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e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. IV (Nov. - Dec. 2015), PP 70-82

www.iosrjournals.org

**Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing
**

Deformity in a Subclass of Biological Population

Anuj Kumar1, A.W. Khan1, A.K.Agrawal2

1

**(Department of Mathematics, Integral University, Lucknow, India)
**

2

(Department of Mathematics, Amity Univesity, Lucknow, India)

**Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed and analyzed a mathematical model to study the simultaneous effect
**

of two toxicants on a biological population, in which a subclass of biological population is severely affected and

exhibits abnormal symptoms like deformity, fecundity, necrosis, etc. On studying the qualitative behavior of

model, it is shown that the density of total population will settle down to an equilibrium level lower than the

carrying capacity of the environment. In the model, we have assumed that a subclass of biological population is

not capable in further reproduction and it is found that the density of this subclass increases as emission rates

of toxicants or uptake rates of toxicants increase. For large emission rates it may happen that the entire

population gets severely affected and is not capable in reproduction and after a time period all the population

may die out. The stability analysis of the model is determined by variational matrix and method of Lyapunov’s

function. Numerical simulation is given to illustrate the qualitative behavior of model.

Keywords: Biological species, Deformity, Mathematical model, Stability, Two toxicants.

AMS Classification – 93A30, 92D25, 34D20, 34C60

I.

Introduction

**The dynamics of effect of toxicants on biological species using mathematical models ([1], [2], [3], [4],
**

[5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11]) have been studied by many researchers. These studies have been carried out for

different cases such as: Rescigno ([9]) proposed a mathematical model to study the effect of a toxicant on a

biological species when toxicant is being produced by the species itself, Hallam et. al.([6], [7]) proposed and

analyzed a mathematical model to study the effect of a toxicant on the growth rate of biological species, Shukla

et. al. [11] proposed a model to study the simultaneous effect of two different toxicants, emitted from some

external sources, etc. In all of these studies, it is assumed that the toxicants affect each and every individual of

the biological species uniformly. But it is observed that some members of biological species get severely

affected by toxicants and show change in shape, size, deformity, etc. These changes are observed in the

biological species living in aquatic environment ([12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20]) and in

terrestrial environment, in plants ([21], [22]) and in animals ([23], [24], [25], [26]).

The study of such very important observable fact where a subclass of the biological species is

adversely affected by the toxicant and shows abnormal symptoms such as deformity, incapable in reproduction

etc. using mathematical models is very limited. Agrawal and Shukla [2] have studied the effect of a single

toxicant (emitted from some external sources) on a biological population in which a subclass of biological

population is severely affected and shows abnormal symptoms like deformity, fecundity, necrosis, etc. using

mathematical model. However, no study has been done for this phenomenon under the simultaneous effect of

two toxicants. Therefore, in this paper we have proposed a dynamical model to study the simultaneous effect of

two toxicants (both toxicants are constantly emitted from some external sources) on a biological species in

which a subclass of biological population is severely affected and shows abnormal symptoms like deformity,

fecundity, necrosis, etc.

II.

Mathematical Model

**We consider a logistically growing biological population with density 𝑁(𝑡) in the environment and
**

simultaneously affected by two different types of toxicants with environment concentrations 𝑇1 𝑡 and 𝑇2 (𝑡)

(both toxicants are constantly emitted in the environment at the rates 𝑄1 and 𝑄2 respectively, from some

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11647082

www.iosrjournals.org

70 | Page

𝑇2 𝑑𝑁𝐷 𝑟𝑁𝐷 𝑁 = 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 𝑁𝐴 − − 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝑁𝐷 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1 . (𝑖. 𝑁𝐴 𝑡 is the density of biological population which is capable in reproduction. 𝛽1 & 𝛽2 − the natural depletion rate coefficients of 𝑈1 and 𝑈2 respectively. 𝑇2 . 𝑇2 𝑑𝑇1 = 𝑄1 − 𝛿1 𝑇1 − 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 2. total density of logistically growing biological population 𝑁 is equal to the sum of density of biological population without deformity 𝑁𝐴 and with deformity 𝑁𝐷 . 𝑖. 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 & 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 ) 𝜋1 & 𝜋2 − the fractions of the depletion of 𝑈1 and 𝑈2 respectively due to decay of some members of 𝑁 which may reenter into the environment. 𝛿1 & 𝛿2 − the natural depletion rate coefficients of 𝑇1 and 𝑇2 respectively.iosrjournals. (𝑖. 𝑈𝑖 0 ≥ 𝑐𝑖 𝑁 0 .9790/5728-11647082 www. 𝛾1 & 𝛾2 − the depletion rate coefficients due to uptake by the population respectively.2 71 | Page . 𝑒. 𝑁 = 𝑁𝐴 + 𝑁𝐷 . 𝑟 − the growth rate of biological population in toxicants free environment. Keeping these views in mind. 𝑒.2 All the parameters used in the model (2. 𝑒. 𝑇𝑖 0 ≥ 0.1 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑇2 = 𝑄2 − 𝛿2 𝑇2 − 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁 + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑈1 = 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 − 𝛽1 𝑈1 − 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑈2 = 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁 − 𝛽2 𝑈2 − 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 𝑑𝑡 𝑁𝐴 0 . 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 & 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁) 𝜈1 & 𝜈2 − the depletion rate coefficients of 𝑈1 and 𝑈2 respectively due to decay of some members of 𝑁.1). 𝑇1 . the above system can be written in terms of 𝑁. 0 < 𝜋𝑖 < 1 for 𝑖 = 1. 𝑟1 & 𝑟2 − the decreasing rates of the growth rate associated with the uptakes of environmental concentration of toxicants 𝑇1 and 𝑇2 respectively. These toxicants are correspondingly uptaken by the biological population at different concentration rates 𝑈1 𝑡 and 𝑈2 𝑡 . 𝑁𝐷 0 ≥ 0.e. 𝑁𝐷 .1) are positive and defined as follows: 𝑏 − the birth rate of logistically growing biological population. 𝑇2 𝑑𝑇1 = 𝑄1 − 𝛿1 𝑇1 − 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑇2 = 𝑄2 − 𝛿2 𝑇2 − 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁 + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑈1 = 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 − 𝛽1 𝑈1 − 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑈2 = 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁 − 𝛽2 𝑈2 − 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 𝑑𝑡 DOI: 10.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… external sources). These toxicants decrease the growth rate of biological population as well as they also adversely affect a subclass of biological population with density 𝑁𝐷 (𝑡) and decay the capability of reproduction.org 2. 𝑟 = (𝑏 − 𝑑) 𝛼 − the decay rate of the deformed population due to high toxicity. 𝑐𝑖 > 0. 𝑇2 𝑑𝑁𝐷 𝑟𝑁𝐷 𝑁 = 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 (𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 ) − − 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝑁𝐷 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1 . i. 𝑖. 𝑒. we have proposed the following model: 𝑑𝑁𝐴 𝑟𝑁𝐴 𝑁 = 𝑏 − 𝑑 𝑁𝐴 − 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 𝑁𝐴 − 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1 . Here. 𝑑 − the death rate of logistically growing biological population. 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 & 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 In the above model (2. 𝑈1 and 𝑈2 as follows: 𝑑𝑁 𝑟𝑁 2 = 𝑟𝑁 − − 𝛼 + 𝑏 𝑁𝐷 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1 . So.

hence existence of 𝐸1 is not discussed. 𝑓1 𝑁 = 𝛿1 𝛽1 + 𝛾1 𝛽1 + 𝛿1 𝜈1 𝑁 + 𝛾1 𝜈1 1 − 𝜋1 𝑁 2 𝑓2 𝑁 = 𝛿2 𝛽2 + 𝛾2 𝛽2 + 𝛿2 𝜈2 𝑁 + 𝛾2 𝜈2 1 − 𝜋2 𝑁 2 3. 𝑁𝐷∗ .8) Using equations (3. 𝑈1∗ and 𝑈2∗ are the positive solutions of the following system of equations: 1 𝑁 = 𝑟 − 𝑟1 𝑈1 − 𝑟2 𝑈2 𝐾 𝑇1 . 𝑇2 𝑁𝐷 = 3.2 𝑟𝑁 + 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 + 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝐾 𝑇1 .10) (3.5 𝑓1 𝑁 𝑄2 𝛾2 𝑁 𝑈2 = = 2 𝑁 3.7 (3. 𝑔2 𝑁 From (3. 𝜕𝐾 𝜕 𝑇𝑖 <0 for 𝑇𝑖 > 0.2). 𝑇2 𝑄1 𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 𝑇1 = = 𝑔1 𝑁 3. 𝑈𝑖 0 ≥ 𝑐𝑖 𝑁 0 .11) www.2 2. 𝛿 1 . we can assume a function 𝐹 𝑁 = 𝑟𝑁 − 𝑟 − 𝑟1 1 𝑁 − 𝑟2 2 𝑁 𝐾 𝑔1 𝑁 . 𝑇2 3. 0. 𝑇𝑖 0 ≥ 0.3 Equilibrium points and stability analysis 𝑄 𝑄 The model (2.org 72 | Page . says 𝑁 ∗. 𝑁𝐷∗ . for 𝑖 = 1. 𝑐2 > 0 are constants relating to the initial uptake concentration 𝑈𝑖 0 with the initial density of biological population 𝑁(0). we can say that 𝐹 0 < 0 and 𝐹 𝐾0 > 0 this implies there must exist a root between 0 and 𝐾0 for the equation 𝐹 𝑁 = 0. 𝑇1∗ .9). 0 and III.iosrjournals.1 𝑟 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 𝑁𝐾 𝑇1 . 𝑔2 𝑁 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 − 𝑟 − 𝑟1 1 𝑁 − 𝑟2 2 𝑁 𝑑𝑁 𝑑𝑁 𝑑𝑁 𝜕𝐾 𝑑𝑔1 𝜕𝐾 𝑑𝑔2 + 𝜕𝑇1 𝑑𝑁 𝜕𝑇2 𝑑𝑁 (3. 𝐾0 = 𝐾 0. Existence of 𝑬𝟐 : The value of 𝑁 ∗ . 0 ≤ 𝜋𝑖 ≤ 1.3 𝑓1 𝑁 𝑄2 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 𝑇2 = = 𝑔2 𝑁 3. 𝑇2 > 0 (for all values of 𝑇1 & 𝑇2 ) denotes the carrying capacity of the environment for the biological population 𝑁 and it decreases when 𝑇1 or 𝑇2 or both increase.2 where 𝑐1 . 𝑖 = 1.2) has two non – negative equilibrium points 𝐸1 = 0. 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇2∗ . 𝑈1∗ . we must have 𝑑𝐹 𝑑1 𝑑2 = 𝑟 + 𝐾 𝑔1 𝑁 .8). 𝑈2∗ ).9790/5728-11647082 (3.1-3.9) >0 where 𝑑1 𝑄1 𝛾1 = 2 𝛿 𝛽 − 𝛾1 𝜈1 1 − 𝜋1 𝑁 2 𝑑𝑁 𝑓1 𝑁 1 1 𝑑2 𝑄2 𝛾2 = 2 𝛿2 𝛽2 − 𝛾2 𝜈2 1 − 𝜋2 𝑁 2 𝑑𝑁 𝑓2 𝑁 DOI: 10. initial carrying capacity. In the model (2. 0 1 2 and 𝐸2 = (𝑁 ∗ .6 𝑓2 𝑁 where.4 𝑓2 𝑁 𝑄1 𝛾1 𝑁 𝑈1 = = 1 𝑁 3. It is obvious that equilibria 𝐸1 exist.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… 𝑁 0 ≥ 0. 𝛿 2 . the function 𝐾 𝑇1 . 𝑁𝐷 0 ≥ 0. we have. Uniqueness of 𝑬𝟐 : For 𝑁 ∗ to be unique root of 𝐹 𝑁 = 0. 0. 𝑇2∗ .

𝑇2∗ 𝑟𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ − 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .13)). 𝑇2 𝜕𝑇1 DOI: 10.12) (3. 𝑇1 . 𝑟 + 𝐾 𝑔1 𝑁 . 𝑇2∗ = 𝐾2 1 𝜕𝐾 ∗ ∗ .iosrjournals.12-3. 𝑇1 .9790/5728-11647082 𝑇1∗. 0. 𝑇2∗ 0 0 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝐾1 𝑇1∗ . (3. 𝑈2∗ ). 𝑇2∗ . the root 𝑁 ∗ of 𝐹 𝑁 = 0 is unique and lower than the carrying capacity of the environment. 𝑇2∗ . 𝑇2∗ 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 2 𝐾2 𝑇1∗ . 𝐾1 𝑇1∗ .Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… 𝑑𝑔1 𝑄1 𝛾1 =− 2 𝛽12 + 2𝛽1 𝜈1 1 − 𝜋1 𝑁 + 𝜈12 1 − 𝜋1 𝑁 2 < 0 𝑑𝑁 𝑓1 𝑁 𝑑𝑔2 𝑄2 𝛾2 =− 2 𝛽22 + 2𝛽2 𝜈2 1 − 𝜋2 𝑁 + 𝜈22 1 − 𝜋2 𝑁 2 < 0 𝑑𝑁 𝑓2 𝑁 Since. 𝜕𝐾 𝜕𝑇1 . 𝑁𝐷∗ .1 Local stability analysis To study the local stability behavior of the equilibrium points 𝐸1 = 0.3)) and 𝑟 − 𝑟1 1 𝑁 − 𝑟2 2 𝑁 then 𝑑𝐹 𝑑𝑁 𝑑𝑔1 𝑑𝑁 .𝑇2∗ < 0 and 𝐾2 𝑇1∗ . we compute the variational matrices 𝑀1 and 𝑀2 corresponding to the equilibrium points 𝐸1 and 𝐸2 such as: 𝑟 −(𝛼 + 𝑏) 0 0 0 0 0 −(𝛼 + 𝑑) 0 0 0 0 𝛾1 𝑄1 − 0 −𝛿1 0 0 0 𝛿1 𝛾2 𝑄2 0 0 −𝛿2 0 0 𝑀1 = − 𝛿2 𝛾1 𝑄1 0 0 0 −𝛽1 0 𝛿1 𝛾2 𝑄2 0 0 0 0 −𝛽2 𝛿2 From 𝑀1 .13) < 0 (from eq. 𝑇1∗ . (2. 𝑔2 𝑁 𝑟1 After that.8). And 2𝑁 ∗ −1 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .org <0 𝑇1∗. 𝑇2∗ 𝑟1 𝑁 ∗ − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑟2 𝑁 ∗ − 𝑁𝐷∗ − 𝛿1 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 0 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 0 0 −(𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ ) 0 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ 0 0 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ −(𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ ) 0 0 −(𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ ) Here. 𝑇2∗ = 𝐾2 1 𝜕𝐾 ∗ ∗ . 𝛿1 𝛿2 . 𝑄1 𝑄2 . 𝑑𝑔2 𝑑𝑁 (3. 3. it is obvious that 𝐸1 is a saddle point unstable locally only in the 𝑁 − direction and with stable manifold locally in the 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑇1 − 𝑇2 − 𝑈1 − 𝑈2 space. 0. 𝑈1∗ .14) is satisfied. if the conditions (3. this implies that: 𝜕𝐾 𝑑𝑔1 𝜕𝐾 𝑑𝑔2 + 𝜕𝑇1 𝑑𝑁 𝜕𝑇2 𝑑𝑁 >0 > 0. 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇2∗ 𝑀2 = −𝛾1 𝑇1∗ + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑈1∗ −𝛾2 𝑇2∗ + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑈2∗ 𝛾1 𝑇1∗ − 𝜈1 𝑈1∗ 𝛾2 𝑇2∗ − 𝜈2 𝑈2∗ −𝑟 − 𝛼+𝑏 − 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ 0 0 0 0 𝑁∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 2 𝐾1 𝑇1∗ . we can compute the value of 𝑁𝐷∗ .14) 𝑑𝑁 𝑑𝑁 𝜕𝑇1 𝑑𝑁 𝜕𝑇2 𝑑𝑁 Hence.2-3. 𝑇2∗ 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝐾2 𝑇1∗ . 0 and 𝐸2 = (𝑁 ∗ . 𝑇2 𝜕𝑇2 www. only when 𝑑1 𝑑2 𝜕𝐾 𝑑𝑔1 𝜕𝐾 𝑑𝑔2 + 𝑟2 > 𝑟 − 𝑟1 1 𝑁 − 𝑟2 2 𝑁 + (3. 𝑈1∗ and 𝑈2∗ with the help of 𝑁 ∗ and equations (3.𝑇2∗ 73 | Page . 𝜕𝐾 𝜕𝑇2 < 0 (from eq.

β2 ) 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 Thus. 𝑇2∗ + 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 2 𝐾2 𝑇1∗ .9790/5728-11647082 www.20) 𝛾2 𝑇2∗ − 𝜈2∗ 𝑈2∗ + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ < 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ (3.2 Global stability analysis To found a set of sufficient conditions for globally asymptotically stable behavior of the equilibria 𝐸2 . 3. 𝑇2∗ + 𝑟1 𝑁 ∗ − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇2 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 ≤ 𝐾0 − 𝑁𝐷 − 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝑁𝐷 𝛿𝑚 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝐾0 Thus. 𝑑𝑁𝐷 𝑟𝑁𝐷 𝑁 we have. 𝑑𝑇1 𝑑𝑇2 𝑑𝑈1 𝑑𝑈2 we have.15) ∗ 2𝑁 𝛼 + 𝑏 + 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 2 𝐾1 𝑇1∗ . δ2 . limsup𝑡→∞ 𝑁 𝑡 ≤ 𝐾0 . 𝛽1 .17) 𝑁𝐷 −𝛾1 𝑇1∗ + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑈1∗ + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ < 𝛿1 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ (3. 𝑈1 . 𝑇1 . 0 ≤ 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 + 𝑈1 + 𝑈2 ≤ 0 ≤ 𝑁𝐷 ≤ 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝐾0 . 𝛽2 attracts all solution initiating in the interior of the positive orthant.15-3. β1 . we need a lemma which establishes the region of attraction of 𝐸2 . 𝛿2 . Proof: From the first equation of model (2. Lemma 1: The region Ω= 𝑁. From the last four equations of model (2.org 74 | Page . 𝑇2∗ < 𝑟 −1 (3.19) 𝛾1 𝑇1∗ − 𝜈1 𝑈1∗ + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ < (𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ ) (3. 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝛿𝑚 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝛿𝑚 where 𝛿𝑚 = min 𝛿1 . ≤ 𝑟𝑁 − = 𝑟 1− 𝑁 𝑑𝑡 𝐾0 𝐾0 Thus.2).21) are satisfied. lim sup 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 + 𝑈1 + 𝑈2 ≤ 𝛿𝑚 𝑡→∞ From the second equation of model (2. 𝑇2 . lim sup𝑡→∞ 𝑁𝐷 𝑡 ≤ 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝛿𝑚 𝛼 + 𝑑 DOI: 10. 𝑇2∗ + 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝐾2 𝑇1∗ . Theorem 1: The equilibrium point 𝐸2 is locally asymptotically stable if the conditions (3. = 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 − − 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝑁𝐷 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1 . + + + 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 − 𝛿1 𝑇1 + 𝛿2 𝑇2 + 𝛽1 𝑈1 + 𝛽2 𝑈2 − 1 − 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 − 1 − 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 ≤ 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 − 𝛿𝑚 𝑇1 + 𝑇2 + 𝑈1 + 𝑈2 where 𝛿𝑚 = min (δ1 .21) Hence.2).iosrjournals.18) −𝛾2 𝑇2∗ + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑈2∗ + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ < 𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ (3. 𝑇2∗ < 2𝑁 ∗ (3. 𝑑𝑁 𝑟𝑁 2 𝑁 we have. all the eigenvalues of variational matrix 𝑀2 are negative or having negative real parts if 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… According to the Gershgorin’s disc. 𝑇2∗ 𝑟𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ − + 𝑟𝑁 ∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝐾1 𝑇1∗ . we can state the following theorem.2).16) 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇2∗ 𝑁∗ + 𝑟2 𝑁 ∗ − 𝑁𝐷∗ < 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ ∗ (3. 𝑈2 : 0 ≤ 𝑁 ≤ 𝐾0 . 𝑁𝐷 .

we have obtained equilibrium point 𝐸2 (𝑁 ∗ . 𝜅2 = 0. Then 𝐸2 is globally asymptotically stable with respect to all solutions initiating in the interior of the positive orthant.28) 2 𝑁∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑁∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ ∗ 𝑁𝐷 𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ (3.32) The proof of Theorem 2 is given in Appendix A. 𝑏22 = 2.0002.006.1-4. 𝜅1 = 0.30) 𝛾1 + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ 2 𝛾2 + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ 2 4 𝛿 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ 9 1 4 < 𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ 9 < (3. IV. 𝛿1 = 0. 𝛾1 = 0. 𝜅1 & 𝜅2 are positive constants. 𝜈2 = 0. 𝑇2 = 𝐾0 − − (4.004. 𝑇1∗ = 0.005. 𝑇1∗ .001. 𝑟2 = 0. 𝑇2∗ 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝑟𝐾02 𝜅1 + 𝛿𝑚 𝐾𝑚2 2 𝛾1 + 𝜋1 𝜈1 2 𝛾2 + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝑟𝐾02 𝜅2 + 𝛿𝑚 𝐾𝑚2 2 𝛾1 + 𝜈1 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝛿𝑚 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝛿𝑚 2 𝛾2 + 𝜈2 𝐾𝑚2 (3.2) For the above function and set of values of parameters (4. 𝑏11 = 0. 𝑇2∗ (3.003.0005.org 75 | Page .0.26) 𝑟𝐾0 𝜅1 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝛿𝑚 𝑟𝐾0 𝜅2 𝐾𝑚2 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 4 𝑟1 𝐾0 2 < 15 4 𝑟2 𝐾0 2 < 15 2 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝛿𝑚 2 < 4 𝑁∗ 𝛿1 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ ∗ 15 𝑁𝐷 (3. 𝑟1 = 0.0. 𝑑 = 0. 𝑇 ≤ 𝜅2 𝜕𝑇1 𝜕𝑇2 1 2 where 𝐾𝑚 . Theorem 2: Let 𝐾 𝑇 satisfies the following inequalities in Ω with the assumptions in equation (2.2).1) 1 + 𝑏12 𝑇1 1 + 𝑏22 𝑇2 and assuming a set of parameters 𝑏 = 0.2) by defining the function: 𝑏11 𝑇1 𝑏21 𝑇2 𝐾 𝑇1 . 𝑈2∗ ) with values 𝑁 ∗ = 9. 𝑇2∗ (3. 0≤− 𝑇1 .001.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… proving the lemma. 𝐾𝑚 = 3.005. we give here numerical simulation of model (2.7771. 𝑇2∗ (3.0001. 𝛽2 = 0. 𝑄1 = 0. 𝑏12 = 1.0.0227. 𝑇2 ≤ 𝜅1 .29) 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ (3.31) (3.27) < 4 𝑁∗ 𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ ∗ 15 𝑁𝐷 (3. 𝜈1 = 0.0004. 𝑄2 = 0. 𝑇2∗ 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 𝑄1 + 𝑄2 + 𝛿𝑚 𝛼 + 𝑑 4𝑟 𝑁∗ 2𝑁 ∗ < (𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ ) ∗ −1 25 𝑁𝐷 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .00001. 𝑁𝑑∗ = 0.0005. 𝛾2 = 0.0007. Numerical simulation To make the qualitative results more clear.3): 𝜕𝐾 𝜕𝐾 𝐾𝑚 ≤ 𝐾 𝑇 ≤ 𝐾0 .□ The following theorem establishes global asymptotic stability conditions for the equilibrium point 𝐸2 .23) < 4𝑟 2𝑁 ∗ 𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ −1 15 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝑏21 = 0. if the following conditions hold in Ω: 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ 𝑟𝐾0 𝑟1 + 𝑟2 (𝑄1 + 𝑄2 ) − 𝛼+𝑏 + 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝑈1∗ . 𝑇2∗ (3.0099 DOI: 10. 𝛽1 = 0.0004 𝜋1 = 0.0003.22) < 4𝑟 𝛿 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 15 1 2𝑁 ∗ −1 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 0≤− 𝑇 .004.001. 𝑈1∗ = 0.0 (4. 𝜋2 = 0. 𝑇2∗ = 0.24) < 4𝑟 𝛽 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ 15 1 2𝑁 ∗ −1 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .25) < 4𝑟 2𝑁 ∗ 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ −1 15 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇2∗ .1002.9790/5728-11647082 www.0006 𝐾0 = 10. 𝑁𝐷∗ . 𝛿2 = 0.1113.iosrjournals.001.

𝑇2∗ .3. −0.2 & Fig. we take all the parameters same as eq. In both figures. Fig. Also. which shows that more members of the population will get deformed if the rate of toxicant emission increases. −0.2) except 𝑄1 and 𝑄2 .9790/5728-11647082 www.1) ∗ Fig.2: Variation of deformed population 𝑵𝑫 with time for different values of 𝑸𝟏 DOI: 10.0050 − 0.0088.iosrjournals. the equilibrium point 𝐸2 satisfies all the conditions of global asymptotic stability (3. Here. condition (3. −0.2) are obtained as −0. 𝑇1∗ . We note that four eigenvalues of variational matrix are negative and remaining two eigenvalues have negative real parts which show that equilibrium point 𝐸2 is locally asymptotically stable.32). 𝑈1∗ and 𝑈2∗ are unique in the region Ω. The eigenvalues of variational matrix 𝑀2 corresponding to the equilibrium point 𝐸2 for the model (2. we have shown the changes in density of deformed population with respect to time for different values of emission rates of toxicant in the environment 𝑄1 and 𝑄2 respectively.0002𝑖 and −0. 𝑵𝑫 ) in 𝑵 − 𝑵𝑫 plane for different initial starts In Fig. −0.22-3.0559.org 76 | Page .0039.0050 + 0.14) satisfies which shows that the values 𝑁 ∗ . we can see that when emission rate of toxicant 𝑄1 as well as emission rate of toxicant 𝑄2 increases the density of the deformed population also increases. Here.0339. (4.0002𝑖.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… and 𝑈2∗ = 0.0090. 𝑁𝐷∗ . (see Fig.1: Nonlinear stability of (𝑵∗ .

9790/5728-11647082 www.5.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… Fig. we have represented the variation in the density of deformed population for different values of the uptake rate coefficients 𝛾1 and 𝛾2 (all the parameters same as eq.org 77 | Page . Fig. density of deformed population increases.iosrjournals.2) except 𝛾1 and 𝛾2 respectively).4 & Fig.3: Variation of deformed population 𝑵𝑫 with time for different values of 𝑸𝟐 In Fig. Here figures are showing that when the uptake rates of toxicants increase.4: Variation of deformed population 𝑵𝑫 with time for different values of 𝜸𝟏 DOI: 10. (4.

we can see that when the decay rate of deformed population increases density of deformed population decreases.7: 𝑵 and 𝑵𝑫 for large emission rate of toxicant 𝑻𝟏 in the environment DOI: 10.2) except 𝛼).9790/5728-11647082 www. (4.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… Fig. Fig. In this figure.iosrjournals.6: Variation of deformed population 𝑵𝑫 with time for different values of 𝜶 Fig.org 78 | Page .6.5: Variation of deformed population 𝑵𝑫 with time for different values of 𝜸𝟐 In Fig. we have shown the variation in density of deformed population corresponding to the decay rate of the deformed population due to high toxicity 𝛼 (all the parameters same as eq.

8. 𝑇1 . necrosis. vehicular exhaust.2) shows that the density of total population will settle down to an equilibrium level.8: 𝑵 and 𝑵𝑫 for large emission rate of toxicant 𝑻𝟐 in the environment In Fig. 𝑇2 𝑟𝑁𝐷 𝑁 + 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑟1 𝑈1 + 𝑟2 𝑈2 𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 − − 𝛼 + 𝑑 𝑁𝐷 𝐾 𝑇1 . we have represented the variation in the densities of Total population (𝑁) and Deformed population 𝑁𝐷 for large emission rate of toxicants 𝑄1 and 𝑄2 .Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… Fig. Proof of the Theorem 2. we get 𝑑𝑊 𝑟𝑁 2 = 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑟𝑁 − − 𝛼 + 𝑏 𝑁𝐷 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1 . etc. 𝑁𝐷 .2). waste water discharge from cities. 𝑇2 + 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 𝑄1 − 𝛿1 𝑇1 − 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 + 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ 𝑄2 − 𝛿2 𝑇2 − 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁 + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 + 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ 𝛾1 𝑇1 𝑁 − 𝛽1 𝑈1 − 𝜈1 𝑁𝑈1 + 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ 𝛾2 𝑇2 𝑁 − 𝛽2 𝑈2 − 𝜈2 𝑁𝑈2 DOI: 10.2) has two equilibrium points 𝐸1 and 𝐸2 in which 𝐸1 is saddle point and 𝐸2 is locally and globally stable under some conditions.7 & Fig. Under this assumption. 𝑇2 . household and vehicular discharges in the environment to protect biological species from deformity. The qualitative behavior of model (2. The model (2. For large emission rates. Here.9790/5728-11647082 www. Appendix A. we have proposed and analyzed a mathematical model to study the simultaneous effect of two toxicants on a biological population.org 79 | Page .iosrjournals. It is assumed that a subclass of biological population is not capable in reproduction. fecundity. 𝑈1 . V. we need to control the emission of toxicants from industries. it is found that the density of this subclass increases as emission rates of toxicants or uptake rates of toxicants increase and when the decay rate of deformed population increases. Proof: we consider a positive definite function about 𝐸2 𝑊 𝑁. lower than its initial carrying capacity. density of deformed population decreases. in which a subclass of biological population is severely affected and exhibits abnormal symptoms like deformity. So. it may happen that the entire population gets severely affected and is not capable in reproduction and after a time period all the population may die out. 𝑈2 1 1 1 1 1 = 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 2 + 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 2 + 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 2 + 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ 2 + 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 ∗ 2 + 𝑈2 − 𝑈2 2 Differentiating 𝑊 with respect to 𝑡 along the solution of (2. Conclusion In this paper. etc. we assume that these two toxicants are being emitted into the environment by some external sources such as industrial discharge. These figures show that density of total population gets severely affected and is not capable in reproduction for large emission rates.

𝑇 . 𝑇2 𝜕𝑇1 1 2 𝐾 𝑇1∗. 𝑇2 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ − 𝑟𝑁𝑁𝐷 𝜂2 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇2 = 1 Thus.iosrjournals.8).𝑇2∗ ∗ 𝑇2 . 𝑇2∗ 2 𝑏44 = 𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ .9790/5728-11647082 2 𝑁∗ 2 (𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ ) ∗ . 𝑇1 = 𝑇1∗ 1 𝑇1∗.𝑇2 𝜂2 𝑇1∗ . 𝐾 𝑇1 . 𝑇2 − 1 𝜕𝐾 ∗ ∗ − 2 ∗ ∗ 𝑇 . 𝑇2 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ + 𝑟1 𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ (𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ ) + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ (𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ ) where. 𝑇2∗ 𝑁𝐷∗ − 𝛿2 + 𝛾2 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ 2 − 𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ 2 − 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ 2 𝑟𝑁𝐷 + − 𝛼 + 𝑏 + 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ − 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .org 80 | Page .Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… using (3. 5 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝐾 𝑇1 .𝑇2 𝜂1 𝑇1 . 3 DOI: 10. we get after some calculation 𝑑𝑊 2𝑁 ∗ 𝑁∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 2 =− 𝑟 − 1 𝑁 − 𝑁 − (𝑟 𝑈 + 𝑟 𝑈 ) 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 2 − 𝛿1 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 1 1 2 2 𝑑𝑡 𝐾 𝑇1∗ .𝑇2 ∗ 𝑇1 .1-3. 𝑇2 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ + 𝛾1 𝑇1 − 𝜈1 𝑈1 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ + 𝛾2 𝑇2 − 𝜈2 𝑈2 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ − 𝑟𝑁𝑁𝐷 𝜂1 𝑇1 . 𝑑𝑤 1 1 = − 𝑏11 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 2 + 𝑏12 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ − 𝑏22 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 2 𝑑𝑡 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏11 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 2 + 𝑏13 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ − 𝑏33 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 2 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏11 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 2 + 𝑏14 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ − 𝑏44 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ 2 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏11 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 2 + 𝑏15 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ − 𝑏55 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ 2 2 2 1 1 ∗ ∗ 2 ∗ + − 𝑏11 𝑁 − 𝑁 + 𝑏16 𝑁 − 𝑁 𝑈2 − 𝑈2 − 𝑏66 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ 2 2 2 1 1 ∗ 2 ∗ ∗ + − 𝑏22 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷 + 𝑏23 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷 𝑇1 − 𝑇1 − 𝑏33 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 2 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏22 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 2 + 𝑏24 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ − 𝑏44 𝑇2 − 𝑇2∗ 2 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏22 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 2 + 𝑏25 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ − 𝑏55 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ 2 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏22 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 2 + 𝑏26 𝑁𝐷 − 𝑁𝐷∗ 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ − 𝑏66 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ 2 2 2 1 1 + − 𝑏33 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 2 + 𝑏35 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ − 𝑏55 𝑈1 − 𝑈1∗ 2 2 2 1 1 ∗ 2 ∗ ∗ + − 𝑏44 𝑇2 − 𝑇2 + 𝑏46 𝑇2 − 𝑇2 𝑈2 − 𝑈2 − 𝑏66 𝑈2 − 𝑈2∗ 2 2 2 where. 𝑇2 𝑁 − 𝑁 ∗ 𝑇1 − 𝑇1∗ + 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑈2 − 𝛾2 𝑇2 − 𝑟𝑁 2 𝜂2 𝑇1∗ . 𝑏66 = 𝛽2 + 𝜈2 𝑁 ∗ 3 3 𝑏22 = 𝑏55 www. 𝑇2 = −𝐾 −𝐾 2 𝑇1 ≠ 𝑇1∗ . 𝑇1 − 1 𝜕𝐾 ∗ − 2 ∗ 𝑇 . 𝑏33 = 𝛿1 + 𝛾1 𝑁 ∗ 5 𝑁𝐷 3 2 2 = 𝛽1 + 𝜈1 𝑁 ∗ . 𝑇2 𝜕𝑇2 1 2 𝑇2 ≠ 𝑇2∗ 𝑇2 = 𝑇2∗ can be written as sum of the quadratics.𝑇 . 𝑏11 = 2 2𝑁 ∗ 𝑟 −1 . 𝑇2∗ + 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑈1 − 𝛾1 𝑇1 − 𝑟𝑁 2 𝜂1 𝑇1 . 1 𝐾 𝑇1 . 𝑑𝑤 𝑑𝑡 1 𝑇1∗.

metal contaminated sediments of a Canadian riverline wetland. Nonautonomous logistic equation as models of population in a deteriorating environment.9790/5728-11647082 www. 30.org 81 | Page . [4]. References [1]. 179 – 182. 1991.iosrjournals.33) 2 𝑏13 < 𝑏11 𝑏33 (3. Rescigno A. 18. 411 – 429. Effects of two or more toxicants on a biological species: A non-linear mathematical model and its analysis. 39(4). Effects of toxicants on biological species.37 2 𝑏23 < 𝑏22 𝑏33 (3. Great Lakes Res. [14]. 93. Sadhana 24. Dickman M. 1996. [16]. 𝑏15 = 𝛾1 𝑇1 − 𝜈1 𝑈1 . near Welland. Biol. 1984. Math. J. 𝑏16 = 𝛾2 𝑇2 − 𝜈2 𝑈2 𝑏23 = −𝑟𝑁𝑁𝐷 𝜂1 𝑇1 . Lan Q and Matthews B. Hence the theorem. [7]. Ecol. J. Environmental and food chain pathways.22-3.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… 𝑟𝑁𝐷 . Brindle I and Benson M. W is a Lyapunov’s function with respect to the equilibrium 𝐸2 and therefore 𝐸2 is globally asymptotically stable under the conditions (3. Effects of toxicants on populations: a qualitative approach I.34) 2 𝑏14 < 𝑏11 𝑏44 (3. 1971. Res.P. South Pacific Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 1 (1). 𝑏13 = 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑈1 − 𝛾1 𝑇1 − 𝑟𝑁 2 𝜂1 𝑇1 . □ Thus. Environ. Biol. Effects of toxicants on populations: a qualitative approach III. 1987. Impacts of heavy metals on higher aquatic plant. 249 – 273. Water Pollut. Shukla JB. Assoc. J. Res. J. Chironomid deformities as indicators of pollution from synthetic. 479-485. Dickman M. 1982. Biol. 14.38) 2 𝑏24 < 𝑏22 𝑏44 (3. International 22. 1990. Clark CE and Jordan GS. Hallam TG. Shukla JB and Agrawal AK. Modelling 18.42) 2 𝑏46 < 𝑏44 𝑏66 (3. J. Cushman RE. Biol. Hallam TG and Deluna JT. 𝑇2 . Water Pollut. [6]. DOI: 10. Narosa Publishing House. and diversity in heavy . So. 1992. Hallam TG. Some mathematical models in ecotoxicology. Systems 4. [11].43) We note that (3. 97 – 113. 2000. Ontario. 1977. 47 – 79. 12 – 27. J. Can. 467 – 480. J. DeLuna JT and Hallam TG. First order kinetics. 1990. Models for the effect of toxicant in single species and predator-prey systems. 1983. 109 – 130. diathom and benthic invertebrate communities in the Niagara River watershed. [2].22-3. [9]. In Mathematical Analysis and Applications. Effects of toxicants on populations: a qualitative approach II. [12]. Shukla JB and Dubey B.derived oil. [8]. Evidence of teratogens in sediments of the Niagara River watershed as reflected by chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) deformities. 𝑏25 = 𝑟1 𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 . 109.41) 2 𝑏35 < 𝑏33 𝑏55 (3. Hamilton AL and Saether O. 291 – 304. [13]. 1983. 𝑇2 . Biol. Modelling 35. The struggle for life–V. coal . 693 – 703. Canada 25. Freshw. Biol.Consumer Toxicant models. 18. [3].35) 2 𝑏15 < 𝑏11 𝑏55 (3. A. Dwivedi (Ed). 25 – 37. 𝑏26 = 𝑟2 𝑁 − 𝑁𝐷 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 𝑏35 = 𝜋1 𝜈1 𝑁 + 𝛾1 𝑁 . Dickman M and Rygiel G. 363 – 368. Yang JR and Brindle ID. Effect of a toxicant on a biological population causing severe symptoms on a subclass. mortality. [5]. Agrawal AK. one species living in a limited environment. 1996. [10]. Ent. 𝑇2 𝐾 𝑇1∗ . 𝑏24 = −𝑟𝑁𝑁𝐷 𝜂2 𝑇1∗ . Sinha P. Effect of toxicants on population: a qualitative approach IV. Theor. Teratogens in the Niagara River watershed as reflected by chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) labial deformities. 1984.32) respectively. [17].36) 2 𝑏16 < 𝑏11 𝑏66 3. The occurrence of characteristic deformities in the chironomid larvae of several Canadian lakes.39) 2 𝑏25 < 𝑏22 𝑏55 (3. 103. [15]. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. 131 – 159. New Delhi. Chironomid larval deformity frequencies. Equilibrium environmental exposure. Ecol. Control 24. 𝑏46 = 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑁 + 𝛾2 𝑁 𝑏12 = − 𝛼 + 𝑏 + 𝑟1 𝑈1∗ + 𝑟2 𝑈2∗ − dW will be negative definite provided dt 2 𝑏12 < 𝑏11 𝑏22 (3. Freedman HI and Shukla JB. 15 – 30.33-3. 2012. Resource . Theor. INDIA. 303 – 311. Can. Clark CE and Lassiter RR. 𝑇2∗ 𝑏14 = 𝜋2 𝜈2 𝑈2 − 𝛾2 𝑇2 − 𝑟𝑁 2 𝜂2 𝑇1∗ . Simultaneous effects of two toxicants on biological species: A mathematical model.43) ⇒ (3. Dickman MD. Agrawal AK.40) 2 𝑏26 < 𝑏22 𝑏66 (3.32). Hallam TG and Clark CE. Math. Dubey B and Shukla JB. 1999. 𝑇2 . 25 – 40.

Morphological and physiological responses of Croton Bonplandianum baill. Fernando GF. 160 – 165.Modeling the Simultaneous Effect of Two Toxicants Causing Deformity in a Subclass of Biological… [18]. Overstreet RM and Brown-Peterson NJ. Patil VK and David M. Miguel BL. Hartwell SI. Long term effects on male reproduction of early exposure to common chemical contaminants in drinking water. 1980. Water. Environ. [21]. 2006. [22]. Labeo rohita. Hawkins WE. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan. Toxicol. Sun PL. Human Reproduction. 1975. J.iosrjournals. 6. 2001. 360 – 362. Ahmad A and Ansari K. 69 –78.Derivative Fungicide Tilt. 13 (2). Wright DA and Savitz JD. 2009. Environ.9790/5728-11647082 www. 1998. DOI: 10. Drug and chemical toxico. 16 (5). 33 (2). The effect of colchicine treatment on sperm production and function: a review. [26]. 71. 281 – 291. Human Reproduction. Ronit HK and Eldad BC. [24]. Veeramachaneni DNR. Palmer JS and Amann RP. Res. 17. Induction of Morphological Deformities and Moulting Alterations in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Juveniles Exposed to the Triazole . [23]. Impacts of air pollution on forest ecosystem. growth and reproduction of Eurytemora Affinis (Copepoda) to assessing polluted estuaries. Donald JB. [20]. [19]. Relative sensitivity of survival. Behavioral and morphological endpoints: as an early response to sublethal malathion intoxication in the freshwater fish. 1993. New York. Saquib M. [25]. Arch. Ravinder SS. 2307 – 2331. 979 – 987. 2010. Kozlowski TT. 51. 88 – 93. {Responses of Plants to Air} Academic Press.org 82 | Page . Int. 2010. 35 – 41. BioScience 30. to air pollution.. Contam. Kozlowski TT. Air and Soil Pollut. Public Health.

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