures with respect to plans, programmes or
projects concerning the coastal zone? Examples:
(e) a legal or administrative right to challenge plans, programmes or projects
concerning the coastal zone? Statute:]
Bulgaria
According to article 81 of the Environmental Protection Act, plans and programs,
which are expected to have significant impacts on the environment, are subject
to environmental assessment, which is performed simultaneously with the
elaboration of the plan or program. The environmental assessment procedure
requires that the relevant stakeholders and public be consulted at public
hearings among other methods.
The Black Sea River Basin Management Plan was subject to public discussion and
public hearings for more than two years before it was adopted at the beginning
of 2010.
The Bulgarian Marine Strategy is among the priorities of the Ministry of
Environment and Waters and the preparatory work on such a strategy was
expected to finish in 2012, while the strategy and measures for improving the
quality of the marine environment have to be elaborated and, after public
consultations, accepted by the end of 2014 (Challenges and Priorities in the
National Environmental Protection Policy in 2011, http://www.moew.
government.bg). Furthermore, the Marine Strategy will be subject to SEA, which
requires public hearings.
As already stated above, all plans and programs which may have a serious
environmental impact or are directly related to the environment are subject to
environmental assessment, which has an adequate procedure for stakeholder
involvement. This procedure ensures that the opinions of the stakeholders are
taken into account. At the moment of stock taking cut off date (end 2012),
though, neither a marine strategy, nor an ICZM strategy have been included in
Annex I or II of the Regulation on the Conditions, Procedure and Methods for
Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programs, Adopted with Letter of the
Council of Ministers No 139 of 24.06.2004, promulgated in State Gazette,
number 57/ 2.07.2004, enforced as of 1.07.2004.
Nevertheless, if the strategy is included in Annex I and II of the abovementioned
regulation and, in case it is considered that it needs to undergo environmental
assessment, article 19-22 from the regulation on the conditions and procedure

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for performing environmental assessment of plans and programs apply. All


relevant stakeholders are given the right to be informed about the plan/program
and to express their opinion in different ways. According to article 21, it is
obligatory to perform a public hearing, when it is required by legislation or when
more than 2 negative statements with respect to the plan/program have been
received. The institution, which elaborates the plan, has a right to assess
whether or not other alternatives of the plan/program have to be assessed based
on the results from the consultations with the public and to decide whether or
not to continue the consultations with the public (Article 22).
Georgia
Provisions for inquiries and public hearings in relation to EIA of development
projects are discussed above under the heading Environmental Assessment.
Despite serious deficiencies by not applying recognized EIA standards (scoping
and screening stages missing, weak provisions for public participation, etc.), the
Law of Georgia on Environmental Impact Permit (14 December 2007, with
amendments) in practice remains the only regulation allowing at least some
mechanism to challenge environmental concerns of development projects,
including those in the coastal zone.
EIA decision-making stage starts after proponent holds public hearing and applies
to Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MoE) Protection for
environmental impact permit by submitting EIA documentation. Public
comments can reach MoE indirectly, only through minutes of the public hearing,
prepared by the proponent. According to General Administrative Code of Georgia
(Articles 75, 76), interested parties (able to substantiate their interest) can
apply MoE in writing, requesting participation in administrative proceedings. MoE
is able to consider public opinion, however, at this stage making changes into
the final EIA report are regarded to be finalised. Besides, an administrative
agency does not have a mechanism of feedback to the public. It should also be
noticed, that requirement for informing the public about the final decision is not
provided in legislation, therefore the publication of the information on issued
permits is not obligatory. (Analysis is based on OSCE sponsored Observer Reports
available at http://aarhus.ge/index.php?page=66&lang=eng, accessed in June
2012.)
Law of Georgia on Spatial Planning and Urban Development (02 June 2005, as
amended in 2007, 2009, 2010) provides some mechanisms for public
participation in the discussion of various types of spatial planning documents,
but mechanism are not defined and detailed procedures are left at the
discretion of respective authorised administrative bodies (central, local) in

227

charge of plan preparation, while there are no legal or administrative rights


provisioned to allow for challenging the decision taken.
Romania
The process of drafting legislation should comply with the procedure of
transparency in decision-making in public administration, according to the Law
no. 52/2003.
Within the procedures of EIA and SEA, public debates/consultations (inquiries or
public hearings) for plans, programmes or projects that are likely to have a
significant effect on environment, are required, according to the EIA and SEA
Directives provisions, and according to the Romanian legislation (there are 3
public announcements in the 46th, 76th and 135th working days within the
procedure and the public debate in the 129th working day).
The SEA procedure can be summarized as follows: an environmental report is
prepared in which the likely significant effects on the environment and the
reasonable alternatives of the proposed plan or programme are identified. The
public and the environmental authorities are informed and consulted on the
draft plan or programme and the environmental report prepared. As regards
plans and programmes which are likely to have significant effects on the
environment in another Member State, the Member State in whose territory the
plan or programme is being prepared must consult the other Member State(s).
On this issue the SEA Directive follows the general approach taken by the SEA
Protocol to the UN ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context.
The environmental report and the results of the consultations are taken into
account before adoption. Once the plan or programme is adopted, the
environmental authorities and the public are informed and relevant information
is made available to them.
Administrative Litigation Law no 554/2004 with further amendments and
modifications provides the administrative right to challenge plans, programmes
or projects.
The amendments and modifications of Administrative Litigation Law nr.
554/2004:
- Governmental Emergency Ordinance no. 190/2005
- Constitutional Court Decision no. 189/2006

228

- Constitutional Court Decision no. 647/2006


- Law no. 262/2007
- Constitutional Court Decision no. 660/2007
Russian Federation
According to Federal Law No 1550-1 from July 6, 1991 "On Local SelfGovernment in the Russian Federation" environmental NGOs take part in
consultative bodies of municipalities.
There is special procedure that is established by this law. All the projects, plans
and programs developed for the coastal zone are the subject of public debates
and hearings.
According to decision of Governor of Krasnodar region Public Environmental
Council
is
created
(see
http://krasnodar.rgo.ru/files/2011/12/publicenvironmental-council.pdf Terms of Reference for this Council, in Russian).
One of the last initiatives of this Council is creation of specially protected area
for the protection of sand dunes within Anapa municipality.
Public hearings are provided by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation from
October 6, 2003, No 131-FZ "On General Principles of Local Self-Government in
the Russian Federation". The procedure for public environmental expertise is
described in the Federal Law "On Ecological Expertise" from November 23, 1995,
No 174-FZ. Any proposed activities should be discussed with the local
population. This discussion should be organized by local authorities. Public
opinion should be taken into account during the procedure of state ecological
expertise.
Two projects: "Standards of Permissible Impact to the Black Sea Rivers" and
"River Basin Management Plan for the Rivers of Black Sea Coast" were discussed
on the public hearings, see http://www.kbvu-fgu.ru/bvu_ovos3.
According to Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation special procedure of
plans and projects, a right to challenge is foreseen. Local authorities are
responsible for the creation of conciliation commission and procedure of
approval of plans and programs of coastal zone development.
Turkey
For implementation of public participation informing public with regard to EIA
procedure are carried out both at central and provincial level.

229

Whole documents are made available to public and public concerned from both
central and provincial level. Finally "Public Participation Meeting" is being
organized by provincial directorate at the project site.
Views of some professional chambers and national NGOs are sought from time to
time. Professional bodies like the Chamber of City Planners, Chamber of
Architects and local and national NGOs challenge plans and projects in the
coastal zone from time to time by starting a legal action against the plan or the
project.
Ukraine
Local communities have a right to arrange public hearings of the issues of special
importance for community. List of decisions to be taken with public
participation are defined as following:
- development of international, national, regional and local environmental
programs, action plans and strategies;
- preparation of drafts of policy and legal acts;
- ecological expertise and EIA of economic activities;
- issuing permissions on nature resources usage, relies of GMO, activities
connected with environmental pollution, management of wastes, hazards and
their disposal;
- expenditures of environmental protection funds, and some others.
These provisions are reflected in the Law "On Local Self-governance" # 280/97BP of 21.05.1997; Law "On Ratification of the Convention on Access to
Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in
Environmental Matters" # 832-XIV of 01.07.1999; Order of the Ministry for
Environmental Protection of Ukraine "On Approval of the Regulation on Public
participation in decision making in the field of environmental protection"
(registered by the Ministry of Justice 155/8754 of 04.02.2004)). It means that
such aspects of activities to be taken on the coastal zone are subject of
regulation by these legal acts.
Recommendations of such hearings are obligatory for taking into account by
local governments.
Its important to emphasize that Law of Ukraine "On Regulation of the Urban
Construction Activity" (#3038-VI of 17.02.2011) has very restricted application of

230

ecological expertise, EIA and, as a consequences, public and stakeholders


participation in planning activities related to coastal zone.
General provisions of different form of participation of stakeholders in decision
making process are provided by current legislation (see previous item). Apart of
direct stakeholders involvement in the development of strategies, plans and
programmes or projects (or contribution to these processes by providing
recommendations and proposals), there are specific forms of participation
namely:
- participation in the public ecological expertise of relevant projects (envisaged
by the Law of Ukraine "On ecological Expertise", 1995);
- participation in strategic environmental assessment of the strategies, plans and
programmes, which is still not common in Ukraine however there are first
positive examples (such as stakeholders involvement in the development of the
Strategy of Sustainable Development of Bakhchisaray District of AR Crimea until
2017, 2007-2008).
Bakhchisaray District is located in coastal zone. Strategy development process
was supported by UNDP and based on the partnership of local government,
NGOs, other stakeholders. This practice included mediation and conciliation
activities. As regard to the mediation or conciliation procedures in the issuing of
authorizations, there is no data available.
Legal or administrative right to challenge plans, programmes or projects
(including those related to the coastal zone) are envisaged by the Code of
Ukraine on Administrative Violation of the Law (#8073-X of 07.12.1984) and
Criminal Code of Ukraine (# 2341-III of 05.04.2001) for the cases of violation of
legislation, e.g.:
- having negative impact on the environment and human health;
- contradicting the laws on land use and protection;
- contradicting the laws on other natural resources use, etc.
5. Transboundary arrangements
[Audit questions TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION
In contiguous coastal zones are bilateral or multilateral national coastal
strategies, plans and programmes coordinated? Examples:]

231

Bulgaria
According to Article 98, paragraph 1 of the Environmental Protection Act, the
Minister of Environment and Waters of the Republic of Bulgaria shall inform
other countries, which might be affected in a trans-boundary context from
investment projects related to construction, activities and technologies, as early
as possible in the EIA process, but no later than the date for informing its own
population. If the other country agrees to participate, information on the
investment project, the potential impacts from the project and the possible
decision, which is going to be taken, shall be made available to the public in this
country as well.
In case of a potential trans-boundary impact from another country, which has
provided information on an investment project with potential transboundary
impact to the Republic of Bulgaria, the Minister of Environment and Water is
obliged to provide access to the public to the EIA information, provided by the
other country, and to timely forward all statements from Bulgarian stakeholders,
to the other country.
Georgia
Georgia has not signed or ratified ESPOO Convention. Signed in 2003 but not yet
ratified its SEA Protocol.
In these circumstances only potential mechanisms to apply EIA and SEA in
transboundary context could be the Draft Recommendations on Environmental
Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context for the Black Sea Region (see
details in Regional Arrangements below). If adopted by the Black Sea
Commission this document would provide guidance for transboundary
cooperation by means of notification, exchange of information and consultation
in assessing the environmental impacts of projects for all Black Sea countries
including Georgia.
It is worth mentioning in this regard, that in 2009 Georgia disclosed through ICZM
Advisory Group and BSC Permanent Secretariat its draft ICZM Strategy, inviting
regional partners for consultations. This is indeed a voluntary good practice case
of transboundary consultation when preparing national plans and programs.
Romania
Romania ratified and is implementing the ESPOO Convention (The Convention on
Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context - Espoo, 1991).
The ESPOO Convention has been ratified through the Law no. 22/2001,

232

In this respect the possible affected Party shall be notified, an exchange of


information and consultation should take place in assessing the environmental
impact of plans, programmes and projects.
According to the provisions of the Convention, for a proposed activity listed in
Appendix I that is likely to cause a significant adverse transboundary impact, the
Party of origin shall, for the purposes of ensuring adequate and effective
consultations under Article 5 Consultations on the basis of the environmental
impact assessment documentation, notify any Party which it considers may be
an affected Party as early as possible and no later than when informing its own
public about that proposed activity.
Romania has a transboundary EIA mechanism implemented with neighbours to
the Black Sea, Bulgaria and Ukraine.
Russian Federation
In stock-taking report ICZM NFP provided two examples of transboundary
environmental impact assessment for two projects (see below).
Turkey
In the Negotiation Position Paper of Turkey, it is stated that Turkey will
conclude all legislative work fully harmonizing the Directive two years before
the ascertained date of Turkeys accession to the EU with the aim of full
implementation by accession. Adherence to the UNECE Convention on EIA in a
Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention) and its implementation will also start
with the accession.
Turkey is continuing the evaluation of possible bilateral agreements on EIA for
cooperation in a transboundary context.
Ukraine
Transboundary cooperation is envisaged by the Convention on EIA in
Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991; ratified by the law of Ukraine 534-XIV of
19.03.1999). The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine and the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine are responsible for such cooperation
according to the Ordinance of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine N 1371 of
13.09.2002.
6. Transboundary cases
[Audit questions TRANSBOUNDARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

233

Is there cooperation by means of notification, exchange of information and


consultation in assessing the environmental impacts of plans, programmes and
projects?]
As reported by ICZM NFPs above and as described in the background section,
ratification status of Espoo Convention and its SEA Protocol are not in a
satisfactory state in the coastal countries of the Black Sea, neither regionally
agreed protocol, guideline or even recommendations is in clearance, therefore
while bilateral cases of projects with transboundary impacts are treated on an
ad hoc basis. Some cases in need of rigorous transboundary treatment, as
reported in the stock-taking audits are illustrated below.
Bulgaria/Romania
ICZM NFP of Bulgaria reports in the stock-taking audit report, that in August 2005
a Guidance document was prepared for Bulgaria and Romania, named Methods
and Tools for Practical Application of the ESPOO Convention in Romania and
Bulgaria. The goal of this document was to help the authorities in both countries
implement the legal procedures related to notification, exchange of information
and consultation in assessing the environmental impacts of plans, programmes
and projects affecting the environment and the population on both sides of the
borders, including the Danube Delta. The other Black Sea neighbour of Bulgaria,
Turkey is not a party to the Espoo Convention and is, therefore, not obliged to
implement it. In this situation Bulgaria has achieved what is possible in terms of
Black Sea transboundary cooperation in EIA with its neighbours.
Turkey / Georgia
There were no examples of bilateral coordination on coastal strategies, plans or
programs in the Black Sea region reported by Turkey and Georgia in ICZM stocktaking reports. Georgian ICZM NFP stock-taking audit reports that worth
mentioning in transboundary context is the coordination between Turkey and
Georgia regarding downstream impacts of hydropower dams on coastal erosion
along the Black Sea coast. Bilateral meetings are documented in Chapter VI and
Appendix L of Yusufeli Dam & HEPP EIA (document is available at
http://www2.dsi.gov.tr/english/yusufeli_report.htm), but it should be
highlighted, that surprisingly EIA and ICZM focal points / experts had never been
involved in this coordination.
Russian Federation / Black Sea Countries
There are two examples of transboundary environmental impact assessment for
two projects:

234

1. Gas pipeline Russia-Turkey (Blue Stream) 2002


2. Gas pipeline Russia-Bulgaria (South Stream) 2010
Documents are not published.
Ukraine / Romania
Ukrainian stock-taking reports as example of transboundary cooperation UkraineRomania relations during the implementation by the Government of Ukraine of
the Project on Development of the Deep-water Navigable Channel Black Sea
Danube (2004-2009). In general, these relations were tense and controversial,
however, during this period, national and international EIAs were conducted,
many meetings of Joint Inter-Governmental Commission, public hearings and
other activities took place.
7. Regional arrangements
Coastal countries activities in the field of environmental protection of the Black
Sea are regulated under the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea
against Pollution, its Protocols and other relevant national/international
legislation. The Strategic Action Plan (SAP) for Environmental Protection of the
Black Sea The BS SAP 2009 substantially revised version adopted in 2009 is
guiding the implementation of the regional Bucharest Convention.
The 2009 BS SAP has been formulated through careful consideration of inter alia
the 1996 SAP, the 2007 BS TDA (Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis) and the 2007
BS SAP Gap Analysis. It aims to help resolve the transboundary environmental
problems of the Black Sea and is a joint effort between the six Black Sea
countries. The SAP was elaborated from consensus reached at a multinational
level in relation to a series of proposals that include: Ecosystem Quality
Objectives (EcoQOs); short, medium and long term targets; and legal and
institutional reforms and investments necessary to solve main environmental
problems identified within the 2007 BS TDA. The process of elaboration of the
SAP was characterized by the participation and commitment of the main social
stakeholders and key institutions of the Black Sea countries.
The Black Sea Commission is the regional cooperation framework, made up of
with one member from each of the six national governments. The Black Sea
coastal states entrusted a coordinating role for the implementation of the BSSAP to the Black Sea Commission supported in its activity for implementation of
the work program of the Black Sea Commission by its Permanent Secretariat,
based in Istanbul, Turkey.

235

In order to achieve, the purposes of this SAP, the Black Sea Commission
cooperates with competent international organisations, especially with a view to
developing appropriate programs or obtaining assistance.
In the field of ICZM transboundary partnership and consultations at the regional
level is facilitated by the Advisory Group on the Development of Common
Methodologies for ICZM to the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea
Against Pollution (ICZM AG, see its Terms of Reference at http://www.blackseacommission.org/_ag-tor-iczm.asp). Each Black Sea country is represented by the
designated ICZM National Focal Point and one ICZM Expert, forming 12 member
regional ICZM AG.
ICZM AG to the BSC is thus the key instrument for multilateral regional
coordination in ICZM and related fields, such as EIA and SEA including. Nonexhaustive list of outputs and activities include (mostly GEF BSEP and EU
supported):
- Regional ICZM training activities (1996)
- National ICZM Reports (1996)
- National ICZM Policies & Strategies (1997) and Regional Synthesis P&S
- Coastal Code of Conduct (2000)
- ICZM Spatial Planning Methodology (2003)
- Regional ICZM Strategy (2003) (not endorsed yet)
- ICZM pilot projects (GE 2009, RU 2000, TR 2007, UA 2000) and CASES (RO, UA,
GE completed in 2014)
- Feasibility of ICZM instrument to the Bucharest Convention (2004)
- ICZM progress indicators (2008)
- ICZM stock-taking 2010 (initial results), updated in 2012
- Guidelines on ICZM in the Black Sea (March 2014, draft)
Notably, ICZM Advisory Group to the Black Sea Commission, after several
iterations, some time ago endorsed the Draft Recommendations on
Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context for the Black Sea
Region, submitting it for BSC consideration. The document was developed with
help of Espoo Convention Secretariat (UNECE). The document is compatible with

236

conventions on EIA and if endorsed by the BSC would provide guidance for
transboundary cooperation by means of notification, exchange of information
and consultation in assessing the environmental impacts of projects.
The document does not cover plans and programs; therefore it would be highly
desirable to produce cooperation mechanisms for assessing strategic
environmental impacts of plans and programs.
8. Conclusions and recommendations
Main conclusions and key recommendations made in Abaza et al. (2011) and
reiterated in Antonidze et al. (2013) still hold valid for the Black Sea countries
of Georgia (GE), Romania (RO), Russian Federation (RU), Turkey (TR) and
Ukraine (UA). In particular, these papers essentially concluded the following:
Environmental and strategic assessments
EU member Black Sea countries report that EIA procedures include all traditional
stages of assessment process, and that both EIA and SEA legislation and practices
should comply with respective EU Directives. EIA process in GE, RU and UA are
established as the so-called "ecological expertise procedure", inherited from the
earlier Soviet system (see Fig. 3). There is no SEA system in place in these
countries and even modest reference to plans and programs in national EIA
legislation was removed after recent reforms in the spirit of uncontrolled
development (GE), while in RU plans and programs are subject to ecological
expertise, which provides for public hearing. GE and UA signed in 2003 but not
yet ratified the Espoo SEA Protocol. TR has been utilizing the EIA since 1993 and
has also prepared a draft by-law recently for SEA in the EU accession process.
None of the countries report on specific guidelines for EIA or SEA in the coastal
context. A certain level of harmonization of EIA process in the transboundary
context could be achieved with the adoption of the Black Sea regional EIA
recommendations, prepared in cooperation with the Espoo Convention
Secretariat and recommended by the ICZM AG for consideration of the BSC in
2010. A Protocol on EIA/SEA seems less feasible given the reservations of some
countries.
Participation
Consultative bodies and their role in land-sea, vertical and horizontal integration
of the governance needs to be consolidated and streamlining. The concept of
coastal partnerships is not practiced yet in the countries from the region.
Mediation and conciliation procedures are still not part of the culture and
regulations as well. Public participation and formal consultation mechanisms

237

Figure 3. EIA procedures reported as in place and adequate


were used in GE when developing the national ICZM strategy with the support of
the EuropeAid ECBSea project, but it seems that neither approaches motivated
the Government to adopt the strategy. EU member Black Sea countries are
obliged to implement public participation through EU Directives on
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA). Public rights to seriously challenge inadequacies in coastal plans and
development projects are limited only to the combination of ecological
expertise and EIA mechanisms in the former Soviet countries. EIA and SEA
mechanisms for genuine participation are underutilised in TR as well.
International consultations at the regional level are facilitated by the ICZM AG,
and its role should probably be enhanced by including ICZM NFPs in the
mechanisms of meaningful communication with regard to the strategies, plans,
programmes and projects of transboundary nature.
Recommendations
Based on the findings of the above report and summary conclusions the following
recommendations are derived with regard to strengthening EIA, SEA and public
participation practices in the Black Sea region:
Some Black Sea countries need to upgrade their EIA systems to bring them in line
with the best international practice, as well as to introduce SEA.

238

Guidelines for EIA and SEA concerning projects, plans and programs affecting the
coastal zones are reported as not yet available by all Black Sea countries. UN
ECE compatible and regionally harmonised efforts within the Black Sea
Commission framework could be the key driver in developing and agreeing
common EIA and SEA Guidelines.
Some Black Sea countries are advised to revisit past reservations with regard to
Espoo Convention and its SEA protocol and proceed with their national
instruments of adoption.
In the meantime the regional arrangements for EIA in a transboundary context
should be pursued and agreed for the Black Sea marine region.
Participation should be seen as integral part of the coastal governance process
with genuine opportunities and mechanisms for the public to challenge the
strategies and plans and projects prior to key decision-making steps in the
framework of SEA and EIA.
9. Acknowledgements and national contacts
Critical input of the following NFPs, preparers and validators of ICZM
implementation audit/stock-taking reports are acknowledged in above reporting
on EIA and SEA in Black Sea countries: L. Ikonomov (ikonomov@enviro-link.org,
NFP) from Bulgaria, M. Gvilava (mgvilava@iczm.ge, NFP) from Georgia, C. IspasSava
(ispascatalina@gmail.com,
former
NFP),
M.
Costache
(mihai.costache@mmediu.ro) and M. Golumbeanu (mgolumbeanu@alpha.rmri.ro,
NFP) from Romania, L. Yarmak (niiecology@mail.ru, NFP) and E. Antonidze
(iczm@mail.ru, ICZM AG Chairperson) from Russian Federation, E. Ozhan
(ozhan@medcoast.net), N. . Hamamci (nhamamci@cob.gov.tr, former NFP) and
S.
Nal
(sedan@csb.gov.tr,
NFP)
from
Turkey,
V.
Karamushka
(vkarama2011@gmail.com, NFP) from Ukraine.

10. References
Abaza, V., Antonidze, E., Ikonomov, L., Gvilava, M., Ispas-Sava, C., Yarmak, L.P.,
Hamamci, N.., Karamushka, V., and Breton, F., karii, ., Shipman, B.,
zhan, E. (2011), Taking the Stock of and Advising the Way Forward with ICZM
in the Black Sea Region, manuscript accepted for publication in the proceedings
of MEDCOAST 2011, the 11th International Conference on the Mediterranean
Coastal Environment, 25-29 October 2011, Rhodes, Greece

239

Antonidze E., Ikonomov L., Gvilava M., Ipsas-Sava C., Costache M., Yarmak L.P.,
Hamamci N., Ozhan E., Karamushka V., and Abaza V. (2013). Implementation
Audit (2012), Stock-Taking on ICZM in the Black Sea Region, Deliverable 2.2B,
PEGASO
project.
http://pegasoproject.eu/images/stories/WP2/D2.2B_PEGASO_ICZM_StockTaking_BLACK_Sea.pdf
BS-SAP

(2009), Strategic Action Plan for the Environmental Protection and


Rehabilitation of the Black Sea, Adopted in Sofia, Bulgaria, 07 April 2009.
http://www.blacksea-commission.org/_bssap2009.asp

Shipman, B. and Petit. S. (2014), Final global results of the ICZM stocktaking, WP 2,
D2.2A, PAP/RAC, Dec. 2014. http://pegasoproject.eu/images/stories/WP2/
D2.2A_Final_global_results_of_the stock-taking.pdf
Santoro F., Lescrauwaet A.K., Taylor J., Breton F. (eds). Integrated Regional
Assessments in support of ICZM in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Basins.
Paris, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, 2014. 84 pp.
(IOC Technical Series, 111; IOC/2014/TS/111.) (English only). Available from:
www.pegasoproject.eu;
www.iucn.org/mediterranean;
http://www.ioc.unesco.org; http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/resources.
Published in 2014 by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization 7, Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP FP7 PEGASO project

240

Chapter

12

Thresholds of Sustainability for Ergene River Basin

Fatih KONUKCU

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Groffman et al. (2006) define ecological thresholds as the points at which there
is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or where
small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the
ecosystem. On a general level, ecological thresholds are the breaking points of
ecosystems at which the pressures lead to abrupt changes in the ecosystem. The
terms tipping point, critical load and regime shift are closely related to
ecological thresholds.
Thresholds can be characterised as points or as zones. Zone-type thresholds
imply a gradual shift or transition from one state to another rather than an
abrupt change at a specific point (Huggett, 2005) Ecological thresholds have

241

caught attention because many cases of catastrophic worsening of conditions


have proved to be difficult or nearly impossible to remedy (also known as points
of no return). Ecological extinction is an example of a definitive point of no
return (http://www.thefullwiki.org/Ecological_threshold).
The Ecologic Institute and the Sustainable Europe Research Institute (SERI)
carried out a research to identify a set of environmental thresholds and
associated indicators for monitoring unsustainable trends caused by human
activity that could lead to the exceedance of environmental thresholds (Ecologic
Institute and SERI, 2010).
This report provides a detailed account of the methodology and findings of the
study. Following an identification of an initial list of seven areas with known
threshold behaviours: human exposure to toxic chemicals, fisheries, freshwater
quality (with focus on eutrophication), freshwater quantity, land use/land use
change and soil erosion, and non-renewable resource use the team in
collaboration with the European Commission (DG Environment) and the European
Environment Agency (EEA) selected four threshold issues for more in-depth
analysis: freshwater quality with a focus on eutrophication, freshwater quantity,
soil erosion, and non-renewable resource use (Ecologic Institute and SERI, 2010).
Ecologic Institute and SERI (2010) provided suggested threshold indicators,
available threshold values and data availability Table 1.
Table 1. Threshold indicators, available threshold values and data availability
(Modified from Ecologic Institute and SERI, 2010).
Threshold
Parameters
Water quality

242

Suggested threshold
indicator
Ratio of observed maximum
concentration of nitrogen to
maximum
allowable
concentration of nitrogen Ratio
of
observed
maximum
concentration of phosphorus to
maximum
allowable
concentration of phosphorus
Ratio of observed daily load to
Total Maximum Daily Load of
nitrogen Ratio of observed daily
load to Total Maximum Daily
Load of phosphorus

Available
threshold
values

Data availability

50 mg N/l (Nitrate
Directive)
Watershed-specific
thresholds
for
permissible N and P
concentrations as a
result
of
WFD
implementation.

Water quality of Ergene


River
Basin
has
been
monitoring by the Ministry
of Environment and Urban
Planning
(Turkey)
since
2012 within Municipal and
Industrial water Pollution
Monitoring Program

Table 1. continued.
Threshold
Parameters

Suggested threshold
indicator

Available threshold
values

Water quantity

Maximum
blue
water
consumption Maximum green
water consumption Maximum
non-renewable water use
Groundwater
quantitative
status Hydrological pressures
on streams.

No threshold values have


been defined so far

Stream flow rate and


groundwater
measurements
are
done
regularly
by
Regional Directoretes
of
State
Hydraulic
Works. Alternatively,
the water resources
are investigated by
rainfal runoff models
studies.

Soil erosion

Estimated soil loss by water


erosion vs. Tolerable soil
erosion rate

Upper limit of tolerable


soil erosion (equal to soil
formation):
ca.
1.4
t/ha/year; lower limit: ca.
0.3
t/ha/year(for
hill
slope soils overlying hard
rock parent material);
average tolerable erosion
rate: 1 t/ha/year for
mineral soils under a
precautionary approach

Ergene River Basin soil


database
for
estimation of areas
most at risk of erosion;
CORINE land cover,
climate
data,
and
digital elevation data
are available.

Non-renewable
resources

DMCnon-renewable per capita in


relation to SO2, NOx, NH3,
and NMVOC emissions

Thresholds of national
emission ceilings (for NOx,
SO2, NH3, NMVOC) exist
for 27 European Member
States;
but
derived
thresholds
for
DMCnonper
capita
have
renewable
not yet been defined. The
emission ceilings will be
available from 2025 for
Turkey by improvement
of
Emission
Control
Project.
National
Air
Quality Index are used in
Turkey. Presently. The
limit values for SO2, NO2,
CO, O3, PM10 are used to
calculate air quality index.

SO2, NO2, CO, O3, PM10


are monitored by Air
Quality
Monitoring
Stations of the Ministry
of Environment and
Urbanisation (Turkey).

Data availability

These four threshold issues will be investigated here for the case of Ergene River
Basin.

243

2. Threshold Themes
2.1.

Water Quality with a Focus on Eutrophication

Eutrophication arises from the oversupply of nutrients, which induces explosive


growth of plants and algae which, when such organisms die, consume the oxygen
in the body of water, thereby creating the state of hypoxia. The primary limiting
factor for eutrophication is phosphate." The availability of phosphorus generally
promotes excessive plant growth and decay, favouring simple algae and plankton
over other more complicated plants, and causes a severe reduction in water
quality (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication).
50 mg N/l (Nitrate Directive) Watershed-specific thresholds for permissible N
and P concentrations as a result of Water framework directives (WFD)
implementation can be applied.
Eutrophication is also a widespread and persistent problem in Ergene River and
its tributaries. According to the Municipal and Industrial water Pollution
Monitoring Report (Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, 2014), Ergene
River has been polluted due to effluent from industry, agriculture and
municipality. 2037 factory settled in the River Basin discharged their waste
water. Even it is treated, the waste water from industry amounts to three folds
of the rivers natural flow, 33000 m3/day. Moreover, 230 000 m3/day untreated
domestic waste water sourced by about 1150000 population living in the Basin.
Water quality of Ergene River Basin has been monitoring by the Ministry of
Environment and Urban Planning (Turkey) since 2012 within Municipal and
Industrial water Pollution Monitoring Program at 14 monitoring points.
2.2.

Water Quantity

Maximum blue water consumption, maximum green water consumption,


maximum non-renewable water use groundwater quantitative status,
hydrological pressures on streams are considered as threshold indicators of
water quantity.
The water potential and present use were reported in Chapter 10. Thrace
Regions water resources is given in Table 2.

244

Table 2. Water resources of the Thrace Region and their distribution (Konukcu et
al., 2004).
Resources

Thrace Region

Average precipitation (mm)

647.0

Brute water potential (billion m3)

15.3

Net water potential (billion m3)

5.7

Technically Usable amount (billion m3)

3.4

- surface

2.8

- underground

0.4

- outside of the country

0.2

Present consumption (billion m3)

1.7

Total flow, inflow, base flow, soaked underground flow and total discharge of
incoming charge of Ergene underground water basin are summarised in Table.2.
As seen in Table 3, the total water potential of the aquifer is about 409 million
m3. The 343 million m3 of this water is potable water, 212 million m3 of which
is allocated for drinking and industry. Additionally, 15 585 ha agricultural area is
irrigated by 347 well or 46 irrigation cooperatives in the underground water
basin area.
Table 3. Flow components of Ergene underground water basin
Aquifer

CerkezkoyHavsaHayrabolu
AhmetbeyLuleburgaz
Toplam

Total Flow

Inflow

Base
Flow

Soaked

512.3

209.6

194.4

192.1

117.1

704.4

326.7

Under
ground Flow

Total
discharge

155.6

115.5

271.1

107.5

86.0

52.0

138.0

301.9

241.6

167.5

409.1

Serious declines in the water level of the aquifer was obtained year by year: A
drop of about 25 m has been reached near Marmarack area while this is about

245

60 m around Upper Sevindik region. While the phreatic surface below the
surface in Cerkezkoy, intensive industrial area,was 45 m in 1990 but it has
reached 105 m in 2010 (Candeger, 2010).
Surface water flow and groundwater investigations are done regularly through in
the basin by Edirne Regional Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. The water
resources are investigated by rainfall runoff models studies.
No threshold values have been defined so far.
2.3.

Soil Erosion

Estimated soil loss by water erosion against tolerable soil erosion rate are
considered as threshold indicators. Upper limit of tolerable soil erosion (equal to
soil formation): ca. 1.4 t/ha/year; lower limit: ca. 0.3 t/ha/year (for hill slope
soils overlying hard rock parent material); average tolerable erosion rate: 1
t/ha/year for mineral soils under a precautionary approach are used as threshold
values. Ergene River Basin soil database for estimation of areas most at risk of
erosion; CORINE land cover, climate data, and digital elevation data.
The total area of Ergene River Basin is 9.534 km2, 81.76 % of which is potential
cultivated land. 70 % of the basins soil is under erosion hazard varying in
intensity, namely 25.3 % light, 34.6 % moderate, 8.6 strong and 1.5 % very
strong, while the rest has no such problem (Kocaman et. el, 2007).
The average sediment yield of the basin was 0.74 t/ha/year, which is between
the tolerable level and lower limit (Kocaman et. el, 2007). However, as seen in
Figure 1., in significant part of the basin, the amount of soil lost by erosion is
above the upper limit of threshold value of 1.4 t/ha/year.
2.4.

Non-renewable resources

DMCnon-renewable per capita in relation to SO2, NOx, NH3, and NMVOC emissions are
the threshold indicators. Thresholds of national emission ceilings (for NOx, SO2,
NH3, NMVOC) exist for the European Countries; but derived thresholds for
DMCnon-renewable per capita have not yet been defined.
The Twinning project (TR 2008/IB/EN02) aims to improve the environmental
conditions in Turkey by implementation and enforcement of the EU
environmental acquis in the frame of ambient air quality. Desired conditions
include meeting the EU standards set for ambient air quality towards further
protecting human health and the environment. In the Turkish Ministry for
Environment and Urbanisation the necessary capacity shall be established to

246

Figure 8. Sediment Reaching River (RUSLE-A4) Map

247

implement the NEC Directive (http://www.csb.gov.tr/projeler/necen/


index.php). National Air Quality Index (AQI)are also used to assess the air
quality. The threshold values used in the calculation of AQI is presented in Table
4.
SO2, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 are monitored by Air Quality Monitoring Stations of the
Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation (Turkey).
According to National AQI, six classes are distinguished, namely, good ( ),
moderate ( ), sensitive ( ), unhealthy ( ), bad () and dangerous ( ). For
instance, the AQI of Tekirdag is sensitive, i.e. air quality may adversely affect
children, elders and those with respiratory disorder, while the AQI of Edirne is
moderate, i.e., air quality is suitable for health.
Table 3. Limit values of parameters used in the calculation of Air Quality Index
(http://www.havaizleme.gov.tr/Default.ltr.aspx)
SO2
[g/m]

NO2
[g/m]

CO
[g/m]

O3
[g/m]

PM10
[g/m]

1 hour
average

1 hour
average.

8 hours
average

8 hours
average.

24 8 hours
average

National limit
value

470

290

14.000

120

90

EU Countries
limit Value

350

200

10.000

120

50

Parameters

3.

References

Candeer, O. (2010). Dnden Yarna Trakya'da Yeralt Sular Konferans. Babaeski.


Ecologic Institute and SERI (2010) Establishing Environmental Sustainability Thresholds
and Indicators. Final report to the European Commissions DG Environment,
November 2010.
Groffman, P., Baron, J., Blett, T., Gold, A., Goodman, I., Gunderson, L., Levinson, B.,
Palmer, M., Paerl, H., Peterson, G., LeRoy Poff, N., Rejeski, D., Reynolds, J.,
Turner, M., Weathers, K., and Wiens, J. 2006. Ecological thresholds: the key to
successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical
application? Ecosystems 9(1):113.

248

Huggett, A. 2005. The concept and utility of "ecological thresholds" in biodiversity


conservation. Biological Conservation 124(3):301310
Konukcu, F., Istanbulluoglu, A., Orta A.H. & Kocaman, I., 2004. Land and water
resources of the Thrace Region and their problem. Turkish Chamber of
Architectures and Engineers: Istanbul and Water Symposium. 8-9 January 2004.
Istanbul.
Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, 2014. Municipal and Industrial water
Pollution Monitoring Report available at: http://www.csb.gov.tr/db/ced/
editordosya/ErgeneRaporIlkbahar-2014.pdf

249

250

Chapter

13

Erosion and Desertification Risks Assessment for


Watersheds: Ergene River Basin

Reat AKGZ1

Fatih KONUKCU2

srafil KOCAMAN2

1OGS Geographical Information Technology Inc., Geographical Information System


Department, Ankara-TURKEY. resatakgoz@ogs.as
2

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department,


TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr; ikocaman@nku.edu.tr

1. Introducton
In the scope of the Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea
Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) for Ergene Basin USLE/RUSLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation /
Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) methods have been selected due to their
database suitability and also availability of integration to Geographic
Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS ) and geo-statistics (spatial
statistics). By this way, the current and potential erosion hazard areas maps
have been created for whole basin.
By using USLE / RUSLE method, amount of soil lost from the unit surface area in
a unit time (A, tonnes ha-1 yr-1) can be calculated quantitatively with the help
of soil, topography, using climate and vegetation databases. In addition, after
determining the micro-basin based "sediment delivery ratio" (SDR), the rate of

251

quantitatively defined actual erosion amount (tonnes ha-1 yr-1) reaching to


rivers in the related basin has been calculated.
As a result, USLE / RUSLE model is analysed in a GIS environment by considering
micro-basin size with the approach of the rate of transmission of sediment to
develop the potential erosion map, the actual erosion map and layers to show
the amount of sediment transport reaching to rivers.
In parallel with the development of science and technology, in any country,
region or basin basis, wide range of methods for assesment of the danger of soil
erosion are exist depending on the climate, soil, topography and vegetation
features. There are many mathematical models based on several physical
parameters related to natural elements; day by day the number increases.
USLE approach (Wischmeier & Smith, 1978; Renard et al., 1997), is just one of
the models used to estimate soil loss in national, regional or basin scale and also
it has been used widely in Turkey in order to assess erosion hazards recently.
The equation of USLE method is as follows:
A=RKLSCP

[1]

A: average soil loss (ton ha-1 yr-1),


R: rainfall erosivity factor (= EI30) (MJ mm ha-1 yr-1 hr-1),
K: soil erodibility factor (ton ha-1 ha MJ-1h mm-1),
L and S: topographic (length-slope) factor,
C: crop and cover management factor,
P: prevention practices factor.
2. Materials and Methods
The digital databases officially available for the whole country and used in the
project while applying USLE/RUSLE methodology for the evaluation of soil
erosion risk (cellular [raster] and vectorel databases) are given below;

252

Topographic Map (1:25.000)

Digital Elevation Model (1:25.000)

Forest Map (1:25.000)

Solis Map (1:25.000)

Land Use / Land Cover (CORINE, 2012)

Drainage Data (DS)

Catchment and Dam Data (DS)

River Sediment Data (E..E., 2006)

Turkey Rainfall Erosivity Data (Kaya, 2008)

As shown above, for implementing USLE/RUSLE method across Turkey, soil,


topography, climate and vegetation databases prepared by various government
agencies were used.
2.1. Methodology
As a project method, USLE/RUSLE erosion prediction technology was used
(Wischmeier and Smith, 1978; Renard et al., 1997). The 'process flowchart' to
express the equality and also the databases where the equation parameters
coming from were explained respectively.
A=RKLSCP

[2]

A: annual soil loss (ton ha-1 yr-1),


R: rainfall erosivity factor (= EI30) (MJ mm ha-1 yr-1 hr-1),
K: soil erodibility factor (ton ha-1 ha MJ-1h mm-1),
L and S: topographic (length-slope) factor,
C: crop and cover management factor,
P: prevention practices factor.
In equation [2], there is only the R and K variables have units, others are
dimensionless. As a result, unit of annual soil loss (A) "t ha-1 yr-1" is obtained
with the multiplication of the R and K factors.

A1 = R K L S

[3]

In the equation above, A1 represents potential soil loss (tons ha-1 yr-1); and refers
to any soil loss that can be occurred when natural vegetation is destroyed.

253

A2 = R K L S C

[4]

In equation [4], A2 represents actual soil loss (tons ha-1 yr-1); and indicates the
soil losses that may occur under the existing vegetation and product
management in any terrain. At this stage, USLE approach (Eq. [4]) provides
comparative analysis of amount of soil loss from the unit area in the unit time
(A2, tonnes ha-1 yr-1) and the amount of permissible soil loss (T, tonnes ha-1 yr-1).
Additionally, it can be used as an important tool in the task of planning for soil,
topography, water and plant resources in a sustainable way.
A3 = R K L S C P

[5]

In equation [5], A3 represents soil losses that may occur under soil protected land
management systems (tonnes ha-1 yr-1).
In equation [6], A4 Sediment Delivery Ratio (Yearly Soil loss) copmared with EE
measurements for different station on the basis of micro catchments.

A 4 = R K L S C P (STO)

[6]

2.1.1. Rainfall Erosivity Factor (USLE/RUSLE -R)


Rainfall erosivity factor values were obtained by applying geo-statistical
methods on point data gathered from rainfall stations within the scope of the
master thesis conducted by Kaya (2008) as a part of the project Determination
of Rainfall Energy and Intensity at the National Scale by Using Long-term
Meteorological Data (TUBITAK Project Number: CAYDAG- 107Y155).
The mathematical calculations benefiting to determine USLE/RUSLE-R factor by
Kaya (2008) are summarized below. The energy (E, MJ ha-1) and intensity (I, mm
h-1) of individual rainfalls were calculated by using the equations [7&8] stated
below, respectively (Brown and Foster, 1987).

E = 0,29 (1 0,72e(0,05I) )
I=

Pm
t

[7]
[8]

In the equation [8], Pm represents the precipitation (mm) and t represents the
time of precipitation (hours). USLE/RUSLE-R value or the amount of energy
transferred to the specific area by unit energy of rainfall in the unit of time (Ri,
MJ ha-1 mm h-1) can be calculated by multiplying the energy of rainfall with 30
minutes of maximum intensity (I30 mm hour -1) (Eq. [9]).

254

Ri = Ei (I30 )i

[9]

To obtain USLE/RUSLE-R, Ri value of each rainfall having high potential for


erosion should be added up (Eq. [10]):
Ry =

i=1

Ri =

(E I )
i

i =1

[10]

30 i

In equation [10], Ry represents the total annual energy flow value (MJ mm ha-1
h-1 yr-1) and "m" is the total precipitation occurs and also provides the
calculation conditions throughout the year. Long-term mean of USLE/RUSLE-R
values can be calculated with the equaiton [11]:
R=

1
N

(Ei I30 )i
j=1 i=1

[11]

In equation [11], N represents the number of years included in the calculations.


Long-term mean (1993-2007) of R variable (MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1) determined as
the point value through the 253 rainfall stations was calculated with the most
optimal way of the estimation of spatial distribution (kriging) by using geostatistical methods in GIS (Journel and Huijbregts, 1978; Trang et al., 1987) (E
[12]).
* (h) =

1 N(h )
[z( x i ) z( x i + h)]
2N(h) i=1

[12]

In equation [12], z(x i )represents the R value of the station (i), z(x i + h)
represents the R value for the other station "h" away from the station (i) and
N(h) represents the distance between stations. Coordinates of specified equality
variables and sampling points and also USLE/RUSLE-R data added into the
ArcView 10.1 to create model map for USLE/RUSLE-R variable.
2.1.2. Soil Erodibility Factor (USLE/RUSLE-K)
In order to determine the sensitivity of soil to erosion in Turkey, General Soil
Map and Digital Soil Database (http://tr.scribd.com/doc/6589024/TurkiyeToprak-Veritaban%C4%B1) were used. Soil features belonging to Great Soil
Groups were rearranged for USLE/RUSLE-K values and converted to a layer in
GIS media. According to expert knowledge, along with intermediate
qualifications, lower and upper limits previously named as too low and too
high values were converted into numerical values by means of Table 3.

255

256

Figure 1. R Factor Map for Ergene Catchment

100

10

90

80

70

Hi veya ok az

20

30

50

60

70

80

60

90

40

20

40

30

30

60
70

20

10

ok
iddetli

50

80
90
100

100

10

20

90

30

50

80

Kaba

40

Ki
l

70

60

70

80

60

90

Kum

50

Orta

nce

20

(b)

40

10

ok ince

100

Figure 2. USLE/RUSLE-K Soil Sensitivity (a) and equaled to soil Texture (b)

(a)

Kum

50

iddetli

Orta

10

t
Si l

40

Ki
l

100

40

30

30

60

20

Orta
ince

50

10

70

t
Sil

80
90

257

100

Table 1. USLE/RUSLE Soil Erosion Sensitivity Numerical Value


USLE/RUSLE-K (t h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1)

Sensitivity Value
Very High

> 0,092

High

0,066 0,092

Medium

0,033 0,066

Low

0,017 0,033

Very Low

< 0,017

The upper limits for the very low, low, medium and high classes of USLE/RUSLEK were taken respectively as 0.017, 0.033, 0.066 and 0.092. On the other hand,
for very high-class, the K value was taken as 0.105.
2.1.3. Topographic -Length and Slope- Factor (USLE/RUSLE-LS)
In the project, USLE / RUSLE-LS variable was obtained by using "Digital Elevation
Model" (DEM) and the calculation ability of "Hydrological Flow Accumulation,
ArcView 10.1. Additionally, mathematical equation (Eq. [13]) was developed in
GIS (Moore and Burch 1986a, 1986b):
0,4

1,3

sin
LS =

22,13 0,0896

[13]
In the equation [13], represents surface runoff concentration, represents
the size of cells included into calculations and represents the slope steepness
(o). In this way, USLE/RUSLE-LS value was not only obtained by the steepness or
length of slope, but also taking into account the expected flow on the soil
surface. So the slope of the study area were calculated using DEM and slope
length was taken as 15 m, constant value for each pixel. (Ogawa et al, 1997).
2.1.4. Crop and Cover Management Factor (USLE/RUSLE-C)
In the scope of ILMM-BSE project, database produced in CORINE 2012
(Coordination of Information on the Environment) for Ergene Basin were used to
obtain USLE/RUSLE-C value.
CORINE Project is one of the important land management project under the
European Global Monitoring for the Environment and Security (GMES) program.

258

Figure 3. K Factor Map for Ergene Catchment

259

260

Figure 4. LS Factor Map for Ergene Catchment

By using the satellite images of 2006 and 2012, the changes in land use have been
detected with the help of GIS and RS to produce current land use maps in 2012. By
this way, monitoring for environmental protection by looking at the changes in land
cover would be supplied according to the criterias of European Environment
Agency. In the project CORINE Land Cover (CLC) in 2012, computer-assisted visual
interpretation of satellite imagery approach has been used as a mapping methodology and also benefited from images produced by SPOT-4 and IRS-P6 satellite.
USLE / RUSLE-C levels (EEA, 2000) defined in CORINE land cover (2000), were used
in this project for vegetation cover and product management. Artificial areas (1),
agricultural areas (2), forestry and semi-natural areas (3), wetlands (4) and a total
of 33 values of land cover types specified for the water bodies are given in Table
2. C factor values for salt marsh, artificial areas and water structures were defined
as "0" in Table 2, and it means that soil loss does not ocur from them. C values of
agricultural areas ranges between 0.04 and 0.451, C values of semi-natural areas
and forestry ranges between 0 and 0.36.

Figure 5. CORINE Mapping Units


Table 2. Completed CORINE Land Cover 2000 USLE/RUSLE-C Factors (EEA, 2000)
Code

CORINE Land Cover

Artificial Surfaces

Agricultural Areas

2111

Non-irrigated arable land

0.4

2112

Non-irrigated arable land, green houses

0.4

2121
2122

Irrigated arable land


Irrigated arable land, green houses

C Factor

0.2
0.2
261

Table 2. continued.
Code

CORINE Land Cover

213

Rice Fields

0.1

221

Vineyards

0.451

2221

Fruit trees and berry plantations, non-irrigated

0.296

2222

Fruit trees and berry plantations, irrigated

0.296

223

Olive Groves

0.296

231

Pastures

0.04

2421

Complex cultivation, non-irrigated

0.335

2422

Complex cultivation, irrigated

0.335

243

Land principally occupied by agriculture with


significant areas of natural vegetation

0.04

Forests and Semi-Natural Areas

311

Broad leaved forest

0.003

312

Coniferous forest

0.001

313

Mixed forest

0.002

321

Shrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations

0.005

323

Sclerophyllous vegetation

0.04

324

Transitional woodland shrub

0.04

331

Beaches, dunes and sand plains

0.36

3321

Bare rocks

0.36

3322

Bare rocks with very high salt content

0.36

333

Sparsely vegetated areas

0.36

334

Burnt Areas

0.36

262

C Factor

Table 2. continued.
Code

CORINE Land Cover

C Factor

335

Glaciers and perpetual snow

Wetlands

411

Inland marshes

0.001

421

Salt marshes

0.001

422

Salines

Water Bodies

2.1.5. Prevention Practices Factor (USLE/RUSLE-P)


In Ergene Basin, in the framework of this project conducted in sub-basins and
micro-basins scale, calculations were done assuming no soil or water conservation
practices was taken except the reservoirs existing in the basin. Areal data of the
catchment of reservoirs taken officially from DSI (General Directorate Of State
Hydraulic Works) was used to determine the USLE/RUSLE-P variable (Eq. [14]).
P=

Sb
Sh

[14]

In the equation [14], Sb represents the total area of the sub or micro watersheds
with a dam at the outlet (km2) and Sh represents the total basin area (km2). When
information is updated reclamation works carried out by various government
agencies, may be added to the database P factor values for these basins.
2.1.6. Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR)
In this study, USLE/RUSLE method was used to estimate the amount of soil loss
(tons ha-1 yr-1) reaching the outlet in the unit time from the unit area due to
surface and rill erosion. The results of this method and also hydrological DEM data
were used to get SDR values.

263

264

Figure 6. C Factor Map for Ergene Catchment

Figure 7. Sediment Delivery Ratio Map for Ergene Catchment

265

266

Figure 8. Sediment Reaching River (RUSLE-A4) Map

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1. Potential Soil Loss Map
As already stated, when natural vegetation is destroyed by any reason, it is
corresponding to the land cover loss. This map calculated from overlaying R, K, LS
mapping units with Gis software for Ergene catchment.
3.2. Actual Soil Loss (USLE/RUSLE-A2)
This map calculated from overlaying of (R, K, LS ve C mapping units), with Gis
Software for Ergene River Catchment. These maps, show us soil loss might occur
under product management existing vegetation in watershed land.
3.3. Quantities of Sediment Reaching to the River Basin Systems (USLE/RUSLEA4)
The map for quantities of sediment reaching to the river basin systems determined
from Sediment Delivery Ratio" (SDR) in micro-basin based is given in Figure 8. This
map was obtained by using climate, soil, topography, vegetation variables and also
SDR layer given in Figure 7.
Sediment Delivery Ratio(Yearly Soil loss) compared with EE measurements for
different station on the basis of micro catchments.
4. References
Brown, L.C., and Foster, G.R. 1987. Storm erosivity using idealized intensity distributions.
Trans. ASAE 30 pp. 379-386.
Erpul, G., Bayramin, I. Topu, Kaya, P., Saygn Deviren, S. 2009. Trkiyede Su Erozyonu
almalar in Uzun Dnem Meteoroloji Verileri Kullanarak Ulusal lekte Ya
Enerji Ve iddetlerinin Belirlenmesi. Tbitak Proje No: AYDA 107Y155.
Journel, A.G., Huijbregts, C.S. 1978. Mining Geostatistics. Academic Press, New York,
p.600.
Kaya, P. 2008. Trkiyede Uzun Dnem ya verileri kullanlarak ulusal lekte USLE-R
faktrnn belirlenmesi. Yaymlanmam Yk. Lisans Tezi. Ankara niversitesi Fen
Bilimleri Enstits.
Moore, I. and Burch, G. 1986a. Phyical basis of the length-slope factor in the universal soil
loss equation. Journal of Soil Science Society of America 50, 1294-1298.
Moore, I. and Burch, G. (1986b). Modelling erosion and deposition: topographic effects.
Transactions of ASABE 29(6), 1624-1630

267

Renard, K.G., Foster, G.R., Weesies, G.A., McCool, D.K., Yoder, D.C., 1997. Predicting soil
erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the Revised Universal Soil
Loss Equation (RUSLE), USDA-ARS, Agricultural Handbook No. 703.
Trangmar, B.B., Yost, R.S., Wade, M.K., Uehara, G., Sudjadi, M., 1987. Spatial variation of
soil properties and rice yield in recently cleared land. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J., 51:
668-674.
Wischmeier W.H., D.D. Smith 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses. A guide to
conservation planning United States Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C..

268

Chapter

14

Climate Change and Flood Risk Assessment:


A - Prediction of Climate Change and Its Impact on
Water Resources and Crop Yileds in Ergene River
Basin

Huzur DEVEC1
1

Fatih KONUKCU2

Namk Kemal University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.


hdeveci@nku.edu.tr

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030 TekirdagTURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Climate change is a great and complex challenge facing human being recently. It
is an issue of sustainable development as well as an environmental problem,
affecting all sectors. Measures should be taken to mitigate and prevent the
impact of climate change on the sectors in global and national level. To do this,
climate change and its probable impacts should be properly forecasted.
The aim of this chapter is to predict the potential climate change and its effects
on water resources and the yield of both wheat and sunflower, the two vital
plants for the Thrace Region.

269

2. Methods for prediction climate change and its Impact on water resources
and yield
RegCM3 Regional Climate Model, reference and A2 scenario outputs were used in
the estimation of climate change. The changes in temperature and precipitation
were estimated for the future period of 2016-2025 (short-term), 2046-2055 (midterm) and 2076-2085 (long-term) by comparing temperature and precipitation
data measured in the study area for the period of 1970-1990 and model
reference data. To model the effect of climate change on surface water
resources, the SWMHMS Hydrological Model was tested with measured run off
data in the study area between 1989 and 2007 and then runoff values for the
future periods were simulated (Allred and Haan, 1996). In order to determine
the effects of climate change yield in the region, AquaCrop Model were used.
Having tested the models with the measured data of yields for 2012, the models
were run for the future periods (Raes et al., 2009a; Raes et al., 2009b; Raes et
al., 2009c; Raes et al., 2009d).
3. Results
3.1. Modelling Probable Climate change
RegCM3 Model was tested using the available climatic data between the years of
1970 and 1990 then it was run for the future forecasting. The measured and
simulated minimum, maximum and average temperatures for the past period of
1970 -1990 were compared in Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3, respectively,
whereas the simulated average temperature for the future periods of 2016-2025
(short-term), 2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (long-term) were presented
in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6, respectively. The changes in temperature
were summarised in Table 1.
The measured and simulated precipitations for the past period of 1970 -1990
were compared in Figure 7 whereas the simulated precipitations for the future
periods of 2016-2025 (short-term), 2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (longterm) were presented in Figure 8, Figure 9 and Figure 10, respectively. The
changes in precipitations were summarised in Table 2.
Temperature rises of 0,12 C, 1,43 C, 3,05C were forecasted for the future
periods of 2016-2025, 2046-2055 and 2076-2085, respectively when compared
with the data between 1970 and 1990 whereas a 9% increase during 2016-2025
and 14% and 12% decrease for the periods of 2046-2055 and 2076-2085,
respectively, were predicted for precipitation.

270

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
1.1.1970

2.9.1974

3.20.1978
Date

4.28.1982

Min. Temperature (Model)

6.6.1986

7.15.1990

Min. Temperature (Measured)

2.9.1974

3.20.1978
Date

4.28.1982

6.6.1986

7.15.1990

Max. Temperature (Measured)

271

Figure 2. The measured (Corlu Meteorological Station) and simulated (RegCM3 Model) maximum temperatures for the past
period of 1970 -1990.

-10
1.1.1970

10

20

30

40

50

Max. Temperature (Model)

Figure 1. The measured (Corlu Meteorological Station) and simulated (RegCM3 Model) minimum temperatures for the past
period of 1970 -1990.

Min. Temperature (C)

Max. Temperature (C)

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
1.1.1970

2.9.1974

3.20.1978
Date

4.28.1982

6.6.1986

Temperature (Model)

7.15.1990

Temperature (Measured)

272

Oca.17

Oca.18

Oca.19

Oca.20

Year

Oca.21

Oca.22

Oca.23

Oca.24

Oca.25

Figure 4. Simulated (RegCM3 Model) average temperatures for future short term (2016-2025) in Ergene River Basin.

0
Oca.16

10

15

20

25

30

Figure 3. The measured (Corlu Meteorological Station) and simulated (RegCM3 Model) average temperatures for the past
period of 1970 -1990.

Average Temperatute (C)

Temperature (oC)

Temperature (oC)

Oca.47

Oca.48

Oca.49

Oca.50
Year

Oca.51

Oca.52

Oca.53

Oca.54

Oca.55

0
Oca.76

10

15

20

25

30

35

Oca.77

Oca.78

Oca.79

Oca.80
Year

Oca.81

Oca.82

Oca.83

Oca.84

Oca.85

Figure 5. Simulated (RegCM3 Model) average temperatures for future mid term (2046-2055) in Ergene River Basin

0
Oca.46

10

15

20

25

30

Figure 6. Simulated (RegCM3 Model) average temperatures for the future long term (2076-2085) in Ergene River Basin

Temperature (oC)

273

2.9.1974

3.20.1978
Date

4.28.1982

6.6.1986

7.15.1990

PrecipitaCon (Measured)

Precipita:on (mm)

274

50

100

150

Year

06.01.23

05.01.22

04.01.21

04.01.20

03.01.19

02.01.18

01.01.17

01.01.16

Figure 8. Simulated (RegCM3 Model) average precipitations for future short term (2016-2025) in Ergene River Basin.

Precipita:on (mm)

200

07.01.24

Figure 7. The measured (Corlu Meteorological Station) and simulated (RegCM3 Model) average precipitations for the past
period of 1970 -1990.

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.1.1970

PrecipitaCon (Model)

07.01.25

0
Oca.46

50

100

150

200

Oca.47

Oca.48

Oca.49

Oca.50
Year

Oca.51

Oca.52

Oca.53

Oca.54

Oca.55

Oca.77

Oca.78

Oca.79

Oca.80
Year

Oca.81

Oca.82

Oca.83

Oca.84

Oca.85

Figure 10. Simulated (RegCM3 Model) average precipitations for future long term (2076-2085) in Ergene River Basin.

0
Oca.76

50

100

150

200

250

Figure 9. Simulated (RegCM3 Model) average precipitations for future mid term (2046-2055) in Ergene River Basin.

Precipita:on (mm)

Precipita:on (mm)

275

Table 1. Average temperature changes in the future periods of 2016-2025 (shortterm), 2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (long-term) in comparison to
reference period of 1970-1990.
Period

Annual average
temperature (C)

Deviation (C)

1970-1990 (measured

12.57

1970-1990 (simulated)

12.97

+0,4

2016-2025 (short -term)

13.09

+ 0.12

2046-2055 (mid-term)

14.40

+1.43

2076-2085 (long- term)

16.06

+3.05

Table 2. Average precipitations changes in the future periods of 2016-2025


(short-term), 2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (long-term) in
comparison to reference period of 1970-1990.
Period

Annual average
precipitation (mm/year)

Deviation (%)

1970-1990 (measured

599

1970-1990 (simulated)

600

0,01

2016-2025 (short -term)

720

+ 20

2046-2055 (mid-term)

569

- 5,2

2076-2085 (long- term)

582

-3

3.2. Modelling impact of climate change on water resources


SWMHMS hydrologic model was first tested with the available measured rainfallrun off (surface water resources) data between the years of 1989 and 2007
(Figure 11) and then the impact of climate change on surface water resources
was modelled for the future periods of 2016-2025 (Figure 12), 2046-2055 (Figure
13) and 2076-2085 (Figure 14). The changes in run of or surface water resources
were summarised in Table 3.

276

Date

Es<mated Flow (mm)

13.01.2005
13.01.2004

12.01.2003

11.01.2002

10.01.2001

10.01.2000

09.01.1999

08.01.1998

07.01.1997

07.01.1996

06.01.1995

05.01.1994

04.01.1993

04.01.1992

03.01.1991

02.01.1990

01.01.1989

Run o (mm)

0
Oca.16

20

40

60

80

100

Oca.17

Oca.18

Oca.19

Oca.20

Oca.21
Year

Oca.22

Oca.23

Oca.24

Oca.25

277

Figure 12. The simulated (SWMHMS Hydrological Model) runoff values in Pinarbas Sub-Basin of Ergene River Basin fort he
future short term (1989 and 2007).

Akm (mm)

Figure 11. The measured and simulated (SWMHMS Hydrological Model) runoff values in Pinarbas sub-basin of Ergene River
Basin betwen 1989 and 2007.

10

20

30

40

Measured Flow (mm)

14.01.2006

50

15.01.2007

0
Oca.46

20

40

60

80

100

Oca.47

Oca.48

Oca.49

Oca.50
Year

Oca.51

Oca.52

Oca.53

Oca.54

Oca.55

Oca.77

Oca.78

Oca.79

Oca.80
Year

Oca.81

Oca.82

Oca.83

Oca.84

Oca.85

278

Figure 14. The simulated (SWMHMS Hydrological Model) runoff values in Pinarbas sub-basin of Ergene River Basin fort he
future long term (2076-2085).

0
Oca.76

20

40

60

80

100

Figure 13. The simulated (SWMHMS Hydrological Model) runoff values in Pinarbas Sub-Basin of Ergene River Basin for the
future mid term (2046-2055).

Run o (mm)

Run o (mm)

Table 3. Average runoff changes in the future periods of 2016-2025 (short-term),


2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (long-term) in comparison to
reference period of 1989-2007.
Period

Annual average run


off (mm)

Deviation (%)

1970-1990 (measured

2.80

1970-1990 (simulated)

2.86

+2.14

2016-2025 (short -term)

6.91

+141.0

2046-2055 (mid-term)

2.96

+3.00

2076-2085 (long- term)

4.56

+59.0

The climate changes were estimated to increase the surface run off by %141, %3
and %59 in the future periods of 2016-2025 (short-term), 2046-2055 (mid-term)
and 2076-2085 (long-term), respectively.
When the future precipitation and run-off data were evaluated together, it may
be concluded that significant changes are not expected in the total precipitation
but the precipitation regime is forecasted to change dramatically, large amount
of rainfall is expected following long lasting drought period. This was the reason
why the future run off values were simulated higher.
3.3. Modelling impact of climate change on crop yield
AquaCrop Model was first tested with the measured data of yields for 2012
(Table 4), then the model was run for the future periods (Table 5 and Table 6).
Sunflower yield first increased up to 7.7% in short term and then decreased up to
23.3% and 3.1% (Table 5) in the mid and long term, respectively, while the
wheat yield increased up to 81.4%, 60.2% and 90.2% in short, mid and long term
future periods (Table 6), respectively, when compared to the measured data of
2012 without taking vegetation period shortage into consideration.
It may be concluded that the Thrace Region/Ergene River Basin is vital to ensure
food safety of Turkey with this increase in wheat yield.

279

Table 4. The measured and simulated (AquaCrop Model) sunflower and wheat
yields in Ergene River Basin in 2012.
Crop

Sunflower

Wheat

Location in
ER Basin

Measured
yield (kg/ha)

Simulated yield
kg/ha)

Deviation (%)

Akincilar

2400

2340

-3

Sofular

1930

1900

-1

Cvenli

2490

2510

Akincilar

5000

5020

Sofular

5750

576

Cvenli

6600

6630

Table 5. Changes in suflower yields in the future periods of 2016-2025 (shortterm), 2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (long-term) in comparison to
reference year of 2012.
Deviation from the yieald
of 2012 (%)

Yield (kg/ha)
Sunflower
2012

20162025

20462055

20762085

20162025

20462055

20762085

Akincilar

2400

2480

2110

2410

3.3

-12.0

0.4

Sofular

1930

2080

1480

1870

7.7

-23.3

-3.1

Cvenli

2490

2510

2030

2480

0.8

-18,4

-0.4

280

Table 6. Changes in whet yields in the future periods of 2016-2025 (short-term),


2046-2055 (mid-term) and 2076-2085 (long-term) in comparison to
reference year of 2012.
Deviation from the yieald of
2012 (%)

Yield (kg/ha)
Wheat
2012

20162025

20462055

20762085

20162025

20462055

20762085

Akincilar

5000

9070

801

9510

81.4

60,2

90,2

Sofular

5750

9060

808

9410

57.6

40,5

63,6

Cvenli

6600

8150

815

9330

23.5

23,5

41,3

4. References
Allred B ve Haan C. T (1996). SWMHMS-Small Watershed Monthly Hydrologic Modelling
System. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 32 (3): 541-552.
Raes D, Steduto P, Hsiao T. C ve Fereres E (2009a). Reference Manual. Chapter One:
AquaCrop version 3.1.The FAO Crop Model to Simulate Yield Response to Water.
FAO, Land and Water Development Division, Rome. 1-10.
Raes D, Steduto P, Hsiao T. C ve Fereres E (2009b). Reference Manual. Chapter Two:
Users Guide, FAO, Land and Water Development Division, Rome. 1-115.
Raes D, Steduto P, Hsiao T. C ve Fereres E (2009c). Reference Manual. Chapter Three:
Calculation Procedures, FAO, Land and Water Development Division, Rome, 1-83.
Raes D, Steduto P, Hsiao T. C ve Fereres E (2009d). Reference Manual. Annexes. Rome.

281

282

Chapter

14

Climate Change and Flood Risk Assessment:


B - Flood Risk of Ergene River Basin

Erol Aptoula MOUSTAFA1

Fatih KONUKCU2

Namk Kemal University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, TR59030
Tekirdag-TURKEY. erol.a@hotmail.com

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department,


TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Ergene River Basin has an important place in the country due to its geographical
location, topography, geological structure, soil properties and incorporating
several different climates. The basin has been facing many problems related to
land and water resources management, among which flooding is a significant
issue. Flood events occurring often in the basin causes to serious damages.
The objective of this study is to detect the area of high flood risk in Ergene River
Basin to prevent or reduce its damages.

283

2. Methodology
Among multicriterion decision analysis methods, Analytical Hierarchy Process
(AHP) was used to determine the flood -sensitive region in Ergene River Basin.
AHP is a process that uses hierarchical decomposition to deal with complex
information in multicriterion decision making. It consists of three steps: i)
developing the hierarchy of attributes related, ii) identifying the relative
importance of the attributes and iii) scoring the alternatives relative
performance on each element of the hierarchy.
There are many factors affecting river flow. Here, six criteria were used in the
determining the risk of flooding, namely runoff (Figure 1), elevation (Figure 2),
slope (Figure 3), aspect (Figure 4), drainage density (Figure 5) and size of sub
basin (Figure 6). To obtained these criteria, an altitude map with 5m resolution ,
soil map in the scale of 1/25000 and river layer map were used. Each criterion
was formed into raster data with 10x10 resolution using the tool of GIS
technology.

Figure 1. Runoff map of Ergene River Basin

284

Figure 2. Digital elevation map of Ergene River Basin

Figure 3. Slope map of Ergene River Basin

285

Figure 4. Aspect map of Ergene River Basin

Figure 5. Drainage density map of Ergene River Basin

286

Figure 6. Size of subbasin map of Ergene River Basin

3. Results
Matrix of pairwise comparisons with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was created
(Table1). As a result of pairwise comparisons, weight ratio of each criterion was
calculated (Table 2). First this ratio was multiplied by the pixel values of each
criterion. Then, maps were overlaid one on top of the other and finally flood risk
map was formed (Figure 7). The results showed that junction points of Ergene
Rivers branches, low lying areas with small slope are at high risk of flooding
while the areas with high elevation and slope have less risk.

287

Table 1. Matrix of pairwise comparisons with the Analytic Hierarchy Process


Pairwise
comparisons

Runoff

Elevation

Slope

Aspect

Drainage
density

Size of sub
basin

Runoff

1.0

3.0

3.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

Elevation

0,33

1.0

0,5

2.0

1,0

0.5

Slope

0,33

2.0

1,0

3.0

1,0

0.5

Aspect

0,25

0.5

0,33

1.0

0,5

0.33

Drainage
density

0,33

1.0

1,0

2.0

1,0

0.5

Size of sub
basin

0,5

2.0

2,0

3.0

2,0

1.0

Table 2. Calculated weight ratio of each criterion.


Layer of criterion

Weight

Runoff

0.35

Elevation

0.11

Slope

0.15

Aspect

0.06

Drainage density

0.12

Size of sub basin

0.21

288

Figure 7. Flood risk map of Ergene River Basin

289

290

Chapter

15

Assessment of Trans-Boundary Problems

Emilia GEORGIEVA1

lker ORU2

Elena HRISTOVA1

Krum VELCHEV1

Hristina KIROVA1

Dimiter SYRAKOV1

Maria PRODANOVA1

Rozeta NEIKOVA1

Blagorodka VELEVA1

Damyan BARANTIEV1

Anton PETROv1

Maria KOLAROVA1

Valeri NIKOLOV1

Ekaterina BATCHVAROVA1

Hristomir BRANZOV1

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 66


Tsarigradsko chaussee, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria, emilia.georgieva@meteo.bg
2

Krklareli University, Vocational College of Technical Sciences, Krklareli, Turkey,


ilkeroruc@klu.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey share the basin of the Maritsa/Evros/ Meric River.
The Maritsa/Evros/Meric River is about 500 km long, has its source in the Rila
Mountain (Bulgaria) and flows into the Aegean Sea. Major transboundary
tributaries include the rivers Arda/Ardas (Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey),
Tundzha/Tundja/Tunca (Bulgaria, Turkey) and Biala/Erithropotamos (Bulgaria,
Greece). The river Ergene is an important tributary, located in Turkey. The basin
has a mountainous character at its upper part; low mountains and plains cover

291

the major part of the basin. The average elevation is 100 m above se level.
(http://www.twrm-med.net/southeastern-europe/transboundary-river-basinmanagement/shared-surface-water-bodies/copy_of_map/new-riverbasins/maritsa-evros-meric-river-basin/maritsa-evros-meric-river-basin). Ergene
River Basin is sourced in Istranca Mountain Ranges, join into the Maritsa River.
The delta of the Maritsa/Evros/Meric River, shared by Greece and Turkey (150
out of the 188 km2 of the delta lies in the Greek territory), is of major ecological
significance. It is one of the most important wintering areas for birds in the
Mediterranean. A major part of the delta in Greece (100 km2) has been
designated as a Ramsar Site; it also enjoys the status of Special Protected Area
and Natura 2000 site. Some 33% of the Bulgarian part of the basin has been also
designated as Natura 2000 sites. Areas of ecological importance in Turkey are
under national protection status. Areas near the delta are used as agricultural
land.
Untreated waste water is one of the major reason for water pollution of Maritsa
and Ergene River Basin. However, Ergene River has no connection to Greece and
Bulgaria. Therefore, the hydrologic trans-boundary problem of Ergene River
Basin is not considered here. The detail information on hydrological transboundary
problems
can
be
reached
at:
http://www.twrmmed.net/southeastern-europe/transboundary-river-basin-management/sharedsurface-water-bodies/copy_of_map/new-river-basins/maritsa-evros-meric-riverbasin/maritsa-evros-meric-river-basin
The air born trans-boundary problems of Ergene River Basin were evaluated in
Chapter 9. The following part of the article is based on a project Joint Study of
Anthropogenic Air Pollution in the Burgas - Kirklareli Cross-Border Area as a Step
Towards Future Assessments on its Impact on the Population and the
Environment SAAP4FUTURE supported by EU under Bulgaria - Turkey IPA CrossBorder Programme.
2. The Atmospheric Pollution in The Cross-Border Region Burgas -Kirklareli
The cross-border region of Burgas-Kirklareli is located in SouthEastern Europe,
at the south-eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It covers an area of about
10000 km2 with several protected areas and natural parks as the Strandja Nature
Park in Bulgaria and the Saka Lake Nature Reserve with the neada Longoz
Forests near the Black Sea coast in Turkey. The cross-border region is
characterized by rich biodiversity and for its flora and fauna is treated as unique
in Europe. The population density is rather low, about 53 inhabitants per km2,
but the small villages along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast accept a lot of tourists
during the summer season.

292

Thus, the knowledge of the air pollution in the region is important not only for
the protection of human health, but also for estimating the threads it poses on
the regions main assets -natural parks, tourism, recreation, and cultural
heritage places. In principal, the Burgas-Kirklareli area is poorly covered by air
quality monitoring stations. They are usually placed in bigger towns or industrial
zones and thus cannot be representative for the protected and rural parts.
Current air pollution assessment are, however, based on this limited and sparse
information. Moreover, important indicators for agriculture and forests, as
acidity and chemical composition of precipitation are not routinely measured.
In an attempt to fill in some of these gaps and provide new information crucial
for air pollution estimates, a joint survey on air quality in the area has been
recently undertaken in the framework SAAP4FUTURE, a project funded by EU
through the Bulgarian Turkey IPA cross-border Programme [1].
In this work we present some results from main project activities on analysis of
available data, on numerical modelling of the transport of air pollution and
chemical analysis of precipitation samples, collected during ad hoc organised
field campaigns.
2.1.

Main Air Quality Problem

Routine air quality measurements are being performed by the respective


Environmental Agencies at the stations shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Air quality monitoring stations in the studied region: in orange in


Burgas District, in green in Kirklareli Province

293

A common air quality problem is related to high values of particulate matter


with diameter below 10 m (PM10). Figure 2a indicates that the mean annual
concentrations in the last years often exceed the EU limit value of 40 gm-3.

-a-

-bFigure 2. Mean annual concentrations for the period 2007-2013 at the stations
Burgas-Dolno Ezerovo, Burgas-Meden Rudnik and Kirklareli: a) PM10, the line
indicates EU limit value; b) SO2

294

The main causes for high PM10 concentrations in Burgas are in combustion
processes for domestic heating in winter and the transport, occurring often in
unfavourable meteorological conditions [2, 3]. In Kirklareli PM10 levels have
shown decrease with the gasification, but in the last years they still remain high
due to increased traffic and building activities.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2), which is an important acidifying factor for the
environment, is characterized by a drop in the mean annual values (Figure 2b),
especially for Kirklareli where local measures have reduced the sulphur amounts
in fuels [4].
Another acidifying pollutant, the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has annual
concentrations at the stations in Burgas below the EU limit value of 40 gm-3
(Figure 3a), however at traffic hot-spots the daily limit values of 200 gm-3 might
be easily exceeded.
Ozone (O3) is also a strong acidifying pollutant with impacts on human health,
vegetation and fish. The mean annual concentrations at the three stations in
Burgas remain almost constant during the last years (Figure 3b). As these are
urban stations, where ozone is titrated by NO2, it has to be expected to have
higher values at the rural sites, especially during summer. This is well evident
for the coastal site of Kirklareli-Limankoy.
2.2. Numerical Modeling of the Transport of Air Pollutants
Numerical models are valuable tools in air quality studies, used not only for
analysis of specific phenomena, but also for assessment and future trends of air
pollution. Within the project SAAP4FUTURE the model system WRF-CMAQ was
applied for better understanding transport and deposition processes in the crossborder region, as well as for construction of air pollution maps for specific
meteorological situations.
The comprehensive WRF-CMAQ air pollution modelling system is the backbone of
the Bulgarian Chemical Weather Forecast System [5, 6]. Three nested domains
were used with different horizontal resolution Europe (81 km), Balkan
Peninsula (27 km) and Bulgaria (9 km), thus allowing to take into account effects
of long-range transport on air pollution in the studied area. For each day from
June to December 2014 simulated concentrations of 19 pollutants, as well as wet
and dry depositions of 23 species were obtained.
As example of modelling results, maps of hourly surface concentrations for the
most problematic pollutants - O3, NO2 and PM10 at fixed dates are presented in
Figure 4.

295

-a-

-bFigure 3 Mean annual concentrations for the period 2008-2013 at the stations
Burgas-Dolno Ezerovo, Burgas-Meden Rudnik , and Burgas-DOAS for: a) NO2;
b) O3, the yellow bar is for Kirklareli-Limankoy 2013

296

Figure 4. Mean hourly concentrations (gm-3) for: left - O3 at 13 UTC on Aug 11,
2014; middle -NO2 at 18 UTC on Jun 02, 2014; right PM10 at 04 UTC on Nov 1 ,
2014; Note the different scales

297

The model reveals high ground level ozone concentrations over the Seas (Figure
4 left). These concentrations can be transported towards the land very often in
the summer period, thus creating conditions for acidification of forests and
agricultural land. NO2 concentrations have much more local character and the
central map in Figure 4 shows higher values in the big cities outside the crossborder area (Constanta, Bucharest, Burgas, and Istanbul). The PM10 distribution
(Figure 4 right) refers to an autumn date, when fogs and low winds often are
present along the Black Sea coast, leading this to accumulation of pollutants.
Figure 5 shows modelled dry depositions of chlorine, sodium and sulfate in
coarse mode (10m>d>2.5m) at 14:00 UTC on Jul 4, 2014. Most of these
aerosols originate from sea wave breaking processes. Potential source of sulphur
is also the marine transport with ships using fuel of low quality.
The model runs have been performed with rather big horizontal grid size (9 km)
and do not allow more insight in the pollutants distribution at local scale. Some
comparison of modelled to measurements concentrations from Burgas and
Kirklareli are discussed in [7], indicating that local emissions are of primary
importance for improvement of model capabilities.
3.3. Precipitation Chemistry
The study of precipitation chemistry in the cross-border region was driven by its
importance to variety of environmental issues - acid deposition, eutrophication,
trace metal deposition, ecosystem health, biogeochemical cycling, and global
climate change. The main aim of our investigation was to collect new data on
precipitation acidity and its chemical composition in the Bulgaria Turkey cross
border area by organizing measurement campaigns at selected sites.
Sampling sites: The collection of atmospheric deposition samples was carried
out at four sites two in the Bulgarian territory and two in the territory of
Turkey, Figure 6.
The Bulgarian sampling sites in Burgas and Ahtopol are situated in the
observatories of the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH
BAS). Both sites are near the Black Sea coast. The Turkish sampling site in
Kirklareli is situated at the premises of the Atatrk Soil and Water Resources
Research Institute. The second Turkish sampling site is placed about 5 km
northwest of Pinarhisar, in the small town of Kaynarca.

298

Figure 5. Mean hourly dry depositions (g/ha) at 14:00 UTC on Jul 4, 2014 for:
left - chlorine, middle - sodium and right - sulphate

299

Figure 6. The sampling sites in the cross-border area organized within the
project SAAP4FUTURE
Sampling procedure: The measurement campaigns were organized in the period
from June to December 2014 at the Bulgarian sites and from July to December
2014 at the Turkish sites.
Manual sampling systems have been assembled by both partners. These samplers
allow collection of wet (precipitation), dry, and bulk (wet plus dry) atmospheric
deposition. Each of the manual sampling systems in Burgas and Ahtopol (Figure
7a) contains 3 polyethylene vessels (one with lid) previously rinsed with
deionised water (pH: 5.4 to 5.6, EC<1 mS.cm-2). They have been installed at a
height of about 1.5m a.g.l. The lid is moved manually between two containers,
at the start and at the end of the rainy period, so that during such periods the
container for wet samples remains open and the container for dry samples
remains closed. A rainy period is defined here as the period with rain, caused by
one and the same synoptic process. Sometimes it lasts only few hours, in other
cases it can be of 2-3 days with short interruptions between single rain events.
Dry samples were collected between two rainy periods.
The manual sampling systems in Kirklareli and Kaynarca have been installed also
at a height of about 1.5m a.g.l., but their structure is different from those in
Ahtopol and Burgas, Figure 7b. The sampling devices are with funnels of about

300

60cm in diameter, and the vessel for dry deposition is protected by a kind of
roof higher than 1.5m. The procedure of collecting samples is also different wet (precipitation) samples are collected as soon as possible after the start of
the rain. Dry samples are collected every 15 days. The procedure with cleaning
and storage of the samples is similar for all four sites.

-a-

-b-

Figure 7. The sampling systems in Bulgaria and Turkey


Analysis: The collected samples were transferred into sample containers (PE
bottles), which were pre-washed with deionized water. Acidity (pH) and electro
conductivity (EC) of the precipitation samples from all 4 sampling sites were
determined immediately on site, after the collection with portable pH/EC/TDS
meters, HI9811-5 Hanna Instruments. The samples were then stored in a
refrigerator at 4C, without access to sunlight, before their transportation to
the chemical laboratories.
The Bulgarian samples were analyzed according to the Bulgarian Standard in the
Water Lab at the University Prof. Dr. Asen Zlatarov- Burgas by using standard
cuvettes of Hach LANGE photometric equipment for Cl-, SO42- , NO3-, NH4+, and
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) technique for K+, Na+ and heavy metals as
cobalt, chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, cadmium, copper and
lead (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb).
The analysis of the Turkish samples was carried out in the laboratory of the
Atatrk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station in Krklareli.
Ion chromatography (DIONEX ICS-5000) was used for Cl-, SO42- , NO3-, NH4+
analysis and ICP- OES (SPECTRO ARCOS) apparatus for analysis of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+,
Na+ and heavy metals.
Some results for wet (precipitation) samples: We provide here, as example,
the results from the chemical analysis of precipitation samples collected on four

301

rainy days at the four sampling sites. We have selected 2 summer and 2 autumn
days, when rain was observed at the different sites, and when chemical analysis
of the samples included acidity, main anions and cations and heavy metal
analysis. These days are, respectively, for Ahtopol - 8th and 17th August, 15th and
30th November 2014, for Burgas 16th August, 29th October, 10th and 16th
November 2014, for Kirklareli 7th and 24th August, 3rd and 13th November 2014,
for Kaynarca 7th and 17th August, 19th and 30th November 2014.
The concentration of the main cations for the selected days at the four sites is
presented in Figure 8.
In the samples from Ahtopol and Burgas the concentration of Ca2+ is in general
higher than the concentrations for other measured cations, both for the summer
and winter days. NH4+ has very low concentrations, and is even missing in same
samples. For Kirklareli the prevailing cation is also Ca2+, while for Kaynarca the
cation with highest concentration is NH4+. Although the major source of Ca2+ in
the atmosphere is the soil, Ca2+ is also emitted from combustion processes. The
major emission source of atmospheric ammonia are agricultural activities.
The main anions concentrations in the wet samples from the four sites and for
the selected days are shown in Figure9. The prevailing anions in the samples
from Ahtopol and Burgas are chlorine and nitrate, while for the Turkish samples
the prevailing anion on the selected days is sulphate, especially during the
autumn days, most probably related to heating processes. Burgas and Ahtopol
stations are located at the Black Sea coast. This explains the higher
concentrations of chloride ions in precipitation samples.
The pH value is very different for the Bulgarian and Turkish samples (reported in
Figure 9). While in Ahtopol and Burgas the acidity of the precipitation for the
selected days was in general on the acid range (below 5.6), the character of the
precipitation in Kirklareli and Kaynarca was in the alkaline range (above 6.5).
The low pH values in the samples from Burgas and Ahtopol can be explained by
the higher concentrations of NO3-. The main source of NO3- is atmospheric
oxidation of NOx emitted by fossil fuel combustion. The data obtained show that
ammonia concentrations (NH4+) in all wet samples are practically equal for both
stations (Burgas and Ahtopol). The pH values in the wet samples from Krklareli
and Kaynarca were affected by sources of Ca and NH3 and related alkali ions.
Most probably NH3 from fertilizers used in the agricultural regions is the main
responsible for the neutralization of acidity [8]. The main source of calcium is
expected to be CaCO3 present in the soil. Impact has also the cement industry
around Kaynarca.

302

Figure 8. Concentration of main cations (mgL-1 different colors) in precipitation samples for different days at the four
sampling sites

303

304

Figure 9. Concentration of main cations (mgL-1, different colors) in precipitation samples for different days at the four
sampling sites. Please, note pH and EC values at the top of the graphs

The precipitation samples were also analyzed for heavy metals as Co, Cr, Fe,
Mn, Mo, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb. Metal air pollution is of major concern since it is
global and contributes to contamination of all the components of the
environment. In most cases the maximum pollution levels are within a few
kilometres of the emission sources, but small particulate and aerosol pollutants
can contaminate all areas of the Earth. A recent problem of metal particulate
air pollution is their role in the oxidation of sulphur dioxide and the formation of
acidic aerosols involved in global acid rain [9]. Trace elements (Fe, V, Ca, Pb,
Br, and CI) also contribute to the formation of photochemical smog. As a result
of increased emissions from industrial and transport the release of metal
particulates into the environment is now under strict control in air quality
regulations [10].
The heavy metal concentrations in the wet samples for the selected days are
shown in Figure 10. Presence of Fe and Zn can be noticed both in Burgas and
Ahtopol samples. The iron concentrations within the Burgas region is likely to be
due to local emission sources. It is usually thought that Fe is bound to soil
particles and, thus, the content is not solely due to atmospheric deposition,
however, iron is also emitted during combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal. Zn
levels can be explained by the corrosion of exposed zinc surfaces, as a direct
consequence of acidic air along Ahtopol and Burgas. Zinc is naturally present in
water. The average zinc concentration in seawater is 0.6-5 ppb (0.0006 - 0.005
mg Zn L-1). Rivers generally contain between 5 and 10 ppb zinc. The measured
zinc concentration (below 0.02 mgL-1) is well below the limit of 5 mgL-1
established by the World Health Organization for zinc in waters [11]. In wet
samples from Kirklareli and Kaynarca the metals Mn and Fe are prevailing.
Traces of copper have been also detected.
Mn, Co, Cr, Mo and Cd were under the detection limit in the wet samples from
Burgas and Ahtopol, Table 1. Pb was detected in one sample from Ahtopol. It
should be noticed that seawater contains trace amounts of lead (2-30 ppt). The
World Health Organization legal limit is 10 ppb (0.01 mg Pb L-1) for lead.

Table 1 Detection limits (DL) for heavy metals in Burgas laboratory, mgL-1
Metal

Co

Cr

Fe

Mn

Zn

Cd

Cu

Pb

DL

9.8

4.9

10.3

10.1

10.3

1.1

8.3

5.3

305

306

Figure 10. Concentration of heavy metals (gL-1 different colors) in precipitation samples for different days at the four
sampling sites. Analysis for Ahtopol on 15.11.14 and Burgas on 10.11.14 was not carried out. Values on 16.11.14 in Burgas
were under DL. Please, note the different vertical scales

3. Conclusions
The cross-border area Burgas-Kirklareli is located away from big anthropogenic
air pollution sources. Nevertheless, it is important to investigate different
aspects of air pollution, such as concentrations of different species in the air,
wet and dry deposition phenomena and precipitation chemistry, in order to
preserve its main assets rich biodiversity, many natural parks and growing
tourism activities. The first joint Bulgarian Turkish research project on air
quality in the region was recently carried out. Activities of various nature were
realized during the short projects life (1 year) including field campaigns,
laboratory work, numerical modelling, and chemical analysis. Only part of the
newly collected data have been discussed here.
Numerical modelling results indicate that the cross border area, although
without significant emission sources of air pollution and assumed to be clean,
may be polluted in specific meteorological situations from sources outside the
region (big cities and harbours to the south and to the north of the area). Our
preliminary results have shown that the transport of pollutants and the
precipitation chemistry in the cross border region are very complex. They are
result of the interaction of atmospheric processes at different horizontal scales
taking place over a highly variable landscape, characterised by sea coast and
mountainous terrain. To better represent these processes models with higher
resolution should be used, and consequently better emission inventories should
be compiled.
New data on atmospheric deposition have been obtained by field campaigns at
four sites in the cross border area (Kirklareli, Kaynarca, Burgas and Ahtopol) in
the period from June to November 2014. The chemical analysis of some wet
samples discussed here indicate that pH values of samples from the Bulgarian
stations are slightly acidic, while the pH values for samples from Kirklareli and
Kaynarca are in the alkaline range. The chemical composition of precipitations
at both sides of the border is also different. While Ca2+ is dominant in the
selected samples from three of the sites, Mg2+ is more evident in the samples
from the Bulgarian stations (vicinity of the coast), while NH4+ is more evident in
the samples from the Turkish stations (effect of agriculture). The effect of the
Black Sea is evident also in the higher Cl- concentrations at the Bulgarian sites.
Concerning concentrations of heavy metals in the wet samples - no deviations
from commonly reported values in Europe have been found. In the samples from
Ahtopol and Burgas iron and zinc are prevailing, while for Kirklareli and Kaynarca
this is manganese.
The analysis of all obtained data is still in process. These data contribute
significantly to the very limited knowledge of the precipitation chemistry, and

307

thus to air quality related issues in the region. However, these data are limited
and do not allow identification of emission sources. Future studies are therefore
needed to investigate and identify the correlation between precipitation
chemistry, atmospheric processes, and emission sources.
4. References
[1] SAAP4FUTURE web site: http://saap4future.ecobg.org/
[2] Program for reducing the levels of air pollutants and reaching their norm values in the air of
Municipality
Burgas
for
the
period
2011-2015,
available
at
http://www.burgas.bg/bg/info/index/116
[3]

Hak C., 2010. Results from the screening study, Burgas, NILU
http://www.burgas.bg /uploads/309373e4cb31f834d0313793e108bbca.pdf

May

2010.

[4] 2012 Krklareli li evre Durum Raporu, T.C. Krklareli Valilii evre ve ehircilik l Mdrl,
ED, zinve Denetim ube Mdrl, 2013.
[5] Syrakov D., M. Prodanova, I. Etropolska, K. Slavov, K. Ganev, N. Miloshev, and T. Ljubenov,
2013a: A Multy-Domain Operational Chemical Weather Forecast System, in. Lirkov I., S.
Margenov, and J. Wansiewski (Eds.): LSSC 2013, LNCS v.8353, pp. 413-420, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[6] Syrakov D., M. Prodanova, K. Slavov, I. Etropolska, K. Ganev, N. Miloshev, T. Ljubenov,
2013b: Bulgarian System for Air Pollution Forecast, Journal of International Scientific
Publications ECOLOGY & SAFETY, Volume 7, Part 1 (http://www.science-journals.eu),
ISSN: 1313-2563, pp.325-334.
[7]

Syrakov D., Prodanova M., Nikolov V., Oruc I., Georgieva E, Slavov K., 2014: Simulation
of air pollution in the cross border region Bulgaria Turkey, Proc. of 16th International
Conference
on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory
Purposes, 8-11 September 2014, Varna, Bulgaria, pp. 299-303.

[8] Al-Momani, I.F., Ataman, O.Y., Anwari, A.M., Tuncel, S., Kose, C., Tuncel, G., (1995),
Chemical composition of precipitation near an industrial area at Izmir, Turkey, Atm.
Environt, 29, 11311143.
[9] Gregory, K., Webster, C., &Durk, S., 1996: Estimates of damage to forests in Europe due to
emissions of acidifying pollutants, Energy Policy, 24 (7), 655-664.
[10] Adali M., 2006: Determination of chemical composition of precipitation in Izmir, M.Sc Thesis
Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Dokuz Eyll University.
[11] WHO, 2003: Zink in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO
Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/
chemicals/zinc.pdf

308

Chapter

16

Risk Assessment of the Results of a Lack of


Sustainable Land Use Planning of Ergene River
Basin

Fatih KONUKCU1

Bahadr ALTRK

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

Namk Kemal University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY.


balturk@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
The concept of sustainability includes notions of limits to resource availability,
environmental impact, economic viability, biodiversity and social justice
(Dumanski et al., 1991; Harmsen and Kelly, 1992, Smyth and Dumanski, 1993).
The concept of sustainability is dynamic in that what is sustainable in one area,
may not be in another, and what was sustainable at one time may no longer be
sustainable. Although sustainability cannot be measured directly, assessments of
sustainability can be made on the performance and direction of the processes

309

that control the functions of a given system at a specific location (Dumanski and
Smyth, 1993)
Sustainable land management combines technologies, policies, and activities
aimed at integrating socioeconomic principles with environmental concerns, so
as to simultaneously:

maintain and enhance production (productivity),

reduce the level of production risk, and enhance soil capacity to buffer
against degradation processes (stability/resilience),

protect the potential of natural resources and prevent degradation of soil


and water quality (protection),

be economically viable (viability),

be socially acceptable, and assure access to the benefits from improved


land management (acceptability/equity) (Smyth and Dumanski, 1993).

Experiences gained from the conducted projects around the World produced a
serious of principles for sustainable land management, which can be employed
as a general guidelines for development projects (Dumanski, 1994; 1997; World
Bank, 1997). These are:

Sustainability can be achieved only through the collective efforts of those


immediately responsible for managing resources. This requires a policy
environment that empowers farmers and other, local decision makers, to
reap benefits for good land use decisions, but also to be held responsible
for inappropriate land uses.

Integration of economic and environmental interests in a comprehensive


manner is necessary to achieve the objectives of sustainable land
management. This requires that environmental concerns be given equal
importance to economic performance in evaluating the impacts of
development projects, and that reliable indicators of environmental
performance be developed.

There is urgent need to resolve the global challenge to produce more food
to feed rapidly rising global populations, while at the same time
preserving the biological production potential, resilience, and
environmental maintenance systems of the land. Sustainable land
management, if properly designed and implemented, will ensure that

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agriculture becomes a part of the environmental solution, rather than


remaining an environmental problem.
Increasing scarcity of land requires land use planning for diverse purposes, all
aiming to optimize land and resource uses and to avoid land use conflicts,
erosion and destruction as well as other consequential problems such as famines,
epidemics and war. Long- and short-term goals, ecological, social, economic and
cultural objectives need to be balanced. Land use planning can be applied to
support sustainable development within given areas (territorial development) or
specifically to ensure the protection of ecosystem services, biodiversity and high
conservation values (natural resource management, national park management,
buffer zone management). It can also help to mitigate climate change or adapt
to it, to prevent disasters or to be prepared for them, to ensure food security, to
develop areas in post-conflict situations or in drugs environments or specifically
to reduce land conflicts and to improve land governance (Wehrmann, 2010).
In this chapter, the risks as a result of lack of sustainable land use planning were
assessed for Ergene River Basin in terms of territorial development, natural
resource management, protection of biodiversity, national park and buffer zone
management, food security, disaster risk management, adaptation to and
mitigation of climate change, development in a drugs environment conflict
prevention and resolution, responsible land governance.
2. Risk for Territorial Development
Participatory planning processes play an important role in territorial
development. Land use planning is one of the tools used to negotiate the
interests of different user groups in a defined territory. For example, the
interest by the sectors of agriculture, mining, industry, tourism, municipalities
have to be satisfied in a given territory, yet respecting recreation areas and
protection areas for nature and biodiversity.
Lack of land use planning, ignoring the different users and interest groups
actively, may lead to failure of sustainable development of the territory. Thrace
sub-regional Ergene River Basin Revised Environmental Settlement and Spatial
Plan 2010-2023 (2009) was prepared in the scale of 1/100 000. In this plan, the
importance of agriculture was underlined and therefore Agricultural Sub Regions
and Organised Agricultural Regions were proposed. Development of Agro-tourism
and eco-tourism were encouraged within the framework of following for
principles: sustainability, rural development and prevention of rural population
loses and limitation of industrial development. Additionally, in Ergene River
Action Plan (2008) industrial zones will be gathered under Rehabilitated
Organised Industrial zone.

311

However, migration, rapid population growth, industrial development and


unsystematic urbanisation make the application of existing land use plans
difficult. This increases the pressure on the natural resources (land, water and
biodiversity) of the basin. In the region, while the artificial area (including
settlement area and industrial zone) and water bodies due to new reservoirs
construction increased by 39.4 and 47.9%, respectively, wetlands and
agricultural areas decreased dramatically over the last twenty years.
Technical cooperation should always make sure that this tool is used for a
sustainable and balanced development. The objectives of this development have
to be agreed upon by the stakeholders.
3. Risks for the Natural Resources Management
Integrated natural resource management is a process of managing natural
resources in a systematic way, which includes multiple aspects of natural
resource use (biophysical, socio-political, and economic) meet production goals
of producers and other direct users (e.g., food security, profitability, risk
aversion) as well as goals of the wider community (e.g., poverty alleviation,
welfare of future generations, environmental conservation). It focuses on
sustainability and at the same time tries to incorporate all possible stakeholders
from the planning level itself, reducing possible future conflicts (Lovell et al.,
2002). Environmental conservation, erosion control, combating desertification,
watershed management, management of protected areas, buffer zone
management, protection of biodiversity, sustainable forestry, agro-forestry etc.
are all either part of natural resource management or closely related to it.
The total area of Ergene River Basin is 9534 km2, 81.76 % of which is potential
cultivated land. 70 % of the basins soil is under erosion hazard varying in
intensity, namely 25.3 % ligth, 34.6 % moderate, 8.6 strong and 1.5 % very
strong, while the rest has no such problem (Kocaman et. el, 2007).
The total average annual rainfall of the basin is 604 mm, 47.09 % of which falls
in the critical period of OctoberJanuary in terms of sedimentation. The average
discharge rate in this period is 34.62 m3 s-1 whereas the sediment concentration
is 668.77 ppm (Kocaman et. el, 2007).
The average annual discharge rate 36.195 m3 s-1 against 602.9 ppm annual
average sediment concentration. Therefore the total discharged water from the
basin is 1.141 billion m3 year-1 and the carried total suspended sediment amount
is 688 229.4 t year-1. The total coarse amount is only 2.57 % of the suspended
sediment and amounted as 17 670.48 t year-1. From these data, the total
sediment yield of the basin can be calculated as 74.040 t km-2 year-1, which is

312

well below the average of Turkey. However, it is 2 and 2.5 times larger than the
average of Europe and Africa, respectively. Being 76.93 % of the eroded land
from the 1rst, 2nd and 3rd class cultivated land proves the severity of the
sedimentation, which results in desertification and contamination of water
resources (Kocaman et. el, 2007).
In general, sediment yield of all parts of the basin is not the same; varies from
one part to the other. The investigation in the basin showed that erosion was
seen mostly in the cropped fields for the reasons: i) miss- and excess soil tillage;
ii) soil tillage and sowing in the directions of main slope; iii) ignoring the
interrelated principles between the land capability classes and existing
agricultural practices; iv) burning up the residues which is crucial for preventing
erosion just after the harvest to prepare the soil for the next crop; v) fraction of
the cultivated land into small parcels by the law of heritage; vi) farmers lacking
of knowledge in soil conversation and cultivation techniques and practices; vii)
low organic matter content, average of 0.3% - 1%, affecting aggregate formation
and stability and thus decreasing infiltration rate and increasing runoff rate
(Kocaman et. el, 2007).
The decreases in the cultivated areas forces the farmers to destroy the forest
and range lands with high slope for cultivation. This causes land degradation due
to erosion, contamination of water resources, threated the wetland in the
downstream (Konukcu et al, 2004a).
Intensive farming, ongoing industrial development and its huge trade potential
attracting about 400 000 people to migrate to the region every year put
enormous pressure on natural, especially water, resources. Diffusion of
agricultural pollutant into surface and underground fresh water resources,
inappropriate urbanisation and industrial development into the water supplying
basins worsen the source impairment. Not only the proportion of the available
water resources to be allocated for each competing sector, civil, agriculture and
industry, but also careful integrated water management strategies for each
sector are suggested. The potential of small earth reservoirs, more than 1 500 in
numbers, is emphasised to develop fresh water resources. Water saving policies
in the cities and ethics for water use should carefully be planned.
The main river of the Thrace Region, Ergene, has been increasingly polluted by
the factories built in the river basin. Water analysis data in 1984, when the
industrialisation started, showed that it could be safely used for irrigation
(Becer, 1984). However, it cannot be profitable anymore (Konukcu et al.2004a
and 2004b) regarding its salt, NH4+, NO3, Na, Cl, B and O2 concentration. Many of
the factories supply the fresh water they need for heating, cooling or for other

313

process and dispose the effluent into River Ergene or its tributaries (Albut et al,
2007).
In Ergene Underground Water Basin, there are 13 wells for research, about 400
wells for irrigation and more than 3000 wells for private factories. They are
scattered in the basin irregularly and their depths vary from 100 to 250 m
(Konukcu et al., 2004a and 2004b).
The water levels in the research wells are directly correlated with the total
annual precipitation. The aquifer is fed during the period between November
and May while water is pumped during the whole year long for industry and civil
and during April-September for irrigation.
Getting permission from the authorities (local governments within the border of
a municipality settlement area and DSI outside of the settlement area) to build a
well and pump water is very easy. But unwisely use of groundwater above its
renewable capacity is not controlled. These authorities fail to put the existing
rules and regulations into actions due to the lack of equipment and expertised
staffs. A significant local shrinking has been recorded in the middle part of the
basin, near Cerkezkoy, Corlu and Luleburgaz where most factories take part.
Water usage over the annual renewable capacity should not be permitted and it
should be priced reasonably for each sector. The most efficient solution for
overcoming these problems is the implementation of a well-designed integrated
Watershed Management Plan together with the European Union Water
Framework Directives (Albut et al. 2007).
4. Risks for Protection of Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms. The term includes both
natural and agricultural biological diversity. The sustainable use and protection
of biological diversity is an integral component of successful land use planning
(Wehrmann, 2010).
There are around 2037 industrial plants, some 600 of which are factories, in the
Ergene basin in which the rapidly growing industry is concentrated mainly in
Cerkezkoy, Corlu, Muratli and Luleburgaz quad located along D-100 (formerly
named as E-5) road. Unfortunately, intense industrialization gave rise to rapid
population growth and a big load of pollution in the basin. Additionally, since
agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood for a section of people in the
basin, uncontrolled pesticide use related to agricultural activities led to
pollution of soil and of both ground and above ground waters, consequently the
disruption of ecological balance. Despite the fact that some clean up action

314

plans of the Ergene River have been prepared and put into practice, it is obvious
that it will take long years to restore and rehabilitate the Ergene basin.
In order to understand how high pollution levels affect both terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystems in the Ergene basin, it is essential to determine the areas
existing biological diversity. When examining faunal biological diversity,
vertebrates and invertebrates should be taken into account as two major groups.
Our world is known to have around 63.000 vertebrate (Pogh et al. 2013) and
1.000.000 invertebrate species (Pechenik 2010). In case of the Ergene basin,
although many species of vertebrates have been discovered up to date (Sozen
and Karatas 2010, Ozkan 2013; Anonymous 2014, http://edirne.ormansu.gov.tr),
studies to reveal the whole animal diversity are not numerous. On the other
hand, it is almost unlikely to give a precise number concerning the invertebrates
in the area.
The most part of the basin is characterized by scattered fragments of heathlands
and dry calcareous grasslands, exhibiting characteristics typical of the middle
European steppes. From the phytosociological point of view, these steppe areas
are unique for Turkey and they are different from the ones found in Anatolia
(Baak et al., 2003). The basin deserves intensive botanical research for this
reason alone. Unfortunately, the IPA area is not under official protection, and
shrub and grassland communities developed on fertile clay soils are being
threatened by human activities such as urbanization, industrial infrastructures,
the expansion of agricultural lands, road construction and so on.
5. Risks for National Park and Buffer Zone Management
National Park and Buffer Zone Management need to consider many different
purposes which have to be fulfilled and conflicts which need to be prevented.
Research, tourism and the preservation of unique ecosystems and wildlife have
to be achieved in the core area. The buffer zone is subject to lower protection,
as it needs to cope with the demands of local subsistence farmers for forest
products (Wehrmann, 2010).
Maritsa-Ergene- Rivers form a large delta in the mouth at the Greece bored
(Figure 1). This delta contains fresh water lakes, lagoons, reedbeds and rise
cultivated areas. The fresh water lakes namely are Great Gala (Rice) Lake, Small
Gala (Rice) Lake and Pamuklu Lake. The lagoons in the delta are Tasalti, Dalyan
and Bucurmene lakes located in South side of Great Gala Lake. The depth of
Small Gala Lake varies between 1.0-1.5 m and covered with reedbeds. Both Gala
Lakes occupy about 1 700 ha (Anonymous, 1993).

315

Figure 1. Location of the delta in the mouth of Maritsa-Ergene River Basins.


The protection status in the delta are national park, natural protected areas and
habitats for birds and plants. The delta is one of the internationally important A
class 18 wetlands of Turkey. It falls between 4046 '06.79'' N Latitude, 2611'
07.63'' E Longitude and 15.0 m Altitude in Ipsala and Enez towns of Edirne
Provinces
The Protected Areas: A 2369 ha area covering Pamuklu and Small Gala Lakes
was declared Natural Protected Area in 1991 by the Council of Ministers due to
its wealth in terms of quantity and water birds species (Figure 2).Later, in 2005,
the status of the area was changed to National Park by the Council of Ministers
according to the 2873 issued National Parks Act, Article 3, expanding the
boundaries to 6 087 (Figure 3). It covers wetland, lake and forest ecosystems
and various species survived in these ecosystems.

316

Figure 2. Borders of Gala Lake Protected Area of Nature.

Figure 3. Borders of Gala Lake National Park.


Additionally, 2 369 ha Natural Protected Area covering Small Gala and Pamuklu
Lakes was declared as first degree Natural Site in 1991 while Great Gala and
lagoons were declared as second degree Natural Site approximately one year
later in 1992 (Anonymous, 1992).

317

The Maritsa-Ergene delta has not only A class wetlands located on the bird
migration route from the west, but it is also important with its biodiversity. The
ecological status of the lake is getting worse due to intensive rice farming and
other human activities.
Through participatory land use planning and broader resource use planning for
national parks and buffer zones, fair and sustainable land use can be achieved,
conflicts can be negotiated, livelihoods can be improved and conservation highly
enhanced. To be successful, resource use plans need to be done either by or in
close cooperation with the responsible public authorities and have to be legally
binding as otherwise they are not respected by all stakeholders and their
implementation cannot be enforced (Wehrmann, 2010).
6. Risks for Food Security
Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic
access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and
food preferences for an active and healthy life (World Food Summit, 1996).
Food Security includes the following four dimensions: availability of food, access
to food, safe and healthy utilisation of food, stability of food availability, access
and utilisation (Wehrmann, 2010).
Through land use planning, areas for food production can be defined, zoned and
protected from being converted into construction land. Against the rules
regulating the use and protection of cultivated lands, agricultural areas are
being converted into construction land. Land use changes in Ergenen River Basin
between 1990 and 2012 is summarised in in Table 1. Dramatic changes in
agricultural areas to industrial area has been threatening not only natural
resources but also food security since the basin has the most productive arable
land of Turkey.
7. Disaster Risk Management
Disaster risk management strategies and initiatives are based on a participative
risk assessment which considers current hazard and vulnerability patterns as well
as trends such as climate change or land degradation and aims at making people
and communities more resilient (Wehrmann, 2010).
Land degradation due to erosion caused by land use beyond their capability
classes is discussed above whereas and flood risk due to lack of sustainable land
use planning is discussed in Chapter 14b. Land use planning is a very important
tool in disaster risk management.

318

Table 1. Land use change of Ergene River basin between 1990 and 2012.
1990

2012

Land Use
Area (%) Area (Hectare) Area (%) Area (Hectare)

Land use
change (%)

Artificial area

2.4

34764.26

3.3

48460.67

+39.4

Agricultural Area

79.7

1154121.93

78.8

1141081.66

-1.1

Forests and semi


natural areas

17.1

246875.37

16.9

244509.39

-1.0

Wetlands

0.3

5053.15

0.2

3432.98

-32.1

Water bodies

0.5

6948.36

0.7

10275.21

+47.9

8. Risk assessment due to Climate change


Both, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change are crucial for vulnerable
communities to ensure their livelihoods. Sustainable land use planning can
contribute to adaptation to climate change.
Temperature rises of 0,12 C, 1,43 C, 3,05C were forecasted for the future
periods of 2016-2025, 2046-2055 and 2076-2085, respectively when compared
with the data between 1970 and 1990 whereas a 9% increase during 2016-2025
and 14% and 12% decrease for the periods of 2046-2055 and 2076-2085,
respectively, were predicted for precipitation.
The climate changes were estimated to increase the surface run off by %141, %3
and %59 in the future periods of 2016-2025 (short-term), 2046-2055 (mid-term)
and 2076-2085 (long-term), respectively. When the future precipitation and runoff data were evaluated together, sunflower yield first increased up to 7.7% in
short term and then decreased up to 23.3% and 3.1% in the mid and long term,
respectively, while the wheat yield increased up to 81.4%, 60.2% and 90.2% in
short, mid and long term future periods, respectively, when compared to the
measured data of 2012 without taking vegetation period shortage into
consideration.
It may be concluded that the Thrace Region/Ergene River Basin is vital to ensure
food safety of Turkey with this increase in wheat yield.
The climate changes were estimated to increase the surface run off by %141, %3
and %59 in the future periods of 2016-2025 (short-term), 2046-2055 (mid-term)

319

and 2076-2085 (long-term), respectively.it was estimated that that significant


changes are not expected in the total precipitation but the precipitation regime
is forecasted to change dramatically, large amount of rainfall is expected
following long lasting drought period. This was the reason why the future run off
values were simulated higher.
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General
Directorate
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Environmental
management
2008.
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.
Albut S., Istanbulluoglu A., Konukcu F. and Kocaman I. 2007. Probable Water Crisis in Thrace and
Istanbul in the Near Future and a Sustainable Strategy to Overcome It. Water
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Anonymous 1992. Byk Gala Glnn 2. dereceden Doal Sit Alan lan Karar. Edirne
K.V.T.V.K.K, Karar Tarihi ve No: 7/5/1992/1121, Edirne.
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Anonymous 2014. Edirne li 2013 Yl evre Durum Raporu. T.C. Edirne Valilii evre ve ehircilik
l Mdrl. 117 pp.
Baak N., Byfield A., Ozhatay N. 2003. Ergene Basin. In: Baak N, Byfield A, zhatay N, editors.
Important Plant Areas of Turkey. stanbul, TR: WWF Turkey Press, pp. 7-8.
Dumanski J. 1994. International Workshop on Sustainable Land Management for the 21st Century.
Summary. Workshop Proceedings. Agricultural Institute of Canada, Ottawa, ON. 50 pp.
Dumanski J., Eswaran H. and Latham M. 1991. Criteria for an international framework for
evaluating sustainable land management. Paper presented at IBSRAM International
Workshop on Evaluation for Sustainable Development in the Developing World. Chiang
Rai, Thailand.
Dumanski J. and Smyth A.3. 1993. The issues and challenges of sustainable land management.
International Workshop on Sustainable Land Management for the 21st. Century,
University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Dumanski J. 1997. Criteria and indicators for land quality and sustainable land
management. ITC Journal 1997-3/4: 216-222.
Harmsen K. and Kelly T. 1992. Natural resource management research for sustainable
production. Draft report for the Joint TAC/CDC Working Group on Ecoregional
Approaches to International Research (unpublished). pp. 25.
Kocaman I., Konukcu F. and Istanbulluoglu A. 2007 Research on the Sedimentation and Erosion
Problem of the Ergene River Basin in Western Turkey and Precautions to Control It.
Eurasian Soil Science, 40(10), 1110-1116.

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Konukcu F., Istanbulluoglu A., Orta A.H. and Kocaman I. 2004a. Land and water resources of the
Thrace Region and their problem. Turkish Chamber of Architectures and Engineers:
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Konukcu F., Istanbulluoglu A. and Kocaman, I. 2004b. Social and technical strategies to overcome
a possible water crisis in the Thrace region and Istanbul in the near future. EWRA
Symposium on Water Resources Management: Risks and Challenges for the 21th Century.
2-4 September, Izmir.
Lovell C., Mandondo A, Moriarty P. 2002. The question of scale in itegrated natural resources
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Ozkan B. 2013. Krklareli Omurgal Faunas (Babaeski, Kofaz, Lleburgaz, Merkez, Pehlivanky,
Pnarhisar) (Tatlsu Balklar, kiyaamllar, Srngenler, Kular, Memeliler). T.C. Orman
ve Su leri Bakanl, stanbul Orman Blge Mdrl, Krklareli Orman letme
Mdrl Raporu. 62 pp.
Pechenik J.A. 2010. Omurgaszlar Biyolojisi. (6. Baskdan eviri) Szen, M., Kandemir, . and
Hasbenli, A. (eds), Nobel Akademik Yaynclk, Ankara, 2013, 606 pp.
Pough F.H., Janis C.M. and Heiser, J.B. 2013. Omurgal Yaam. (9. Baskdan eviri) Szen M.
(ed), Nobel Akademik Yaynclk, Ankara, 2014, 692 pp.
Revised Environmental Settlement plan for Ergene River Basin (1/100000 scaled). Turkish
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Sozen M. and Karatas A. 2010. Fauna of Yldz Mountains. Yldz Mountains Biosphere Project
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Smyth A.J. and Dumanski J. 1993. FESLM: An International Framework for Evaluating Sustainable
Land Management. A Discussion Paper. FAO World Soil Resources Report No 73, Rome,
Italy. 74 p.
Wehrmann B. 2010. Land Use Planning Concept, Tools and Applications. Deutsche Gesellschaft
fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Division Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Sector Project Land Policy and Land Management Eschborn/Germany.
World Bank 2006. Sustainable Land Management CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND TRADEOFFS.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/Resources/Sustainable_Land_Management_e
book.pdf
World Bank 1997. Rural Development Form Vision to Action. ESSD Studies and Monographs Series
12. World Bank Washington, DC. Pp 157.
World Food Summit (1996): Rome Declaration on World Food Security. Rome.

321

322

Chapter

17

Development of P-S-R (Pressure-State-Response) of


Indicators for the Use of Decision Makers and
Development of Indices and Index for Assessing
Land-Use Impacts on Delta Ecology

Mamuka GVILAVA1
Andriy VOLKOV3
1

Fatih KONUKCU2
Valentin NENOV3

Seluk ALBUT2
Husein YEMENDZHIEV4

ICZM International Coastal Zone management National Focal Point for Georgia, GIS and RS
Consulting Center "GeoGraphic", Tbilisi, Georgia. MGvilava@ICZM.ge

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr ; salbut@nku.edu.tr

Odessa State Environmental University (Odesa, Ukraine) Applied Ecology Dept. 65016, Lvivska
Str. 15, Odesa, Ukraine environmental.dss@gmail.com
4

Prof.Assen Zlatarov University Bulgaria, 8010 Burgas, Bulgaria vnenov@btu.bg ;


h_bio@yahoo.com

1. Background
ILMM-BSE group of activities 2.1-2.4 are designed to perform research work
packages WP1-WP4 and generate related deliverables. Particularly, Work
Package WP4 prescribes the (i) Development and evaluation of criteria and

323

standards for implementation of integrated sustainable land-use planning and


management; (ii) Development of indices and index for assessing land-use
impacts on delta ecology; (iii) Erosion and desertification risks assessment for
watersheds; (iv) Development of tools for predictions required for decisionmaking; (v) Methodologies for qualitative and quantitative accounting of the
multifunctional effects of land management and development strategies with
regard to environmental protection, rural development, land use, landscape,
tourism, recreation, agriculture and forestry activities; (vi) Assessment of transboundary problems; (vii) Thresholds of sustainability; (viii) Guide for the
development of decision-support systems; (ix) Strategies for public and
stakeholders participation in the decision making process; (x) Institutional
strengthening for land-use planning authorities; (xi) New institutional legislation
for land-use planning authorities; (xii) Evaluation criteria for Natural Parks,
Natural Assets, and World Heritage Sites in estuary watersheds; (xiii)
Development of an integrated framework analysis; (xiv) Impact assessment and
management tools for sustainable land use; (xv) Development of P-S-R of
indicators for the use of decision makers.
Above tasks need to be considered in integrated methodological framework for
decision-making, while this particular deliverable deals with specific aspect of
the framework concerned with pressure-state-response (P-R-S) type indicators
(see (xv)), as well as cumulative indices/index for assessing land-use impacts in
river catchments and consequently on estuarine and delta ecology (see (ii)).
These aspects essential would touch base for several aspects of the above listed
components, such as (i), (v), (vii), (xiii) and (xiv).
This chapter first provides short introduction into general instrument of
indicators and cumulative indices in support of the sustainable development,
with special emphasis on river basins/catchments/watersheds, coastal zones,
river deltas and estuarine systems and ultimately the marine environment of the
Black Sea. Sets of progress and state of the environment monitoring indicators
and related cumulative indices are defined for above components, based on and
similar to European methodologies available for the coastal zones. Examples
from various case study areas under ILMM-BSE domain are provided illustrating
proposed approaches, and certain recommendations are prescribed how best to
replicate these approaches elsewhere in countries and localities of the Black Sea
region.
2. Introduction into Indicators and Indices
There is a plethora of sources describing various aspects and methodologies
related to decision making instruments such as indicators and indices/index in
multiple fields of applications.

324

Various sets of indicators are usually defined to measure specific symptomatic


aspects of certain phenomena of societal importance, so that these
measurements are representative of wider more complicated range of variable
affecting or being affected by these phenomena. Rationale here is that due to
various restrictive factors (mostly related to constraints of available time,
resources and expertise) not all needed variables can be measured or inferred
numerically, therefore a smaller subset of inherently informative key variables
are selected as indicators, those substantively representative of the wider sets
of variables.
Indicator variables can not be still reduced to comprehensible number of
variables and further weighting and cumulative aggregation is required for
indicators to be useful for real life decision-making. These constrains are largely
due again to limiting factors such as squeezed timeframe available for decisionmaking (time span for decision-making is inherently in short supply in
democracies, defined at election timeframes), as well as due to inability of
human beings to consciously discriminate between too many values derived even
from selected key variables indicators, moreover that at the fundamental level
final decision-making, whenever sufficient information for decision-making is
available, is performed in three outcomes: positive, negative or in progress.
This defines the need to introduce indices (or even single index), as a weighted
scores or otherwise derived combination of calculations performed over selected
indicators.
As mentioned above, there is a large literature devoted to these subjects. For
practical reasons it is considered more valuable to direct reader to some
encyclopaedic web resources, rather than diving into rigorous scientific coverage
of the field. Particularly useful are the following internet resources:
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/151714 (Morse 2007). This reference
provides examples of development indicators and indices with practical
explanations of various methodological aspects and providing short description
of textbook examples such as UNDPs the Human Development Index (HDI),
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) of the Transparency International and the
Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) of the World Economic Forum. Latter
can be represented into more informative pressure-state-response (PSR) subcomponents, capable of revealing finer details for both the developing (with
weaker response indicators) and developed (with stronger pressure and state
indicators) countries.
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbee377896bb431f696317 by Bartelmus
(2013) explains indicators of sustainable development. Diagram from this
resource, reproduced below, explains social, economic and environmental

325

triade, allocating various quantification and accounting tools invented for


informed decision-making, most comprehensive of which is the Drivers-PressureSate-Response Framework (DPSRF), similar to DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-StatesImpacts-Responses), regularly applied by the European Environmental Agency
(EEA) towards the European environment state and outlook reporting (see Figure
1 below, reproduced from this reference).

Figure 1. Various analytical instruments for measuring sustainable development


Bartelmus (2013). http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/51cbee377
896bb431f696317/
Aggregation of indicators into traffic light indices are introduced as well (red
alert, yellow wait and see, and green o.k.) in this reference. Excellent recent
example of the county level index for land development pressures for
conterminous US is provided in Grekousis and Mountrakis, 2015 (see figures 2 and
3 in this reference), while nice example of direct population opinion sensing
through cloud sourcing is provided at link http://techpresident.com/news
/24744/open-survey-data-transition-initiative-helps-interpret-state-new-yorkcity
Before entering into our specific cases, it is worth mentioning that the
availability of the proper Spatial Data Infrastructure (shortly SDI), not
necessarily comprehensively complete set, covering all potential variables
needed for the sustainable management of land and water resources, but of
sufficient coverage and based on sound principles for ultimate integration into
indicators and indices used for meaningful decision-making purposes, is the
necessary aspect of these methodologies. Indeed, there are several best practice

326

examples of the application of SDI-based workflow into cumulative mapping of


the environment sustainability indices. Various methods and tools can be used
for accomplishing such tasks, but three attractive approaches are referred to
below as an inspiration for combining modern SDI systems into applications for
deriving spatially explicit sustainability indices and indicators.
The first good example is the agricultural Land Evaluation and Site Assessment
tool Enhanced with GIS (ELESA), reported in Lee and Line Bach (2008). The main
advantage of this approach is the use of the ESRI model builder for automating
the weighted overlay of baseline SDI / GIS layers in a relatively short
reassessment time. This makes the approach acceptable for participatory
planning and decision-making applications because it can be optimized for use
even during a stakeholder meeting or in the field. Despite its agricultural origin,
this tool can be adapted for watershed-based applications, as well as for
processing coastal management indicators (harmonization of indicator tools
across river catchment basins and coastal zones is advocated in the paper by
Lehmann et al. 2009).
The second approach quoted here was reported by Steadman et al. (2004) and it
is used by Minerals UK (British Geological Survey) for establishing relationships
between aggregates and environmental sensitivity indices in the context of
Strategic Impact Assessment (SIA). The approach is based on composite
sensitivity mapping of multiple thematic layers, ranging from conservation areas
and cultural heritage to forestry and agriculture. In this approach, similar to the
ELESA methodology, polygonal GIS features are converted into grid layers with
cells assigned a value of 0 or 1. Grid layers are then assigned weighting scores
based on expert or stakeholder judgements, and the composite grid layer is
generated and converted into a graduated colour map depicting environmental
sensitivity.
The third ecological example is oil spill sensitivity mapping of intertidal areas,
reported at coastwiki webpage at http://pegasoproject.eu/wiki/Oil_sensitivity,
based on the system developed by Van Bernem et al. (2007). In this approach
complex GIS computational framework is exploited to derive the integral values
of the oil sensitivity calculated by combining sensitivities of benthos and bird
areas based on their spatial and seasonal variability. For the benthos only one
index value is determined while for the birds, the index value depends on the
breeding and/or migration period. The final sensitivity map is assembled
seamlessly into GIS system digital map for the utility of Havariekommando
authorities for contingency preparedness towards oil spills in the sensitive and
valuable coastal environment of Wadden Sea. More information on the sensitivity
raster of the German North Sea is available in Van Bernem et al. (2007).

327

As is evident from above descriptions and examples, indicators and cumulative


indices are used in almost all societal aspects of governance. From ILMM-BSE
perspective, we are more concerned with environmental sustainability variables
with respect to Black Sea estuaries, deltas, catchments draining into and marine
areas affected by land based sources and riverine inputs, in particular those
related to land cover change as well as pollution loads. Respective concepts are
therefore introduced and explained below based on three (rather four) example
cases from four Black Sea countries, considered for such systems as the (i)
coastal zones (Georgia), (ii) river basins / catchments (Turkey, Ukraine), (iii)
estuarine (Ukraine) and delta (Bulgaria) and (iv) marine areas (Ukraine). These
various cases are described in the quoted order subsequently further below in
this deliverable.
As a last introductory note, distinction is made between the state of the
environment
and
performance
indicators,
briefly
described
at
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/152625 by Jakobsen (2008) article
(retrieved from the same web resource) after explaining some further detail
environmental indicators (like those defined by the World Economic Forum,
EEF), while more about this aspect is discussed in the first presentation below
concerning the coastal zones. Moreover, the European progress
markers/indicators tool (particularly as applied in the Black Sea region) is
appended at the end of this section. It seems fairly straightforward to extend
the similar tool towards monitoring the implementation progress in upstream
catchments, recipient estuaries / deltas and marine areas. As integrated
management principles are almost identical for these environmental domains,
simple modification of the appended tool is fairly possible by substituting
concepts of Integrated Coastal zone Management (ICZM) respectively towards
Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), Delta and Estuarine Management
Planning (DEMP) as well as the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and/or Integrated
Maritime Policy (IMP), accompanying these with slightly modified texts where
found appropriate and needed. Similar to Black Sea Commissions ICZM Advisory
Group (ICZM AG), Advisory Groups on Control of Pollution from Land Based
Sources (LBS AG) as well as on the Pollution Monitoring and Assessment (PMA AG)
could provide regional umbrellas for assessing implementation progress
governance arrangements with regard to land based sources of pollution and
their monitoring/assessments.
3. Coastal Zone
Sub-sect outlines the experience of the Black Sea countries with the application
of European Union (EU) Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) progress
markers/indicators and presents the basic instructions used by country

328

representatives to adapt the use of EU ICZM progress indicators to their


particular needs, while providing some technical explanations and tips in the
application of this toolset. Then, the sub-section introduces and describes the
software instrument developed to simplify data entry and modification
processes. In addition to the ICZM progress indicators, the sub-section applies
spectrum-type visualisation to coastal issues in order to derive coastal
sustainability indicators for a small pilot area along the Georgian coast, in Guria
Region. Recommendations on the further application and use of both
instruments are made, and certain considerations in building an interface
between ICZM progress reporting and aggregated mapping of coastal
sustainability indicators are suggested. Presentation in this sub-section closely
follows the recent reference Gvilava et. al (2015). Most relevant provisions are
utilised hereby, therefore the reader is referred to quoted manuscript to learn
further details.
In May 2002, the European Parliament and the Council approved
Recommendation 2002/413/CE Concerning the Implementation of Integrated
Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe (EC 2002). The major requirement of
the Recommendation was to outline the steps for member states to develop
national strategies for ICZM. Given the cross-border nature of many coastal
processes, coordination and cooperation with neighbouring countries and in the
regional seas context were encouraged. It was requested that the experience
gained in the implementation of ICZM be reported back to the commission within
45 months.
To facilitate the implementation of the Recommendation, a European ICZM
Expert Group was set up, which in turn, recognizing the importance of
monitoring and benchmarking for sustainable development at the coast, created
an Indicators and Data Working Group (WG-ID). The WG-ID proposed that
member states and candidate countries employ two sets of indicators (Mart et
al. 2007):
(i)

ICZM progress indicators indicators that measure the progress of ICZM


implementation; and

(ii)

Coastal sustainability indicators a core set of indicators and


measurements for monitoring sustainable development of coastal
zones.

Used together, the two sets were meant to reveal the degree to which ICZM
implementation can be correlated to more sustainable coastal development.

329

The national strategies on ICZM, requested by the European Recommendation,


were the test beds for the application of the ICZM progress and coastal
sustainability indicators. Within the requested timeframe, dozens of countries
prepared reports on the implementation of ICZM national strategies, including
experiences with the use of indicators.
The Recommendation (EC 2002, Chapter VI.3) requested the European
Commission to evaluate its implementation. The main sources of information for
this evaluation were the first national reports; state-of-the-coast assessment by
European Environmental Agency (EEA 2006). The results were documented in the
formal evaluation report of the European Commission (COM 2007).
In the evaluation, particular attention was paid to the use of indicators by the
member states in their national strategies and reports, recognizing that
although progress has been achieved towards a common assessment framework
a methodology to link the efforts in ICZM to trends in sustainability is still
lacking. The results of the use of both types of indicators (ICZM progress and
coastal sustainability) were well documented by the WG-ID (2006). Their report
highlights the importance of the cross-correlation of coastal management efforts
with the outcomes achieved in the sustainable development of coastal zones.
Antonidze (2010) also recommends a coherent system of indicators for an
assessment of the state of Black Sea coastal zones and implementation of ICZM.
The integration of management progress and sustainability indicators remains
high on the agenda of the European Commission, particularly in the context of a
new Directive on Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP 2014) and the application of
legally binding instruments, such as the Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone
Management in the Mediterranean (Protocol 2008). This Protocol (2008), which
was already ratified by the European Commission, in its Article 27 calls on
Parties, including European Community as a signatory and ratifying Party, to
define coastal management indicators, taking into account existing ones and
cooperate in the use of such indicators.
Evaluating progress in complex disciplines such as ICZM is indeed a challenging
task. The colour-coded set of indicators proposed a decade ago by the ICZM
Expert Group of the European Commission (WG-ID 2005; Pickaver et al. 2004) is a
recognized instrument, used frequently for monitoring the progress made in
ICZM implementation. An attempt to apply a similar monitoring and reporting
methodology was conducted in the Black Sea region with support of the
EuropeAid-funded ECBSea project (Environmental Collaboration for the Black
Sea), whereby six coastal countries, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian
Federation, Turkey and Ukraine, reported on their ICZM progress under the
auspices of the Black Sea Commission (BSC). The results were published in the

330

State of the Environment of the Black Sea report (BSC 2008). The Advisory Group
on the Development of Common Methodologies for ICZM to the Commission on
the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (ICZM AG for short) has further
fine-tuned progress reporting to their needs, expanding it to include an indexed
reference system with the corresponding arguments in textual format to
underpin upgrading or downgrading colour-coded markers.
This sub-section also describes the local level effort of introducing spatially
explicit mapping for measuring those indicators that can be expressed in spatial
terms by following the approaches suggested in the report of the ICZM Expert
Group of the European Commission and published by the European Topic Centre
on Terrestrial Environment (ETC-TE 2004). The illustrative example provided in
this sub-section is based on the experience of the above mentioned ECBSea
project in Georgia.
Preparation of the document entitled the Integrated Plan for Sustainable
Development of Tskaltsminda Coastal Community (ECBSea 2009) was backed by
the establishment of a small-scale Geographical Information System (GIS). A
range of thematic and planning maps produced for this purpose show how the
land is used today, highlight where the ecologically valuable areas are located,
and propose different zones for the future by integrating ecological sensitivities
with economic development agendas and identifying options that would benefit
both the local people and the coastal environment. These GIS layers allowed to
test the spatial planning and indicator mapping methodologies developed for BSC
ICZM AG (Yarmak 2004).
4. Application of ICZM Progress Markers in Black Sea Region
ICZM progress indicators developed for the European Union (EU) context have
been applied to monitor the progress of ICZM implementation in the Black Sea
region (Lucius 2008), including in Georgia, as reported by Bakuradze and Gvilava
(2008). After this initial attempt in 2008, the BSC ICZM AG decided at its annual
meeting in 2010 to develop a concise user manual, a Guideline for Completing
ICZM Progress Indicators The Black Sea Region (draft version dated
2011.10.10).
This guideline, which is appended to this deliverable, is entirely based on and
closely follows the approaches suggested by Pickaver et al. (2004) and WG-ID
(2005), updated to meet the needs of Black Sea coastal countries in completing
periodic self-assessments. In line with the original methodology tested in
European countries, the ICZM progress indicator table is grouped into 4 phases
comprising 31 actions. Any progress in the implementation of ICZM is indicated
by filling colour-coded marker tables. Moreover, the guideline includes a section

331

with instructions and technical tips on how to fill in the progress indicator table
and another section containing notes explaining the meaning of the phases and
actions, essentially repeating the provisions, as established at EU level (WG-ID
2005).
The guideline itself was proposed to be agreed upon (and amended from time to
time) by the BSC ICZM AG at its annual meetings, while reporting milestones for
measuring progress with ICZM indicators were proposed to correspond with
ministerial meetings or international cooperative actions of Black Sea countries
within the framework of the Bucharest Convention. The reporting milestones to
date include the ministerial meetings convened for the adoption of Odessa
Declaration (1993), signing of the Black Sea Strategic Action Plan of 1996 (BS-SAP
1996) in Istanbul, adoption of the Sofia Declaration (2002) and signing of the
updated Black Sea Strategic Action Plan of 2009 (BS-SAP 2009).
Results of the ICZM progress assessments, covering approximately a 5-year
period, are to be included in the periodic reports on the implementation of the
BS-SAP prepared by the Black Sea Commission and submitted to the regular
ministerial meetings. At the same time, operational update of the ICZM progress
indicators is meant to be performed annually and presented at ICZM AG
meetings. Results of the operational ICZM progress marker assessments should,
therefore, be reported to the Black Sea Commission on an annual basis as well.
The progress markers and respective endnoted textual arguments are addressed
flexibly at four administrative and spatial levels: international, national, subnational and local. The international level might include Black Sea regional, EU,
regional seas or other applicable international scales. The sub-national level
might include coastal regions, large protected areas or similar units of subnational designation as determined by each country. Local level initiatives are to
be considered in an ad hoc manner as progress is monitored at local level and
any initiatives at this stage of development are not accounted for on a sitespecific/geographic basis. However, in future, it is envisaged to integrate such
initiatives with spatially explicit progress indicators. The European
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS)1 and for Local
Administrative Units (LAU)2 could indeed provide a common backbone for both
types of indicators.
It is considered the responsibility of the respective ICZM National Focal Points to
complete and validate with stakeholders the responses at national, sub-national
and local levels. Progress at the international level is to be observed and

1
2

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/nuts/history
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/nuts/local-administrative-units

332

completed by the ICZM AG and endorsed at its annual meetings, reported to the
BSC annually and to ministerial meetings at least once in 5 years on average. The
next reporting milestone is a ministerial meeting, anticipated in 2015-2016.
The guidelines for filling the progress markers appended to this deliverable
contains full instructions for filling the colour coded progress markers, as well as
annotated description of all ICZM phases and actions as defined in original
sources quoted above and sample of the indicator table to fill in word processing
format. Moreover, software tool was developed to simplify indicator rating entry
(see Figure 2). Repository of developed toolset, scientific article describing it, as
well as demonstration video are available as faceted search items at the
following link hosted by European FP7 IASON and EOPower projects at
http://eopower.grid.unep.ch/drupal_IASON/?q=node/22.
5. Integral indices for coastal sustainability indicator sets
In addition to progress reporting, the application of spatial indicators is another
useful approach for assessing progress at all levels of ICZM implementation.
While progress markers are needed to assess governance efforts, the next logical
step is to introduce spatially explicit mapping tools for measuring those
indicators, which can be expressed in spatial terms.
Indeed, as suggested by ETC-TE (2004), visualisation of the indicators in a
mapped form is an informative way of presenting information on coastal issues
and can be used for measuring spatial manifestation of the progress achieved or
deficiencies encountered in managing coastal environments. With more free and
open source spatial data and information being made accessible though internet
data clearinghouses, as well as with the advancement of user-friendly GIS tools,
it is tempting to explore the possibilities with the development of methodologies
for spatial colour-coded indicator maps in addition to tabular progress indicator
sets.
A simplified combination of the above described methodologies was applied to
our pilot coastal area, exploiting the GIS dataset generated while preparing the
Integrated Plan for Sustainable Development of Tskaltsminda Coastal
Community. The GIS layers available for use included vulnerability zones for
flora and fauna, habitat types, land use and cadastral layers, as well as
functional zoning (see maps enclosed with ECBSea 2009). These layers,
describing the physical environment, as well as the current use and proposed
management regimes for the area, were first rasterised using a grid conversion
tool, weighted based on expert judgement and scored by specialists involved in
GIS data generation. The results were combined into a final layer that was
interpreted as the indicator for the rate of coastal development pressures. The

333

334

Figure 2. Main window of ICZM progress indicator software tool (sample view):
http://eopower.grid.unep.ch/drupal_IASON/?q=node/22

adequacy of the end result was validated by expert judgement and by testing
sensitivity against reasonable values for weights applied to each parameter and
layer. The process was automated in the model builder environment; thus,
reanalysis is easily feasible in case of a need to change the weight factors
attributed.
The final step in the calculation and mapping of the results was to establish
threshold values for the combined indicator, where the level of land
development could be rated as high, medium or low. Instead of using a
graduated single colour ramp, traffic light colours were applied to distinguish
among the levels of development indicator values as red, yellow and green, with
their obvious qualitative meanings. Built-up areas, such as houses and buildings,
transportation and other impermeable surfaces and dirt roads were coloured in
black and gray, respectively. The overall contrast of the map colours was
subdued to improve the cartographic appeal of the result. Although there were
essentially no data available in the water domain, for mere illustration purposes
so that adequate graphical interpretation can be achieved for both land and
water in the coastal zone, again, expert assessments and local anecdotal
knowledge were used to characterize water quality with relevant indicators in
cyan (high), blue (medium) and pink (low) colours (indicating water quality). An
excellent example of rigorous treatment of various water quality indices
integrated into traffic lightvisualized pressure indicator for the water domain of
the coastal zone can be found in Konovalov et al. (2013).
The final result of spatial indicator mapping for the Tskaltsminda coastal area in
Guria Region of Georgia is shown in figure 3. The total areas occupied by each
threshold value, which can easily be calculated with GIS, could be treated as
quantitative indicators, which can be monitored repetitively in time to
characterise the spatial development pressures at play in the given coastal area
(Arobelidze 2010, personal communication). Despite the fact that only a limited
number of threshold values were used to codify the pressure indicators (just
three coding colours used for each environmental, land and water, domains, plus
built-up), the approach seems fairly compatible with experience from mire
ecology, for instance, whereby these very complex ecosystems are satisfactorily
classified in only a limited number of subdivision typologies (see quote from
Joosten 1998).
6. Discussion
The application of progress indicators using software tool briefly described
above is simple and robust for interactive use by ICZM practitioners even in the
presence of stakeholder forums invited for scrutinising and validating the
progress ratings. The toolset is believed to be of quite a generic nature for

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336

Figure 3. Colour-coded indicator map for Tskaltsminda local coastal community pilot area (PEGASO project Spatial Data
Infrastructure (SDI) Coastal Atlas tool can be used for web dissemination at
http://pegasosdi.uab.es/geoportal/index.php/guria-coastal-region-case)

application not only in the EU and Black Sea context, but to any regional sea,
with potential even for replication from ICZM into other policy contexts such as
MSP and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), see further below. Apart
from data entry, the executable provides the user with much flexibility such as
the option to edit the texts defining the ICZM progress indicators, if so desired,
as well as the possibility to attach the visual identity attributes such as logos of
the international, national, regional or local authorities wishing to apply the
tool. Editable attributes include entries to names of the regional sea, country,
sub-national and local coastal administrations, as well as entries of their
preferred reporting milestones. A user can directly manipulate records in the
Microsoft Access database, while outputs can be generated in Microsoft Excel or
Adobe Portable Document Format for reporting the results. Both the executable
and its source code are shared openly, so that advanced users can adapt the tool
to their particular needs and circumstances.
The application of the spatial indicator tools discussed in this sub-section was
found to be feasible for implementation in the Georgian and Black Sea context,
acting as a useful instrument for measuring development pressures both
qualitatively and quantitatively. The spatial planning and indicator mapping
methodologies were thus applied to implement the approaches advocated for
the Advisory Group to the Black Sea Commission on the Development of Common
Methodologies for ICZM (Yarmak 2004).
Exploring, refining and further developing the inherent methods for connecting
the ICZM progress markers (to monitor policy and management efforts) with
spatially aggregated indices and indicators for monitoring ICZM efforts and
actual outcomes for the state of the coast could prove invaluable for European
and regional seas in the light of the need for monitoring progress with the recent
entry into force of legally binding instruments such as the Protocol on Integrated
Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean (http://www.papthecoastcentre.org/razno/PROTOCOL ENG IN FINAL FORMAT.pdf). Another
purpose would be to watch progress in the context of the newly adopted
Directive (MSP 2014), concerned with many countries and seas, including the
Black Sea region.
Therefore, further work is indeed recommended to include the development and
deployment of web-based SDI tools with capabilities for nested visualisation of
ICZM progress markers at all levels of implementation (international, national,
regional and local) and tight integration with coastal statistical datasets. This
would facilitate mapping of the state of the coastal zones at both large- and
small-scale resolutions, aggregated at the end into the colour-coded summary
spatial indicators ranging in size from national and sub-national to finest-area

337

local units of administration and governance. Obviously, there can be many


possibilities for integrating and aggregating management progress markers and
sustainability indicators at various scales and levels of governance and
administration. Furthermore, the results would depend largely on the allocation
of weights, scores and indices, as well as cross-correlating state of the coast
indexes with management progress indicators. However, modern spatial data
processing infrastructure can in principle cope with recalculating and
reinterpreting current and past ratings as more knowledge and experience
becomes available to stakeholders. This can be achieved without the need to
introduce changes into the underlying datasets. The process is ultimately related
to human intervention and interpretation of governance outcomes rather than
challenges of a technical nature, but good technical instrumentation can indeed
be of help to practitioners.
Similarly, there seems no technical constraint for seamlessly extrapolating the
spectrum colour coding of coastal sustainability indicators seaward (into marine
and maritime domain) and landward (upstream into river basins and
catchments). Actually, there are excellent application examples of Cumulative
Impact
Mapping
for
the
Western
Mediterranean
sub-region
(http://pegasosdi.uab.es/geoportal/index.php/atlas-pegaso-regionalproducts/atlas-cumulative-impact-mapping). The methods used to this end are
elaborated in Micheli et al. (2013). In fact, a simplistic argument in support of
such an extension of the tool is the theoretical possibility of defining a coastal
zone in its widest ecosystem-based interpretation (i.e., including full marine and
catchment areas into the coastal zone).
Summarizing this sub-section, the progress indicators elaborated in the EU
context were applied for monitoring ICZM implementation progress in the Black
Sea region, including Georgia. This instrument was further fine-tuned as a
monitoring tool for the Black Sea countries by incorporating the listing of short
explanatory notes to index each change with time in the status of progress
markers. Specific software tool was developed to automate and simplify entry,
manipulation and reporting of the data. In line with the original methodology,
this tool can be applied easily for use at the international, national, sub-national
and local levels. Progress marker tool can effortlessly be extended into fields of
MSP and IRBM as well. In addition, the potential for connecting progress
reporting with spatially explicit indicators that measure sustainability outcomes
through application of ICZM at the local level was explored on an example of
small coastal community in Guria Region of Georgia.

338

339

340

341

Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (1996) signed with some provisions for ICZM.
ICZM Regional Activity Centre (RAC) established in Krasnodar, RU.
1
ICZM National Focal Points designated in each Black Sea country.
1
Regional ICZM Advisory Group to the Black Sea Commission established since 1996 and meets
regularly.
1
Countries prepared National ICZM Reports in 1996.
1
National ICZM Policies and Strategies documents prepared by countries and Regional ICZM
Strategy by RAC.
1
Some funding in support of regional ICZM efforts provided by EU and UNDP/GEF.
1
Annual national reports are being prepared for the Black Sea Commission. ICZM progress
indicator tool was adopted as well and regular national reporting initiated.
1
Updated Black Sea Strategic Action Plan (2009) with certain provisions for ICZM signed by all
countries.
1
ICZM Regional Activity Centre ceased functioning in RU.
1
Regional and national ICZM policies and strategies implemented with limited scope.
1
Guidelines for marine protected areas produced for the Black Sea with EC EuropeAid ECBSea
project support.
1
Pilot Projects implemented in RU (2003), UA (2003), TR (2006) and GE (2009).
1
EU funded ECBSea project ICZM component provides certain minor resources for pilot activities.
1
EC funded FP7 Pegaso Project provides certain resources for ICZM in the Black Sea region.
1
National ICZM Stock-Taking questionnaires filled within EC FP7 Pegaso Project, regional
synthesis is ongoing.
1
EC funded FP7 Pegaso Project provides resources for Black Sea CASES in Sevastopol Bay
(UA), Danube Delta (RO) and Guria Region (GE).
1

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Chapter

18

Evaluation of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Evaluation


of Cost-Effectiveness Methodologies

Harun Hurma

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Economics Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. hhurma@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction
Cost-Benefit analysis (CBA) is a method that takes cost and benefit into account
in ranking economically different project or policy options (Boadway, 2006). It
has emerged in the area of welfare economics. In the social point of view, it
aims to answer the questions about the benefits of any Project.
The origin of this analysis goes back to 1930. This method has been used as a
tool for evaluating public sector projects carried out in public interest at that
time. Cost-benefit analysis examples were first seen in the US, which was used
to compare estimated costs of the flood control projects. In the 1950s, practical
instructions on how to apply the CBA was published (James and Francisco, 2015).

347

Today, it is used to asses most of the public projects and policies. However, it is
used as an instrument in the analysis of investment project, particularly in the
assessment of welfare change, as the need of EU cohesion policy. The purpose of
the method is to distribute resources effectively (European Commission, 2014).
When and why the CBA is employed may be explained as follow: First, the CBA is
a model of rational thinking about gains and losses over political decisions.
Second, the CBA has the capacity to determine the optimal scale which
maximizes net benefits of any policy. It offers list of projects and/or policy level
alternatives for decision makers. Thirdly, the CBA includes the time in project
evaluation. Thus, gains and losses that may be encountered in the future are
addressed. Fourth, the CBA is an analysis that takes the individuals choices into
consideration (Pearce et al., 2006; Holland, 2012).
In the classic cost-benefit analysis, in general, it is considered that various
projects are independent of each other. However, this assumption is invalid
when the projects benefits or destruct the natural environment. More
importantly, economic aspects, timing and consequences of the project should
be optimised since the natural resources could be used only once for a particular
purpose. In some cases, a loss of the natural environment is considered not
recovered. This consideration is valid for the case that the polluted environment
is cleaned and can not be return to the previous state (Inan, 2015).
Socio-economic benefits provided by the project should be assessed as much as
possible in the preparation of cost/benefit analysis of the prepared projects
activities. The time value of money is utilized in the calculation of benefits and
costs.
2. Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis
The cost-benefit analysis has three steps: first, listing the costs and benefits of
the project or policy; second, determination of their monetary value, and third,
ranking and then choosing the most suitable project considering the total net
costs and benefits (Kuleyin, 2011) (Figure 1).
The basic steps of cost-benefits analysis for any project or policy are as follows
(Rus, 2010).
Identification and listing alternative projects: The objectives and alternatives
of a project should be clearly identified before the evaluation process. Here, the
principle target is to analyse the alternatives that will serve the same purpose as
well. Feedbacks from the experienced people and institution become very
useful.

348

Identification and listing alternative projects


Determination of the costs and benefits
Measuring the costs and benefits
Discounting
Estimation of net present value and testing
Comparison of the present value with the base case
Financial and economic analysis

Figure 1. Steps of the cost and benefits analysis


Determination of the costs and benefits: Having defined the scope of the
project, costs and benefits to occur should be determined. Costs and benefits
are listed according to their types.
The benefits and costs of the project may be categorised as direct-indirect, realmonetary and monetary and non-monetary (Ergen, 2008). The direct benefits are
directly related to the existence and outcomes of the project whereas the direct
cost are the expenditures during and after the application of the Project
(Bulutoglu, 2003). The indirect benefits are the external outcomes generated by
the goods or services produced by the project. In the external benefits, people
generated this outcomes are not needed to use these goods and services.
Indirect costs are the external losses paid to the economy by the project
(Kuleyin, 2011). Real benefits are defined as the benefits provided by the
project for the end users while the real cost reflects the alternative resources
costs. Monetary benefits refer to the financial impact of the project on the other
economical units. Rise in the revenue due the increase in the production is
defined as real benefit on the other hand rise in the value of land depending on
the production increase is defined as the monetary benefit (Ata, 2003).
Monetary costs are the costs that arise as a result of changes in the structure of
relative prices in the economy due to the Project (Batirel, 1982).

349

The measure in the distinction between tangible and intangible cost is whether
the costs are measured or not. Particularly in public investment projects, some
costs may not be measured types but it may cost on society (Ergen, 2008).
Similarly, the benefits of the project may be categorises as monetary and nonmonetary. The costs of public investment project include personnel, investment
(construction, material supply, etc.), equipment, general expenditures, negative
externalities, (water and noise pollution, etc.). On the other hand, they provide
benefits of reducing the loss of biodiversity, decreasing the health protection
costs, decreasing the environmental emissions, improving the water quality and
providing better sight view (CEEU, 2012).
Measuring the costs and benefits: Benefits of the Project can be measured by
willingness to pay. In this stage, monetary value of benefits and costs are
determined. The direct impact of the project can be measured by observing the
behaviour of people in the market in monetary terms. The indirect effects can
be investigated by non-market valuation methods (contingent valuation,
production function, etc.).
The market or adjusted prices (shadow prices) methods are used to measure the
cost and benefits (Kuleyin, 2011).
Market price reflects the voluntary willingness to pay for any economic goods
preferred by people. Problems of valuation may be partly lessened by using
market price in the measurement of cost and benefits.
The maximum price that a business should be willing to pay for one additional
unit of some type of resource. This definition relates to the perceived benefit
that management believes it can obtain from the additional unit. Thus, if the
result of keeping the production line running longer (the shadow price) exceeds
the cost required to run the line, management should do so (CEEU, 2012).
Comparison of the present value with the base case (accumulation of the
costs and benefits created during the lifelong of a project): The costs and
benefits created during the lifelong of a project occur in different time of
frames. The benefits created may be more valuable in a short time or the costs
created may decrease in times. Therefore, all costs and benefits should be
discounted in a way that reflects the present value (Rus, 2010). Discount process
is an important step in the evaluation of projects for which it takes into account
the time value of money. As a measure of the time value of money, an interest
rate is also applied to estimate the current value of the cost and benefits
occurred at different time frames. This interest rate is defined as discount rate
(Grgn,1972, Inan, 2000). Discount rate is used to transform the future value to
the present value (Hanley et al., 2001). Discount rate should be carefully chosen

350

since it affects not only the results of costs and benefits but also policy and
proposals alternative to the project (EPA, 2010).
The preferred discount rate may be sufficient for the rateable costs and benefits
determined by market prices. However, the social discount rate should be
preferred to estimate benefits and costs of social benefits.
Interpretation of results and decision criteria (test of net present value): The
principle objective of cost-benefit analysis is to make preference among the
policies and projects (Hanley and Spash, 1993). An investment project is decided
comparing the net present value of costs and benefits. To do this, the ratio
between net present value of costs and Net Present Value (NPV) of benefits. NPV
is expressed as sum of the discounted cash flow during the life of the project.
This criterion simply tests whether the sum of discounted costs exceeds sum of
discounted benefits (CEEU, 2012) as:
!

(B! C! )/(1 + r)!

NPV =
!!!

Where;
Bt : benefit at t time,
Ct: cost at t time,
r: discount rate.

For a project to be acceptable, NPV should be positive, which means it is an


option producing significant net benefits. The project producing the highest NPV
value is preferred among other alternatives (James and Francisco, 2015).
Comparison of the base case with post project implementation case: Base
case refers to the stage that the project has not been implemented yet. In the
cost benefit analysis, the produced profit is valued comparing the base case and
post project implementation case.
Financial Feasibility and Economic Return: Financial analysis investigate the
cost and benefits of the project for the firm while economic analysis investigates
the cost and benefit for the whole society. Financial analysis uses market prices
to control the sustainability of project and the investment whereas economic
analysis uses economic prices converted from market prices.

351

While some projects or policies produce social benefits exceeding social costs,
they may lead negative financial results. But the financial and economic analysis
should be considered to be complementary. If the project is not financially
sustainable, it will not have sufficient financial resources for operation and
maintenance. In general, any investment project cycle should be examined as
shown in Figure 2.
Start here

Situation
analysis

End here

Problem
analysis

Project
feasibility

Project
evaluation

Project
monitoring

Identification
of possible
solutions

Project
implementatio
n

Project design

Figure 2. Cost benefit analysis Project cycle (Holland, 2012)


3. Cost-Effectiveness Methodologies
Cost-Effectiveness analysis (CEA) is used to compare costs of alternatives to
realise specific objectives targeted. The lowest cost is chosen considering the
direct and indirect costs of each alternative. This analysis is not within the scope
of CBA (Mishan and Quah, 2007) and in CEA, the monetary measurement of the
created benefits is not achieved as in CBA. CEA is usually applied for the cases
that monetary value of the benefits cannot be estimated due to time,
information and research resources limitations. Expected benefits of the
alternatives, purposes of policy, indicators, and standards are defined as
performance target in CEA (James and Francisco, 2015).
CEA is used as a measure for effectiveness and examines monetary value of cost
for the alternative projects. Unit effectiveness, defined as the ratio of total cost
to the effectiveness on the unit, is an effective tool used for project preferences
(Cellini and Kee, 2010). In the preference, processes such as linear programming
and simulation models can be applied (James and Francisco, 2015).

352

CEA is carried out by different stages as in CBA (Cellini & Kee, 2010) as shown
below:

Determining the general framework

Deciding the costs and benefits to be obtained

Classifying these costs and benefits

Determining the monetary value of costs

Determining the effectiveness of the aforementioned benefits unit

Discounting of the cost to the present value

Calculating cost-effectiveness ratio

Sensitivity analysis

4. Conclusions
With CBA whether the public and private sector investment resources are used
effectively is decided (Ergen, 2008).
CBA is mostly used to evaluate water resources development, electrical energy
generation, flood control, drinking water resources improvement, crop irrigation
projects covering number of different external benefits eliminating foreign
energy dependency. In addition, application of CBA and CEA to land use and
urban planning projects and their implementation for public interest are of
particular importance (Bulutoglu, 2003).
Ergene River Basin is a prominent area for both agriculture and industry with its
fertile arable plains, rich surface and underground water resources. It also
connects Europe and Turkey through transportation network (railway and
highway), offering significant opportunities to the industry.
In the industrial sector, an important part of industrial enterprises comprises of
agricultural enterprises. Especially the food and textile industries are spread
throughout the basin. Timely and smooth marketing of the products affect the
sustainability of agricultural enterprises in a positive way. Proximity to markets
like the EU and Istanbul is an important advantage in the region.
Ineffective use of water resources in the basin is among the major problems of
Ergene River Basin. Population rise, misuse of land resources, land use change,

353

industrialisation, intensive use of agrochemicals and unsystematic urbanisation


increase the pressure on water resources.
For these reasons, investment projects are needed to develop, protect and
effective use of natural resources, particularly land and water.
Ergene River Basin is negative externalities intensive region. Therefore, social
benefits and costs should also be carefully taken into consideration in
determining the cost and benefits of the investment in the basin
CBA and CEA are significant components in the preference of alternative Project
proposals to protect and develop natural resources, prevent misuse of land and
water resources and pollution.
5. References
Ata, E. (1978). Fayda Maliyet Analizi. Eskiehir ktisadi ve Ticari limler Akademisi Dergisi. Cilt
XIV. Say:1 (Ocak). Eskiehir.
Batrel, . F. (1982). Kamu Btesi. stanbul: stanbul ktisadi ve Ticari limler Akademisi Nihad
Sayar Yayn ve Yardm Vakf Yaynlar 3. Bask.
Boadway, R. (2006). Principles of Cost-Benefit Anaylsis. Public Policy Review, 2(1), 144.
Retrieved
from
https://www.mof.go.jp/english/pri/publication/pp_review/ppr002/ppr002a.pdf
Bulutolu, K. (2003). Kamu Ekonomisine Giri. stanbul: Yap Kredi Yaynlar
CEEU. (2012). Guide to economic appraisal: Carrying out a cost benefit analysis. The Central
Expenditure Evaluation Unit. Retrieved from http://publicspendingcode.per.gov.ie/wpcontent/uploads/2012/08/D03-Guide-to-economic-appraisal-CBA-16-July.pdf
Cellini, S. R., & Kee, J. E. (2010). Cost Effectiveness and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Handbook of
Practical Program Evaluation Units, 493530.
EPA. (2010). Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses.
Ergen, Z. (2008). Kamu Kesimi Yatrm Projelerinin Deerlendirilmesinde Fayda-Maliyet Analizi
Teknii Ve Trkiyede Uygulanabilirlii. .. Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Dergisi, 17(2), 115
132.
European Commission. (2014). Guide to Cost-benefit Analysis of Investment Projects Economic
appraisal tool for Cohesion Policy 2014-2020. http://doi.org/10.2776/97516
Grgn, S. (1972). Maliye Politikas. stanbul: Filiz Kitabevi.
Hanley, N., Jason F. Shogren and B. White (2001). Introduction to Environmental Economics. New
York: Oxford University Press.

354

Hanley, N., and Spash, C. L. (1993). Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment. Edwar Elgar
Publishing.
Holland, P. (2012). Simple Introduction to Cost-Benefit Analysis SOPAC TECHNICAL NOTE ( PR84
), (January).
Inan, .H., 2015, Tarm Ekonomisi ve letmecilii, 7.Bask, Namk Kemal niversitesi, Ziraat
Fakltesi,Tekirda
Inan, .H., 2000, Proje Hazrlama ve Deerlendirme Teknii, Namk Kemal niversitesi, Ziraat
Fakltesi, Tekirda
James, D., and Francisco, H. A. (2015). cost benefit studies of natural resource management in
Southeast Asia.
Kuleyin, Y. (2011). Yat Liman letmelerinde Fayda-Maliyet Analizi: Ege Blgesinde Bir Yat
Limannda Uygulama. Dokuz Eyll niversitesi.
Mishan, E. J., and Quah, E. (2007). Cost-Benefit Analysis, 5th Edition. Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Pearce, D., Atkinson, G., & Mourato, S. (2006). Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment,
Recent Development. Analysis. OECD Publishing. http://doi.org/10.1086/426308
Rus, G. de. (2010). Introduction to CostBenefit Analysis. Edward Elgar Publishing.
ener, O. (2001). Teori ve Uygulamada Kamu Ekonomisi. stanbul: Beta Basm Yaym 7. Bask.

355

356

Chapter

19

Strategies for Public and Stakeholders Participation


in the Decision Making Process and Institutional
Strengthening for Land-Use Planning Authorities

Fatih KONUKCU

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Introduction to Strategies for Public and Stakeholders Participation in the


decision making process
Participation is an interactive and co-operative process of analysing, planning and
decision-making in which all relevant groups and organisations stakeholders -take
part. It is a process "...which allows all participants to formulate their interests and

357

objectives in a dialogue, which leads to decisions and activities in harmony with


each other, whereby the aims and interests of other participating groups are taken
into account as far as possible.." (GTZ/Rauch, 1993, p. 16; Wehrmann, 2010).
The objective of public and stakeholders participation is to increase the planning
competence, the self-responsibility and organisational capacity of disadvantaged
target groups. The entry point for this approach is the fact that conventional (topdown) planning and implementation approaches have had very little success.
Existing shortcomings should be balanced out by a more intensive dialogue and an
improved co-ordination. This also requires a change in thinking of the project
collaborators, government services and participating NGOs, i.e. changes in the
conception of their position and their role in the participation process. A
precondition for realistic planning is the clarity about the roles of the different
participants related to the use of land resources, about their social positions, ranks
and interests. A detailed analysis of these conditions identifies competitive
relationships, the potential for conflicts and common interests. This can open ways
to planning based on consensus. A conflicts solving strategy is also respecting
different perspectives. The explanation of the tools for participatory planning will
be restricted here to the basic principles and to the diversity of the approaches.
When using participatory planning methods as well as selecting institutionalised
forms of participation, one aspect has to be focussed on: the participants should
learn together especially when target groups and government authorities
collaborate (Wehrmann, 2010).
Why the expected results of planning in natural resources management, including
land use, have not produced good results are listed by Wehrmann (2010), hhich is
considered true also for Ergene River Basin:

358

The unsuitability of top-down planning approaches and the related


deprivation of the right of decision of local people due to a paternalistic
approach to development;

the lack of communication and co-ordination between sectorial authorities


regarding to the sustainable use of land and other natural resources;

the low level of competence and capacity of government authorities at local


level;

closely related to this are the deficiencies of the government in


legitimisation planning and the increasing distrust between population and
authorities;

the fact that the traditional power structure is (under certain circumstances)
being questioned;

experiences and methods related to conflicts in land use planning are still
relatively recent;

controversial rights of use of natural resources.

2. Strategies for Public and Stakeholders Participation in the Decision Making


Process
The objective of public and stakeholders participation for decision support system
is to enhance the decision support system competence, the self-responsibility and
organisational capacity of target groups. The strategy for public and stakeholders
participation for decision support system should cover: identifying stakeholders,
getting stakeholders participation, developing the capacity of stakeholders,
coordinating of the stakeholders/establishing stakeholders advisory group and
ensuring legislative situation competence.
dentifying stakeholders for Decision Support System
The target stakeholders in decision support system for land use planning are land
use planners, researchers, NGOs and media. Land use planners includes central and
local authorities of Municipalities and Ministries: Ministry of Food, Agriculture and
Livestock, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and Ministry of Forestry and
Water Affairs. Researchers are University staffs, Research Institutes
representatives and postgraduate students working on natural resources
management.
Getting Stakeholders Participation
There are many ways to involve stakeholders, both formally and informally.
Stakeholder involvement depends on the mandate of the basin organisation and
stakeholders. No regulation is available for the involvement of stakeholders now in
the case of Land use management in Turkey. Regulation applied for European

359

Water Framework Directive: stakeholder consultation may be a good example


for this. ..One of the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD)
is to make water policy more transparent through the active participation of all
stakeholders. According to article 14, Member States must "encourage the active
involvement of all interested parties in the implementation of [the] Directive, in
particular in the production, review and updating of the river basin management
plans. The Directive calls on Member States to ensure that for each river basin
district, they publish and make available for comments from the public" the
timetable and work programme, the identification of the main water issues in the
district, and the draft river basin management plan(More information at:
http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l28002b.htm,
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html,
GWP
and INBO, 2009 available at: http://www.inbo-news.org/IMG/pdf/GWPINBOHandbookForIWRMinBasins.pdf).
Developing the Capacity of Stakeholders
Stakeholders capacity should be developed by regular training program, workshop
and similar activities on land use management and decision support system. Within
the ILMM-BSE project, the realized 6 two-day Training Programs and 8 Press
Conference and Public Hearings are considered to contribute significantly to build
capacity in land use management (Table 1).
Coordinating of the Stakeholders/Establishing Stakeholders Advisory Group
An independent group, such as a stakeholder advisory group that advises on key
basin management issues, can make basin management more effective. Stakeholder
advisory groups are government-private sector-community groups made up of
representatives of basin landowners, relevant state government agencies, local
government councils, local water supply authorities and other utilities, economic
sectors such as agriculture and energy, and other groups with an interest in land
and water management (GWP and INBO, 2009 available at: http://www.inbonews.org/IMG/pdf/GWP-INBOHandbookForIWRMinBasins.pdf). Within this advisory
Group, a Decision Support System Team made up of researchers and
representatives of land use planning authorities may be designed. The role of this
team is to coordinate the stakeholder for decision support system and organise
workshop, training programs, etc.

360

Date
51

78

38

Training Program II in
Turkey: Physical Design of
Watersheds

Project Training Program


III in Turkey: Land Use
Change Modelling: Case of
Ergene River Basin (19902013)

Number of
participants

Training I: Introduction to
Land Use Management
Modelling of Ergene River
Basin of Turkey

Name/topics

361

Namik Kemal University, Hayrabolu Municipality, TURMEPA, Krklareli


Ataturk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station,
Tekirdag Viticulture Research Station, Trakya Agricultural Research
Institute, Environment and City Planning Ministry, Local Directorate,
Forestry and Water Affairs Ministry Local Directorate, State Hydraulic
Works Regional Directorate, NGOs and media.

Namik Kemal University, Hayrabolu Municipality, TURMEPA, Krklareli


Ataturk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station,
Tekirdag Viticulture Research Station, Trakya Agricultural Research
Institute, Environment and City Planning Ministry, Local Directorate,
Forestry and Water Affairs Ministry Local Directorate, State Hydraulic
Works Regional Directorate, NGOs and media.

Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag Governship, Hayrabolu Municipality,


TURMEPA, Krklareli Ataturk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology
Research Station, Tekirdag Viticulture Research Station, Trakya
Agricultural Research Institute, Environment and City Planning Ministry,
Local Directorate, Forestry and Water Affairs Ministry Local Directorate,
State Hydraulic Works Regional Directorate, Tekirdag Chamber of
Commerce and Industry, Ergene Organized Industrial Zone Management
NGOs and media.

Representatives of organisation/institution

Table 1. Training Programs, their topic and stakeholders involvements.

17-18 December 2013

27-28 March 2014

27-28 November 2014

Date

362

68

36

25

Training
Program
V:
Modelling Impact of Land
Use Change on Water
Resources: Case of Ergene
River Basin

Training Program VI:


ILMM-BSE Land Use
Change
Modelling
Software (WebGis)

Number of
participants

Training Program IV: Land


Use Change Modelling:
Case of Ergene River Basin
(2013-2023)

Name/topics

Table 1. Continued.

25-26 December 2014

5-6 March 2015

23-24 June 2015

Namik Kemal University, Hayrabolu Municipality, TURMEPA, Krklareli


Ataturk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station,
Tekirdag Viticulture Research Station, Trakya Agricultural Research
Institute, NGOs and media.

Namik Kemal University, Hayrabolu Municipality, TURMEPA, Krklareli


Ataturk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station,
Tekirdag Viticulture Research Station, Trakya Agricultural Research
Institute, NGOs and media

Namik Kemal University, Hayrabolu Municipality, TURMEPA, Krklareli


Ataturk Soil, Water and Agricultural Meteorology Research Station,
Tekirdag Viticulture Research Station, Trakya Agricultural Research
Institute, NGOs and media

Representatives of organisation/institution

Public and stakeholders involvement and all such activities should be defined in
and compatible with the legislative arrangements.
3. Institutional Strengthening for Land-Use Planning Authorities
The success of land use planning depends on the capacities of all actors,
particularly of the lead agency responsible for land use planning and those
institutions and groups taking over the responsibilities for implementing the plan.
The responsibilities for planning, implementation, financial and administrative
handling can be concentrated in one organization (e.g. the planning agency if in
place) or split amongst two or three different organizations. As a general rule, the
integration into existing public institutions having the official mandate for land use
planning no matter how weak they may be should always have priority over the
creation of new separate structures. The latter should only be considered in
exceptional situations and as a temporary solution (Wehrmann, 2010)
The institutional strengthening for land use planning authorities are evaluated here
into three parts: capacity for planning, capacity for implementation and capacity
development as given in (Wehrmann, 2010).
Institutional Capacity for Land Use Planning
Many planning agencies as any other public agencies suffer from certain
deficiencies such as lack of coordination, insufficiently qualified staff, frequent
staff changes, imbalance between assignments accepted and available capacities
and orientation towards execution rather than planning. In addition, the
hierarchical structures often contribute to paralyzing the initiatives of the technical
personnel. Hence, capacity development and institutional development are key for
the introduction of land use planning in most developing countries (Amler et al.,
1999 and Wehrmann, 2010), which is the case for Turkey as well.
Planning is not an end in itself and cannot be reduced to an administrative process.
Most common motives for planning are of economic nature. Planning is an
investment and is therefore carried out in order to achieve additional economic
revenue. One of the aims of land use planning is to achieve an improvement in the
economic viability in the planning region. If a project intervenes in the field of
LUP, it must answer the questions "How?, With whom?, For whom?, At what
planning level?, Who is the partner?, and What agency is to be supported?" (Amler
et al., 1999).

363

Planning institution must meet the following minimum requirements to ensure longterm sustainability of land use planning (Amler et al., 1999 and Wehrmann, 2010)

qualified personnel and equipment;

motivated and technically competent extension personnel;

long-term financial security.

Institutions such as municipalities in regions are often not equipped to deal


comprehensively with regional land use planning. It is important to strengthen
institutional capacity through training programs and sharing of technology and
methods. A process for multi-jurisdictional planning may be established to
coordinate work throughout the region or across multiple municipalities. There are
economies of scale involved, and overall planning costs may be reduced if methods
and modelling as well as human and technical resources can be shared amongst
municipalities (http://www.ealt.ca/media/uploads/Sustainable_land_use_planning
_AUMA.pdf .
Institutional Capacity for Implementation
The plan should be implemented by already existing institutions. The responsibility
for implementation of specific measures depends on the sector concerned as well
as on the size of the measure (financial volume) and the financial sources involved.
If the implementation is linked to extensive financial means, there is a considerable
organizational and administrative process involved. This additional task cannot be
accomplished as a side line by one of the participating organizations. The
organization in charge of the completion of investments must make additional
capacities available. Training and further education might be necessary in order to
improve the capacity and motivation of the implementing organization. In an ideal
scenario, an existing municipal or regional body takes on the leading function in
plan implementation, sets up appropriate coordination mechanisms (steering
committee, regional development council), delegates the implementation of
specific measures (through contracting etc.) and monitors implementation (e.g.
supervises the conclusion of contracts with private companies or individuals). If
there is no suitable institution already in place, one of the participating
organizations must take on these assignments. Usually, this has to be a public
authority. If this is not likely, a new organization has to be created which is,
however, temporary in nature. Nevertheless, it should have the necessary
organizational, material, financial and personnel capacities. Irrespective of which

364

option is finally selected, all participants must together establish functions,


responsibilities, planning systems, coordination systems, monitoring/control
systems, and tools and mechanisms of sanction (Amler et al., 1999 and Wehrmann,
20109).
The mandate to carry out minor (pilot) measures can in some cases be transferred
to civil society (self-help groups, cooperatives, farmers organizations or local
NGOs). It is also possible that private sector companies or individual consultants
take over this part. With increasing investments and technical complexity, it makes
sense to contract specialized private companies. Governments or private
implementation organizations will then concentrate on the supervision and
monitoring of the process. The technical and administrative requirements of the
responsible organizations carrying out individual measures of the land use plan
vary. This makes it necessary to use appropriate tools to examine the qualifications
of individual organizations and to ensure the most efficient cooperation possible.
These instruments are applied by the lead agency. The interdependencies and
recommendations for financial and institutional processing of planning and
implementation are summarized in the table below. It shows how broad the range is
with respect to implementing organizations, mechanisms of implementation,
financial sources and institutional requirements. Each individual case requires
functioning mechanisms of coordination and checking. Most of these mechanisms as
well as the responsible institutions cannot be expected to be in place but need to
be developed or at least strengthened during the planning and implementation
process. One approach to do so that has been proven to be successful in Laos and
Cambodia is the joint development of a land use planning manual. Prepared by all
stakeholders under the guidance of international experts, the process helps
clarifying open questions, improves mutual understanding and trust and creates the
necessary forms of cooperation. Such a process requires some time generally one
to two years (Amler et al., 1999 and Wehrmann, 20109).
Capacity Development for Planning, Implementing and Monitoring
Capacity development for successful land use planning implies improvements in a
vast number of institutions as well as increased knowledge, new skills and changes
in attitudes in an even bigger number of individuals (Amler et al., 1999). Capacity
development and adopting new technologies is also imperative for monitoring as
well.

365

4. References
Amler B., D. Betke, H. Eger, Chr. Ehrich, U. Hoesle, A. Kohler, C. Ksel, A. v. Lossau, W. Lutz, U.
Mller, T. Schwedersky, S. Seidemann, M. Siebert, A. Trux, W. Zimmermann 1999. Land Use
Planning Methods, Strategies and Tools. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. Eschborn, Germany. 212 pages.
GTZ/Rauch, T. 1993. LRE aktuell -Strategieelemente fr eine Umsetzung des LRE-Konzepts unter
vernderten Rahmenbedingungen. Eschborn: GTZ, OE 425. 177 pages.
GWP and INBO, 2009. A Handbook for Integrated Water Resources Management In Basins. Published
by the Global Water Partnership (GWP) and the International Network of Basin Organizations
(INBO) http://www.inbo-news.org/IMG/pdf/GWP-INBOHandbookForIWRMinBasins.pdf.
Wehrmann B. 2010. Land Use Planning Concept, Tools and Applications. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr
Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Division Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Sector
Project Land Policy and Land Management Eschborn/Germany.

366

Chapter

20

Development of an Integrated Framework Analysis


and New Legislation

Fatih KONUKCU

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Biosystem Engineering Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. fkonukcu@nku.edu.tr

1. Integrated Land Use Planning: Definition Functions and Principles


Land represents an important resource for the economic life of a majority of people
in the world. The way people handle and use land resources impacts their social
and economic well-being as well as the sustained quality of land resources. Land
use planning is also integral to water resources development and management for
agriculture, industry, drinking water, power generation, etc.

367

Land has many functions (ESCAP, 1994):


The production function: It is the basis for many life support systems, through the
production of biomass that provides food, fodder, fibre, fuel, timber and other
biotic materials for human use, either directly or through animal husbandry
including aquaculture and inland and coastal fishery.
The biotic environmental function: Land is the basis of terrestrial biodiversity by
providing the biological habitats and gene reserves for plants, animals and microorganisms, above and below ground.
The climate regulative function: Land and its use are a source and sink of
greenhouse gases and form a co-determinant of the global energy balance reflection, absorption and transformation of radiative energy of the sun, and of the
global hydrological cycle.
The hydrologic function: Land regulates the storage and flow of surface and
groundwater resources, and influences their quality.
The storage function:
human use.

Land is a storehouse of raw materials and minerals for

The waste and pollution control function: Land has a receptive, filtering,
buffering and transforming function of hazardous compounds.
The living space function: Land provides the physical basis for human settlements,
industrial plants and social activities such as sports and recreation.
The archive or heritage function: Land is a medium to store and protect the
evidence of the cultural history of mankind, and a source of information on past
climatic conditions and past land uses.
The connective space function: Land provides space for the transport of people,
inputs and produce, and for the movement of plants and animals between discrete
areas of natural ecosystems.
The suitability of the land for these functions varies greatly over the world.
Landscape units, as natural resources units, have a dynamism of their own, but
human influences affect this dynamism to a great extent, in space and time.
Human-induced land degradation has taken place all through history (FAO/UNEP,
1999).

368

The rate of land degradation may continue unabated or even increase under
conditions of any human-induced global climatic changes, but this cannot be
automatically assumed. Land degradation can be controlled, redressed or even
reversed if the land is used wisely, if all the functions of the land are taken into
account, and if short-term vested interests of privileged groups are replaced by
long-term enlightened interests of all segments of human kind, globally, nationally
and locally (FAO/UNEP, 1999).
The integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources has
been identified as a separate programme area of UNCED's Agenda 21 (UNCED,
1993).
An integrated approach to planning the use and management of land resources
entails the involvement of all stakeholders in the process of decision making on the
future of the land, and the identification and evaluation of all biophysical and
socio-economic attributes of land units. This requires the identification and
establishment of a use or non-use of each land unit that is technically appropriate,
economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally non-degrading
(FAO/UNEP, 1999).
Based on the definition and the objective presented above, land use planning
should be based on the following principles (GTZ 1995, LUPO 2003a, NID/MLR 2009,
Amler, 1999; Wehrmann, 2010):

Land use planning aims at sustainability balancing social, economic and


environmental

needs;

Land use planning results in a legally binding land use plan and/or legally
binding land use rules. Formal recognition of the land use plan or land use
rules is crucial for its implementation. Otherwise, key players such as sector
ministries or private investors do not respect them;

Land use planning is integrated into state institutions having the official
mandate for inter-sector planning. This can be realized in different ways.
The planning can be initiated and facilitated by a local administrative body.
The planning can also be done by local or traditional chiefs and later
formalized through the signing by a regional or national officer. In the later

369

case, these higher level officers need, however, be involved from an early
stage on;

370

Land use planning is a dialogue. A central part of any land use planning is
the initialization of a communication process that allows all stakeholders to
express their interests and enables them to agree on future land uses that
respect all positions in a fair and adequate way;

Land use planning is an all inclusive process. This requires that all
stakeholder groups are represented: local direct and indirect users, public
authorities, private investors, NGOs and CBOs. Depending on the level on
which land use planning is done, stakeholders participation can be direct or
indirect;

Land use planning is based on stakeholder differentiation and gender


sensitivity.

To identify all relevant stakeholders, a gender differentiated analysis of all


actors should be done in advance;

Land use planning promotes civic engagement. The population should


actively participate in the land use planning. The results of planning and the
implementation of measures can only be sustainable if plans are made with
and by the people, not behind or even against them. Planning is, therefore,
not just a matter for experts, but should be carried out together with those
affected by it;

Land use planning is realistic and oriented to local conditions. Not only has
the content of a land use planning to be adapted to local conditions. The
methods too have to fit the technical, economic and organizational
capacities of the local population as well as administration;

Land use planning is based on a light methodology avoiding unnecessary


data collection resulting in data graveyards;

Land use planning in terms of methodology and content differs e.g. in


scale, specificity, form of participation (direct vs. indirect), and technology
at village, municipal and regional level;

Land use planning considers and valorises local knowledge. Rural societies
or groups often possess a complex autochthonous knowledge of their natural
environment. They can contribute valuable information and should,
therefore, be mobilized during the land use planning;

Land use planning takes into account traditional strategies for solving
problems and conflicts. Traditional rural societies have their own way of
approaching problems and settling conflicts concerning land use. In the
process of land use planning, such mechanisms have to be recognized,
understood and taken into account;

Land use planning follows the idea of subsidiarity, i.e. all functions from
planning to decision-making, implementation and monitoring are assigned to
the lowest appropriate level of government in order to be responsive to the
needs of citizens and to ensure effective control from below;

Land use planning integrates bottom-up aspects with top-down aspects


(vertical integration). Land use planning needs to combine local needs
and interests with provisions made by higher levels. This can only be
achieved in a sustainable way if stakeholders from all levels participate in
the process and directly talk and listen (!) to each other;

Land use planning is based on inter-disciplinary cooperation and requires


sector

coordination (horizontal integration). The diverse functions and


(potential) uses of land make it necessary to apply an interdisciplinary
approach involving all sectors that have a stake in that area. This generally
requires a longer support in institution building and improving cooperation
between different sector ministries/agencies;

Land use planning is a process leading to an improvement in the capacity


of stakeholders. The participatory methods used in all steps of land use
planning promote the technical and organizational capabilities of all
participants, thereby improving their capacity to plan and act. In the
medium term, this leads to an improvement in the capacity of local groups or
administrative entities (such as municipalities, districts and provinces) for
self-determination;

371

372

Land use planning requires transparency. If there is no transparency on


decisions about future land uses, risks are high that some people will be
deprived of their rights and/or that future land use will not be sustainable;

Land use planning is future-oriented (visionary). Land use planning is not


only about mapping the current land uses or land covers. Land use planning
determines how the land will be used in the future. This may differ more or
less from todays utilization of the land;

Land use planning is an iterative process. Land use planning is more than
the preparation of a planning document; it is an iterative process. Iteration is
both the principle and the method. New developments and findings are
specifically observed and incorporated into the planning process. It may lead
to the revision of decisions and the repetition of steps already taken;

Land use planning is implementation oriented. Land use planning has to


consider how the negotiated decisions and the solutions identified are to be
implemented. It does not end with the land use plan. The implementation of
limited measures right at the beginning of the process or parallel to it plays
an important role in establishing villagers confidence in the planning
process;

Land use planning is linked to financial planning. This is crucial for


implementation. Land use planning needs to be aware of the designated uses
of sector budgets as well as of the financial planning cycles of the relevant
sector ministries (including their deadlines). At the same time, land use
planning should influence the composition and intended purposes of budgets
and funds;

Land use planning relates to spaces and places (spatial orientation). In


most countries many forms of planning and quite a number of plans exist.
What most of them are lacking is the relation to space. Many development
plans, for instance, state what has to be developed (mainly in terms of
infrastructure) but dont indicate where.

Land use planning puts the focus on spatial relations and differences. The
spatial orientation of planning ensures the optimum distribution of
investments and the most adequate use of any place and avoids (land use)
conflicts.

2. Integrated Framework for Land Use Management


An integrated land use framework for Ergene River Basin may be analysed following
the methodology given at:https://www.landuse.alberta.ca/Documents/LUF_Landuse_Framework_Report-2008-12.pdf;
http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans
/publications/cosframework-cadresoc/pdf/im-gi-eng.pdf

defining and assessing a management area

Identifying the engaging stakeholders or integrated management body;

developing an Integrated Management plan;

endorsement of plan by decision-making authorities;

implementing the plan; and

monitoring and evaluating outcomes.

2.1.

Stage 1: Defining and Assessing the Management Area

During this stage, the present state and existing problems of the management area
are identified. To do this, basin information, monitoring and knowledge system is
established.
The created basin database should include:

the physical features and land forms

climate

soils

geology

water resources and hydrologic structure

water quality

biodiversity

land use

373

protected areas

social-economic systems

The problems of the basin regarding land use are listed, the source of the problems
and associated stakeholder are obtained.
The main problems are:

Use of natural resources (land water, forest, etc.) beyond their capacity,

Waste disposal and contamination of land and water resources,

Lack of the coordination between the stakeholders,

Land use planning process without decision support system

Lack of risk assessment in land use planning, for instance, climate change,
flood, etc.

Considerable amount of data regarding the present situation of Ergene River Basin
has been obtained by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation, Ministry of
Forestry and Water Affairs and Ministry of Food Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
and also precious scientific project conducted by the Universities. However the
available data is not integrated.
Contribution of ILMM-BSE Project: A well-designed integrated database and
database system involving all relevant information was created. Land use problems,
associated stakeholder and risk assessment ware investigated.
2.2.

Stage 2: Identifying the Engaging Stakeholders or Integrated Management


Body

The specific composition and role of Integrated Management bodies will vary,
depending on the scale of the initiative, the complexity of the issues, local and
regional infrastructures and local capacity, local circumstances, the actual
management area, issues and the level of concern.
In general, an Integrated Management body will be composed of both
governmental and non-governmental representatives.

374

In land use areas with high levels of human use and impact, Integrated
Management bodies may comprises of more than one Ministries and NGOs. The
land use activities by different public bodies are not interconnected. Roles and
responsibility of public bodies should be well defined legally for implementation of
the regulatory measures, policies and programs required to achieve the collective
results.
Integrated Management bodies may, under specific circumstances, have additional
roles and responsibilities. For example, they could be made responsible for a
specific task such as the acquisition, management and dissemination of data, or
permit processing in accordance with specific agreements. These agreements
however, would not affect the ultimate responsibility of the mandated regulatory
body.
2.3.

Stages 3&4: Developing an Integrated Management Plan an Endorsement


of Plan by Decision-Making Authorities

Planning requirements vary depending on the type of planning efforts and the level
of environmental analysis needed. A properly prepared plan not only secures time
and fund but also preserves the environment. Planning stage comprises of (H-1601-1

BLM
Land
Use
Planning
Handbook,
more
information
at:
http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/ca/pdf/pa/planning.Par.45838.File.dat/l
anduse_hb.pdf):

Prepare to plan

Issue a notice of intent to prepare the resource management plan

Conduct scoping

Analyze the management situation

Formulate alternatives

Analyze the effects of alternatives

Select a preferred alternative

Prepare a draft resource management plan

Prepare a proposed resource management plan

375

Publish a notice of availability, provide a protest period, and resolve protests

Provide a Governors consistency review period

Determine need for a notice of significant change and provide a comment


period if necessary

Prepare a record of decision and approved resource management plan

Cost benefit analysis and decision support system are extremely useful tools in the
analysis of the effect of alternatives.
Action Plan to protect Maritsa-Ergene River Basin (2008) and 1/100.000 scaled
Thrace Sub-Regional Ergene Basin Revised Environmental Settlement Plan (2009)
are under implementation. However, decision support system was not applied to
minimize the risks. ILMM-BSE project provides a useful tool for decision support
system.
2.4.

Stages 5: implementing the plan

When an approved land use plan is signed, most of the land use plan require no
additional planning Some programs have specific requirements that must be taken in
order to make certain decisions effective. Implementation stage should carefully be
realised includes (H-1601-1 BLM Land Use Planning Handbook, more information at:

http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/ca/pdf/pa/planning.Par.45838.File.dat/l
anduse_hb.pdf):

implementing land use plans

defining implementation decisions

making implementation decisions

making land use plan and implementation decisions in the same planning
effort

developing strategies to facilitate implementation of land use plans

Developing strategies to facilitate implementation of land use plans is point in this


stage, which has the following four issues to be carefully considered.

376

Develop framework to portray the work. Identify specific projects to (a) achieve
desired natural resource conditions, (b) achieve desired heritage and cultural
resource conditions, (c) address anticipated demands for recreation, (d) address
anticipated demands for forage and forest products, (e) address anticipated
demand for direct community services, and (f) address demand for energy and
minerals.
Identify priorities for the next 3 to 5 years. Using the framework in step 1, and
considering current budget capabilities, identify priorities within each workload (a.
through f. in step 1) and priorities across workloads.
Develop a 3 to 5 year budget. Identify specific tasks to accomplish each project
and associated funding needs, including labour and operations costs. Identify
potential funding sources including base, flexible, and contributions.
Develop an outreach strategy. Identify a strategy for both internal and external
communications needed to support implementation. This could be in the form of
annual plan updates and website development, etc.
2.5.

Stages 6: Monitoring and Evaluating Outcomes

Monitoring process has two planning decision: implementation monitoring and


effectiveness monitoring. The first one shows the progress in the implementation of
land use plan and yearly budgets etc. Effectiveness monitoring is the process of
collecting data and information in order to determine whether or not desired
outcomes are being met as the allowable uses and management actions are being
implemented. A monitoring strategy must be developed as part of the land use plan
that identifies indicators of change, acceptable thresholds, methodologies,
protocols, and timeframes that will be used to evaluate and determine whether or
not desired outcomes are being achieved. The monitoring process should collect
information in the most cost-effective manner and may involve sampling or remote
sensing: (H-1601-1 BLM Land Use Planning Handbook, more information at:
http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/ca/pdf/pa/planning.Par.45838.File.dat/l
anduse_hb.pdf).
Evaluation is the process of reviewing the land use plan and the periodic plan
monitoring reports to determine whether the land use plan decisions are still valid
and whether the plan is being implemented. The plan should be periodically
evaluated (at a minimum every 5 years) as documented in an evaluation schedule
(H-1601-1 BLM Land Use Planning Handbook, more information at:

377

http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/ca/pdf/pa/planning.Par.45838.File.dat/l
anduse_hb.pdf).
3. Legislation
Legislation regarding to land use planning in Turkey is conducted by The Ministry of
Environment and Urbanisation Directorate General of Spatial Planning, Spatial
Strategies and Territorial Plans Department (Spatial Planning Regulations) and the
Ministry of Food Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (Soil Conservation and Land Use
Law).
3.1.

Spatial Planning Regulations

Spatial Strategy Plan by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation Directorate


General of Spatial Planning aims to (http://www.csb.gov.tr/gm/mpgmen
/index.php?Sayfa=sayfa&Tur=webmenu&Id=14930):

Integrate national development policies and regional development strategies


at the spatial level,

Consider and evaluate the economic and social potentials, objectives and
strategies of regional plans with regard to transport networks and physical
thresholds,

Determine spatial strategies that will make resources useful for the
economy, protect and develop natural, historical and cultural values, orient
transport system and urban, social and technical infrastructure,

Establish the relation between spatial policies and strategies regarding


sectors,

that is prepared by using schematic and graphic languages on maps with a


scale of 1/250.000, 1/500.000 or higher,

Covering the country and in the regions where it is accepted as necessary to


be prepared, with sectorial and thematic maps and report.

The
specific
objectives
of
Spatial
Strategy
Plans
is
to
(http://www.csb.gov.tr/gm/mpgmen/index.php?Sayfa=sayfa&Tur=webmenu&Id=
14931):

378

Reflect national development policies, regional development strategies and


regional plan decisions to spatial plans,

Prepare the upper-scaled plans directing land use plans with a strategic
approach and a new planning language,

Integrate and harmonize sectorial decisions throughout the country with


their spatial dimensions,

Determine spatial strategies for protecting and developing natural, historical


and cultural values,

Ensure a guidance in terms of determining investment locations.

Territorial plan is the plan in which


basic geographical data such as forests,
streams, lakes and agricultural lands are shown according to the objective and
strategy decisions of spatial strategy plans, if any, which determines the general
land use decisions regarding sectors like industry, agriculture, tourism, access and
energy, urban and rural settlements and development areas, which can be prepared
at region, basin or province level by using the appropriate presentation for the
maps with the scales of 1/50.000 or 1/100.000 ensuring the protection and usage
balance between settlements and sectors and which is a whole with its plan notes
and report. Territorial plans regarding 97% of our country are completed.
Considering new investments and incentives according to 2023 vision, revisions
works to ensure continuity and unity in land use decisions in territorial plans made
at the regional level, the provincial territorial plans and the sectorial plans
(http://www.csb.gov.tr/gm/mpgmen/index.php?Sayfa=sayfa&Tur=webmenu&Id=14
933).
The New Regulation for the Preparation of Spatial Plans regarding the creation
process
of
the
plans
has
come
into
effect
(http://www.csb.gov.tr/gm/mpgmen/index.php?Sayfa=sayfa&Tur=webmenu&Id=14
979):

Hierarchy of spatial plans was clarified and relations with other special plans
were defined.

The definitions of spatial strategy plan, integrated coast zones plan, action
plan, urban design project, and long-term development plan were defined
for the first time.

379

The definitions of spatial strategy plan, integrated coast zones plan, action
plan, urban design project, and long-term development plan were defined
for the first time.

Principles regarding every plan were brought in addition to the general


planning procedures.

Principles and procedures regarding the plans and the data analyses to be
made were specified separately.

Applications speeding up and shortening the planning process were allowed.

Tools that will ensure the publicity of and participation in plans were
developed.

Legend and standards were regulated in a way to cover the current needs.

3.2.

Soil Conservation and Land Use Law

The 5403 Numbered Soil Conservation and Land Use Law (Published in Official
Gazette, date: 19.07.2005, Number25880).
The Law comprises of 6 Chapters:

Chapter 1: Aims, scope and definitions,

Chapter 2: The use of the right to land ownership and Soil Conservation
Board,

Chapter 3: Investigation of soil and land resources potential

Chapter 4: Soil conservation and land use

Chapter 5: Encouragement, control, sanctions, income and expenses

Chapter 6: Provisions and amendments.

The purpose of this law, compliance with sustainable development principle in a


way of environmentally and economically sound, is to determine the procedures
and principles for soil conservation, soil development, classification of agricultural
land, investigation of minimum size of agricultural areas, the size of agricultural
land to provide adequate income, prevention of cultivated land fragmentation and

380

identification of duties and responsibilities of the relevant institutions and


authorities.
In the first chapter, The Ministry, Soil Conservation Board, soil, land, farmland land,
absolute farmland, special crop land, orchard land, marginal agricultural land,
agricultural land to provide adequate income, non-arable land, irrigated land,
structures for agricultural purposes, land capability classes, land use planning,
agricultural land use plans and projects, soil conservation projects, land
consolidation and land consolidation area are defined.
In the Second Chapter, the use of the right to land ownership and duty of Soil
Conservation Board are identified.
Potential of soil, land and minimum size of agricultural areas, the size of
agricultural land to provide adequate income, issues regulating legacy are defined
in the third Chapter.
Chapter 4 regulates soil conservation principles, planning and implementation of
land use planning, farm land use beyond their purposes, preparation of soil
conservation projects, investigation of high potential great farm plains their
preservation, investigation erosion sensitive land and their conservation principles,
monitoring and prevention of soil pollution, land consolidation and distribution. This
chapter states that use of absolute farmlands, special crop lands, orchard lands and
irrigated land beyond their purposes is prohibited. However, in the absence of
alternative sites and with the consent of the Soil Conservation Board, they are
exceptionally be used beyond their purposes taking required precaution against any
damages to environment and farmlands. The exceptional reasons are:

Strategic needs for defence,

The need for temporary settlements emerged after natural disasters,

Oil and gas exploration and operating activities

A public interest decision taken by the relevant ministries for mining


operations,

Decisions taken by ministries for public interest and investment plan


(transport, renewable energy infrastructures).

381

The legislation for land use in Turkey is considered sufficient to prevent land use.
However the following points should be carefully taken into account.

Besides, economic and environmental impact analysis, social and cumulative


impact assessment should also be made in land use planning.

Cost-benefit analysis, cost effectiveness and natural capital should be


assessed in the evaluation of alternative options in land use planning process.

Decision support system should be applied in the land use change process.

In the evaluation of land use change, Instead of risks assessment for a limited
site, thresholds of sustainability, risk assessment and environmental impact
assessment within the concept of integrated natural resources management
for a whole should be adopted.

Monitoring and evaluation process during and after the implementation of


land use plan should be stated clearly in the regulations.

4. References
Action Plan to Protect Maritza-Ergene River Basin. Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry,
General
Directorate
of
Environmental
management
(November
2008).
http://www.uhabtsgp.com/resim/file/Ergene_Havzasi_Koruma_Eylem_Plani%5B1%5D.pdf
Amler B., D. Betke, H. Eger, Chr. Ehrich, U. Hoesle, A. Kohler, C. Ksel, A. v. Lossau, W. Lutz, U.
Mller, T. Schwedersky, S. Seidemann, M. Siebert, A. Trux, W. Zimmermann 1999. Land Use
Planning Methods, Strategies and Tools. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. Eschborn, Germany. 212 pages.
FAO (1993): Guidelines for Land-Use Planning. FAO Development Series 1. Rome.
FAO/UNEP (1999): The Future of Our Land. Facing the Challenge. Guidelines forIntegrated Planning
for Sustainable Management of Land Resources. Rome.
Revised Environmental Settlement plan for Ergene River Basin (1/100000 scaled). Turkish Ministry of
Environment and Forestry (August 2009). http://www.trakyaka.org.tr/uploads/docs/
1109201286q6MO.pdf
Wehrmann B. 2010. Land Use Planning Concept, Tools and Applications. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr
Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Division Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Sector
Project Land Policy and Land Management Eschborn/Germany.

382

Chapter

21

Evaluation Criteria for National Parks, Natural


Assets and Important Species Areas in the delta of
Maritsa-Ergene River Basin

Elif Ebru SISMAN

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Arts Design and Architecture, Landscape Architecture
Department, TR59030 Tekirdag-TURKEY. esisman@nku.edu.tr

Protect Areas of Maritsa-Ergene River Basins


Maritsa-Ergene- Rivers form a large delta in the mouth at the Greece bored
(Figure 1). This delta contains fresh water lakes, lagoons, reedbeds and rise
cultivated areas. The fresh water lakes namely are Great Gala (Rice) Lake, Small
Gala (Rice) Lake and Pamuklu Lake. The lagoons in the delta are Tasalti, Dalyan
and Bucurmene lakes located in South side of Great Gala Lake. The depth of
Small Gala Lake varies between 1.0-1.5 m and covered with reedbeds. Both Gala
Lakes occupy about 1 700 ha (Anonymous, 1993).

383

Figure 1. Location of the delta in the mouth of Maritsa-Ergene River Basins.


The protection status in the delta are national park, natural protected areas and
habitats for birds and plants. The delta is one of the internationally important A
class 18 wetlands of Turkey. It falls between 4046 '06.79'' N Latitude, 2611'
07.63'' E Longitude and 15.0 m Altitude in Ipsala and Enez towns of Edirne
Provinces
The Protected Areas: A 2369 ha area covering Pamuklu and Small Gala Lakes
was declared Natural Protected Area in 1991 by the Council of Ministers due to
its wealth in terms of quantity and water birds species (Figure 2).Later, in 2005,
the status of the area was changed to National Park by the Council of Ministers
according to the 2873 issued National Parks Act, Article 3, expanding the
boundaries to 6 087 (Figure 3). It covers wetland, lake and forest ecosystems and
various species survived in these ecosystems.

384

Figure 2. Borders of Gala Lake Protected Area of Nature.

Figure 3. Borders of Gala Lake National Park.


Additionally, 2 369 ha Natural Protected Area covering Small Gala and Pamuklu
Lakes was declared as first degree Natural Site in 1991 while Great Gala and
lagoons were declared as second degree Natural Site approximately one year
later in 1992 (Anonymous, 1992).

385

Important Birds Area (IBA) and Important Plant Area (IPA): The delta was also
defined as Important Plant Area (IPA) and Important Bird Area (IBA) due to its
rich biodiversity (Figure 4).
Maritsa-Ergene River deltas IPA covers about 6 834 ha area between 4046' N
Latitude and 2615' E Longitude in the lower part of Maritsa-Ergene River Basin
characterised by coastal lagoons in flooded plain and marsh plant communities
grown in clayey soil and fresh water lakes (Figure 5). Fresh (open) water plant
communities surviving in the lake sides are the most common vegetation in the
area (Ozhatay et al. 2005). Species of Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton
pectinatus and Nymphoides peltata, rarely come across in Turkey, are seen here
(Figure 6). Plant species in IPA are listed in Table 1.

Figure 4. Borders of Important Plant Area in Maritsa-Ergene River Delta.

Figure 5. Islets formed by the reed in Gala and Pamuklu Lakes.

386

Figure 6. Nympoides peltata in Maritsa-Ergene River Delta

Table 1. Plant species in IPA of Maritsa-Ergene River Delta (Kantarc 1988,


Anonymous 2000, Anonymous 2001, Sisman E, 2003, zhatay et al. 2005).
Family name

Latin

Turkish

Fresh Water Ecosystem


ALISMATACEAE

Alisma plantago-aquatica

Su sinir otu

APIACEAE

Sium latifolium var. lancifolium

Dere kerevizi

CERATOPHYLLACEAE

Ceratophyllum demersum L.

Karaboynuzlu yaprak

CYPERACEAE

Scirpus=Schoenoplectus lacustris L. Sandalya saz

HALORAGACEAE

Myriophyllum verticillatum

Halkal su civanperemi

HALORAGACEAE

Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Baakl su civanperemi

HYDROCHARITACEAE

Vallisneria spralis L

Spiral saz

HYDROCHARITACEAE

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae

Kurbaa zehiri

387

Table 1. continued.
Family name

Latin

Turkish

Fresh Water Ecosystem


LEMNACEAE

Spirodela pohyhiza (L) Schliden

LEMNACEAE

Lemna minor L.

Su mercimei

LEMNACEAE

Lemna trisulca L.

Su mercimei

LEMNACEAE

Lemna gibba L.

ikin su mercimei

MENYANTHACEAE

Nymphoides peltata (S.M.Gmalin)


O.Kuntze

Kk nilfer

NAJADACEAE

Najas minor L.

Kk su perisi

NAJADACEAE

Najas marina

Dikenli su perisi

NYMPHAECEAE

Nymphaea alba L.

Beyaz nilfer

POACEAE

Phragmites australis (Cav) Trin ex


Steudel

Kam

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton fluitans

Su smbl

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton crispus L.

Kvrck susmbl

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton pectinatus L

Taraks su smbl

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton panormitanus Biv.

Kk su smbl

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton perfoliatus L.

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Zannichellia palustris L.

Boynuzlu su smbl

RANUNCULACEAE

Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix.

Su dn iei

RANUNCULACEAE

Myosurus minimus L.

San kuyruu

SALVINIACEAE

Salvinia natans( L.)All.

TRAPACEAE

Trapa natans L.

Su kestanesi

TYPHACEAE

Thypa angustofolia L.

Dar yaprakl saz

388

Table 1. continued.
Family name

Latin

Turkish

Semi-Terrestrial Ecosystems
CYPERACEAE

Cyperus sp.

Vensotu

CYPERACEAE

Carex sp.

Ayak otu

CYPERACEAE

Rhynchospara sp.

Karaot

EQUISETACEAE

Equisetum sp.

Atkuyruu

FABACEAE

Trifolium ornithopodioides L.

Karga yoncas

GRAMINEAE

Agropyron repens (L.)Beauv.

Tarla ayr

GRAMINEAE

Butomus umbellatus L.

Su menekesi

GRAMINEAE

Panicum purpureccusi

Yabani dar

POTAMOGETONACEAE

Potamogeton natans

Su smbl

SALICACEAE

Populus alba

Akkavak

SALICACEAE

Salix nigra L.

Kara st

TAMARICACEAE

Tamarix germanica

Ilgn

TYPHACEAE

Thypa latifolia

Hasr saz

Terrestrial Ecosystems
BETULACEAE

Carpinus orientalis Miller

Dou grgeni

CORNACEAE

Cornus mas L

Kzlck

CUPRESSACEAE

Juniperus oxycedrus L

Katran ardc

FAGACEAE

Quercus frainetto Ten.

Macar meesi

FAGACEAE

Quercus cerris L.

Sal mee

PINACEA

Pinus brutia Ten

Kzl am

RHAMNACEAE

Paliurus spina- christi Mill.

Karaal

389

There are no endangered and endemic species are known in the area on a global
scale. Salvia natans [R] and Trapa natans [n/l] are endangered on a European
Scale, Myosurus minimus [V], Nympoides peltata [R], Sium latifoium var.
Lancifolium [n/l], Trifolium ornithopodioides [n/l], Vallisneria spiralis [R] are
rare species on a national scale.
Maritsa-Ergene River Delta IBA covers about 7 000 ha area between 4047' N
Latitude and 2614' E Longitude. Besides plant communities, the delta is of great
importance for a number of bird species to provide sheltering, stopping and
nesting. There are 134 bird species in Gala Lake and its vicinity (Kaya and
Kurtonur 2000). Of these recorded 134 bird species, 3 of them were categorised
as A.1.2 (endangered bird species in Turkey), 23 of them as A.2. (vulnerable bird
species in Turkey), 31 of them as A.3. (near threatened bird species in Turkey),
19 of them as A.4. (hidden endangered bird species in Turkey), 6 of them as B.2.
(transit from Turkey and vulnerable bird species), 11 of them as B.3. (transit
from Turkey or wintering bird species) and listed in red list (Kaya and Kurtonur,
2000).
The endangered bird species listed in red list not indigenous but wintering or
summering are Cygnus olor (swan), Grus grus (crane), Alcedo atthis (kingfisher).
The indigenous vulnerable bird species are Pelecanus onocrotalus (white pelican)
and Egretta garzetta (small white heron) (Figure 7, Figure 8).

Figure 7. Pelecanus onocrotalus (white pelicans) in the IBA of the delta


(Asaf Ertan)

390

Figure 8. Egretta garzetta (small white heron) in the IBA of the delta (Asaf
Ertan)
The fish fauna of Gala Lake is represented by 16 fish species (Ongan 1994),
among which Esox lucius (pike) Stizostedion lucioperca L.(perch) and Anguilla
anguilla L. (eel) have commercial value. Perca fluviatilis L .(fresh water perch),
Rutilus rutilus L .(roach), Cyprinus carpio L (carp), Scandinius erythrophtalamus
L. (rudd), Carassius auratus L. (Bulgarian carp) and Abramis brama L. (bream)
are the fish species being fished and caught in all seasons.
In addition to the fishes, water turtles, frogs, water snakes are the other species
taking place in Gala Lake fauna.
The Maritsa-Ergene delta has not only A class wetlands located on the bird
migration route from the west, but it is also important with its biodiversity. The
ecological status of the lake is getting worse due to intensive rice farming and
other human activities.
Evaluation criteria for National Parks, Natural Assets and Important Species
Areas
The management of the protected areas was under the authority of the Ministry
of Forestry and Water Affairs. All kind of projects, investments and management
of national parks, nature parks, protected wildlife reserve, and natural
monuments have been carried out by the General Directorate of Nature
Protection and Natural Parks. Nevertheless, specially protected areas are under
the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environment. Furthermore, there are natural

391

site areas, archaeological sites, historical sites under care and the jurisdiction of
the Ministry of Culture.
Many laws, regulations were prepared at different times to answer different
needs and are limited by the understanding of their days. In practice, it is easy
to see that there is no ideal link or harmony among these legal sources. Shortly,
the protected areas are under the management of different ministries and their
categories have not been determined well between each one. In other words,
one type of protected area can be under different categories. It should be
pointed out that a negative result could be reached by interpretation
(etinkaya, 2002).
The criteria used in the determination of natural areas may be listed as the size
of the area, location, transportation and ecological criteria. Among these
criteria, ecological criteria have the priority, which are naturalness, threatened,
uniqueness, diversity, rarity, representative. In addition to ecological criteria;
historical, cultural or scientific value should be taken into consideration. Due to
the international conventions partied to, Turkey should fulfil certain obligations.
Especially, lists and evaluation criteria to reveal the ecological value of the area
specified in in international conventions should be considered. Among these,
Bern Convention with its attached List and the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN)s endanger criteria (Extinct (EX), Extinct In the
Wild (EW) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near
Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Data Deficient (DD) Not Evaluated (NE)) are
the most important ones.
IUCN was founded in order to establish a general cooperation for the
conservation of nature. Turkey joined the union in 1993 and the union has still
been carrying out its studies on this subject.
The categories are recognised by international bodies such as the United Nations
and by many national governments as the global standard for defining and
recording protected areas and as such are increasingly being incorporated into
government legislation (Anonymous 2015).
The area selected for each IPA is ultimately a decision for each national IPA
team, within the conditions of the IPA criteria. Potentially an IPA could be very
small and designed to protect a single species or small area of a specific habitat,
or it could incorporate a large area with many different IPA species, or habitats,
or areas of richness and diversity (Anonymous 2002).
IPAs are intended to be areas of great botanical importance for threatened
species, habitats and plant diversity in general, that can be identified, protected

392

and managed as sites. The WWF/IUCN Centres of Plant Diversity project (1994)
identified large regions of botanical importance. However, the IPA programme is
intended to build on this approach to identify areas that are appropriate for a
site-based approach to conservation.
One of the IPA pilot project has been carried out in Turkey. The Turkish IPA
project carried out by Doal Hayat Koruma Dernei (DHKD), Fauna and Flora
International (FFI) and the University of Istanbul was completed in 2001
(Anonymous 2002).
IPA criteria consist of 4 components as follows (Anonymous 2002):
Criterion A Categories: There are 4 categories of Criterion A.
A(i) Globally threatened plants
A(ii) European threatened plants
A(iii) Threatened endemics not covered by the accepted sources for A(i) or
A(ii)
A(iv) Threatened near endemic/limited range species not covered by the
accepted sources A(i) or A(ii)
Criterion B: Richness
IPAs are intended to identify and conserve areas of exceptional botanical
richness. Existing European legislation targets a limited range of threatened
species and habitats with no direct provision for conserving areas of outstanding
botanical richness, important for the biodiversity of plants and other organisms.
Criterion C Threatened Habitats
C(i) Priority Threatened Habitats is based on the priority habitats of Annex I of
the Habitats Directive and any corresponding Bern Convention Habitats
C(ii) Threatened Habitats is based on the threatened habitats contained in
Annex I of the Habitats Directive and the Bern Convention not covered by C(i)
C(ii) habitats are equally important as C(i) habitats. Creating two categories is a
way of tracking the progress of site identification for processes such as the
Natura 2000 programme.

393

To apply this criterion each national IPA team needs to produce a list of the
threatened habitats present in their country based on the combined Habitats
Directive and Bern list.
References
Anonymous (1986). Milli Parklar Ynetmelii, Resmi Gazete Tarihi: 12.12.1986 Resmi Gazete
Says: 19309
Anonymous (1992). Byk Gala Glnn 2. dereceden Doal Sit Alan lan Karar. Edirne
K.V.T.V.K.K, Karar Tarihi ve No: 7/5/1992/1121, Edirne.
Anonymous (1993). Trkiyenin Sulak Alanlar. Trkiye evre Vakf Yayn, 398s, Ankara.
Anonymous (2000). Krsal evre ve Ormanclk Sorunlar Aratrma Dernei Yayn No:9, Ankara.
Anonymous (2001). Edirne li evre Durum Raporu. Edirne Valilii, Edirne.
Anonymous (2002). Identifying Important Plant Areas: A Site Selection Manual for Europe, and a
basis for developing guidelines for other regions of the World. Plantlife nternational.
Anonymous (2015). www. iucn.org.
etinkaya (2002). The progress report regarding Research for the establishment of Kprl
Kanyon National Park as a biosphere reserve Saint-Petersburg State University of
Architecture
and
Civil
Engineering.
http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/mys/2001/Cetinkaya/Gulay1.PDF
Kantarc D (1988). Hisarl Da le Gala Gl ve evresinin Ekolojik zellikleri ve Yrenin Tabiat
Koruma Alan Olarak Deerlendirilmesi Olanaklar. Gala Gl ve Sorunlar Sempozyumu 27Mays 1988, Enez, Edirne.
Kaya M (2000). Gala Gl ve evresinin Ornito Faunas zerine Aratrmalar. Fen Bilimleri
Enstits (Baslmam Doktora Tezi), T.. Fen Edebiyat Fak. Biyoloji Blm, Edirne
Ongan T (1994). Gala Gl Su rnlerinin Mevcut Durumu ve Gemi Yllarla Mukayesesi. Enez
evre Sempozyumu, Edirne evre Vakf Yaynlar No: 1, Edirne.
zhatay N, Byfield A, Atay S (2005). Trkiyenin 122 nemli Bitki Alan, WWF Trkiye, stanbul.
Sisman E E (2003). Gala Gl Sulak Alannn Koruma Kullanma Kriterlerine Gre Peyzaj
Potansiyelinin ncelenmesi. Atatrk niversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstits, Baslmam
Doktora Tezi.
Yarar M and Magnin G (1997). Trkiyenin nemli Ku Alanalar. Doal Hayat Koruma Dernei,
stanbul.

394

Chapter

22

Development of a Methodology for Estimation of


Natural Capital (NC) Value

Harun Hurma

Namk Kemal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Economics Department, TR59030


Tekirdag-TURKEY. hhurma@nku.edu.tr

Natural Capital and the Concept of Total Economic Value (TEV)


Capital may be defined as the input of production allowing the flow of goods
and services beneficial for the people whereas natural means not artificial but
spontaneous (Helm, 2015). So, the Natural capital is the stock of natural
ecosystems that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services to the
people. (Peng et al., 2015). More broadly, Natural capital, consisting of directly
or indirectly produced natural units such as forest, rivers, soils, minerals and
ocean, is commonly divided into renewable resources (agricultural crops,
vegetation, fish reserve, sun, wind) and non-renewable resources (fossil fuels
and mineral deposits) (Rapacioli et al.,2010; Russi and ten Brink, 2013).

395

Economists base the concept of economic value on their personal preferences


influenced the relative scarcity of goods. Unlimited goods and services will not
have economic value. The price of a good in the market is an indication of its
availability. According to the rules of supply and demand, if a good becomes
scarce, its price rises and vice versa. There are not any prices for the goods and
services not bought and sold as many components of natural capital (Behnke,
2007)
When natural resources and the environment are mentioned, beside evaluation
of positive and negative effect of social and economic activities on environment
(benefit and cost), economic value of environmental assets and activities also
need to be assessed in monetary terms (Grlk, 2006). Countries, particularly
developing ones, often neglect the economic value of natural capital in
development related decisions. However, social and economic policies
implemented in these countries may lead to the destruction and degradation of
natural resources. The economic value of naturel assets should be noted to
sustain effective development policy and included in individual and overall
decision making process (Birol, Karousakis, & Koundouri, 2006).
Having idea about the economic value of natural goods and services named as
natural capital will improve the awareness of the policy makers and the
importance of the market on natural resources. Higher economic value of
natural resources indicates that it is important for those who benefited from
them (Ghosh & Bandhyopadhyay, 2015).
Total Economic Value

Use Value

Direct Use Value

Indirect Use
Value

Non-use Value

Option Value

Bequest
Value

Existence
Value


Figure 1. Components of total economic value for natural resources (Pak et al.,
2010).

396

Environmental economists are indirectly agree on the many benefits they offer
besides the benefits they provide to the people who use them directly on
natural resources.
Environmental economists are agree on many indirect benefits provided by
natural resources to their beneficiaries beside their direct benefits they offer.
This concept, which is also defined as Total Economic Value (TEV) of natural
resource, means the value dependent on use and non-use by their beneficiaries
(Rohani, 2013). This mention value is the sum of direct use, indirect use, option
and inheritance values, which may be shown as in Figure 1 in the literature
(Morgan and Orr, 2015; Pak et al., 2010).
Direct use value among usage dependent values represents the values of
consumed and traded raw materials and services. Market prices are indicators
for them. Timber obtained from forest, fishes caught from lakes, construction
materials form ground or underground are the examples. Values with no market
prices such as visiting a lake, walking through a forest are also in this group.
Indirect use value includes benefits provided by societys welfare such as flood
control, erosion control by forest.
Option value of the potential use of natural capital is unknown today, but it
represents the value of the potential future use, which is generally in medicine,
tourism, industrial activities. Non-use values are the values demanded for
undisturbed natural resources reserved for future generation, which is also
expressed as the value attributed to them due to the presence of natural
resources (Gurluk, 2006; Lucn, 2004). While the use values are easily quantified
by their market prices, non-use values cannot be quantified since neither their
market nor a market price is not formed, which poses problem (safu-Adjaye,
2000).
Many methods have been developed so far to quantify the non-use value of
natural resources. A considerable progress has been made after 1970s. Since
1981, especially in the USA and Western Europe, interest in determining the
value of environmental resources has increased as part of public investment,
management, and regulatory decisions. Many regulations have also been issued
on the subject (Smith, 1993). These methods may generally be generally be
categorises into three (National Research Council & Commission on Geosciences,
Environment, 1997; Pabon-Zamora, L., J. Bezaury, F. Leon, L. Gill, S. Stolton, A.
Grover, 2008):

397

Direct market price methods: It is based on the bought and sold market
price of particular goods and services of natural capital. However, there
is no current market for most of these goods and services.

Revealed preference methods: It is based on the determination of the


value for non-market goods and services by examining the behaviour of
consumers and producers in complementary or representative markets.
Methods such as replacement cost, damage cost avoided, net factor
income, production function, hedonic pricing and travel cost are applied
in these works.

Stated Preference Methods: It is the work that questions the individuals


preferences regarding the supply of natural capital goods and services,
which uses methods such as contingent valuation and choice modelling.

The methods used in the valuation of natural capital goods and services,
approaches, disadvantages and potential usage area are given in Table 1.

Table 1. The methods used in the valuation of natural capital (Barbier, et al.,
1997; Beukering et al., 2007; FAO Water, 2004; Pabon-Zamora et al., 2008;
Pagiola and Bishop, 2004; Rohani, 2013)
Valuation
Method

Approach

Disadvantageous

Direct
Use
Values

Indirect
Use
Values

NonUse
Values

-Market data only available


for a limited number of
ecological resources
Market price

Monitoring the
process on the
market

-Market value may not reflect


total cost due to market
imperfections
-Assumes perfectly
competitive market

The damage
cost avoided
or
replacement
cost

398

Predicting the
damage cost
avoided of
ecosystem
services or
replacement cost
of natural services
with the artificial
cost

Assumes that costs = benefits.


Does not consider social
preferences
Methods require good
understanding of the
dynamics of ecosystem
services

Table 1. continued
Valuation
Method

Approach

Disadvantageous

Direct Indirect
Use
Use
Values Values

NonUse
Values

Limited to market resources


Estimating other input
Production
costs from incomes
function or
gains from the sale of
net factor
goods related to the
income
environment

Externalities not captured in


method

Relationships between
resources may not be well
understood
- Can estimate use values only

Hedonic
pricing

Estimating the
influence of
environmental
characteristics on the
price of goods sold

- Requires extensive property


market data
- Cannot predict the changes
in use values due to
environmental changes
without prior information

- Can estimate use values only


- Requires estimates of value
Using the cost of
of travel / leisure time
travel spent by visitors
Travel cost
- Cannot predict the changes
to access to
in use values due to
recreational field.
environmental changes
without prior information
Relatively expensive
Predicting the amount
of the payment
Contingent request asked to
valuation
individuals for changes
in environmental
goods and services

Asking individuals
their willingness to
Preference pay for environmental
model
goods and services
from qualified private
preferred alternatives

Complex and multidimensional


scenarios may be too much of
a cognitive burden for
respondents
The concept of diversity may
similarly be difficult to put
across to the respondents
Not yet as widely tested as
CVM
Some techniques are not
based on economic theory
The concept of diversity may
be difficult to put across to
the respondents

399

Economic Value of Water Resources


Water resources, being one of the components of natural capital, offers many
use or non use goods and services. Water resources both provide direct use in
domestic, industrial and irrigation areas and contribute significantly to
biodiversity due becoming living environment for aquatic ecosystem (Birol et al.,
2006). Different valuation methods are used that provide different goods and
services for water resources (Table 2). For instance; production function, net
factor income, replacement cost and marketing price are used in irrigation and
municipal supply while travel cost, contingent valuation and choice experiment
methods are used in recreational supply.
Total Economic Value = Direct Use Value + Indirect Use Value + Option Value +
Bequest Value + Existence Value

Table 2. Methods of valuation using goods and services obtained by water


resources (Birol et al., 2006; Brander, Florax, & Vermaat, 2006; Rohani,
2013)
Water Valuation Methods
TEV

Production Net Factor Reproduction Marketing Travel Contingent


Choice
Function
Income
Cost
Price
cost
valuation Experiment

Direct Use
Irrigation

Municipal
Supply

Energy
Resources

Waste
Disposal

Transport
and
Navigation

Recreation
Wildlife
Harvesting

400

X
X

Table 2. continued.
Water Valuation Methods
TEV

Production Net Factor Reproduction Marketing Travel Contingent


Choice
Function
Income
Cost
Price
cost
valuation Experiment

Indirect Use
Nutrient
Cycling

Climate
Regulation

Flood
Control

Ecosystem
support
Reduced
Global
Warming

Option Values
Potential
future uses
(direct or in
direct)

Future Value
of information
of biodiversity

Bequest
Values
Natural
heritage,
cultural
heritage
Existence
Values
Intrinsic value
of
water,
Altruistic
values

401

Framework for Valuation of Water Resources


A three step framework may be followed to obtain the economic value of water
resources producing different goods and services (Barbier et al., 1997).
-

Step 1: Identification of problem and choose of right and economic


analysis approach

Step 2: Determining the boundaries of the selected area and method of


analysis

Step 3: Determining the method to be used for economic valuation and


data collection.

At the first stage, the overall problem and purpose are defined. For water
resources, three different economic analysis methods, namely, impact analysis,
partial valuation and full valuation, to serve different purposes can be
identified.
The Impact analysis represents the exposure of water resources to
environmental externalities; partial valuation analysis represents the alternative
use options of water resources and full evaluation analysis represents the total
economic value of water resources.
At the second stage, the information necessary for the implementation of the
method of analysis selected is created. At this stage, the analysis of the water
resources in accordance with the provided goods and services (values) in
question are listed
At the final stage, the most suitable valuation methods is chosen in accordance
with the values determined at the previous stage.
Natural Capita Consideration and Strategies for Ergene River Basin
Nowadays NC valuation is used as an important instrument to carry natural
resources to future generation. In addition to the valuation of the goods and
services offered by natural resources, it also constitutes a starting point in
measuring and preventing the negative externalities occurred as a result of
economic activities. NC valuation is also used as an infrastructure for a decision
support system in protecting natural areas and ensuring protection-using
balance. Ergene River Basin is located in centre of Thrace Region with very
productive arable lands. The main surface water resources of the Basin is Ergene
River fed by its branches travelling through towns. The land of the Basin is
generally flat and second class soils (Eylem Plani, Action Plan, 2008)

402

Rapid industrial development has been increasing the pressure on natural


resources. Exploitation of surface and underground water resources for
industrial purposes has contaminated the water resources. As a result of this,
agro production as a main source of livelihood has been affected. Negative
externalities due to industrial activities, producers and other citizens in the
region have faced with various forms of welfare losses. NC valuation of Ergene
River Basin will contribute to retard of pressures. NC provides considerable
amount of goods and services. Water used in agriculture and industry are among
them. The value of this resource of direct use may be determined by the
methods of production function and market prices. Valuation of surface and
underground water pollution due to industrial and municipal waste water
discharge into the streams can be assessed by the replacement method, which
will be the base for the measures (tax, fund, etc.) to be taken to overcome this
pollution.
The contingent valuation method will enable to predict the value of ecosystem
and therefore projects to protect and sustain the natural resources for the
future generation will be carried out.
Traveling cost and choice experiment valuation methods may be used to
investigate the value of recreational using value offered by natural resources of
Ergene River Basin.
In the sustainable management of Ergene River Basin, NC should be taken into
account by the authorities in decision support systems.

References
Barbier, E. B., Acreman, M., & Knowler, D. (1997). Economic valuation of wetlands, A Guide for
Policy Makers and Planners. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Switzerland.

Behnke, R. (2007). A preliminary assessment of the economic value of the goods and
services provided by dryland ecosystems of the Ar and Tnr.
Beukering, P., Brander, L., Tompkins, E., & McKenzie, E. (2007). Valuing the
environment in small islands. Joint Nature Conservation . Retrieved from
http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Valuing+the+Envi
ronment+in+Small+Islands#3
Birol, E., Karousakis, K., & Koundouri, P. (2006). Using economic valuation techniques
to inform water resources management: A survey and critical appraisal of available
techniques and an application. Science of The Total Environment, 365(1-3), 105
122. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.02.032

403

Brander, L. M., Florax, R. J. G. M., & Vermaat, J. E. (2006). The empirics of wetland valuation:
A comprehensive summary and a meta-analysis of the literature. Environmental and
Resource Economics, 33(2), 223250. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-005-3104-4

Eylem Plan (Action Plan). (2008). Meri-Ergene Havzas Koruma Eylem Plan. Ankara:
T.C. evre ve Orman Bakanl evre Ynetimi Genel Mdrl.
FAO Water. (2004). Economic valuation of water resources in agriculture: From the sectoral to a
functional perspective of natural resource management.
Ghosh, N., & Bandhyopadhyay, J. (2015). Methods of Valuation of Water Resources: A Review.
Sawas Journal, 1(1), 1950.
Grlk, S. (2006). Manyas Gl ve Ku Cennetinin evresel Deerlemesi zerine Bir Aratrma.
Uluda niversitesi.
Helm, D. (2015). Natural Capital, Valuing The Planet. Natural Capital, Valuing The Planet (1st
ed.). Yale University Press New Haven and London. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13398-0140173-7.2
Iucn. (2004). Managing Marine Protected Areas: A Toolkit for the Western Indian Ocean.
Managing.
Morgan, A., & Orr, S. (2015). the Value of Water: A Framework for Understanding Water
Valuation, Risk and Stewardship. International Finance Corporation.
National Research Council, C. on V. G. W. W. S. and T. B., & Commission on Geosciences,
Environment, and R. (1997). Valuing Ground Water: Economic Concepts and Approaches.
Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/catalog/5498.html
Pabon-Zamora, L., J. Bezaury, F. Leon, L. Gill, S. Stolton, A. Grover, S. M. and N. D. (2008). A
Quick Guide ELEMENTS OF A PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM MASTER PLAN PROTECTED AREA.
Natures Value: Assessing Protected Area Benefits., 34 pp. Retrieved from
www.protectedareatools.org
Pagiola, S., & Bishop, J. (2004). Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation.
October, 58(101), 48. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03887.x
Pak, M., Trker, M. F., & ztrk, A. (2010). Total economic value of forest resources in Turkey.
African Journa of Agricultural Research, 5(15), 19081916.
http://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR10.018
Peng, J., Du, Y., Ma, J., Liu, Z., Liu, Y., & Wei, H. (2015). Sustainability evaluation of natural
capital utilization based on 3DEF model: A case study in Beijing City, China. Ecological
Indicators, 58, 254266. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.06.002
Rapacioli, S., Lang, S., Osborn, J., & Gould, S. (2010). Accounting for Natural Capital, The
Elephant in The Boardroom.
Rohani, M. (2013). Freshwater Values Framework . A Review of Water Valuation Methods Utilised
within Total Economic Valuation. Auckland Council Working Report, (February).

404

Russi, D., & ten Brink, P. (2013). Natural Capital Accounting and Water Quality: Commitments,
Benefits, Needs and Progress. A Briefing Note.
Safu-Adjaye, J. (2000). Environmental Economics for Non-Economists 147. Development (Vol. 7).
Smith, V.K., 1993, Nonmarket Valuation of Environmental Resources: An Interpretive
Appraisal, Land Economics, 1993, 69, 1, 1-26.

405

406

Chapter

23

Integrated Land-Use Modelling Management of


Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project Ecosystem
Education Program

TURMEPA
(DenizTemiz/Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association)

Turkey, Istanbul; 1 34674 Aziz Bey Sokak; tel: +90 0216 310 9301, fax: +90 0216 343 2177;
www.turmepa.org.tr

DenizTemiz Association/ TURMEPA for training; an environmental education


program was developed to ensure long-term sustainability of a participatory
process. The education program was created in two levels: (1) public awareness
of the problems of the environment, especially the linkages between watershed
activities and consequences on the downstream water body; (2) formal
education of young people in order for them to understand the central role of
the natural environment and their future welfare. The project started in

407

October 2012. TURMEPA has developed the Ecosystem Education Program (EEP)
in order to support and disseminate the implementation of the integrated landuse modelling and Geographic Information System with deductive and
educational video sets. The set was initially developed to serve the purpose of
introducing the concept of ecosystem to the participants of the project, increase
the level of awareness of the participants, and emphasize the importance and
the necessity of benefiting from the ILMM-BSE project.
Planning-Development-Implementation
Developing a brand new education program from scratch always proves to be a
great hardship, and usually ends up with numerous faulty information that will
later on makes the quality of the set rather fruitless. In order to avoid this
common mistake, the first action that TURMEPA has taken to develop the
program was to gather an Education Consultancy Committee (ECC) from
reputable professionals in their respective areas. Therefore, after a number of
field visits, TURMEPA has gathered Prof. Dr. Selahiddin lm from Ankara
University- Faculty of Educational Sciences, Prof. Dr. Fatih Konukcu from Namk
Kemal University Faculty of Agriculture, Prof. Dr. Murat Altn from Namk
Kemal University Department of Agronomy, Do. Dr. Lokman Hakan Tecer from
Namk Kemal University- Department Environmental Engineering, Mr. Mehmet
Ceyhan the Governor of Tekirda, Ms. Birsen Karael from The Ministry of
Provincial Directorate of National Education of Krklareli and mer Albayrak
from The Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning- Provincial Director of
Tekirda. Together, first the concept of how to approach the project was
determined.
After understanding the trajectory of the project, the very first outline and the
scenario of the education set were written, and all the necessary data that will
be used was collected. The implementation method of the education set was
determined to be an education video. A great variety of footage and image data
would be used in the set. In order to create the most up-to-date education video
the movie makers went to the Thrace region, recorded videos and took photos of
the Ergene River Basin. These visual data was used to enrich and verify the
contents.
During the implementation period the project group analyzed and studied the
means of reaching adolescents and gaining their attention on the subject. The
same thing was also done for different adult groups. The most crucial part of the
implementation was creating and raising consciousness and awareness among
people about the threats against the ecosystem, for achieving this goal
influenced public to become volunteers and do more for their own environment
and their own river basin.

408

Structure of the Training Program


Ecosystem Education Program has adopted UNESCOs the seven-door education
model to provide adaptiveness for people from different social status and
cultures:

Knowledge : To know being a problem

Desire: Realize a different future

Skills: Knowing what to do in the future to achieve the dream.

Optimism: Believe and trust the achievement.

Facilitation: resources and support for infrastructure.

Stimulation: A stimulus that initiates an action challenging

Reinforcement: Regular communications that reinforce the original


message, or messages.

Target Group
The target groups of the education program is determined to be middle and high
school students and adults (Local Administrations, senior managers, local
academicians, local people, industry workers, farmers, local communities,
teachers and parents) of Trace region to develop a positive attitude and
behavioral change towards the conservancy of the ecosystem within the region,
and affect the decision makers to make more conscious and competent decisions
in regards of marine ecosystem which will seal the fate of Ergene River Basin in
the future. The participants of the project were anticipated to understand the
concept of ecosystem, basin ecosystem, threats against the ecosystem, the
nature of the threat to the ecosystem from peoples behaviors, reducing threats
for ecosystem with personal effort, becoming aware of the role to reduce the
threats for ecosystem and form voluntary groups from participants, sustainability
and using resources provided abundantly by the nature.
Content
The flow of the education video is developed in Turkish to be in Q&A style which
can either be addressed to the student body or let the video answer the
questions for the trainee. The content of the set initially starts from explaining
general concepts and comes to more specific terms:

409

What is the ecosystem? An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and


microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a
functional unit.
What are the components of the ecosystem? Ecosystem has two kinds of
components; living and non-living. Non-living components are energy, air, water,
soil and earth crust, while the living components are plants, animals and men.
How the natural balance in the ecosystem is maintained? The chemical
compound of all living things on earth consists of carbon. It is the basic
sustenance both for plants and animals. Well-fed plants photosynthesize with
solar energy and produce oxygen. Animals breathe in the oxygen to pursue their
living. After a while, these animals die of old age and their body fertilizes in the
soil. The mineral compounds dissolve in the soil and turn into carbon to keep
feeding the plants to do their miraculous work. This delicate cycle is the base of
all living things but it is also very simple to disturb.
What is a basin? The actual meaning of a basin is an open container. A river
basin is considered to be low laying area in which the stream and rivers flow
their water.
Where is the Ergene River Basin? Ergene River Basin is in the Trace peninsula of
Turkey. It is situated rght in the middle of Black Sea, the Bosphorus, the
Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea.
How was the Ergene River Basin formed? It is believed that this particular river
basin is formed 250 million years ago with the deposition of the rock on its
bottom.
What are the general characteristics of the Ergene River Basin? The majority of
the basin is under the influence of continental climate. Due to its position, the
basin is fed with a reasonable amount of precipitation during the year.
What are the components of Ergene ecosystem? The overall area of the basin is
1.447.760 hectare and only 1% of it consists of rivers and streams. 3% of the area
is residential and 17% is semi-natural habitats. The basin hosts over 300 endemic
plants and 50 other living organisms that are the most abundant in the world.
What are the threats against Ergene? The most prominent threats against the
basin are destruction of the habitats, extinction of plant and animal species,
invasive species that disturbs the balance in the ecosystem and the ongoing
pollution.

410

What are the polluters of Ergene? The most prominent polluters of the basin are
untreated industrial wastes, domestic wastes, poorly constructed sewage
channels, usage of chemical fertilizers, and uncontrolled usage of agricultural
products.
Am I a polluter too? Eventually, all humans leave ecologic footprints in the
ecosystem. Individuals should take great care for the products they use.
Who are the polluters? The top name on the list of polluters is the industrial
establishments. Individuals that do not recycle and care for the destruction of
the ecosystem come as the second.
What should be done to protect the ecosystem of Ergene? Authorities should
build water storage and waste treatment plants. Renewable energy usage should
be prioritized. Water usage parameters and pollution load in its system should
be monitored.
What can I do to protect the ecosystem? One should acknowledge that even a
minor change in the behavior affects brings a positive effect on the
environment. Conscious consumption and recycling domestic wastes are the
least a simple human being can do for the conservancy of the ecosystem.
Where am I in the ecosystem? What are my legal rights and responsibilities? As
the major polluters of the ecosystem, we should take the greatest responsibility
of the disturbance in the ecosystem. That being said, article 56 in the
constitution of 1982 says that everyone has a right to live in a healthy and
balanced environment. Therefore we should respect the rights of the others and
act accordingly.
Are there any volunteer establishments working for protecting the ecosystem of
Ergene River Basin? There are a number of environmental associations such as
TEMA, Greenpeace and TURMEPA.
What are the domestic and international works to protect the ecosystem of
Ergene River Basin? One of the biggest projects that has ever been carried out to
preserve the Ergene River Basin is the EU funded Integrated Land-Use
Management Modelling in Black Sea Estuaries.
What is currently being done to protect Ergene? Currently, a number of
institutions are cleaning the stream beds, State Hydraulic Works build waste
water treatment plants, rehabilitated organized industrial areas are formed,
establishments are incentivized to use less energy, agricultural pollution is
monitored more closely, recycling facilities are built and forestation and combat
against erosion is prioritized.

411

What can I do to keep Ergene Basin healthy through long ages? This is a matter
of maintaining sustainability within the region. Not only the industrial
establishments but also he private citizens living in the region have a great
responsibility of fulfill. The less we consume, the less we pollute. Everyone
should take a more futuristic approach towards the conservancy of the
ecosystem. Please find the EEP set from www.e-balcksea.net/ergene.
Ecosystem Education Program involves all question and brief answers that are
mentioned above. The program is built to activate people to take action and
take responsibility.

Stakeholders
TURMEPA has benefited from a number of institutions that help to build this
program;

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry -Directorate General of Water


Management

Ministry of Environment and UrbanizationEnvironmental Management

City-District Education Offices

Local Governments

Namk Kemal University

State Hydraulic Works

Chamber of Environmental Engineers

412

Turkey Water Institute

Union of Municipalities of Marmara

OSB representatives

Adolescents and other NGOs Platform

Chambers of Industry and Agriculture

Cooperatives

Trainers Training
In order to create an effective and fruitful domino effect and to reach more
students, TURMEPA has performed series of Trainers Trainings in Tekirda,
Edirne and Krklareli cities in order to build a pyramid of trainers whose
branches will be able to stretch even to the most remote rural areas of Thrace.
This system enabled TURMEPA to reach 2000 teacher from 600 school in 3 cities.
After taking the Trainers Training, the teachers implemented the projects to
their students and other educators in their schools.

Visibility
Visibility factor for any project is one of the most important aspects of
recognition and sustainability. For this purpose, TURMEPA has designed
brochures and posters along with and EEP DVDs and Trainers Handbook of
Ecosystem Education Program. These EEP DVDs are distributed to an average of
2000 people of local authorities, establishments, teachers, volunteers, NGOs and
other institutions.

413

Brochure
These brochures were designed solely to introduce the Ergene River Basin, the
introduction and purpose of the project, the polluters, the means of
preservation and small anecdotes for raising awareness.
Poster
The posters of the project introduces the web-based online game of Cleaning
the Ergene River Basn which is created for children to learn how to keep our
water sources clean and how to efficiently use the different kinds of renewable
energy in the area.
DVD Stickers

Trainers Handbook

Outputs
After a long and meticulous planning, the trainers started to work on the field to
train the target groups of the project.

414

Brochure

Poster

415

Between the months of July and October 3 cities were visited; Tekirda, Edirne
and Krklareli.

Between the months of July and August 2015, 15 different Local Authority
and institution were visited in Edirne and Tekirda. All representatives
were provided with the EEP set and were disseminated to other institutions
by these representatives.

In July 2015, 23 manager (3 of which were from local authorities) were


trained in Tekirda and provided with the EEP set.

For 3 months, 10 volunteers from Namik Kemal University continued field


work of training.

In October 2015, trainers have reached 354 teachers from 198 schools in 14
districts of 3 cities.

A conference was held for 4 academicians and 70 students in Namik Kemal


University.

In October 2015, 41 local authorities were visited for 8 days and the
representatives were provided with the EEP set.

The trainings were provided to 1 Port Authority, 1 Coast Guard Command, 1


Mukhtar region and 3 NGOs.

With the collaborations of the Governorship and related bodies along with
the support of Provincial Directorate of National Education, 600 middle and
high schools were reached and provided with the EEP set.

2000 teachers were reached through 600 middle and high schools.

199.200 students were reached through 600 middle and high schools.

With the support and collaborations of Chambers of Commerce and


Industry, 100 industrial establishments and 100 other people were reached
and provided with the EEP set.

400 mukhtars of villages were reached in 3 cities.

1100 institutions and establishments were reached in 3 cities.

200 students from 3 social clubs of 3 universities were reached.

200 press members in 3 cities were reached.

416

Overall, a total number of 207.800 people were reached within the scope
of EEP set.

207.800
People
Lets Save Ergene Online Game
In order to reinforce the content of the education set, TURMEPA has also
developed a web-based online game which is called Lets Save Ergene. The
game involves 3 states, first 2 of which is about cleaning the river basin, picking
up solid wastes and learning about the negative effect that these wastes cause
to the marine species. The third stage of the game shows the players how to use
the renewable systems efficiently within the area. You may find the online game
from the link below:
http://e-blacksea.net/ergene/preloader.swf

417

Assessment and Evaluation


In order to comprehend a projects success, Assessment and Evaluation tests are
an impeccable way to determine what the participants have gained from the
education sets. For this purpose TURMEPA has prepared an evaluation
questionnaire which is shared with every teacher that has taken part in the
project.
With sharing their opinions about the training program, participants will be
assessed through Ecosystem Training Assessment Survey. This program is planned
to be developed to be implemented with the training. The questionnaires will be
distributed to the participants of the training program and will be asked to fill
them out.
Afterwards these questionnaires will be reported and analyzed statistically, and
in proportion to the results a trajectory of the sustainability of the project will
be outlined.
The evaluation questionnaire questions;
I have attentive and interested throughout the lecture
I have taken notes during the lecture
I have asked question about the points that I was curious about
I have realized that I do not know enough about the Ergene River Basin
I have realized that I need to renew my knowledge about the environment
I would like to become a member of this environmental association

418

I did not know that Ergene River Basin constitutes such a high importance
for our seas
I would like a legal action to be taken against the problems of Ergene
River Basin

419

TURMEPA has already started entering data of the teachers evaluation test
forms which will enable to analytically monitor the effectiveness of the project.
In order to obtain a healthy and truthful result from the report, all information
from all individuals has to be entered into the system. Reporting the collected
data will mainly consist of percentages, and format of the report will be in
charts and graphics.
The results from the entered data from Trainers Training, assessment and
evaluation tests and educations in the school indicate that, high school students
in particular found the current situation of the Ergene River Basin quite
dramatic. Also, participant teachers are found to be very sensitive about the
issue of taking legal action against the destruction of Ergene.
Final Congress of ILMM-BSE Project
For the last event of the project, a comprehensive congress was organized in 5
November 2015 to declare the outputs of the project to public. All ENPI and IPA
partners from Bulgaria, Georgia, Ukraine and Turkey have come together with
the purpose to presenting their achievements and provide sustainability to the
project. For this purpose, three copies of Memorandum of Understanding were
signed all for universities, local authorities and civil society organizations.
104 people from 4 countries (Turkey, Ukraine, Georgia and Bulgaria) and 7 cities
(Istanbul, Burgas, Tbilisi, Ozurgeti, Edirne, Batumi, and Odessa) have attended
to the Final Congress. Gia Salukvadze the Governor of Guria Region, Beglar
Sioridze the Mayor of Ozurgeti, Haluk Nadir the Deputy Governor of Istanbul,
Adil Sabanc the Regional Director of Edirne State Hydraulic Works, Hasan rtem
the Former Mayor of Hayrabolu Municipality, Beikta Belediyesi evre Koruma
ve Kontrol Mdr Nejat Bykkksal the Director of Environmental Protection
and Control Department of Beikta District, Nuri zder the Kean District
Governor, Prof Dr. Osman MEK the Rector of Namk Kemal University and Dr.
Izolda Matchutadze an Academician from
Batumi Shota Rustaveli State
University have attended as the protocol.
Acknowledgement
TURMEPA thanks to Belgin ERGL for training the trainers of EEP in in the
Universities and Schools of Tekirda, Edirne and Krklareli cities, and to Melike
KAPTAN for compiling this document from EEP set and translating into English.

420

CHRONOLOGIC ALBUM
IPA partners and Education Consultancy Meetings in 2013/2014

421

Ecosystem Education Program in Making

Field Visits and Training Photos between July and November 2015
Edirne:

422

Krklareli

Tekirda

423

Final Congress is 5 November 2015

424

Chapter

24

FURTHER READING

Publications/Documents, conducted researchs, action plan, land use


and environmental settlement plans for ERGENE RIVER BASIN in
TURKEY

1.1.

Action Plan to Protect Maritza-Ergene River Basin. Turkish Ministry of


Environment and Forestry, General Directorate of Environmental
management
(November
2008).http://www.uhabtsgp.com/resim/file/Ergene_Havzasi_Koruma_Eyl
em_Plani%5B1%5D.pdf

1.2.

TR21 Thrace Region 2013-2014 Regional Draft plan. Thrace Devolopment


Agency
(June
2013).
http://www.trakya2023.com/uploads/docs/trakya20142023.pdf

1.3.

Revised Environmental Settlement plan for Ergene River Basin (1/100000


scaled). Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry (August
2009).http://www.trakyaka.org.tr/uploads/docs/1109201286q6MO.pdf

425

1.4.

Ninth Development Plan 2007-2013 Land and Water Resources Use and
Management Plan. Turkish State Planning Organisation (September
2005).
https://www.google.com.tr/#q=T.C.+BA%C5%9EBAKANLIK+DEVLET+PLANL
AMA+TE%C5%9EK%C4%B0LATI+DOKUZUNCU+KALKINMA+PLANI+2007-3013

1.5.

Tekirda as a candidate for a metropolitan city. Thrace Devolopment


Agency
(June
2012).
http://www.trakyaka.org.tr/uploads/docs/15112012ZTbqR_.pdf

1.6.

Industrial Wastewater Main Management Plan for Maritza-Ergene River


Basin: (Final Report). Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry
(November
2010).
http://www.csb.gov.tr/dosyalar/images/file/MericErgeneEAY.pdf

1.7.

Bioethical Evaluation of Turkeys Pater Policy: Ergene River Basin


Example. Journal of Social Sciences Institute of Ankara University, 2012:
3(2). DOI: 10.1501/sbeder_0000000049 139

1.8.

Ordu, S. Monitoring and Developing Protection methods for Surface Water


Resources of Ergene River Basin by the aid of Environmental Information
System. PhD Thesis.

1.9.

Ozdemir, Y. Evaluation of Great Menderes River Basin for Land and Water
Resources Use Plan. PhD Thesis.

1.10. T.C. evre Ve Orman Bakanlii Meri-Ergene Havzasi Endstriyel Atiksu


Ynetimi Ana Plan alimasi Final Raporu 2010.(Grgn et al).
http://www.suyonetimi.gov.tr/Libraries/su/ioCevreCozumleri_Ergene_Ha
vzas%C4%B1__EAY_Final_Raporu_OS%C4%B0B_29_01_13.sflb.ashx
2

Documents on the regulations for land use and water management in


Europe

2.1

Land Use Planning Guidelines In the Context of Article 12 of the Seveso II


Directives 96/82/EC as amended by Directive 105/2003/EC. Also definin a
Technical database with Risk data and Risk Scenarios to be used for
assessing the compatibility between Seveso Establishment and residental
and other sensitive areas listed in Articles 12. Europen Commission Joint
Research Center.Edited By M. D. Christou, M. Struckl and T. Biermann.
2006. 108 pages
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/seveso/pdf/landuseplanning_guidance
_en.pdf

426

2.2

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the
European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the
Regions. The Implementation of the Soil Thematic Strategy and Ongoing
Activities
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/soil/pdf/SEC_2006_620.pdf

2.3

European Commsson Brussels, 14.11.2012 Com(2012) 670 Final Report


from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on The
Implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) River
Basin Management Plans.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/pdf/CWD2012-379_EN-Vol2.pdf

2.4

Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to


2020.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/comm2006/pdf/20
20/1_EN_ACT_part1_v7%5b1%5d.pdf

2.5

24/07/2013: Streamlining environmental assessment procedures for


energy infrastructure Projects of Common Interest (PCIs).
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/PCI_guidance.pdf

2.6

16/05/2013: Guidance on the Application of the Environmental Impact


Assessment Procedure for Large-scale Transboundary Projects.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/Transboundry%20EIA%20Guide
.pdf

2.7

04/04/2013: Guidance on Integrating Climate Change and Biodiversity into


Environmental Impact Assessment.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/EIA%20Guidance.pdf

2.8

04/04/2013: Guidance on Integrating Climate Change and Biodiversity into


Strategic Environmental Assessment.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/SEA%20Guidance.pdf

2.9

14/03/2013: Environmental Impact Assessment of Projects - Rulings of the


Court of Justice.
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/eia_case_law.pdf

2.10

Integrated Approach to the Planning and Management of Land Resources


United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Conference on
Environment & Development Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992.
https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pd
f

427

2.11

A framework for land evaluation. Soils Bulletin. 32. FAO, Rome. 1981.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5310e/x5310e00.HTM

2.12

Planning for Sustainable use of Land resources: Towards new


Approaches. https://www.mpl.ird.fr/crea/tallercolombia/FAO/AGLL/pdfdocs/lwbull2.pdf

2.13

EU Lupa Land Use Report.


http://www.espon.eu/export/sites/default/Documents/Projects/Applied
Research/EU-LUPA/Inception_report_EU-LUPA_Annexes.pdf

2.14

Land Use planning Methos Strategies and Tools


http://land.hcmunre.edu.vn/data/file/Tai%20lieu/Kien%20truc%20%20Quy%20hoach/Planning%20land%20method.pdf

Documents/Projects Reports and Maps on Land and Water Resources


Use Plan for the River Basins in Europe

3.1.

Danube
River
Basin
District
Management
Plan.
(2009).
http://www.icpdr.org/participate/sites/icpdr.org.participate/files/DRBM
_Plan_2009.pdf

3.2.

Danube River Basin District Management


http://www.icpdr.org/main/dba-2013

3.3.

Final Danube River Basin District Management Plan Maps (complete set, 31
maps)
:
http://www.icpdr.org/participate/sites/icpdr.org.participate/files/DRBM
_Plan_2009_Maps.pdf

3.4.

Danube River Basin District Management Plan 2013 Update.


www.icpdr.org/.../drbm_plan_-_update_2015_-_annex_-_dec_2014.pdf

3.5.

Rhine River Basin managemt plan: Internationally coordinated


management plan for the international river basin district of Rhine (2009):
http://www.iksr.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente_en/Inventory_Pa
rts/bwp_endversion-en_komplett.pdf

3.6.

Elbe River basin (2009) Management


mkol.org/index.php?id=13&L=2

428

Plan

Plan:

2013

Update.

http://www.ikse-

3.7.

River
Basins
managemt
plan:
Bulgaria
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/pdf/CWD2012-379_EN-Vol3_BG.pdf

3.8.

River
Basins
managemt
plan:
Greece
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/pdf/CWD2012-379_EN-Vol3_EL.pdf

3.9.

Integrated Land-Use Management for Sustainable Development Stig


ENEMARK,
http://www.fig.net/pub/monthly_articles/april_2007/april_2007_enemar
k.pdf

3.10. Schoorl, J. M., and A. Veldkamp. 2000. Linking land use and landscape
process modelling: a case study for the Alora Region. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment 85:281292.
4

Other pubication on land use management plan modelling

4.1.

Land Use Planning Concept, Tools and Applications. Editor/Author:


Babette Wehrmann Published by: Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale
Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Division Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Sector Project Land Policy and Land Management P. O. Box 518065726
Eschborn/Germany. http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib-2011/giz20110041en-land-use-planning.pdf

4.2.

Veldkamp, A, L.O. Fresco. CLUE: a conceptual model to study the


Conversion of Land Use and its Effects Ecological Modelling 85 (1996) 253270.

4.3.

Roger S. Bivand, Anne E. Lucas. 1997. Integrating models and


Geographical
information
systems.
http://geol.queensu.ca/faculty/harrap/teaching/geol463/GradDown/file
s/7_Bivand_IntegratingModels_1997.pdf

4.4.

Aspinall, R and D. Pearson Integrated geographical assessment of


environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology,
environmental modelling and GIS. Journal of Environmental Management
(2000) 59, 299319.

429

4.5.

P. D. Wagner, S. Kumar, and K. Schneider 2013. An assessment of land use


change impacts on the water resources of the Mula and Mutha Rivers
catchment upstream of Pune, India.

4.6.

A.J. Jakeman, R.A. Letcher 2001. Integrated assessment and modelling:


features, principles and examples for catchment management.
Environmental Modelling & Software 18 (2003) 491501

4.7.

Wang 1996. Usng gs to assess the relatonshp between land use and
water qualty at a watershed level. Pergamon. PIIS0160-4120(96)000.

4.8.

G. Bocco, M. Mendoza, A. Velazquez. 2000. Remote sensing and GISbased regional geomorphological mappinga tool for land use planning in
developing countries G. Geomorphology 39 2001. 211219.

4.9.

X. Wang 2001. Integrating water-quality management and land-use


planning in a watershed context. Journal of Environmental Management
(2001) 61, 2536

4.10. Handbook on Integrating Land Use Considerations into Transportation


Projects to Address Induced Growth. American Association of State
Highway
and
Transportation
Officials
(AASHTO)
1995.
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/archive/NotesDocs/25-25(3)_FR.pdf
4.11. J. Russell Hanley. Integrated land management to improve long-term
benefits in coastal areas of Asian tsunami-affected countries.
http://www.fao.org/forestry/1314703a6c623ede09b997b5c48e9f5da591b6.pdf
4.12. Derek T. Robinsona, Tatiana Filatovab, Shipeng Sunc, Rick L. Riolod,
Daniel G. Browna, Dawn C. Parkerc, Meghan Hutchinsa, William S.
Curriea, Joan I. Nassauera Integrating land markets, land management,
and ecosystem function in a model of land change .
http://www.iemss.org/iemss2010/papers/S07/S.07.11.Integrating%20land
%20markets,%20land%20management,%20and%20ecosystem%20function%20
in%20a%20model%20of%20land%20change%20%20DEREK%20T%20ROBINSON.pdf
4.13. R. Schaldach and J. A. Priess 2008. Integrated Models of the Land System:
A Review of Modelling Approaches on the Regional to Global Scale. Living
Rev. Landscape Res., 2, (2008), 1.

430

4.14. Y. Du, T. Huffman, S. Toure, F. Feng, S. Gameda, M. Green, t. Liu & x.


Sh 2013. Integrating socio-economic and biophysical assessments using a
land use allocation model. Soil use and management, 29, 140149.
4.15. Kerstin Ellen Ronneberger 2006. The global agricultural land-use model
KLUM A coupling tool for integrated assessment International Max
Planck Research School on EARTH SYSTEM MODELLING. PhD Thesis.
4.16. Roland Barthel, Darla Nickel, Alejandro Meleg, Aleksandar Trifkovic,
Juergen Braun 2005. Linking the physical and the socio-economic
compartments of an integrated water and land use management model on
a riverbasin scale using an object-oriented water supply model. Physics
and Chemistry of the Earth 30 (2005) 389397.
4.17. Pontius, R. G., J. D. Cornell, and C. A. S. Hall. 2000. Modeling the spatial
pattern of land-use change with GEOMOD2: Application and validation.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 85:191204.
4.18. Peter H., Verburg1, Paul P. Schot1, Martin J. Dijst, & A. Veldkamp 2004..
Land use change modelling: current practice and research priorities.
GeoJournal 61: 309324.
4.19. M. Hilferink, P. Rietveld 1999. LAND USE SCANNER: An integrated GIS
based model for long term projections of land use in urban and rural areas
. J Geograph Syst (1999) 1:155 -177.
4.20. Y. Setiawan, K. Yoshino. Change Detecton In Land-Use And Land-Cover
Dynamcs At A Regonal Scale From Mods Tme-Seres Imagery. ISPRS
Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information
Sciences, Volume I-7, 2012. http://www.isprs-ann-photogramm-remotesens-spatial-inf-sci.net/I-7/243/2012/isprsannals-I-7-243-2012.pdf
4.21. S. Martnez and D. Mollicone 2012. From Land Cover to Land Use: A
Methodology to Assess Land Use from Remote Sensing Data. Remote Sens.
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validation by a ROC method. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
85:269280.

431

4.23. R. Schaldach and J. A. Priess


Integrated Models of the Land System:A Review of Modelling Approaches
on the Regional to Global Sacle: Living Rev. Landscape Res., 2, (2008), 1.
http://landscaperesearch.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrlr-20081/download/lrlr-2008-1Color.pdf
4.24. Projecting Land Use Change. A Summary of Models for Assessing the
Effects of Community Growth and Change on Land-Use Patterns.
EPA/600/R-00/098.
2000.
http://www.epa.gov/reva/docs/ProjectingLandUseChange.pdf
4.25. Projecting Land-Use Change A Summary of Models for Assessing the
Effects of Community Growth and Change on Land-Use Patterns. National
Exposure Research Laboratory National Health and Environmental Effects
Research Laboratory National Risk Management Research Laboratory
Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency
Washington,
DC
20460
http://www.epa.gov/reva/docs/ProjectingLandUseChange.pdf

432

Annex
Brouchures
&
Trainings

433

Brouchure - 1

Common borders. Common solutions.

INTEGRATED LAND-USE MANAGEMENT


MODELLING OF BLACK SEA ESTUARIES

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IPA Financial Beneficiary:

Hayrabolu Municipality
Hayrabolu is one of the oldest settlements in Thrace. Hayrabolu Municipality (HBM) will be the IPA
Lead Beneficiary of the project. HBM will be responsible for project coordination activities in Turkey.
Its public institutions are established to meet the common needs of people in this city. The primary
mission of the municipality is to provide services based on the common goals as effectiveness, efficiency, and quality
of service. Also, it works on improving the quality of life in the area and the municipalities nearby.
Hayrabolu Municipality try to implement the idea that allmunicipalities, towns and village organizations have to
meet the common needs of the people in a healthy and
sustainable way, and must satisfy the needs of the people of Turkey, Hayrabolu Municipality, TR2
tel: +90 282 315 4471
the city.
e-mail: baskan@hayrabolu.bel.tr; www.hayrabolu.bel.tr

IPA Partners:
Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association
Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association (TURMEPA) is a civil society movement founded
by Rahmi M. Ko and the Shipping Chamber of Commerce on April 8, 1994 with the objective of
making the protection of our coasts and seas a national priority and creating a legacy of a sustainable
Turkey for future generations.
TURMEPAs mission is to contribute to the preservation of seas and Turkey, Istanbul; 1 34674 Aziz Bey Sokak
coasts as a national priority and to create a country that has reached tel: +90 0216 310 9301, fax: +90 0216 343 2177
sustainable development goals for future generations.
www.turmepa.org.tr

Namk Kemal University


Namk Kemal University was founded in 2006, with the Act numbered 5467, under the administration
of the Higher Education Council. The University is based on a strong and old background of more
than 30 years. Faculty of Agriculture, opened in 1982, and orlu Faculty of Engineering, founded in
1992, build up the academic foundation with their education, researches and publications.
Recently, the University offers Bachelors degrees with its eight faculties and three schools; graduate and postgraduate degrees with three institutes and associate degrees with
eleven vocational schools to nearly 27000 students. It has more Turkey, 59030 Tekirdag; Namik Kemal Mahallesi,
than 800 academic and 450 administrative staff. The University is Campus Street, No:1, Degirmenalti Campus;
a member of the European University Association and is in the Tel: +90 (282) 250 00 00, Fax: +90 (282) 250 99 00;
e-mail: intrelations@nku.edu.tr; www.nku.edu.tr
Balkan Universities Network.

The project Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) is funded by the 2nd
call for proposals of the Joint Operational Programme Black Sea Basin 2007-2013

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Applicant:
BOURGAS REGIONAL TOURIST ASSOCIATION (BRTA)
BRTA was established in 1998 as an organization in public benefit. It unites the existing in Burgas
region local tourist organizations, regional tourist associations and local authorities (municipalities).
The goal of BRTA is to support and encourage the development of tourism in Burgas region and alone
or in cooperation with other organizations working to develop the region as a tourist destination. BRTA is registered
in accordance with the requirements of the Tourism Act in Bulgaria. BRTA is the only regional tourism organization
in Bulgaria, a member of the National Board of Tourism in Bulgaria from
its establishment until now. National Tourism Board is a state public Bulgaria, 8000 Burgas
advisory and coordinating body to the Minister of Economy and Energy 29A, Ferdinandova, Str., floor 4
(MEE). BRTA is a member of the Regional Committee on Employment in tel/fax: +359 56 841966; e-mail: brta@abv.bg
Burgas region.
ENPI Partners:
Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov University
Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov University is the only state university in Southeast Bulgaria. It was founded
on 6th October 1963 by Decree 162 of the Council of Ministers as a Higher Chemico-technological
institute Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov which connected forever it with the name of its patron. Prof. Dr
Assen Zlatarov University was ratified as such by a resolution of the National Assembly in 1995.
More than 320 highly qualified lecturers, 127 of them habilitated, teach at the university. Organization and
management of the educational process at the university comply with the European requirements and criteria for
qualitative educational and research process. A university evaluation and education quality maintenance system has
been worked out. The University has been rated among the first in Bulgaria according to the quality of the research
on Hirsch system for scientific contribution. Carrying out the policy of the
Bulgaria, 8010 Burgas; 1, Prof. Yakimov, Bul.
university management for rejuvenating and heightening the qualification tel/fax: +359 56 86 00 41
of the academic staff, there has been a practice established for announcing e-mail: rector@btu.bg, www.btu.bg
competitions on all levels from assistant professor to professor.
Ukrainian Marine Environment Protection Association
Ukrainian Marine Environment Protection Association (UKRMEPA) is a member of the
International Association for the Protection of the Marine Environment INTERMEPA. In 2008, it was
formally recognized by the international community and the Marine already internationally successfully cooperated
with other affiliates INTERMEPA. UKRMEPA created on the basis of Odessa National Maritime Academy, Nautical
Institute of Ukraine - Department of Marine Institute UK, the Institute of Postgraduate Education, maritime executives
and specialists of Water Transport of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Central design Bureau Slipway with the support of
the Odessa regional organization Green Party. Its main goal is to
consolidate the capabilities of members of the Organization for the Ukraine, 65023 Odessa; 6, L. TolstoyStr.
advancement of the marine environment and the coastal zone of the tel/fax: +38 0482 333 888
Black Sea and the Azov Sea, as the basis for the existence and further e-mail: info@ukrmepa.org; www.ukrmepa.org
development of civil society.
Civitas Georgica
International Association Civitas Georgica was established in 1996 by those, who believe that
Georgia is a country of European values. Our mission is to promote establishment of democratic
and efficient local government in Georgia, to assist democratic reforms and to advance the competent public
participation in local decision-making.
Civitas Georgica specializes in effecting policy change through institution building, organization and management
development and training. Civitas Georgica has already conducted over 50 large and small-scale projects in sectors
including public sector reform, local government capacity building, regional/community development, pre-school
and primary education, youth empowerment and engagement in public life, civic participation and advocacy.
To achieve its goals, Civitas Georgica enters in strategic partnership
with other organizations. We are the members of Central and Eastern Georgia, 0164 Tbilisi; 97, Tsinamdzgvrishvili Str.
tel: +995 32 951991, fax: +995 32 911948
European Citizens Network (CEE CN), European Network of Training
e-mail: office@civitas.ge; www.civitas.ge
organizations (ENTO), the national NGO coalition on decentralization.

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PROJECT: Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE)


Applicant: Bourgas Regional Tourism Association (BRTA), Bulgaria
ENPI Partners: Bourgas Prof. Assen Zlatarov University, Bulgaria; Ukrainian Marine Environment Protection Assoc., Ukraine;
Civitas Georgica, Georgia.
IPA Financial Beneficiary: Hayrabolu Municipality (HBM), Turkey
IPA Partners: Turkish Marine Environment Protection Association, Turkey; Namk Kemal University, Turkey
The total duration of the joint Action is 24 months.
Total budget of the project: 1 344 782.42.
Objectives of the Joint Action: Overall objective - To develop, enhance, and evaluate, impact assessment and management
tools for the sustainable land use of the watershed areas of coastal deltas.
Specific objectives:
To create an integrated database system involving all relevant European research and application practices.
To foster communication and collaboration on land management, in target deltas.
To develop land-use models for target deltas.
To induce a cooperative institutional structure.
To create cooperation and networking among scientists, land developers and decision makers in Black Sea basin.
To develop an environmental education program.
Target group(s): Academicians, researchers and experts of local universities and research institutions.
Final beneficiaries: Representatives and members of local NGOs; Representatives and officials of local authorities and
administrations
Estimated results: The basic outcome will be sharing knowledge, ensuring the lasting integration of information and
data, networking experts and stakeholders throughout Black Sea basin, expanding the use of scientific tools to promote
sustainability in the use of the territories of coastal deltas and to spread excellence worldwide.
Main activities: Integrating activities; Joint research programme; Spreading excellence activities; Management activities.
Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme 2007-2013
The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme 2007-2013 (hereafter Black Sea JOP) is a programme under the European
Neighbourhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI) of the EU. It aims to contribute to: a stronger and sustainable economic
and social development of the regions of the Black Sea Basin.
The programmes three specific objectives are:
Promoting economic and social development in the border areas;
Working together to address common challenges;
Promoting local, people-to-people cooperation.
The Black Sea JOP covers three priorities and a technical assistance component. Each of the three priorities has a number
of Measures:
Priority 1: Supporting cross border partnerships for economic and social development based on common resources
Measure 1.1: Strengthening accessibility and connectivity for new intra-regional information, communication,
transport and trade links;
Measure 1.2: Creation of tourism networks in order to promote joint tourism development initiatives and
traditional products;
Measure 1.3: Creation of administrative capacity for the design and implementation of local development policies;
Priority 2: Sharing resources and competencies for environmental protection and conservation
Measure 2.1: Strengthening the joint knowledge and information base needed to address common challenges in
the environmental protection of river and maritime systems;
Measure 2.2: Promoting research, innovation and awareness in the field of conservation and environmental
protection for protected natural areas;
Measure 2.3: Promotion of cooperation initiatives aimed at innovation in technologies and management of solid
waste and wastewater management systems.
Priority 3: Supporting cultural and educational networks for the establishment of a common cultural environment in the
Basin
Measure 3.1: Promoting cultural networking and educational exchange in the Black Sea Basin communities.

Integrated Land-use Management modelling of Black Sea Estuaries


BRTA, January 2014
This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The content of this publication is the sole
responsibility of BRTA and can in no way reflect the viewes of the European Union.

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http://e-blacksea.net

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND OUTPUTS OF ILMM-BSE PROJECT


Research carried on,
Months 1-16:
(i) Development of integrated GIS for coastal deltas and associated watersheds as a tool for sustained
management practices; (ii) Establishments of a model bank; (iii) Assessment of carrying capacity and
potential for aquaculture production by modelling; (iv) Modelling possibilities of future of deltas under
climate changes, sea level rising and disaster; (v) Assessment of the result of modelling and monitoring
studies of existing projects; (vi) Real-time monitoring strategies and methodologies.
Months 1-24
(i) Assessment of ecosystem characteristics and biodiversity of Black Sea deltas; (ii) Assessment of SES
characteristics and biodiversity of Black Sea deltas; (iii) Assessment of present transport, energy and
natural resources capacity in the territory of deltas within Black Sea basin; (iv) Development of a
methodology for estimation of NC value; (v) Assessment of geological / geo-chemical characteristics of
deltas; (vi) Soil characteristics and their potential for various land-use options, including agriculture and
forest; (vii) Air-Land-Sea interaction problems; (viii) Classification of Black Sea deltas.
Months 1-3 & Months 9-24
(i) Review of existing EIA/SIA/CIA regulation for land-use planning and the development of new
regulations; (ii) Risk assessment of the results of a lack of sustainable land use planning; (iii) Sustainability
impact assessment of land management and regional development strategies;(iv) Evaluation of costbenefit analysis; (v) Evaluation of cost-effectiveness methodologies.
Months 1-3 & Months 9-24
(i) Development and evaluation of criteria and standards for implementation of integrated sustainable
land-use planning and management; (ii) Development of indices and index for assessing land-use impacts
on delta ecology; (iii) Erosion and desertification risks assessment for watersheds; (iv) Development of
tools for predictions required for decision-making; (v) Methodologies for qualitative and quantitative
accounting of the multifunctional effects of land management and development strategies with regard to
environmental protection, rural development, land use, landscape, tourism, recreation, agriculture and
forestry activities; (vi) Assessment of trans-boundary problems; (vii) Thresholds of sustainability; (viii)
Guide for the development of decision-support systems; (ix) Strategies for public and stakeholders
participation in the decision making process; (x) Institutional strengthening for land-use planning
authorities; (xi) New institutional legislation for land-use planning authorities; (xii) Evaluation criteria for
Natural Parks, Natural Assets, and World Heritage Sites in estuary watersheds; (xiii) Development of an
integrated framework analysis; (xiv) Impact assessment and management tools for sustainable land use;
(xv) Development of P-S-R of indicators for the use of decision makers.
PROGRESS IN THE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES OF ILMM-BSE PROJECT
In order to achieve the objectives of the Project, intensive studies have been continuing. Some
preliminary results are presented in this document on: (i) Land use change modelling of Ergene River Basin
in Turkey; (ii) ecological status and natural hazard risk assessment of the Ropotamo and Veleka Estuaries
in Bulgaria with connection to the land-use practices and changes (iii) hydrological modelling of the river
catchments of Guria region in Georgia, the analysis of the influence of the land cover and land use change
on water quantity and quality (iv) studies conducted in Dniester, Dry estuary; Hadzhibey, Kuyalnik,
Adzhalyk, Small Adzhalyk in Ukraine.
1

LAND USE CAHNGE MODELLING OF ERGENE RIVER BASIN IN TURKEY

Ergene River Basin, located in the European part of Turkey, is one of the 25 river basins in Turkey. Ergene
River, 283 km in length, borns in Istranca Mountain ranges close to the Bulgarian border, joins into the
Maritza River and Discharge into the Aegean Sea in the Saroz Golf. The basin area is about 11 000 km 2 and
the total population in the basin is 1 150 000.
The land use changes between 1990 and 2000, 2006 and 2012 are shown in Figure 2 whereas the land use
changes between 1990 and 2012 is summarised in in Table 1

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Figure 1. The land use change between 1990 and 2000, 2006 and 2012
Table 1. Land use change of Ergene River basin between 1990 and 2012.
Land Use
Artificial area
Agricultural Area
Forests and semi natural areas
Wetlands
Water bodies

1990
Area (%)
2.4
79.7
17.1
0.3
0.5

Area (Hectare)
34764.26
1154121.93
246875.37
5053.15
6948.36

2012
Area (%)
3.3
78.8
16.9
0.2
0.7

Area (Hectare)
48460.67
1141081.66
244509.39
3432.98
10275.21

Land use
change (%)
+39.4
-1.1
-1,0
-32.1
+47.9

As conclusions, while the artificial area (including settlement area and industrial zone) and water bodies
due to new reservoirs construction increased by 39.4 and 47.9%, respectively, wetlands and agricultural
areas decreased dramatically.
2

ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND NATURAL HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE ROPOTAMO AND VELEKA
ESTUARIES IN BULGARIA WITH CONNECTION TO THE LAND-USE PRACTICES AND CHANGES

The ecological status of the target areas of Veleka and Ropotamo rivers estuaries was reviewed with the
available data on the biodiversity, water quality and land use practices. This task was implemented in
collaboration with the local authorities and leading expert in the field of environmental monitoring and
recovery from BSU, Bulgarina Academy of sciences etc. For the development of detailed and accurate
interactive maps explaining the land-use and ecology of the target areas we need different kind of
information and data I order to create various information layer as a part of the GIS (Figure 2).
Topographic
Land Use maps
Hydrology
Historical data
Environmental maps
Figure 2. Topographic, land use, hydrologic, historical data and environmental maps from to down.
The main sources of this information are the available and free databases of EUNIS and CORINE.
The start point of the research in this axis was the hydrological characterization of the river beds and with
estimation of the flood risk as main thread for the sustainable land-use (Figure 3).

Figur 3. Flood vulnerability of Ropotama and Veleka Rivers.

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HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING OF THE RIVER SUPSA AND NATANEBI CATCHMENTS IN GURIA REGION
OF GEORGIA

Guria Region is located along the Black Sea coast of Georgia spreading approx. 21.5 km from River
Natanebi mouth to Supsa River mouth and further north to the edge of the port city of Poti. The region is
composed of three administrative districts including Ozurgeti, Lanchkhuti and Chokhatauri Municipalities
three most important settlements of the region, which are all non-coastal and located in the mountain
foothill hinterland. Four small settlements are located along the Guria coast, from north to south:
Grigoleti and Tskaltsminda (Lanchkhuti Municipality), Ureki and Shekvetili (Ozurgeti Municipality).
Ozurgeti is the administrative centre of Guria (Figure 4 and 5).

Figure 4. Population density of Guria Region


according to national census (source: GeoStat,
2002)

Figure 5. Population change according to 1989


and 2002 census against backdrop of NPP night
lights and Landsat

Catchments of two main rivers, Supsa and Natanebi constitute essentially the territory of the entire
region, which is positive factor in terms of integrated management of catchment, coastal and maritime
issues. Hydrological modelling of these two river basins therefore would provide important instrument to
regional authorities to better deal with complex processes of land based sources of pollution, and monitor
impacts of changes in land cover and land use in the catchment areas.
In synergy with enviroGRIDS (http://envirogrids.net) and PEGASO (http://pegasoproject.eu) efforts,
utilising instruments developed under these earlier projects, hydrological modelling and sustainable
development indicator tools are being applied to Guria Region and its main rivers. Figure below display
basins of these two key rivers discharging to the Black Sea in Georgian case area: Supsa (north) and
Natanebi (south). Map shows topography, land cover and soils in river basins. Administrative boundaries of
Guria Region are shown in red colour as well. Layers are overlaid against MODIS true colour image. These
images show data-sets available for hydrological modelling the river basins of the Guria Region (Figure 6).

Figure 6. Guria region and data-sets available for hydrological modelling its two main river basins

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STUDIES CONDUCTED IN DNIESTER, DRY ESTUARY, HADZHIBEY, KUYALNIK, ADZHALYK, SMALL


ADZHALYK IN UKRAINE

A 3D terrain models of Odessa region, which makes it possible to analyze the hydrological and soil
processes massive estuaries: Dniester, Dry estuary; Hadzhibey, Kuyalnik, Adzhalyk, Small Adzhalyk was
created (Figure 7). Studies were done on the formation of sustainable land use of estuaries of the Black
Sea in the context of the global climate change and peak flow of rivers flooding. The flooding problem
under climate risk was evaluated using CCSM3 model land as a result of river floods. Created a program for
calculating climate change using a model CCSM3 (Figure 8).

Figure 7. 3D Terrain Model of Odessa Region

Figure 8. Flooding Problem in Odessa Region

The problems of closed estuary on the example Kuyalnik estuary was studied. This estuary is a valuable
therapeutic spa and has a weak relationship with the sea, characterized by slow water exchange, receives
a minimum inflow of fresh water from small rivers. Possible ways were explored to preserve and restore
the estuary. Studies were conducted on the problems of aggressive action on coastal estuary areas, which
leads to intense abrasion of coastal areas. Development of protection and conservation of the coast from
erosion and efficient ways to use formed territories. In order to strengthen the cross-border cooperation
between the countries of the Black Sea for economic and social development on the basis of shared
resources, the development of tourism and traditional products were given special care. Studies were also
conducted on the formation of the complex coastal infrastructure passenger shipping along the coast of
the Black Sea (Figure 9).

Figure 9. Passenger shipping along the coast of the Black Sea

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http://e-blacksea.net

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ILMM-BSE PROJECT ON THE WEB


The Web site of ILMM-BSE project may be introduced into four parts: 1) A detail information on ILMM-BSE
project; 2) WEBGIS; 3) Integrated Management System (IMS); and 4) Ecosystem Training Program in
Turkey.

1) DETAIL INFORMATION ON ILMM-BSE PROJECT


The website of ILMM-BSE project can be reached from http://e-blacksea.net. On the main page, slider
infoms the visitors about the most imprortant parts of the project and recent and fortcoming events. A
detail information about the project, partners, events, documents and gallery ere documented in the
sub pages (Figure 1).
Register | Forgot your password?

username

Login

password

HOME

PROJECT

PARTNERS

EVENTS

DOCUMENTS

GALLERY

CONTACT

ECOSYSTEM

Homepage

Project Pages

Partners Pages

Events Pages

Documents Pages

Photo Gallery

Contact Us

TRAINING PROGRAM
TURMEPA (Turkish)

With the ILLM-BSE Project, it is aimed to modelling for


sustainable land use management, potential
settlement places ...
With the ILLM-BSE Project, it is aimed to modelling for
sustainable land use management, potential
settlement places detection, determination of
industrial p ...
read more..

Istanbul Meeting, May 2015

"BLACKSEA WebGIS & Statistics Module

Project Information

Project Activities

Contract Number : 2.2.1.72714.211 MIS-ETC no.

Activity 1: Integrating ActivitiesThe database

2642Start Date : 26.05.2013Completion Date :

programme will, mainly, be formed as a dynamic

Third Workshop and International Black


Sea Day Celebration in Batumi,
Georgia

25.05.2015

website. In the website, there will be a main page

The third workshop within the scope of the Project

including al

ILMM-BSE Integrated Land-use Management


Modelling in Black Sea Estuaries, funded by the Eu

read more..
read more..

read more..

Useful Links
European Commission

Latest News
WORKSHOP IN GEORGIA

The Central Finance and Contracts

Project

Partners

Summary

Applicant

Objectives

ENPI Partners

Activities

IPA Beneficiary

Project Information

IPA Partners

Unit (CFCU)
Black Sea Hotspots Project

UKRAINE WORKSHOP
15 August 2014

REPAIR Project
PEGASO Project
The Commission on the Protection of
the Black Sea Against Pollution

Training Program - 4 in
Turkey
23th December 2014

enviroGRIDS Project

Home Contact

Copyright (c) 2015 - All Rights Reserved

Figure 1. ILMM-BSE Website main page.


Project: Summary, objectives, activities and other necessary information of the project are published
under this item.
Partners: Aplicant, ENPI partners, IPA beneficiary and IPA partners are introduced under partners item.
Events: Workshops, congress and trainings are the events. Five workshops, namely, one in Bulgaria,
Ukraine and Georgia and 2 in Turkey; two congress, one in Bulgaria and one in Ukraine were held so far.
The last congres will be organised in Turkey in November 2015. Simultanous six training programs in each
partner country were organised in order to introduce the participants with ILMM-BSE Project, its goals,
objectives, content, methods and to discuss its implementation of the developed land use change
software in the target deltas/watershed.

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Documents: 27 E-bulletins and press releases in English and in the language of each partner country were
published. Training materials prepared by the experts during the training programs and research
documents can be found and downloaded from this site.
Gallery: Numerous very interesting photos taken during the project implementation were published to
share with the visitors.
Links for the Integrated Management System (IMS), Forum, Ecosystem Training Program in Turkey and
useful website are also placed in the main page of ILMM-BSE Project.

2) WEBGIS OF ILMM-BSE PROJECT


The WEBGIS of ILMM-BSE project has two main headings, Maps and Statistical data, and a legend to help
which maps or data to see.
Maps: Maps of target deltas/watersheds (Figure 2), borders of study areas, settlement areas, hydrology,
habitats, soil, CORINE (1990, 2000, 2006, 2012, all these indicated years may not be available for all
deltas/watersheds), land use change (from 1990 to 2000, from 2000 to 2006, from 2006 to 2012, all these
indicated years may not be available for all deltas/watersheds) and satellite images are included in this
part of the website. One of the road map, physical map and satellite image can be used as base map. The
maps in the website can be downloaded and printed.

Figure 2. Map of the target deltas/watersheds


One can easily select which maps and what short of data want to see on the screen with the aid of legend
appear on the right top of the screen (Figure 3).
Statistics: Statistical data of the target deltas/watersheds (land use change data) in each country
analysed by the software developed within the scope of research studies of ILMM-BSE Project (Figure 4)
are also presented either in tabular or graphical forms.

Figure 3. ILMM-BSE Project WEBGIS Maps and


legend

Figure 4. Statistical data page of


ILMM-BSE Project

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3) INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IMS) OF ILMM-BSE PROJECT


Integrated use of geographical data in different structure, different format, different coordination system
(projection) and different time zone forms Integrated Management System (IMS) in geographic archive
systems. In this context, Integration means accordance and coordination.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Management Information Systems (MIS) are generally
sufficient in limited number of locations and for small data but the continuously growing and complex
data management requires more sophistic and controlled systems, i.e., IMS.
With the aid of IMS of ILMM-BSE Project, a Control Panel was developed in order to download new
information to the system by the project personnel, modification or organising of existing data (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Control Pannel of ILMM-BSE Project.


Authorised project personnel can connect to the Control Panel via a correct username and password
and modify existing data or enter new information on project and partners, slider and news, press release
and e-bulletins in their languages, training material, research documents, events and gallery.
A Forum section was also prepared under Control Panel open to anyone interested in the subject of
ILMM-BSE Project after being a member of this form. Members can raise their view on the topics of ILMMBSE Project after filling registration form and being activated by the data management coordinator.

4)ECOSYSTEM TRAINING PROGRAM UNDER BEING IMPLEMENTED IN TURKEY


In the Ecosystem Training Set includes: i) 20 short training video films to introduce the project to the civil
society and young generation and educate them on ecosystem; ii) a guide for the training set; iii) a game
for the kids to develop awareness about the ecosystem; and iv) posters on ILMM-BSE project and Ergene
River Basin (Figure 6).

Figure 6. Ecosystem Training Program site (in Turkish).


446

Training Program - I
Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuaries ILMM-BSE
Project
Training Program I: Introduction to Land Use Management Modelling of
Ergene River Basin of Turkey - 17-18 December 2013
Objectives of Training Program I in Turkey:
The objective of the Training Program I in Turkey was to introduce the target group of
participants with Project, its goals, objectives, content, methods and to discuss its
implementation in Ergene River Basin as a target study area in TURKEY.
Participants: Researchers and postgraduate Students from the universities, experts
from Public Institutions, representatives of NGOs and local authorities participated in
the Training Program I. Number of Participants was 51
Place: Training program was held at Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty
Conference Hall.

Training Program I
17 December 2013
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-15.00

15.00-15.30
15.30-16.00
9.30.10.30
10.30-11.00
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-14.30
14.30-15.30
15.30-16.00
16.00-17.00
17.00-17.30

Registration
Goals, objectives, content and expected outcomes of the ILMM-BSE Project
Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU (NKU, Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
Environmental problems within the context of land use management
Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU (NKU, Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Lunch
The significance of land use planning and land evaluation in Thrace Region
and Turkey
Yard. Do. Dr. Duygu BOYRAZ (NKU, Agric. Faculty, Soil Science and Plant
Nutr. Dept.,)
Coffee Break
Discussion
18 December 2013
Ergene River Basin Settlement Plan and its sustainability
mer ALBAYRAK (Tekirdag Director of Environment and City Planning)
Coffee Break
Ergene River Action Plan : Deep discharge and its sustainability
Mehmet CEYHAN (Ergene River Deep Discharge Program Coordinator)
Lunch
Use of Geographical Information System (GIS) in Watershed Management
Prof. Dr. Dursun Zafer EKER (ITU, Civil Engineering. Fac., Geo Engineering
Dept.)
Database management within the context of GIS
Prof. Dr. Dursun Zafer EKER (ITU, Civil Engineering. Fac., Geo Engineering
Dept.)
Coffee Break
Physical Design of Watersheds with the aid of GIS and applications
Prof. Dr. Dursun Zafer EKER (ITU, Civil Engineering. Fac., Geo Engineering
Dept.)
Discussion and closing remarks

447

Training Program - II

Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea


Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project
Training Program II: Physical Design of Watersheds
27-28 March 2014
Objectives of Training Program II in Turkey:
The objective of the Training Program II in Turkey was to introduce the participants
with ILMM-BSE Project, its goals, objectives, content, methods and to discuss its
implementation in Ergene River Basin, provide information on water resources
management in Ergene River Basin and on Physical design of watersheds.
Participants:
Researchers and postgraduate students from the universities, experts from Public
Institutions, representatives of NGOs and local authorities participated in the Training
Program I. The number of participants was 78.
Place:
Training program was held at Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty Conference
Hall.

Training Program II: Physical Design of Watersheds


27 March 2014
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-15.30
15.30-16.00

9.30.10.30

10.30-11.00
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-16.30

448

Registration
Goals, objectives, content and expected outcomes of the ILMM-BSE Project
Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU (NKU, Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
Water Resources of Thrace Region: Activities of Regional Directorate of
State Hydraulic Works
Adem COSKUN (Director of 113th State Hydraulic Works Branch)
Lunch
Use of GIS to Produce Spatial Data for Integrated Watershed Management
Prof. Dr. Dursun Zafer EKER (ITU, Civil Engineering. Fac., Geo Engineering
Dept.)
Coffee Break
Physical Design of Watersheds with the aid of GIS and applications: Case
Studies
Prof. Dr. Dursun Zafer EKER (ITU, Civil Engineering. Fac., Geo Engineering
Dept.)
28 March 2014
Technical Activities within Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of
Black Sea Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project.
Prof. Dr. Seluk ALBUT (NKU, ILMM-BSE Project Data Management
Coordinator)
Coffee Break
GIS Application in Modelling Watersheds
Prof. Dr. Seluk ALBUT (NKU, ILMM-BSE Project Data Management
Coordinator)
Lunch
Discussion and closing remarks

Training Program - III

Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea


Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project
Training Program III: Land Use Change Modelling: Case of Ergene
River Basin (1990-2013) - 27-28 November 2014
Objectives of Training Program III in Turkey:
The objective of the Training Program II in Turkey was to introduce the participants
with ILMM-BSE Project, its goals, objectives, content, methods and to discuss its
implementation in Ergene River Basin, provide information on water resources
management in Ergene River Basin and on Physical design of watersheds.
Participants:
Researchers and postgraduate students from the universities, experts from Public
Institutions, representatives of NGOs and local authorities participated in the Training
Program I. The number of participants was 38.
Place:
Training program was held at Namik Kemal University Agricultural Faculty Conference
Hall.

Training Program III: Land Use Change Modelling: Case of


Ergene River Basin (1990-2013)
27 November 2014
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-15.30
15.30-16.00

9.30.10.30
10.30-11.00
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-16.30

Registration
Goals, objectives, content and expected outcomes of the ILMM-BSE Project
Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU (NKU, Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
Integrated Management System (IMS) of the ILMM-BSE Project
Prof. Dr. Seluk ALBUT (NKU, Data Management Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Lunch
Watershed Modelling System (WMS) in Integrated Watershed Management
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Mehmet ENER (NK, Agricultural Faculty, Biosystem Eng.
Dept.)
Coffee Break
Watershed Modelling System (WMS) Examples in Integrated Watershed
Management
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Mehmet ENER (NK, Agricultural Faculty, Biosystem Eng.
Dept.)
28 November 2014
Hydrological Modelling Approach To Integrated Land Use Management
(ArcSWAT)
Bahadr ALTRK (NKU, Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Coffee Break
ARrcSWAT Applications
Bahadr ALTRK (NKU, Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Lunch
Discussion and closing remarks

449

Training Program - IV

Integrated Land-use Management Modelling of Black Sea


Estuaries (ILMM-BSE) Project
Training Program IV: Land Use Change Modelling: Case of Ergene
River Basin (2013-2023) 25-26 December 2014
Objectives of Training Program IV in Turkey:
The objective of the Training Program IV in Turkey was to introduce the participants
with ILMM-BSE Project, its goals, objectives, content, methods and to discuss its
implementation in Ergene River Basin, provide information on water resources
management in Ergene River Basin and on Physical design of watersheds.
Participants:
Researchers and postgraduate students from the universities, experts from Public
Institutions, representatives of NGOs and local authorities participated. The number of
participants was 68.
Place:
Training program IV was held at Namik Kemal University

Training Program IV: Land Use Change Modelling: Case of


Ergene River Basin (2013-2023)
25 December 2014
NKU Rectorate Conference Hall
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-12.30

12.30-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-15.30
15.30-16.00

9.30.10.30
10.30-11.00
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-16.30

450

Registration
Goals, objectives, content and expected outcomes of the ILMM-BSE Project
Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU (NKU, Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
Geographical Data in Integrated Management System of the ILMM-BSE
Project
Prof. Dr. Seluk ALBUT (NKU, Data Management Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Lunch
Land Use Classification Systems in Integrated Watershed Management
Prof. Dr. Seluk ALBUT (NKU, Data Management Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
Land Use Classification Systems Applications in Integrated Watershed
Management
Prof. Dr. Seluk ALBUT (NKU, Data Management Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
26 December 2014
NKU Agricultural Faculty Conference Hall
Land Use Change Modelling in Integrated Land Use Management
Bahadr ALTRK (NKU, Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Coffee Break
Land Use Change Modelling in Integrated Land Use Management
Bahadr ALTRK (NKU, Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Lunch
Discussion and closing remarks

Training Program - V

Land Use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuaries (ILMMBSE)


Training Program V: Modelling Impact of Land Use Change on
Water Resources: Case of Ergene River Basin 5-6 March 2015
Objectives of Training Program V in Turkey:
The objective of the Training Program V in Turkey was to introduce the participants
with ILMM-BSE Project, its goals, objectives, content, methods and to discuss its
implementation in Ergene River Basin, provide information on water resources
management in Ergene River Basin and on Physical design of watersheds.
Participants:
Researchers and postgraduate students from the universities, experts from Public
Institutions, representatives of NGOs and local authorities participated. The number of
participants was 36.
Place and Time:
Training program V was held at Namik Kemal University Rectorate and Agricultural
Faculty Conference Halls.
Training Program V: Modelling Impact of Land Use Change on Water Resources:
Case of Ergene River Basin
5th March 2015
Namk Kemal University Rectorate Conference Hall
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-15.30
15.30-16.00

9.30.10.30
10.30-11.00
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-16.30

Registration
Goals, objectives, content and expected outcomes of the ILMM-BSE Project
(Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU, NKU Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
Interactive data share and its application on use in ILMM-BSE Project
(Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT, NKU ILMM-BSE Data Management Coordinator)
Lunch
Modelling impact of land use change on water resources: case of Ergene
River Basin
(Bahadr ALTRK, NKU Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Coffee Break
Modelling impact of land use change on water resources: case of Ergene
River Basin (Cont.)
(Bahadr ALTRK, NKU Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
6th March 2015
Agricultural Faculty Conference Hall
Modelling impact of land use change on water resources: case of Ergene
River Basin (Application)
(Bahadr ALTRK, NKU Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Coffee Break
Modelling impact of land use change on water resources: case of Ergene
River Basin (Application)
(Bahadr ALTRK,NKU Vocational School of Technical Sciences)
Lunch
Evaluation and Closing remarks (Moderator: Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT)

451

Training Program - VI

Land Use Management Modelling of Black Sea Estuaries (ILMMBSE) Project.


Training Program VI: ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling
Software (WebGIS) 23- 24 June 2015
Objectives of Training Program VI in Turkey:
The objective of the Training Program VI in Turkey was to introduce the participants
with ILMM-BSE Project, its goals, objectives, content, methods and to discuss its
implementation in Ergene River Basin, provide information on ILMM-BSE Land Use Change
Modelling Software (WEB-GIS).

Participants:
Researchers and postgraduate students from the universities, experts from Public
Institutions, representatives of NGOs and local authorities participated. The number of
Participants was 25.
Place and Time:
Training program VI was held at Namik Kemal University and Agricultural Faculty
Conference Hall.

Program VI: ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling Software (WebGIS)


23rd June 2015
Namk Kemal University Agricultural Faculty Conference Hall
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.00
11.00-11.30
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-15.30
15.30-16.00

9.30.10.30
10.30-11.00
11.30-12.30
12.30-13.30
13.30-16.30

452

Registration
Goals, objectives, content and expected outcomes of the ILMM-BSE Project
(Prof. Dr. Fatih KONUKCU, NKU Joint Research Coordinator of ILMM-BSE
Project)
Coffee Break
ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling Software (WebGIS). Technical properties
(Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT, NKU ILMM-BSE Data Management Coordinator)
Lunch
ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling Software (WebGIS). Training on its usege
(Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT, NKU ILMM-BSE Data Management Coordinator)
Coffee Break
ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling Software (WebGIS). Training on its usege
(Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT, NKU ILMM-BSE Data Management Coordinator)
24 June 2015
Namk Kemal University Agricultural Faculty Conference Hall
ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling Software (WebGIS). Applications.
(Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT, NKU ILMM-BSE Data Management Coordinator)
Coffee Break
ILMM-BSE Land Use Change Modelling Software (WebGIS). Applications.
(Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT, NKU ILMM-BSE Data Management Coordinator)
Lunch
Evaluation and Closing remarks (Moderator: Prof.Dr. Selcuk ALBUT)