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Symposium Proceedings
Kigali, Rwanda

Serena Hotel, 6-7 October 2015

Table of Contents
List of Acronyms4
2.Symposium Day 1 Tuesday October 6th 2015..8
Welcome and Introduction8
Opening Remarks by the H.E. the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium..8
Opening Speech by the Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET.9
Plenary Session 1: Approaches in Supporting TVET in Rwanda11
Working Session 1: Work-based Learning Approaches How to ensure the quality of work-based
learning experiences for TVET trainees in Rwanda?.13
Working Session 2: Bridging the Gap towards CBT/CBA ToT in Pedagogy14
Working Session 3: School Leadership that Works connecting School Leaders through Professional
Learning Networks16
Working Session 4: Linking TVET with the informal sector: informal training providers18
Working Session 5: Developing Market Driven Curricula Innovating with Government and the
Private Sector..18
Working Session 6: Strong Leaders, Strong Schools.20
Working Session 7: Financial Sustainability of TVET through Production Units: school-based
production units as one pathway..21
Working Session 8: Skilled Teachers and In-company Trainers: key for demand-oriented TVET.23
Working Session 9: Innovative Financing mechanisms in TVET/Skills Development.24
Closing address of the first day by the PAFP Director of Intervention.25
Closing speech of the first day by the Principal of IPRC South..25
2.Symposium Day 2 Wednesday October 7th 201527
Opening Remarks by the BTC Country Representative..27
Opening Remarks by the Director General of WDA..29
Plenary Session 2: National Quality Reforms in TVET Country Testimonies30
Working Session 10: Entrepreneurship Skills Development: Beyond Skills Development to
Accompaniment in Business Start-Up.34

Working Session 11: Competency-Based Training: The pillar of Agricultural technical training
programs reform for better TVET in Rwanda35
Working Session 12: How do we organize TVET Provision?...............................................................37
Working Session 13: Involving the private sector in Skills Development..38
Working Session 14: Roadmap to Roll-out: How to scale up competency-based assessments in
Working Session 15: The operationalization of a joint program.41
Plenary Session 3: Looking back, looking forward: Sharing recommendations.42
Closing Remarks by H.E. the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium54
Closing Speech by the Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET.55
Annex 1: Links to Organizing Parties57
Annex 2: Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP) Knowledge Products.59

List of Acronyms






Association for the Development of Education

in Africa
Association pour la Promotion de l'Education et
de la Formation l'Etranger (association for the
promotion of education and training abroad)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance
Belgian Development Agency
Competency-based assessment
Competency-based training
Director General
Deputy Director General
Dlgu la co-gestion or Project co-manager
in a co-management structure (who formed the
project management together with the DI)
Director of Intervention in a co-management
structure (who formed the project
management together with the Delco)
Economic Development and Poverty Reduction
Strategy II
Education Sector Strategic Plan 2013/14 2017/18
Government of Rwanda
Income generating activity
Integrated Polytechnic Regional Center
Integrated Polytechnic Regional Center of the
Southern province
Insertion Socio-professionnelle (socioprofessional inclusion)
Learning Outcomes in Primary Education
(VVOBs program supporting primary education
in Rwanda)
Ministry of Public Service and Labor
Rwandan Ministry of Local Government
Rwandan Ministry of Education
National Employment Program
Programme dappui la formation
professionnelle (Common Belgian TVET Support
Private Sector Federation
Professional Learning Network
Production Unit (form of IGA for a school)
Rwanda Technical Qualification Framework
Savings and Internal Lending Communities
School Management and Leadership
Technical Assistance
Training of Trainers
Technical Secondary School



Technical and Vocational Education and

Technical and Vocational Skills Development
Vocational Training Center
Vlaamse Vereniging voor
Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en Technische
Bijstand (Flemish Organization for
Development and Technical Cooperation)
Work based learning
Workforce Development Authority



The International TVET Symposium was part of the TVET Week 2015 which also comprised a TVET
Expo and an African Ministerial Conference on Technical and Vocational Skills Development. The TVET
Week took place from October 2nd until October 8th 2015 and the symposium itself took place on
October 6th and 7th and was preceded on October 5th by field visits for the international participants
to several TVET Programs and pilot schools in the Southern, Western, and Northern provinces. The
International TVET Symposium was organized by the Rwandan Ministry of Education in partnership
with the Belgian Common TVET Support Program, USAID Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods Project (EDC)
and all the other Development Partners active in the TVET subsector in Rwanda.
The motto of the TVET Symposium was Learning form Experience: Best Practices from the Field. The
reason for this motto was that several development programs were ending this year, among which
the Belgian Common TVET Support Program and the first phase of PROMOST (Swisscontact).
This symposium was to be used as a platform to share best practices and exchange experiences.
Recommendations from this forum were also shared with the Ministers attending the African
Ministerial Conference on Technical and Vocational Skills Development (TVSD) the next day in the
context of the inter country quality node (ADEA).
There were three main expected outcomes of the TVET Symposium.
1. Sharing experiences, achievements & best practices in TVET support/ delivery from the field.
2. Exchanging technical expertise and experiences on TVET reform implementation with other
3. Formulating recommendations for ministers of education participating on the last day as input
for the African Ministerial Conference on TVSD.
The TVET Symposium had a rich program covering three themes relevant to TVET:
(1) Linking TVET with the private sector Hands-on skills for the labor market;
(2) Toward a Competency-Based Approach Implementing CBT-CBA;
(3) Leading the Change Managing TVET.
There were three plenary sessions and fifteen working sessions (five working sessions per theme). On
each day there were three parallel sessions on each theme in three different areas within the
conference center of the Serena Hotel in Kigali. Whereas some sessions covered all three main
expected outcomes or objectives of the TVET Symposium, others focused on one or two of the three
outcomes mentioned above. There were over 300 hundred participants each day. On the second day
there were even more participants than on the first, which is a good indicator of success. The
participants came from various countries in Africa and beyond such as Uganda, Haiti, DRC, Burundi,
Palestine, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Botswana, etc.
For more information on the Program Schedule, please refer to the overview below.


Symposium Day 1 Tuesday October 6th 2015

Welcome and Introduction

Mr. Sam Barigye
Coordinator Hospitality and Tourism Training
Focal Person Adolescent Girls Initiative AGI Project (World Bank funded)
Workforce Development Authority (WDA)

Opening Remarks by the H.E. the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium

Mr. Arnout Pauwels
H.E. the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium to Rwanda
1. First of all, thank you for allowing me to say a few words on this occasion. I am very honored to be
here for the launch of the TVET Symposium.
2. We all know that education is essential for a country and TVET plays a key role in the socioeconomic development.
3. We especially commend the Government of Rwanda for the efforts put in this sector to develop
the vocational training, to promote it and to increase its quality.
4. Belgium has been a consistent partner of the Government of Rwanda in the education sector. It
will exit the sector at the end of 2015 due to the division of labor, but will remain very interested in the
development of education and especially the TVET sector.
5. The Common Belgian TVET Support Program is a unique program as it gathers three Belgian
organizations active in the TVET sector, namely APEFE, BTC and VVOB to support the Workforce
Development Authority (WDA). It started in 2010 and amounted for 11million Euro (in cash and in
kind). The intervention provided support at different levels: national, provincial and TVET pilot school
level to support the TVET reform implementation.
6. At the national level, PAFP worked hand-in-hand with WDA to support the development and
revision of TVET policy documents, frameworks and reference manuals.
7. At the provincial level, PAFP supported specifically the IPRC South (Integrated Polytechnic Regional
Center South) in its role of facilitating TVET reform implementation. IPRC South received the support
from PAFP to build TVET centers capacities in various areas (pedagogy, school management and
leadership, socio-professional inclusion, etc.)
8. At local level, PAFP worked with 24 pilot schools in the experimentation of newly developed
curricula and training of trainers.
9. As you may know, Belgium is also active in the decentralization sector. Its one of the three key
priority sectors in Rwanda, with health and energy. Therefore, I would like to insist on the importance

of integrating TVET priorities in District Development Plans. Its a key element in order to ensure the
development of the TVET sector.
10. We all know that coordination is also a key element in the development of a sector. We therefore
encourage all stakeholders to work more in coordination within the TVET sector.
11. Let me take this opportunity to recall the importance of including the maintenance costs of all
investments in the annual plans of the different structures. This is key to maintain the achievements
and to ensure a good quality of training.
12. Allow me also to highlight the importance of a close collaboration with the private sector.
Developing a close relationship with the private sector is a key element to enable a permanent
dialogue. This dialogue is an opportunity to promote internships within the private sector.
13. In conclusion, let me again express my appreciation to all parties who contributed to this program.
I wish you success in the continuation of the achievement of your objectives.
14. I am proud that my country is a close partner of the Government of Rwanda in its strong
commitment to social and economic transformation for the wellbeing of the population.
I thank you for your kind attention.
Murakoze cyane!

Opening Speech by the Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET

Mr. Albert Nsengiyumva
Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET in Rwanda
1. On behalf of the Rwandan Government I would like to welcome you to our country and to open the
International TVET Symposium. The TVET Symposium is part of the TVET Week 2015 which has three
main components: a TVET expo, a TVET Symposium (including the field visits which you went on
yesterday), and an African Ministerial Conference.
FIELD. This summarizes the three main objectives of this TVET symposium, namely to (1) share
experiences from the field and from different countries, (2) to exchange on these experiences and draw
lessons learned and (3) to give feedback in the form of best practices and recommendations to decision
makers in TVET from various countries.
3. I would like to thank those who made this TVET Symposium happen. First of all the Belgian
Common TVET Support Program (PAFP). This program uniting three Belgian partners - BTC (Belgian
Technical Cooperation)/VVOB (Flemish Technical Cooperation)/ APEFE (Walloon Technical
Cooperation) and the Rwandan Workforce Development Authority (WDA) has been operational since
the end of 2010 and is now in its final year. It has worked at three levels: nationally with WDA, in the
Southern province with IPRC South and with 24 pilot schools. The program has a holistic approach and
touched on various aspects of TVET: curriculum development, pedagogy, socio-professional inclusion,
school management and leadership, infrastructure and equipment.

4. Another important contributor to this symposium is Akazi Kanoze a USAID Youth Livelihoods
Project implemented by Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC). Finally the main development
partners active in the TVET subsector in Rwanda have all been on board in the preparation of this event
and will be facilitating various working sessions: Swisscontact/SDC funding, BMB
MottMacDonald/NUFFIC, JICA, GIZ Eco Emploi Program/ German Development Cooperation, and
5. I must commend the Workforce Development Authority- WDA which since its establishment about
6 years ago has made great strides in skills development across all sectors of the economy. The
government of Rwanda has made an ambitious target of creating 200,000 off- farm jobs every year.
This can only be achieved through skills training and support of the graduates through this sort of
framework. Our WDA is working together closely with different partners including the Private Sector
Federation (PSF) to enhance the quality of TVET by making it more market-responsive.
6. The creation of WDA was needed to address these challenges that our country was facing and
needed an immediate solution for the sustainable of our economy. It is important to note that TVET
has had negative perception as compared to general education where is regarded as a second best. In
many countries TVET has a similar reputation, it is thought of as being for the less bright students.
However, the world is changing and what is need in businesses now at any level are hands-on skills
and competencies like creativity, customer care, problem-solving skills, and team work. These are not
skills you pick up in a traditional school setting, these are typically skills you pick up in a work-place
environment. For this, in-company trainings, internships and other work based learning environments
need to be invested in.
7. As our country is a member of the East African Community and we have a high population density,
we have to make sure that the TVET system we are strengthening is in line with regional and
international standards and requirements, so our youth can be competitive on a regional and
international labor market as well. We are therefore thrilled to have among us so many participants
from abroad. Countries such as Uganda, DRC, Burundi, Haiti, Palestine, Belgium, and Italy are
represented to name but a few. This will give fertile ground for great exchanges and debate, both
during the plenary and working sessions as during the informal moments.
8. Finally, technical and vocational education and training is for everyone. As you know our President,
his Excellency Paul Kagame, is a HeForShe Gender Impact Champion and we have as a country set an
ambitious goal to triple girls enrolment in TVET by 2020. In order to do so we need to change our
habits and our minds about women and technical subjects and jobs. And we need to support them so
they have a level playing field. A TVET system cannot produce competent graduates if over half of the
eligible students think it is not for them. So, we ask you as participants to think of this cross-cutting
theme in the experiences you will share, in the lessons and the feedback you will give.
9. Distinguished guests, our country has had challenges in skills development where for example
construction industry has suffered a lot. Construction firms have had to source from our neighboring
countries to get the even a painter. Again our Tourism and hospitality industry has a lot to achieve in
this regard. Customer care and technical skills in our hotels and restaurants is alarming and we should
work hard to curb this vise that has been with us for the bigger past. If we can excel in other things
why not in customer care yet it is the core of service? We need to work hand in hand with our youth


and our partners to change this and to make our human resources not only capable to serve the needs
on the internal labor market, but on the regional labor market as well.
It is my pleasure and great honor to officially declare this International TVET Symposium opened. Let
us hear from the diverse country experiences, learn from each other and come up with some ideas
and feedback for policy makers on where and how to invest in TVET for maximum youth employment
and economic growth!
I thank you!

Plenary Session 1: Approaches in Supporting TVET in Rwanda

Ms Anne-Pierre Mingelbier
Programme Officer Belgian Development Agency (BTC)
and PAFP co-Manager
The first plenary session was facilitated by Ms Anne-Pierre Mingelbier, the PAFP co-manager. The
purpose of the session was to share different approaches used by different development partners in
supporting the quality reforms in the TVET subsector in Rwanda.
All Development Partners active in the TVET subsector were present in a panel on stage and each
development partner was given a short time period to present their approach. The panelists in this
session were:

Mr Wilson Muyenzi, SDF Project Manager WDA

Ms Aline Filiot, Program Manager APEFE
Mr Jan Fransen, TVET Expert VVOB Head Office
Mr Niels De Block, Education Expert BTC Head Office
Mr Alexandre Boin, Swisscontact Country Director
Ms Beate Dippmar, Senior TVET Expert GIZ Eco Emploi
Mr Rob van de Gevel, NICHE 2 Project Leader Mott MacDonald/NUFFIC
Mr Ryuichi Nishiyama, JICA Senior Policy Advisor
Mr David Rurangirwa, Education Specialist USAID
Mr Dr. Jinho Lim, Education Specialist KOICA Rwanda

This session served as an introduction to the TVET Symposium in general and to the different
approaches used by Development Partners in supporting the TVET subsector in Rwanda. Each
development partner highlighted a certain angle in supporting TVET in Rwanda in which they play an
important role. Mr. Muyenzi from WDA started the session by introducing the different,
complementary approaches in supporting TVET in Rwanda using the below model.


Next up were the various development partners such as Ms. Filiot from APEFE, introducing the
competency-based approach to pedagogy and the differences in interpretation between the
Francophone and Anglophone systems. Next up was Mr. Fransen representing VVOB, who introduced
the conceptual framework guiding VVOBs interventions in the area of school leadership. The next
speaker was Mr. Boin from Swisscontact. He presented the unique approach of Swisscontact in the
context of their PROMOST program in supporting informal TVET provision for enhanced accessibility
and employment opportunities for the most socio-economically disadvantaged and vulnerable
segments of the rural population in Western Province. Ms. Dippmar from GIZ continued with a short
intervention on GIZs eco-emploi program and specifically on its efforts in the area of workplace
learning. Next up was Mr. Van de Gevel from Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald. He described the Rwanda TVET
Qualification Framework (RTQF) which Nuffic helped develop and the advantages of having such a
framework. His was one of the more memorable interventions, when he talked about passion. How
skills development and skills acquisition is not just about learning those skills but about having passion
for the job you do, being committed and trying to go the extra mile to provide a good product or
service. The next speaker was Mr. Nishiyama from JICA, who described JICAs support of the Tumba
College of Technologys community outreach program. Next up was Mr. Rurangirwa from USAID who
described the Akazi Kanoze program and results and in particular its linkages with the private sector
(work readiness and entrepreneurship trainings, transition to work services, specialized services e.g.
SILCs, etc.). The next speaker was Dr. Lim from KOICA. He shared KOICAs work in supporting IPRC
Kigali by establishing the RTTI (Rwanda TVET Teacher Institute) there and by increasing the number of
certified TVET Teachers. Finally, Mr. De Block from BTC was given the floor to share the multi-level
approach to supporting the TVET System that was used by BTC in Rwanda in the context of the Belgian
Common TVET Support Program.
At the end of this first plenary session, the two-day program was introduced: the themes, the location
of the breakout rooms and the registration for the working sessions.


Working Session 1: Work-based Learning Approaches How to ensure the quality

of work-based learning experiences for TVET trainees in Rwanda?
Ms. Agnes Ammeux
Technical Assistant Socio-professional Inclusion
Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP)/ APEFE
The first of the working sessions set out to share approaches and lessons learned about work-based
learning schemes in Rwanda (WDA TVET internship programme, PAFP On-site training Chantiers
formation, Akazi Kanoze internship programme, PSF internship Programme, etc.) and more
specifically on how to ensure the quality of these WBL learning experiences. In so doing, draft
recommendations for the various stakeholders were formulated.
This working session was moderated by Ms. Agns AMMEUX, ISP TA from PAFP. There was a big group
of speakers comprising Mr. Steve KAMANZI from the USAID Akazi Kanoze youth livelihoods project
(EDC), Mr. Antoine MANZI from PSF, Mr. Eugne MUKESHIMANA from IPRC/South, Mr. Faustin
MWAMBARI from MIFOTRA, Mr. Clment NKUNDA from Sport view hotel (Employer and EDC
Champion), and Mr. Thierry SEBURA NIYIBIZI, Infrastructure TA from PAFP.
The moderator introduced the session by describing the two characteristics of work-based learning,
notably (1) learning in a work context either a real one (workplace) or simulated work environment
(fictive exercise in TVET school); and (2) learning through practice. That is learning through actually
doing something, by rehearsal or by repetition (but NOT by observation only).
A distinction is typically made between (a) learning for work, e.g. during a work placement as part of
an initial TVET and (b) learning at work as in the case of continuous professional development. This
session focused on type (a) which covers the type of TVET programs offered by WDA.
During this session a number of WBL programs used in Rwanda were highlighted : MIFOTRA youth
internship programme, NCBS internship programme, WDA Industrial Attachment Programme (IAP),
WDA internship module, Akazi Kanoze Internship Programme, PAFP on-site trainings, traditional
(informal) apprenticeship, modern apprenticeship (under development), which can be grouped in the
following three categories :
-The first type are the alternance or apprenticeship programs characterized by a high intensity or
frequency of work integration whereby trainees learn new competences in the workplace.
-The second type concern on-the-job training periods in companies, which have various durations,
but typically represent less than 50% of the training program duration. They are typically incorporated
as a compulsory or optional element of TVET programs leading to formal qualifications. Examples are
internships, work placements or traineeships.
-Finally, there is the type of WBL that is integrated in a school-based program with the aim of
simulating "real life" work environments at the TVET schools by cooperation with real companies or
clients, by developing entrepreneurship competences for example through on-site labs, workshops,
kitchens, restaurants, junior or practice firms, simulations or real business/industry project
assignments. These categories are all integrated in the Workplace Learning Policy which was adopted
in Rwanda in September 2015. The various speakers each presented the type of WBL scheme they


have been implementing or contributing to and how the quality was ensured for the TVET Trainee and
the host company. These were some of the challenges that were mentioned during the discussions.
Firstly, there is no financing mechanism in place in Rwanda and many of the other countries
represented at the symposium for work based learning schemes clarifying who finances these WBL
experiences and how. Furthermore, in Rwanda many companies are small and not yet well equipped.
They have insufficiently pedagogically skilled staff to supervise and assess TVET Trainees. Finally, TVET
Trainees do not demonstrate enough readiness for the workplace in terms of soft skills and attitude.
The discussions led to the following recommendations.

Recommendations from working session 1

1. Define a financing strategy for work-based learning schemes (apprenticeship and
2. Mobilize the private sector to offer internships and apprenticeships and to get involved in
work based learning schemes
3. Build the capacities of the private sector in supervising and assessing apprentices and
4. Reinforce the quality of TVET, which is the key condition for a successful work based
learning experience for TVET Trainees

Working Session 2: Bridging the Gap towards CBT/CBA ToT in Pedagogy

Mr. Boniface Niyivuga
Director of Accreditation and Quality Assurance
Integrated Polytechnic Regional Center South
The purpose of this session was to (1) share (technical) experiences gained during the PAFP while
training TVET trainers in pedagogy in the Southern province; to (2) draw lessons learned about the
process of ToT in pedagogy based on the PAFP piloting experience in the southern province (role of
lead trainers in training dissemination, efficiency of practical works during the training, importance of
coaching, etc.); and finally, to (3) formulate recommendations in terms of sustainability of the
achieved results in the Southern province after the end of PAFP.
The main contributors to this session were the following persons: Mr. Boniface NIYIVUGA from IPRC
South (Facilitator), Mr. Jean-Damascne HAKIZIMANA from PAFP (speaker), Ms. MARIA B. M. Ramos
from WDA (presenter/ panelist), and Mr. Rob van de Gevel from NUFFIC / Mott MacDonald (presenter
/ panelist).
The main justification for such a session was the gap that exists between the way TVET needs to be
taught now using a competency-based approach and the traditional (teacher-centered) way in which
the current TVET trainers that need to deliver these competency-based curricula to their students


were taught themselves. This gap is a problem and in order to improve the quality and relevance of
TVET, the training of trainers in pedagogy is an absolute priority.
Mr. Hakizimana shared the Belgian Common TVET Support Program or PAFP experience. PAFP worked
in the South with 24 pilot schools. Around 300 TVET Trainers from these 24 pilot schools were trained
in competency-based training and assessment (CBT/A) with the use of five modules between 2012
and 2015. This training process was a holistic package of training sessions firstly of 19 lead trainers (1
per 9 first pilot schools in the Southern province, 5 from IPRC South, 2 from WDA and 3 from other
provinces) who then were accompanied in pedagogical visits, feedback to session plans and supported
and coached in their facilitation of other TVET trainers from the PAFP pilot schools. The trained TVET
trainers are now applying these new competencies in CBT/A by using for instance the competencybased curricula that were developed by PAFP, by designing and delivering training using learnercentered methods, by organizing and conducting competency-based assessments and by promoting
hands-on skills. Unfortunately among those trained, the motivation to change their approach to
training is still low and requires a comprehensive, collaborative approach to a qualification framework
and compensation package for TVET trainers.
Mr. Rob van de Gevel discussed the ongoing revision of the ToT Implementation Framework and
specifically the dimensions covered in the qualification framework for TVET Trainers. These are:
technical competencies; pedagogical/ didactical competencies; specific expertise/ qualifications/
applied research; years of experience as a TVET trainer; and duration/ quality of practical/ industry
exposure. He discussed what pre-service and in-service trainings for TVET Trainers should cover and
how this is all linked to the Rwandan Technical Qualification Framework (RTQF).
Finally, Ms. Maria Ramos from WDA presented WDAs plans concerning Training of Trainers for the
short-, mid- and long-term. For the fiscal year 2015-2016, WDA has planned to train 500 TVET trainers
in pedagogy and to upgrade 500 TVET Trainers in technical skills. The priority sectors and trades are:
(a) in the Agriculture Sector: Crop Production, Forestry, Animal Health, and Food Processing; (b) in the
Construction Sector and Building Services Sector: Plumbing, Welding, Masonry, Carpentry, Domestic
Electricity Installation, and Painting; (c) in the Technical Servicing Sector: Electronics and
Telecommunication, and Automobile; (d) in the Hospitality and Tourism Sector: Culinary Arts, Food
Beverages, Front Office, and House Keeping; (e) in the Energy Sector: Hardware and Software
Maintenance; (f) in the ICT Sector : Hardware and Software Maintenance. Ms. Ramos explained that
the development partners PAFP, GIZ, NUFFIC/ Mott MacDonald, Swiss contact, KOICA and JICA are
supporting WDA in these efforts. Finally, the mid-term and long term plans for ToT include the RTTI
that will be established at IPRC Kigali in collaboration with KOICA, the continuous professional
development of TVET trainers and the Certification of Trainers (in line with to the ToT Implementation
Framework currently under final revision and the RTQF).


During the discussions with the participants, some of the following challenges were mentioned. The
training of trainers in CBT is not enough to guarantee that they will actually use CBT. They need
coaching to apply what they have learned and to become competent. It is a challenge to train a lot of
TVET trainers quickly. There is still a lack of skills in English and ICT among many TVET Trainers.

Recommendations from working session 2

1. Train a large enough pool of lead trainers and set up institutions that can deliver ToT.

2. On the process of assessing and certifying trainers: (a) Force current TVET trainers not
only to enter but especially to finalize the upgrading programs. They should not be certified
unless they undergo the assessment process and it should be mandatory. (b) The
motivation of trainers to take the assessment is also the responsibility of school managers.
3. In designing ToT qualifications: (a) Make the threshold for new TVET trainers as low as
possible. We need an enormous amount of TVET trainers: 60% of eligible basic education
graduates will have to go to TVET. (b) Dont limit to pedagogical + technical, a trainer needs
to industrial exposure. Cross-cutting modules such as English, ICT and Entrepreneurship
should also be included.

Working Session 3: School Leadership that Works connecting School Leaders

through Professional Learning Networks
M. Alex Mahe Mukizwa
Programme Advisor - School Leadership Professional Learning Networks
VVOB Rwanda
The objectives of this working session were to share best practices from the functioning of
Professional Learning Networks of head teachers at sector level in primary education in Rwanda from
the VVOB Learning Outcomes in Primary Education (LOPE) program; to draw lessons learned about
the functioning of Professional Learning Networks of head teachers at sector level; and to formulate
recommendations concerning future actions to establish and empower Professional Learning
Networks of head teachers or TVET school managers.
The main facilitator and speaker during this session was Mr. Alex Mahe Mukizwa from VVOB. He
started his session with a short presentation about the functioning of Professional Learning Networks
for head teachers in primary schools in Rwanda. Topics addressed during this presentation were the
following. The importance of Professional Learning Networks for continuous professional
development of head teachers. These Professional Learning Networks for Head Teachers in Rwanda
function as a cost-efficient system of continuous professional development for head teachers. The
networks are organized at Sector level. Sector Educational Officers facilitate the peer learning sessions
and assume a coaching role towards head teachers in their sector. Peer learning is the central activity


of these networks. Experiences from the implementation of these networks in different sectors in
Rwanda were shared, notably through the viewing of a video about VVOBs and REBs collaborative
work on peer learning for head teachers and gender. These professional learning networks are part of
a bigger support program to enhance the quality of school leadership which also comprises an inservice training program for head teachers in primary education in Rwanda.
After showing the video participants were asked to share what they learned from the video
documentary through an energizer game. This made the session really interactive and participants
from various countries were happy to share lessons from the video documentary and link them to the
experiences from their respective countries. Besides the importance of peer learning, the gender
aspect highlighted in the video was also much appreciated by participants and discussed.
After this exchange which took up the bigger part of the session, there was a market place where
participants could browse through some pictures, folders, brochures, etc. regarding the peer learning
activities through the professional learning networks for head teachers in Rwanda. Especially the peer
learning magazine which accompanies the networks aroused participants interest.
Some of the challenges in the Rwandan context that were touched upon are the following. Firstly,
there is little involvement of Sector Education Officers (SEOs) and District Education Officers (DEOs) in
following up TVET as of yet. There are not yet Professional Learning Networks (PLNs) or some kind of
peer learning and professional collaboration in place among school leaders from TVET schools in
Rwanda. In primary education this is part of a comprehensive package for continuous professional
development of head teachers comprising an in-service training program and coaching through peer
learning networks. Is such an approach applicable to TVET as well? It could be an interesting and costeffective approach to in-service training for TVET school managers while at the same time
decentralizing TVET implementation follow-up.

Recommendations from working session 3

1. Initiate the decentralization of the TVET policy implementation to district and sector
2. Ensure effective collaboration among all TVET stakeholders including districts, sectors and
private companies
3. Promote professional learning networks among TVET schools as a form of peer learning
for continuous professional development of TVET School Leaders.


Working Session 4: Linking TVET with the informal sector: informal training
Mr. Alexandre Boin
Swisscontact Country Director
This working session set out to (1) share experiences in working with and supporting the informal TVET
sector; to (2) draw lessons learned about the experience of the Swisscontact project (PROMOST) in
supporting and working with informal training providers in the Western Province; and (3) to formulate
recommendations in terms of future actions (continuation, systemic approach, adjustment of
direction, up scaling, replication, etc.).
The session was facilitated by the Swisscontact Country Director, Mr. Alexandre Boin, with Ms. Rita
Christine Umuhire from Swisscontact as a speaker, while two beneficiaries and two informal TVET
training providers narrated their activities and experiences through testimonies.
As Swisscontact is the only organization in Rwanda that is supporting and working with the informal
TVET sector, in addition to their active interventions in the formal sector, this session took the form
of advocacy for such an approach and to rally support for the long-term sustainability of this method
of TVET provision. It is in this context, that Ms. Jeanne Mukamana, a short term training beneficiary
from Ngororero District, explained how a 40 days training in welding impacted her life and Ms.
Bernadette Dusabimana, a short term training beneficiary from Rutsiro District, gave a similar
testimony on how a 40 days training in Leather Product Making changed her life for the better. Finally,
Ms. Violette Dusabimana from Hope Foundation, a short term informal vocational training
provider, described the importance of such integrated short term vocational trainings for job creation.
Some of the challenges discussed were the limited support of development partners and stakeholders
to the informal TVET sector in the rural areas as well as the lack of recognition for acquired skills and
the instability of the informal sector in their role as short-term vocational training providers.

Recommendation from working session 4

1. More support is needed for the sustainability of short term vocational training for rural
populations by informal TVET providers.

Working Session 5: Developing Market Driven Curricula Innovating with

Government and the Private Sector
Ms. Melanie Sany
Former Chief of Party of the USAID Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods Project in Rwanda
Education Development Center (EDC)
This working session took the form of a panel discussion with specialists in curriculum development.
It set out to share experiences and challenges in developing market-relevant curricula contributing to
youth employment.


A broad range of speakers was invited to share their expertise in this process among these were Mr.
Irenee NSENGIYUMVA, WDA DDG Training, with support from Mr. JMV Muhire, Head of the WDA CD
Unit; Dr. Joyce MUSABE, REB DDG Curriculum Development and Material Distribution, represented by
Ms. Anathalie NYIRANDAGIJIMANA, Pedagogical Norms Specialist; Mr. Cees van Maarseveen, Senior
TVET Expert Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald; and Ms. Laurence Umugirenza, Human Resources Manager
Umubano Hotel, a Private Sector Champion. Facilitation was done by Ms. Melanie Sany from EDC.
They shared their views and were guided in this process by two main questions: (1) How do programs
ensure that curriculums are meeting the needs of the private sector? and (2) How can you continue
to innovate with market-driven curricula?
The different parties contributed to this reflection by highlighting different aspects of this process.
EDC introduced the topic by describing formal curricula and how they worked on the formal
integration of work readiness and entrepreneurship to address the expressed needs by private
companies to have the right skills and attitudes among workers. The speaker explained it was
important to "think outside the box" and develop curricula that lead to new trades for which there is
a demand in the economy. The ECD case of the development of a curriculum in early childhood
education was used as an example by describing how and why it was created for girls new economic
opportunities. This was supported by the URCE expert. The speaker from Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald
addressed the audience with regard to CBT highlighting integrating learning and the changed roles
of the facilitator, CBA (portfolio assessment, no grading, no final exams), and with regard to the
introduction of more active learning methods (cooperative learning methods, experiential learning
methods, individual learning methods) in general. The DDG from REB stressed the importance of
taking lessons and curricula from TVET and integrating workforce development into general secondary
schools and WDA gave a summary of the competency-based approach and methodology.
The main challenges that came out of the discussion were the following three: some trades move
faster than curriculum development (e.g. ICT) so methods need to be found to keep curricula relevant;
a good curriculum is insufficient, a quality delivery is also needed; and thirdly, assessing the output,
that is, addressing the gap between delivery standards and occupational outputs.

Recommendations from working session 5

1. Focus on soft skills that are available to all employers, so that graduates can adopt
flexibility to the needs of the market
2. Recognize prior learning outside of the formal TVET sector


Working Session 6: Strong Leaders, Strong Schools

Ms. Lucy Schalkwijk
Technical Assistant TVET Governance
Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP)/ VVOB
Mr. Christian Karasira
Program Advisor - School Leadership Professional Training
VVOB Rwanda
The purpose of working session 6 was to highlight the importance of school leadership in leading
change processes such as TVET reforms like the ongoing CBT/CBA roll-out. In order to rally people
around this idea an interactive session was foreseen allowing for exchanges and debate on the
difference between school administration, school management and school leadership and to look at
the current situation in participating countries and the desired future situation in those countries.
Besides this overarching goal, there were also the objectives of sharing (technical) experiences of
supporting school managers to turn around schools from different perspectives such as from a
technical assistants perspective, from the perspective of a school admin monitor from IPRC South,
and from the perspective of a school manager who described the situation he found the school in
when he first started there and compare it to the current situation. These testimonies all served to
share both technical experiences and especially to stress the importance of school leadership in TVET
quality reforms. Recommendations were thus based on the lessons drawn from these experiences.
This session was facilitated by Ms. Lucy Schalkwijk, Technical Assistant TVET Governance from
PAFP/VVOB with co-facilitation from Mr. Christian Karasira, Technical Advisor School Leadership from
VVOB, for the quiz and debate. Testimonies were from Ms. Gemma Musengeneza, Technical Assistant
School Management and Leadership from PAFP/VVOB, from Mr. Jonathan Mukeshimana, School
Admin Monitor from IPRC South, and from Mr. Gilbert Ndangamira, School Manager from Mpanda
After a short presentation introducing the title, the guiding question What should school leaders
invest in most for maximum impact? and the main agenda of the working session, an interactive quiz
and debate was held whereby participants had to answer two multiple choice questions. To allow for
interactivity and debate, participants were asked to take a position according to their answer in a
triangle and to motivate their position. Participants who were convinced by some arguments were
allowed to change position. Votes were collected allowing to measure a baseline and an end line after
discussions. The main conclusions from this exercise were that currently most school principals are
caught up in managerial activities (financial management, human resource management, managing
physical resources, etc.). Because of this heavy load, their focus is on keeping the current operations
running thus, on school management. However, most participants were convinced that a lot of
managerial and administrative duties can be delegated to dedicated staff and simply supervised,
allowing school principals to prioritize their activities and lead change processes and innovation.
Finally, technical experiences in supporting capacity building in school management and leadership
were shared by a PAFP technical assistant and an IPRC South school administration monitor. As a
closure, a school manager shared his personal turnaround story with the audience.


Out of the main challenges enumerated for a more systemic approach to the personal development
of school principals, is the fact that there is not yet a qualification framework in place for School
Leaders. Such a qualification framework is a necessary precondition for institutionalizing a school
management and leadership function within WDA and for the development of a school leadership inservice training program.

Recommendations from working session 6

1. To establish a system for qualification and certification for TVET school managers.

2. To harmonize and institutionalize in-service training for TVET school leaders at a national
3. Increase awareness about inclusive TVET (Gender, people with disabilities etc.).

Working Session 7: Financial Sustainability of TVET through Production Units: schoolbased production units as one pathway
Ms. Furaha Minga
Technical Assistant Socio-professional Inclusion
Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP)/ APEFE
Like the other working sessions, this session set out to share technical experiences in order to draw
lessons learned and make recommendations. In this particular session the technical experiences
shared concerned schools production units. This topic was approached through the angle of how a
production unit in a TVET schools could be one of different methods for reaching financial
sustainability of these institutions. As the Belgian Common TVET Support Program has supported its
pilot schools in setting up and running production units, some lessons from operational production
units were shared and compared to other examples like the ones of SOS T.H.S. and IPRC Kigali.
This session was co-facilitated by Ms. Furaha Minga from PAFP and Mr. Gordon Bwamine from WDA.
There were speeches by representatives from the following four institutions: SOS T.H.S (Mr. Muvunyi
SOUTH (Mr. Eric Dusingizimana) followed by some technical discussions.
Some of the key issues raised were the following. A broad analysis was done of state of affairs of
production units in TVET schools. The importance of school based enterprises or production units was
stressed in the context of limited budgets for implementing CBT/CBA by TVET Schools. The importance
of school-based enterprises or production units for TVET schools is that they allow for income
generation by TVET schools to share the financial burden of TVET (especially in the context of CBT/A),
they also allow for better retention of skilled trainers through salary top-ups. For trainees, being
involved in actual production for real customers allows them to gain practical skills in real life
situations, they could even do an internship in a well-developed production unit. As such trainees will


be better prepared for the workplace. For trainers there are also advantages, as production units
require them to keep working on their technical skills, to keep updated on the latest demand on the
market and thus production units will foster more creativity and innovation among teaching staff
involved in them. The technical experience from the Belgian Common TVET Support Program was used
as an example of how to support TVET Schools production units. From the piloting of this approach
some known issues or challenges were also shared, as these would need to be addressed in order to
scale the approach. Examples of some of such challenges were the lack of sufficient startup capital
and working capital in production units, conflicting financial policies in school and business
management, lack of fulltime staff dedicated to production units, responsibility in production-related
risk, etc.
From the discussions it became clear that there is a fine balance between profit maximization and the
needs of the production unit as a profitable business in order to be able to contribute financially to
the TVET school and otherwise the educational goals and ethics and the quality of training and
learning. In order for a TVET schools production unit to function properly it should be financially
separated from the school and registered as an independent company. But how then, safeguard its
link to the school and its contribution to the learning outcomes of the TVET Schools students? It is in
this context that the Head of Partnerships from WDA, Mr. Didier Munezero, suggested that there is a
need for mechanisms to be put in place to balance training and business within TVET schools in
Rwanda. Experiences from other countries such as Haiti and DRC, showed that they have started a
reflection about TVET Schools production units and related planning. In Burundi TVET Schools
production units are operational, but they are used more as practical, hands-on training sites and they
do not currently function as registered businesses. The main recommendations from this session are
listed below.

Recommendations from working session 7

1. Putting in place a framework of operation for all production units of TVET Schools
2. Having a harmonized business model that guides TVET Schools production units
3. Establishment of strategies for supporting functioning of TVET Schools Production Units


Working Session 8: Skilled Teachers and In-company Trainers: key for demandoriented TVET
Ms. Beate Dippmar
Senior Technical Advisor TVET and Skills Development
Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
This session organized by GIZ had two main objectives. Firstly, to share experiences and lessons
learned in approaches of training TVET trainers to deliver practice-oriented training and to capacitate
in-company-trainers. A Second objective concerned the discussion of challenges resulting in a set of
recommendations of needed actions to overcome the challenges for TVET trainers and in-company
trainers to transfer practical skills to TVET trainees.
This working session was co-facilitated by Ms. Beate Dippmar and Mr. Ezekiel Ngoboka from GIZ.
Speakers were Mr. Lamed AHIMBISIBWE from TEVSA and Mr. Ephrem Musonera from IPRC East.
Vocational skills of the workforce are mainly developed in TVET schools and companies. To transfer
the needed skills to young people TVET teachers and in-company trainers have a crucial role.
Competent and motivated TVET teaching staff (teachers and trainers) with hands-on practical skills
and occupational knowledge as well as competence in pedagogy and subject didactics are demanded
to implement demand-oriented TVET of high quality. The session focused on exchanging experiences
in capacity building of TVET teachers and in-company trainers for their role in TVET. Based on practical
experiences and lessons learnt in technical ToT, staff and partners from GIZ exchanged on challenges
and opportunities that lie ahead to strengthen practical skills of TVET trainers and to support incompany trainers. Some of the key questions guiding the session were the following. What are the
roles and requirements on TVET school teachers and in-company trainers in (practical) skills
development? What are successful approaches for improving the practical skills and experiences of
TVET school teachers and to enable in-company trainers? What are main lessons learned and the
challenges ahead? Based on the discussed lessons learned and challenges, what are recommendations
in terms of needed actions to overcome the challenges for enabling TVET teachers and in-company
trainers to transfer practical skills to TVET trainees?


After two short presentations on the status and challenges of TVET teachers and in-company trainers
in Rwanda by Mr. Ephrem from IPRC East and on Technical ToT approach, lessons learned and
challenges ahead by Mr. Lamed AHIMBISIBWE from TEVSA, participants broke out in groups to reflect
on the above questions in order to come up with recommendations per group. Based on these group
discussions the following major challenges were mentioned. There is a lack of certification of incompany trainers and TVET trainers, as well as a lack of skills. TVET trainers lack pedagogical skills;
while in-company trainers lack literacy and foreign language skills, occupational and pedagogical
knowledge. Finally, none or few incentives for in-company and TVET trainers exist. There are no salary
incentives for ToT and other skills upgrading ventures, no human resource/ professional career
development plans and professional perspectives. Based on these challenges, the following
recommendations were formulated.

Recommendations from working session 8

1. Development of in-company trainers profile and implement TVET trainer profile and then
implement a certification for both.
2. Develop and institutionalize a pre-service and in-service ToT system for TVET trainers, in
line with the ToT implementation framework; and set up in-company trainers training
3. Develop salary schemes tied or linked to career pathways for TVET trainers as per the ToT
implementation framework; and set up incentives for companies to provide workplace
learning and in-company trainers for their supervisory functions.

Working Session 9: Innovative Financing mechanisms in TVET/Skills Development

Mr. Rob van de Gevel
Team Leader/ Education Advisor at Euroconsult Mott MacDonald/ BMB Mott MacDonald
NICHE Program (Nuffic)
The purpose of this session was to reflect on how to approach the financing of TVET in light of the high
cost involved in quality TVET and the dwindling sources of funding for TVET. This session, like the other
working sessions, was about sharing experiences, drawing lessons learned and making
recommendations. It was built around exchanging with practitioners in group discussions whereby
different stakeholders perspectives were highlighted those of government, private companies, and
This interactive session was facilitated by Mr. Rob van de Gevel from Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald. He
introduced the topic and guiding questions and principles. The participants were subsequently
engaged in an interactive session during which the various alternatives (Government,


Families/Students, Private Sector) of funding of TVET/Skills Development were discussed to identify

sustainable sources or mechanisms of funding.
During the introduction the facilitator described a context of decreasing public funding of TVET in real
terms while TVET entails a high cost. He touched upon some underpinning concepts and principles of
the management of the funding of TVET such as flexibility, decentralization, and partnership;
Prioritization of Areas of Funding; and the importance of an Information System. There are different
and conflicting interests and perspectives between governments and the private sector on the areas
of focus and utility of public funding. Group discussions guided by instruction sheets were used to
reflect on these different perspectives and to come up with recommendations.
Some of the challenges that were discussed were the following. Firstly, the above mentioned
challenge of dwindling resources from all stakeholders (public, private sector and trainees). Another
challenge concerned the inadequate strategic planning, prioritization and focusing of resources.
Finally, there is a need for clear roles and obligations in the financing of TVET. The resulting
recommendations can be found below.

Recommendations from working session 9

1. Tripartite mechanisms with a very active involvement of the private sector in the entire
process of TVET may prove a good solution, for example through an inclusive public
private partnership.
2. 40% of the cost of TVET should be borne by the private sector that should see it as an
investment to their own benefit. This involvement should be embedded into the legal
framework (considering incentives, tax rebates/holidays, etc.)

Closing address of the first day by the PAFP Director of Intervention

Mr. Gedeon Rudahunga, the PAFP Director of Intervention, addressed the room to thank all the
participants for their active participation during the first day of the TVET Symposium. He made some
remarks on the history of PAFP and his impressions of the first day and invited participants to join
again the next day.

Closing speech of the first day by the Principal of IPRC South

Mr. Barnabe Twabagira
Integrated Polytechnic Regional Center South
1. At the end of this first day of the TVET Symposium, I would like to thank you all for the great
participation and the exchanges. I would particularly want to thank the Minister of State in charge of
TVET and the Director General of WDA for their commitment in making this event happen and run
smoothly. I would like to thank the Belgian Common TVET Support Program for taking the lead in


organizing this event. My thanks also go out to other Development Partners such as Akazi Kanoze
USAID Youth Livelihoods Project implemented by EDC as well as other contributing development
partners from the TVET Subsector (Swisscontact, NUFFIC/BMB MottMacDonald, JICA, GIZ, and KOICA).
2. We have heard of experiences from different programs and different countries and have learned
from each other. Let me hereby share my experience as a Principal of the Integrated Polytechnic
Regional Center from the Southern Province or IPRC South. As many of you have seen yesterday during
the field visit to our campus, we are the regional facilitators of TVET in the Southern province. We also
have training facilities that cover RTQF (Rwanda Technical Qualification Framework) levels 3 up to 7 in
a total of 7 departments and 11 different trades at VTC level. At that, we are a young institution and
have been the implementing partner of the Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP) in the
Southern province.
3. The IPRC South you have seen yesterday, was not always like this. We are actually a young
institution and have grown along with the Belgian Common TVET Support Program. We originally were
at Kavumu that another group of you has visited yesterday, we then moved to the campus in Huye
where we are today. We later added on a VTC and grew considerably in staff (some 200 today). All this
was witnessed and supported by the PAFP program. In fact it also grew and adapted to this fast
changing context by reorienting their program to support this decentralization and facilitation of TVET
implementation by IPRCs. In so doing, they extended the number of pilot schools from the 10 initial
pilot schools to 24 of which the additional 14 pilot schools were our pilot schools. They supported us
in this new role as facilitators of TVET in the Southern province.
4. And so, at the end of this year our roads will part as the PAFP program is ending. But PAFP has
been with us from our recent beginnings and the future of TVET in Rwanda is bright. We have a clear
vision for our country and the drive to make it a reality. We thank our Belgian partners for their
contribution and for sharing their experiences with us. It is through such an exchange that we can
reflect upon practices and come up with improvements and innovations.
It is my pleasure and great honor to officially declare this first day of the International TVET Symposium
closed. We thank you for having shared these diverse experiences and hope it has been as enriching
for you as it has for me. We know we need to invest in TVET for youth employment and economic
growth, but today we have gotten different examples of how this can be done effectively.
Let me thank you and invite you back tomorrow for a second day of exchanges! Thank you!



Symposium Day 2 Wednesday October 7th 2015

Mr. Sam Barigye
Coordinator Hospitality and Tourism Training
Focal Person Adolescent Girls Initiative AGI Project (World Bank funded)
Workforce Development Authority (WDA)
The Master of Ceremony looked back at the findings from the previous day. After this he introduced
the program of the second day and the persons giving the opening remarks of the second day.

Opening Remarks by the BTC Country Representative

Mr. Benot Piret
Country Representative
Belgian Development Agency (BTC)
Bonjour tous, chers participants ce symposium
Cest un grand plaisir pour moi douvrir cette deuxime journe du symposium sur le TVET organis par
le WDA et la Coopration belge.
Lobjectif du symposium est triple :

partager les expriences du terrain issues de 3 Provinces du Rwanda,

identifier les bonnes pratiques (et les moins bonnes pratiques)
formuler des recommandations dans une logique de rtroaction vers le niveau central, au
bnfice du secteur de lEducation et la Formation Technique et Professionnelle et de ses

Ce symposium international est un moment fort de communication (et de visibilit), de mise en rseau
et surtout de partage de connaissances.
Le partage de connaissances est une priorit pour la CTB et tous ses partenaires et nous nous sommes
fiers davoir relev ce dfi collectif, qui saligne parfaitement avec les priorits du Ministre dEtat et du
sous-secteur TVET.
Le partage des connaissances permet de faire germer des ides, didentifier des solutions, afin
dadapter nos actions aux ralits qui sont en volution permanente.
Je suis certain que les visites de terrain de lundi pass et la premire journe de discussion de hier
auront dj inspir beaucoup des participants.
Ces trois jours rassemblent un grand nombre dacteurs dorigines et de professions diffrentes autour
dun mme objectif qui est de contribuer une meilleure qualit du TVET qui doit servir au
dveloppement humain et conomique dun pays.
La CTB ne peut quinsister sur limportance :


une bonne coordination entre les nombreux acteurs, sous le pilotage du WDA,
une rflexion encore plus approfondie sur lassurance de la maintenance et de lutilisation
efficiente des nombreux nouveaux quipements
la participation du secteur priv.

Puisque le PAFP sera cltur trs prochainement, un petit regard en arrire simpose. Un premier
symposium du mme type de celui daujourdhui avait t facilit par PAFP au moment de son
dmarrage en 2010.
Ce symposium est pilot par le Ministre dEtat, dj prsent lpoque comme DG du WDA
nouvellement cr. Je saisis loccasion de cette nouvelle dition pour saluer particulirement, en plus
de Monsieur le Ministre, trois collgues qui ont fortement contribu la naissance de lide du
programme commun : je nomme ainsi Georges Lenain, ancien AT lAPEFE, Niels De Block AT la
VVOB dans la Province du Sud et Sophie Waterkeyn, ancienne coordinatrice de Educaid, plateforme
Education en Belgique tous trois peuvent apprcier aujourdhui le chemin parcouru.
Merci donc ces 3 personnes ainsi quau Directeur de lintervention Mr Gdon Rudahunga qui a
accompagn les interventions en particulier Kavumu, ainsi qu Anne-Pierre Mingelbier, qui a
accompagn le programme depuis Bruxelles, comme programme officer la reprsentation et enfin
comme program co-manager pour la dernire phase de lintervention.
Je veux aussi remercier toute lquipe du PAFP, trs diverse, organisatrice efficace de ce symposium :

lassistance technique qui a fourni un effort particulier pour produire des supports de
capitalisation depuis plusieurs mois le programme a produit 2 booklets, 2 working papers, 2
vidos, toutes les prsentations techniques disponibles sur la cl USB distribues ce matin)
le staff dappui qui assure dans lombre, avec beaucoup de professionnalisme les invitations,
les inscriptions, la logistique, la communication et bien dautres choses.
la task force du WDA qui prend note de toutes les recommandations des diverses sessions,
sous la direction de Monsieur le professeur Mwangi

Je les invite aussi se lever pour un applaudissement chaleureux.

Je terminerai en vous remerciant pour avoir rpondu prsent et pour votre participation attentive et
conviviale. Jespre que les changes daujourdhui viendront complter utilement les
recommandations finales qui seront adresses tout lheure lattention des ministres.


Opening Remarks by the Director General of WDA

Mr. Jerome Gasana
Director General
Workforce Development Authority (WDA)
Today is in every way a special day in the life of TVET. It is distinctive in the great number of experts
represented here. It is unique in the range of diverse backgrounds and nations represented here today.
The broad rich of representation in todays meeting matches the importance of TVET as a focus of
interest in this symposium. In many instances, TVET is viewed as a vehicle with the ability to transform
livelihoods and wholescale national economies. It is the one instrument for social transformation that
has the potential to reach every strata of the society in a country, equipping them with employable
Such tremendous potential notwithstanding, TVET remains a recent phenomenon to our relatively
youthful country. There is much that is not understood in TVET. There are considerable challenges
that implementers of TVET confront on a day-to-day basis. One can safely assume that these
challenges bear a common thread and have been encountered in different times and forms many
nations. Unknown to individual nations, partial and in some instances complete solutions to these
challenges may have been developed in other nations. And therefore the need for this symposium and
its drive to bring you all together to share experiences and to derive lessons that will ease the
challenges of implementing TVET.
Yesterdays plenary and working sessions probed the three themes of Linking with private sector,
implementing CBT/CBA and Management leadership and cross cutting issues in 9 working sessions.
Critical focus was given to access, quality and relevance, strategic anchors of a good TVET. As such the
participants deliberated on ways of building a more inclusive TVET in terms of participation and reach.
In such a TVET all stakeholders, both public and private would have a say in, would invest in and would
be involved in. Fundamental considerations and options of work based learning, appropriate
pedagogy and trainer upgrading, informal and non-formal TVET options, demand-driven or market led
curricula, school management systems and appropriate financing mechanisms for TVET took center
stage in the working sessions.
Discussions in the working sessions build consensus on common challenges that confront the TVET
system. Participants also volunteered solutions to these challenges while ascribing responsibility
among the policy makers, the private sector, development partners and TVET providers. Much was
achieved in Day 1 and we closed on a high, expectant note.
It is on this same positive and expectant that I wish to usher in discussion today in the plenary and
working sessions. Let us join up to give passionate attention to another six areas of focus that
transverse entrepreneurship, competency based training in agriculture, private sector participation in
TVET, the logistics of rolling out competency based assessment and such other concerns. More
solutions are bound to emerge. We will have developed these answers together. At the close of these
sessions we expect to all come out of these forums as winners, equipped with invaluable ideas to
improve TVET in all our nations, institutions and areas of work.
I wish you stimulating discussions. Welcome one and all!!!


Plenary Session 2: National Quality Reforms in TVET Country Testimonies

Mr. Theodore Habimana
Director TVET Training
Workforce Development Authority (WDA)
The objective of the second plenary session and first session of the second day of the TVET Symposium
was to share information about National Quality Reforms in TVET in different countries with the
international audience.
The moderator of this session was Theodore HABIMANA, Director of TVET Training from WDA, he was
both moderator as well as presenter of the Rwandan country situation. The panel as composed of the
following country representatives:

Ms. Hermionne LEONARD, Programme Director, Haiti

Mr. Osama ESHTAYEH, Director General TVET, Ministry of Education and Higher Education,
Mr. Blondin MUKWEY, TVET Expert, DRC
Mr. James Mugerwa Assistant Commissioner TVET, Ministry of Education, Science, Technology
and Sports, Uganda

These county experiences from of five countries (Rwanda, Haiti, Palestine, DRC, Uganda) were to be
presented using four guiding questions:
1. What TVET reforms have taken place in your country (Policy, legal and institutional level,
reference/guides: occupational standards)?
2. What do you judge to be the major pillars of your TVET system?
3. What is the role of the private sector in the planning and the delivery of TVET in your country?
4. What are the main challenges of your current TVET system? (e.g. access, quality,
(de)centralization, etc.)

Firstly, Mr. Theodore Habimana presented the Rwandan context of TVET Reforms. He explained that
the TVET system in Rwanda is very young. The first TVET policy was developed in April 2008. This was
inspired on Vision 2020, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), EDPRS and the first education
sector strategic plan. The main recommendation from this policy was the development of an
institution to coordinate TVET. This led to the creation of WDA in 2009. Its mandate is to coordinate
all TVET related activities in the country. Five IPRCs were developed as branches of WDA in every
As an approach to build a demand-driven TVET system, Competency-Based Training and Assessment
was chosen. This led to the development of occupational standards in different sectors. New training
models have been piloted, and an industry based training and skills development fund have been
developed in collaboration with World Bank.


The TVET policy of 2008 did not tackle all of the problems. A new TVET policy, TVET Strategy and a
workplace learning policy were all adopted in September 2015 showing the great momentum in the
TVET sub sector. With the last policy a step was made for TVET to be not only be taught in schools, but
also in the industry.
To measure the employability of TVET graduates and the satisfaction level of the private sector with
the graduates a tracer survey is conducted every year. Mr. Habimana pointed out some of the
remaining challenges for the TVET system in Rwanda. He recommended improving the pathways
within the RTQF. He pointed out that suitable training facilities and equipment are still insufficient
compared to the needs of the country in rolling out the CBT/CBA approach. Capacities still need to be
built in all levels of the system. Finally, as in many other countries TVET still suffers from an image
problem. Awareness of the public at large (including prospective students and families) should be
raised on the attractiveness of TVET for youth employment.
The second speaker was the representative from Haiti. She explained in French what the situation was
like in Haiti using the guiding questions to structure the information.
1. What TVET reforms have taken place in your country (Policy, legal and institutional level,
reference/guides: occupational standards)?

Le Plan Oprationnel (PO) 2010-2015, issu des Recommandations du Groupe de travail sur
l'ducation et la formation de 2010, dont le mandat tait de proposer un pacte national sur
lducation et la formation devant orienter le systme ducatif pour les 20 25 prochaines
annes, se fixe comme objectif premier la refondation du secteur aprs le sisme du 12 janvier
2010 et propose des actions entreprendre pour relever les nombreux dfis auxquels est
confront le secteur.
Le PO est organis en neuf axes dintervention et couvre la gouvernance gnrale du systme,
la reforme curriculaire et des programmes, la formation et le perfectionnement des cadres, la
petite enfance et la gratuit scolaire, le nouveau secondaire de quatre ans, la formation
professionnelle pour la consolidation et lextension du rseau des centres et des
tablissements de formation, la modernisation de lenseignement suprieur, la rhabilitation
et le renforcement des services ducatifs offerts aux enfants et aux jeunes vivant avec un
handicap et lradication de lanalphabtisme.
La politique nationale a ensuite t traduite en une stratgie, organise selon les mmes
grandes orientations et les traduisant en 6 grands programmes :
o Renforcement des ressources humaines et de la pertinence des programmes de
formation technique et professionnelle
o Accroissement de loffre de formation technique et professionnelle dans les centres
de formation publics et privs et travers un dispositif dapprentissage rnov et
o Rdaction et application du cadre national des certifications favorable la mobilit,
au parcours professionnel tout au long de la vie et la reconnaissance par les
employeurs des titres dlivrs
o Dveloppement des capacits organisationnelles, institutionnelles et partenariales du
systme de formation technique et professionnelle
o Financement de la formation technique et professionnelle


Promotion des actions pour linsertion des sortants du systme de FTP.

2. What do you judge to be the major pillars of your TVET system?

Le dcret de mars 1985 crant lINFP comme organe recteur de lETFP en Hati
La cration du BSEFP en 2012 par dcret prsidentiel pour donner une perspective la FTP.
La Loi sur la Politique et stratgie nationale de lETFP en cours de validation par le Parlement.
Un nouveau modle de gestion des centres de formation professionnelle (CFP) (normes et
procdures de gestion des ressources matrielles, financires, humaines et pdagogiques) qui
vient dtre valid par lINFP, les Chambres de commerce et les principaux acteurs de lETFP.
Ce modle pilote comprend un lien important entre les CFP et les entreprises.

3. What is the role of the private sector in the planning and the delivery of TVET in your country?

March informel plus de 80% ;

Absence de relation tablie entre les CFP et les entreprises avec comme consquence entre
autres les difficults trouver un lieu de stage pour les finissants.
Depuis quelques annes (environ 5 ans) un effort est fait dans ce sens : invitation des
reprsentants de la Chambre de commerce dHati des crmonies et runions de travail
avec lINFP et les oprateurs de lETFP.
Un Conseil de Concertation en FTP a t cr par le projet PCV-Canada dans la Province du
Sud-Est de manire mettre ensemble lINFP et les entreprises. Cette exprience pilote nest
pas encore gnralise dans tout le pays.

4. What are the main challenges of your current TVET system? (E.g. access, quality, (de)centralization,

L'accs universel et gratuit l'ducation de base reprsente un norme dfi en Hati et figure
parmi les priorits du gouvernement. Il est possible d'observer une relative amlioration du
taux net de frquentation au fondamental 1 et 2 (primaire), qui, selon le lenqute
dmographique et de sant de 2012, serait pass de 65% en 1996-1997 77 % en 2010-2011.
Ces progrs en matire d'accs l'ducation sont au cur de l'effort national.
La Prsidence de la Rpublique a lanc un important programme de scolarisation universelle
et gratuite (PSUGO) financ par le budget de l'tat, des apports externes (bailleurs de fonds)
et un dispositif de prlvement sur les transferts et les appels tlphoniques entrants. Ce
programme a le mrite de s'attaquer la question de laccs lducation de base, mais ne
couvre pas les aspects plus structurels concernant la qualit de l'enseignement et l'efficacit
du systme scolaire dans son ensemble, pour lequel des investissements bien plus importants
et la mise en place d'une stratgie de rforme sont ncessaires.
Le sous-secteur de la formation professionnelle souffre aussi de graves carences (dfis
relever), notamment en matire
o d'infrastructures manquantes,
o d'enseignants qualifis,


d'une adquate liaison avec le march du travail. Environ 60% de la population active
est touche par le chmage ou le sous-emploi. Dans un contexte o lemploi est peu
accessible, le travail formel ne contribue que faiblement aux revenus des foyers. Les
transferts dargent des hatiens rsidants ltranger reprsentent le principal filet
social contre la pauvret (entre 20% et 25% du PIB). Le march du travail hatien est
fortement asymtrique. La disponibilit de main d'uvre qualifie est trop faible par
rapport aux besoins. Ce dsquilibre est un obstacle supplmentaire la politique du
gouvernement qui viserait encourager les investissements nationaux et trangers.

The next speaker was the representative from Palestine. He gave the following information on his
countrys situation. He said that the situation of TVET in Palestine is very similar to that of Rwanda. In
fact, there was a reform of the TVET sector in 1994. This was done after the Oslo agreement with
Israel. TVET is a responsibility of the national authorities of Palestine. There is a national strategy which
unites all stakeholders of TVET in Palestine. This strategy focuses on a system which is unified,
effective, flexible, and sustainable. The focus has to be on lifelong learning. The system is a modular
system. He explained that they are also using the CBT approach. More than 16 programs have been
developed in different fields by using this approach.
Involvement of the private sector is very important. The implication of the private sector in TVET is
organized in the form of public-private partnerships.
Palestine collaborates with the Belgian Technical Cooperation to improve the TVET sector. This is done
by focusing on establishing and implementing a work-based learning approach. They are in the process
of developing a roadmap which combines different initiatives. More than 30 initiatives have been
formalized to tackle problems on all levels of the TVET system, and work with all types of institutions
working in TVET.
Finally, the representative from Palestine, highlighted some of the challenges they are facing in
Palestine. One of them is the fragmentation of the TVET system. This is because TVET is under the
umbrella of different ministries. For this problem, a solution was offered by the speaker, to propose a
new management structure where all ministries which are involved in TVET are present, including the
main donors. More than 12 thematic working groups which are working on thematic issues, for
example on M&E, qualifications, communications, labor market linkage, etc.

After this intervention, the next panelist took the floor to present the situation in DRC. Mr. Mukwey
explained that the TVET system in DRC is currently looking at informal education and industrial
attachment. The legal structure is very complicated because as many as seven ministries are involved
in TVET. The legal framework is based on the vision defined in the second generation of the DRCs
EDPRS. At the moment the strategy for education is being finalized and a strategy for TVET is being
put together, this will cover the period 2016-2025. Other policy documents guiding TVET which have
been developed are a sub sectoral strategy and a primary, secondary and professional training action
plan 2012-2016. A new sectoral strategy is planned for 2016.


The strategy focuses on lifelong learning and girls training. At this moment 19% of the students in
secondary education are in TVET. To improve the TVET subsector, new resource centers have been
created and consultation committees have been organized. This reunites the main stakeholders,
including donors and technical partners.
As the private sector is playing a role in TVET, they are represented in a TVET commission. The sectoral
strategic plan indicates that every institution can be part of the TVET system. Finally, to end his address
the speaker represented some major challenges they are facing in the DRC regarding TVET. For
example, the goal is to go from 19 % to 45% of the students enrolled in TVET in 2025. To ensure this
is possible a proper infrastructure needs to be built. TVET schools have to be more accessible and
closer to the learners. Another issue, concerns the participation of girls due to stereotypes. There is
an important lack of participation of girls in TVET. Furthermore, there is the problem of quality. The
teachers are not well trained. More emphasis has to be put on the quality of teaching, the accessibility
and the link of curriculum development with private sector needs. The DRC has also chosen to adopt
the competency-based approach to TVET and it is currently being tested in some pilot schools. It
should now be implemented in more and more schools. Mr. Mukwey explained that they organize
inspection of TVET schools implementation of the CB approach, but that it is still very limited. Finally,
there is the need for decentralization. Considering the sheer size of the country and the fact that seven
ministries are responsible for TVET, excellent coordination is needed.

The next and final speaker, was the representative from Uganda presenting the Ugandan TVET System.
He explained that the in Uganda, several reforms have taken place in education and in TVET in
particular. In the past the approach was based on classroom instruction. A paradigm shift took place,
which led to an approach which is based on skills and competences which are relevant for the labor
market. The speaker explained that they are coming from a school-based system, where the
government was the sole provider of TVET but that currently private initiatives are budding. Some of
the challenges mentioned by the Ugandan representative were that of change management, of rolling
out the strategy in the whole country, and of lack of appropriate equipment and infrastructure.
At the end of the presentations and some exchanges, Mr. Habimana wrapped up the first plenary
session of the second day.

Working Session 10: Entrepreneurship Skills Development: Beyond Skills

Development to Accompaniment in Business Start-Up
Mr. Steve Kamanzi
Chief of Party of the USAID Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods Project in Rwanda
Education Development Center (EDC)
This session organized by EDC, USAID Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods project, set out to showcase
how to integrate entrepreneurship training into existing TVET modules, to share testimonies from
graduates of Work Readiness on how the Advanced Entrepreneurship and income generating
activities (IGA) training make graduates better entrepreneurs. Some of the activities of the
entrepreneurship and IGA curriculums were also shared. Finally the link between entrepreneurship


training, IGAs and Savings and Internal Lending Communities (SILC) was described. Youth employment
is a learning outcome of quality TVET and this can be either self-employment or employment in a
public or private company. In both cases there is a need for certain entrepreneurship skills that help
graduates make a smooth transition to the labor market.
This session was co-facilitated by Mr. Steve Kamanzi and Ms. Anne-Marie Mukarugambwa. It included
an introductory presentation, testimonies from Akazi Kanoze entrepreneurs, and a Q&A session.
Some of the challenges that were captured during the presentation and discussions, were the
following. Access to finance and startup capital (collateral) is not easy for TVET graduates. In order for
them to acquire hands-on skills in entrepreneurship they should be accompanied in the process of
starting up a business which includes finding funding. SILC can provide a particular solution for this
problem of startup capital. There is also a need for a certain mindset of youth in order to achieve
success in building entrepreneurship skills. Finally, school managers should also have notions of
entrepreneurship and understand the importance of entrepreneurial training for it to be properly
integrated into teaching and learning activities. The session arrived at the following recommendations.

Recommendations from working session 10

1. Use small groups of youth (through Savings and Internal Lending Communities - SILC) in
order to address access to startup capital
2. Mainstream coaching through curriculum and include training of school managers on
3. Customized support programs (an agri-business entrepreneur will have different needs
than an ICT entrepreneur) are needed.

Working Session 11: Competency-Based Training: The pillar of Agricultural technical

training programs reform for better TVET in Rwanda
Mr. Antoine Ciza
Technical Assistant Agriculture and Food Processing
Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP)/ APEFE
The principle objectives of this working session were to share PAFP experiences in the development
of competency-based curricula for the various trades in the Agriculture sector, to draw lessons learned
about their experimentation and national roll-out with the final objective of formulating
recommendations and actions to progress with the agricultural TVET reform in Rwanda.
This session was facilitated by Mr. Antoine Ciza, Technical Assistant Agriculture and Food Processing
from PAFP. There was a panel with the following experts, Mr. Jean Marie Vianney MUHIRE, Head of
Curriculum Development from WDA, Mr. Faradji GAHUNGU, Technical Assistant Veterinary from


PAFP, Mr. Felix NTAHONTUYE from the WDA Curriculum Development Unit, Ms. Agnes UMUTONI
from Kinazi TSS, and Ms. Primitive UMUTONIWASE from Kabutare TSS.
Mr. MUHIRE presented the WDA Curriculum Development Manual. He showed the importance of this
curriculum development manual and the importance of demand-drive and market responsive
curricula. A demand driven curriculum is one of the factors which can boost the economic situation of
a country. He mentioned all the steps involved in developing and experimenting a curriculum before
its implementation. The next speaker was Mr. Faradji GAHUNGU who related the PAFP experience in
developing competency-based agricultural curricula. He described the different steps in the process
that PAFP has covered and where it is now in terms of developed, experimented and implemented
agricultural curricula. He explained the difference between the previous system and the new system
of CBT/CBA Approach which is learner centered. Using a SWOT analysis that was done with
stakeholders in this PAFP agricultural curriculum development process he illustrated some of the
successful and less successful experiences from the program.
The two trainers on the panel, Ms. Agnes Umutoni and Ms. Primitive Umutoniwase, presented their
schools experience with the PAFP support. The new system has brought about a lot of change
compared to how agricultural trades were previously taught. They shared that through this support
and with time, all trainees are now feeling confident to participate in the learning activities. For them
the CBT/CBA approach has great advantages and so many opportunities even for the schools. The
trainers showed the importance of the regular coaching by PAFP technical Assistants and the PAFP
support in availing learning materials and consumables for the model crops fields, the ambulatory
veterinary clinic, etc. The schools are implementing the curricula of level 3 and level 4 in Crop
Production, Forestry and Animal Health, but unfortunately PAFP will not participate in the
implementation of the Level 5 curricula as the program is soon ending.
From the discussions the following challenges were drawn. Despite the ongoing change to
competency-based TVET in agriculture, there are still challenges of large numbers of students in a
classroom. The new approach requires sufficient infrastructure, equipment and training materials
(consumables) which are costly. It has been difficult to fully engage the private sector in this curriculum
development, experimentation and implementation process. In this context below recommendations
were made.

Recommendations from working session 11

1. Different partners should share resources (PSF and various TVET providers) in order to
efficiently use existing infrastructure, equipment and training materials (consumables).
2. Well-functioning production units in agricultural TVET schools could enrich the curriculum
and support the communities in the vicinity of these schools.
3. There is a need for more technical training of trainers on specific topics included in the


Working Session 12: How do we organize TVET Provision?

Mr. Cees Riny
Education Advisor at Euroconsult Mott MacDonald/ BMB Mott MacDonald
NICHE Program (Nuffic)
This session set out to sensitize practitioners in the field of TVET in Rwanda and abroad on other ways
of organizing TVET provision, to provoke and open minds in order to come up with some new ideas
for the future of skills development in Rwanda and abroad.
The session was facilitated by Mr. Cees Riny from Nuffic/Mott MacDonald and took the form of an
interactive presentation with different exercises or quiz questions at various intervals to tap the
experience and opinions of the audience.
Some of the challenges and questions that were either brought up by Mr. Cees Riny or by the
practitioners in the audience were the following. Firstly, the question Are our TVET schools fit for
purpose? TVET schools seem more based on traditional classroom-based root-learning than on
skills development. The implementation of CBT does not seem to go hand-in-hand with changes in
school organization and school design. In order to make TVET schools more flexible and geared to skills
development one should organize them around the offer of modules (practical competencies) either
as stand-alone blocks of learning, grouped in short courses or as part of full qualifications (e.g.
certificates or diplomas) and introduce an open access policy (breaking down the walls between
formal, non-formal and informal TVET). This was a very provocative stance from the facilitator and
participants were more inclined to take on a gradual approach.
Mr. Riny continued his case, with a further point: to focus the mandate and operations of TVET schools
on skills development (offer of modules) they should be reorganized or structured into Regional Skills
Development Centers (RSDCs) with Labor Market Units (LMUs) to increase the relevance to the local
economy and skills gaps. The regional in the speakers conception of these centers was not to be
confused with a supra-national region (e.g. East Africa) but rather a region within the country like a
province. Finally, the Mr. Riny stressed that there is an urgent need to improve the communication
with school designers and ensure a design of schools/centers that will better facilitate skills
development and learners involvement. The number of traditional classrooms can be reduced in
favor of more workshops and rooms with flexible work stations (for projects) and sitting arrangements
for small groups inside (reception area, corridors, etc.) and outside (e.g. thatched shelters). Rooms
should also be equipped with storage space for equipment and students products and ample sockets
for electricity use.
In light of the arguments advanced, the following recommendations were prepared.


Recommendations from working session 12

1. Set up a national database with the latest versions of ALL module specifications that can
be easily accessed (e.g. WDA web-site) by TVET providers, curriculum developers, the
labor market and the public at large and that can be used to develop new qualifications,
design short courses or offer stand-alone modules. The database is to be maintained by
2. A hybrid system should be put in place. TVET providers are to give less importance to a
class-based systems based on fixed entry and exit points and more emphasis on a more
flexible system based on the offer of modules which can be part of formal qualifications,
short courses or stand-alone modules open to heterogeneous groups (formal, non-formal
and informal TVET)) creating a system with more flexible entry and exit points.
3. Integrate TVET providers/schools in Skills Development Centers (SDCs) and offer a suit of
modules relevant to the local economy/community that are well publicized and open to
the formal, non-formal and informal skills sector. Establish Labor Market Units (LMUs) in
all SDCs to ensure relevance in skills development to current and future needs of the labor
market in the region.
4. Improve the communication between designers of TVET schools/centers and CBT
implementers to ensure a learning environment that is more enabling and conducive to
the implementation of CBT (skills training, small group work, practical activities) and the
promotion of more active learning methods. This also applies to the purchase of furniture
and equipment.

Working Session 13: Involving the private sector in Skills Development

Mr. Rob van de Gevel
Team Leader/ Education Advisor at Euroconsult Mott MacDonald/ BMB Mott MacDonald
NICHE Program (Nuffic)
This working session set out to share experiences and opinions on the involvement of the private
sector in skills development with practitioners involved in TVET School Management and Industry. It
served to create awareness about best practices of sustainable and innovative ways of private sector
involvement in skills development. Lessons were to be drawn about conditions or prerequisites for an
enabling environment for successful and sustainable private sector involvement in skills development
in Rwanda on the one hand; and the different roles and responsibilities of Government, Private Sector
and Training Providers in establishing stable social partnership arrangements on the other hand.
Finally, recommendations would be made for the creation of such an enabling environment for
successful and sustainable private sector involvement in skills development.


The main speaker and facilitator of this working session was Mr. Rob van de Gevel from Nuffic/ Mott
MacDonald. Mr. Tony Rutayisire from Tumba College of Technology was also a speaker during this
As comparative studies of successful TVET systems in various countries show, performing TVET
systems exist in countries that succeed in meaningfully involving the private sector in TVET. The
speaker created awareness about this by looking at the critical success factors involved and discussing
a framework for an enabling environment for private sector involvement. After an initial presentation
of the topic by Mr. Van de Gevel, Mr. Rutayisire presented the Tumba College of Technology (TCT)
case. After the case study, the participants were engaged in an interactive session (role play) to
establish the different expectations, interests, concerns and resistance of various stakeholders in
relation to private sector involvement in skills development.
The presentations and exchanges highlighted these challenges. There is often a reluctance of the
private sector to get involved in TVET skills development. Another issue, may be that trained staff are
easily headhunted by the private sector as they can offer more competitive salaries. The
recommendations derived from this working session are listed below.

Recommendations from working session 13

1. There is a need for a National Transformation agenda for TVET and skills development in
many countries.
2. In countries where this is not yet the case, there is a need to establish sustainable
structures at local, national and regional levels bringing together private companies,
training providers, and government for relevant market-responsive skills development.

Working Session 14: Roadmap to Roll-out: How to scale up competency-based

assessments in Rwanda
Ms. Aline Filiot
Technical Assistant Assessment Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP)
Country Manager APEFE
The purpose of working session 14 was to showcase what was being done at the various levels of the
TVET subsector in Rwanda regarding competency-based assessment and how these experiences could
inform how to go about a national scale-up. Participants were divided into smaller groups and guided
around the conference area where they could visit different workstation showing different levels in
CBA implementation (micro, meso, and macro levels).
The overall facilitator of this safari working session was Ms. Aline Filiot from PAFP/APEFE with
support from tour guides Mr. Wilson Muyenzi from WDA, Mr. Nicolas Kalisa from Gishari Integrated
Polytechnic, Ms. Rita Clmence Mutabazi from IPRC East, Ms. Rehema Mukankubito from WDA and
Mr. Didier Bigirumwami from IPRC South.


The workstations were set up as follows. The first micro station was manned by two trainees, two
trainers, and one development partner (EDC AK). Here visitors could look at trainee portfolios, trainee
booklets, and hand-outs of sample integrated assessments. At the second micro station two school
managers and one deputy-school manager in charge of training, showed sample organization and
procurement tools, videos of assessment, pictures of assessments before and after CBA
implementation with PAFP support, and a hand-out was shared on the cost of assessment. At the third
workstation, the so-called meso station, there were an IPRC South staff member and two external
assessors from the private sector who shared sample training materials and a hand-out with a training
program for external assessors. There was a fourth workstation showcasing an alternative approach
and tools for CBA like the one used by Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald. Finally, the last, macro station was
manned by WDA staff from the Curriculum Development unit and the Examination unit as well as a
member of staff from EDC Akazi Kanoze. What was shared here was the assessment manual along
with hand-outs with sample module assessment guidelines.
Some of the challenges that were discussed at the different workstations were the following. It is a
huge challenge to provide enough consumables for CBT/CBA. This is where financing mechanisms for
TVET come in to play. Furthermore, CBA takes much more time as it requires individual assessment
and a variety of internal and external assessors who also need to be trained. How to make a portfolio
for specific modules is not well understood in most of the TVET schools, so further guidance is needed
in this area. Some schools are not implementing CBT/CBA because they lack the basic infrastructures,
equipment and trained human resources to do so. The involvement of assessors from the private
sector was much appreciated but up until now it requires the payment of an expert fee, which is a
significant barrier for using such assessors on a long-term basis for most of our TVET schools. The
competency-based training and assessment approach used in Rwanda so far, focuses mainly on
students technical skills and lacks indicators on knowledge and attitudes, when attitude and soft skills
are a main area in which the private sector is not satisfied with TVET graduates.

Recommendations from working session 14

1. Thought should be put into a financing mechanism (production units, selected centers
only, etc.) and strategy before implementing CBT/CBA and Train school managers about
CBT/CBA so they include it in their vision and promote it.
2. Select schools where minimum conditions are met for implementing CBT/CBA; for other
schools focus on meeting the minimum requirements first.
3. There is a need for more coaching sessions and M&E of quality in schools by regular school


Working Session 15: The operationalization of a joint program

Ms. Sophie Waterkeyn
Education Expert
Belgian Development Agency (BTC) Head Office
The objective of this session was to share lessons of a joint program uniting several technical and
financial partners using the PAFP case (history and process). In a lot of countries and contexts there is
a need for more synergy between different technical cooperation agencies and NGOs to ensure that
development funding is used more effectively and to avoid duplications and waste. This is a need
expressed by both funding agencies as well as by governments of supported countries, because of
increasing pressure on budgets. Inefficacies and duplications are to be avoided and more and more
synergy should be sought after to achieve maximum impact.
Ms. Sophie Waterkeyn, Education Expert from the BTC Head Office, was the facilitator of this session.
Different members of the PAFP staff were involved in sharing testimonies about the history and
functioning of this joint program, such as the Director of Intervention from PAFP, etc.
Some of the challenges that were highlighted by the speakers, were the following. Firstly, the
harmonization of finances and the effective management of human resources is difficult in a joint
program as different procedures apply and different responsible persons are involved. Sometimes
compromises have to be made. Secondly, in this program the involvement of political and institutional
actors was at times insufficient or unclear. How can a joint program ensure a joint effort with equal
involvement? Finally, a synergy should be more than three or more organizations working together in
one program, it should be a real merge both in content and in administration to reap the fruits of a
joint structure. Perhaps in PAFP, the synergy and complementarity in activities was much further
evolved, than the synergy in procedures (financial, human resources, logistics, etc.). The above
reflections led to the formulation of the below recommendations for organizations and countries
interested in starting similar joint programs.

Recommendations from working session 15

1. In development programming it is crucial to collaborate with other stakeholders working
in the same sector in order to find synergies.
2. A clear vision of the national partner involved is needed to guide a joint program
3. It is important to share experiences and good practices between stakeholders and to
synergize mutual funds for maximum impact.


Plenary Session 3: Looking back, looking forward: Sharing recommendations

Mr. Albert Nsengiyumva
Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET in Rwanda
Three expert speakers:

Mr. Steve KAMANZI, Chief of party Akazi Kanoze USAID (EDC), for the theme:
1 Linking TVET with the Private Sector - Hands-on Skills for the Labor Market
Mr. Paul UMUKUNZI , Vice Principal Academics IPRC-S, for the theme:
2 Towards a Competency-Based Approach - Implementing CBT/CBA
Pascal GATABAZI , Principal of Tumba College of Technology, for the theme:
3 Leading the Change - Managing TVET

Guests of honor:

Hon. Minister Inna Chaibou DAN, Niger

Hon. Minister Narciso Damasio dos SANTOS BENEDITO, Angola
Hon. Minister M. Salifou DEMBELE, Burkina Faso
Hon. Minister Autlwetse Kenneth KGOTLA, Botswana
Hon. Minister M. Benjamina Ramarcel RAMANANTSOA, Madagascar
Hon. Minister Saku S. DUKULY, Liberia

This session served to wrap up the International TVET Symposium. The Master of Ceremony invited
the Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET who was to moderate this final plenary session as well as
the visiting Ministers to take seats on the stage. Three experts were then called forward to read out
the challenges and recommendations from the working sessions on each of the three themes to the
distinguished guests among which Honorable Ministers of TVET or Education from various countries
and senior TVET experts attending the African Ministerial Conference on Technical and Vocational
Skills Development the next day.
Below are the general challenges and recommendations, followed by the challenges and
recommendations per theme.




1 Linking TVET with the Private Sector - Hands-on Skills for the Labor Market



2 Towards a Competency-Based Approach - Implementing CBT/CBA




3 Leading the Change - Managing TVET





Closing Remarks by H.E. the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium

Mr. Arnout Pauwels
H.E. the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium to Rwanda
1. First of all, thank you for allowing me to say a few words on this occasion. I am much honored to
be here for the closure of the TVET Symposium. Colleagues have attended the different sessions and I
am very happy to hear that the sessions were very interesting, even animated and that the symposium
was a real opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, best practices and a way to learn from others.
Thank you to all the participants for their contribution to the Symposium.
2. As said during my opening remarks, education is essential for a country and TVET plays a key role
in the socio-economic development of a country. The number of participants at the Symposium shows
the importance of the TVET sector across the world.
3. We all know the close link between TVET and the private sector and it has been one of the three
themes discussed during the symposium. Belgium would especially encourage stakeholders to find a
mechanism to allow students to do internships in private companies. Its a real asset for the students
but also for the companies as it allows them to transfer competencies and increase the quality of
human resources on the market.
4. During the first plenary session, the representative of NUFFIC mentioned passion as a key
element to succeed. You remember, he showed us his suit. Its true, passion is crucial, and I am
convinced that integrating students in real work life (e.g. internships in private companies) is an
element that can contribute to develop passion for the job. Belgium really encourages all stakeholders
to develop their network with the private sector and to work more closely for the benefit of everyone.
5. The initiative to encourage schools to develop production units is great. Some are well equipped
and can produce good quality products. We have seen some successes with production units. However,
other production units are having difficulties, due to, among others, a limited access to loans. We
would recommend to continue the support to the production units in order to enhance their selfreliance.
6. As mentioned at the opening of the symposium, Belgium is also active in the decentralization
sector. I insisted on the importance of integrating TVET priorities in District Development Plans.
Discussions among participants during the symposium have also raised the importance of ensuring
effective collaboration among all TVET stakeholders, including districts and sectors. Its a key element
in order to ensure the development of the TVET sector.
7. We all know leadership is vital. One of the recommendation that came up during the working
sessions is about establishing a system for qualification and certification for TVET school managers.
We encourage all governments to work towards such a system as good leadership will contribute to
better quality of education.
8. Tomorrow is the inter-ministerial conference. I am sure the work done during those two days will
be very useful for the discussions among ministers. Recommendations of the symposium will feed the
discussions of tomorrow. We commend Rwanda for having organized this symposium ahead of the


inter-ministerial conference. Indeed, its crucial to maintain the link between the field or the technical
level and the policy level.
9. Honorable Minister of State in charge of TVET, youve mentioned in your opening remarks the
HeforShe campaign. Allow me to join you to recall the importance of gender equality. Men and boys
should engage in removing social and cultural barriers that prohibit women and girls from achieving
their full potential.
10. In conclusion, let me again express my appreciation to all parties who contributed to this
symposium, especially the Belgian Common TVET Support Program, other Development Partners as
well as the WDA and the MINEDUC. Thank you for your commitment and involvement in this event!
11. Dear participants from across the world, let me thank you again for your active participation and
wish you all to share recommendations of this symposium with your colleagues in your respective
12. Honorable Minister of State, we all know the ambitious targets for the TVET sector in Rwanda. I
wish you all success to achieve the objectives in the TVET sector. Although the bilateral cooperation in
the TVET sector between the Government of Rwanda and the Kingdom of Belgium is ending soon due
to the Division of Labor, we will always remain very interested in the TVET sector and will continue to
follow up.
13. I am proud that my country is a close partner of the Government of Rwanda in its strong
commitment to social and economic transformation for the wellbeing of the population.
I thank you for your kind attention.
Murakoze cyane!

Closing Speech by the Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET

Mr. Albert Nsengiyumva
Hon. Minister of State in charge of TVET in Rwanda
The Minister thanked the participants and experts for the exchanges and contributions. He referred
back to the remarks about passion by the education expert from Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald. He
highlighted some important areas for focus in the future of TVET. The full speech is not available.




In summary, the TVET Symposium was very successful as can be concluded from the number of
participants (approximately 295 on day 1 and 345 on day 2). The fact that the second day saw even
more participants than the first day, is also a great indicator of success. Finally, participants at the
African Ministerial Conference the next day were very much interested in receiving the different
reference documents, presentations and this document of symposium proceedings which also
demonstrates great interest in the content that was shared with the participants.
It is the wish of the different parties involved in the organization of the knowledge management
process that preceded the TVET Symposium that the recommendations of all the working sessions as
well as the Knowledge Products in the form of working papers, booklets and video documentaries be
shared and used by practitioners, TVET experts and policy makers. It was clear from the exchanges
between national and international participants that similar issues exist in various countries and that
exchanging on approaches and best practices is relevant and necessary for improving the quality of
TVET delivery in Rwanda and abroad.

Editor: Lucy Schalkwijk


Annex 1: Links to Organizing Parties

Government of Rwanda: Ministry of Education

Workforce Development Authority (WDA)

Belgian Development Agency (BTC)

Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB)

Walloon Association for the Promotion of Education and Training Abroad (APEFE)

Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods Project, Rwanda (USAID/ EDC)

Nuffic/ Mott MacDonald



Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)


Annex 2: Belgian Common TVET Support Program (PAFP) Knowledge

Working Paper


Supporting TVET Reform in Rwanda

What Is the PAFP Approach?

Building School Leaders Capacities for Better

Quality TVET



Nikolaas Swyngedouw, Lucy Schalkwijk

Lucy Schalkwijk
Contributors: Juma Byagatonda, Gemma
Editor: Nikolaas Swyngedouw


Working Paper


PAFP Support to WDA Internship Programme:

How to Ensure a Qualitative Internship
Experience for TVET Trainees?

The Challenge of Agricultural TVET Reform

in Rwanda

Agnes Ammeux
Contributor: Minga Furaha
Editor: Nikolaas Swyngedouw

Antoine Ciza, Gahungu Faradji, Aline Filiot,
Nikolaas Swyngedouw


PAFP Video 1 Training on Site Chantier Formation

PAFP Video 2 Bridging the Gap from Traditional to Competency-Based