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e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. V (Nov. - Dec. 2015), PP 40-45

www.iosrjournals.org

Integer Exponent

E. U. Agom1, F. O. Ogunfiditimi2

1

2

(Department of Mathematics, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria)

Email: agomeunan@gmail.com

Abstract :Successful application of Adomian decomposition method (ADM) in solving problems in nonlinear

ordinary and partial differential equations depend strictly on the Adomian polynomial. In this paper, we present

a simple modified known Adomian polynomial for nonlinear polynomial functionals with index as integers. The

simple modified Adomian polynomial was tested for nonlinear functional with index 3 and 4 respectively. The

result shows remarkable exact results as that given by Adomian himself. Also, the modifed simple Adomian

polynomial was further tested on concrete problems and the numerical results were exactly the same as the

exact solution. The large scale computation and evaluation was made possible by Maple software package.

Keywords - Adomian Polynomial, Adomian Decomposition Method.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The Adomian Polynomial in ADM has been subject of some studies [1] to [9]. This method generates a

solution in form of a series whose terms are determined by a recursive relationship using the Adomian

Polynomial. Several authors have suggested different algorithms for computing Adomian Polynomial,

prominent among them are [2], [3]. Using the algorithm presented by Adomian himself [1] requires

classification of terms in both the ordinary and the accelerated form, which is very complicated for large n

(order of the derivative).

Algorithm presented by [2] uses Taylor series expansion of the functional which is complicated

especially when the unknown appears at the denominator. Calculation of the nth Adomian Polynomials using

[3] requires computing the nth order derivative which is complicated for large n. That is why most literatures

gives, at most, the first five generated Adomian Polynomial. Despite all the difficulties in applying the used

method in [5], it cannot be applied to functionals with several variables. Here we suggest a new simplified

single line algorithm that can be implemented in any computer algebraic system. To generate the Adomian

Polynomial without resulting to writing codes before implementation

Consider the general nonlinear differential equation;

(1)

Fu f

F is nonlinear differential operator and u, f are functions of t. Equation (1) in operator form is given as;

(2)

Lu Ru Nu f

where L is an operator representing linear portion of f which is easily invertible, R is a linear operator for the

remainder of the linear portion. N is a nonlinear operator representing the nonlinear term in f. Applying the

inverse operator L-1 on equation (2) we have;

1

Lu L

f L

Ru L

Nu

(3)

By virtue of L, L would represent integration with any given initial/boundary conditions. Equation (3)

becomes;

L

-1

u (t) g (t) L

Ru L

(4)

where g(t) represent the function generated by integrating f and using the initial/boundary conditions.

ADM admit the decomposition into an infinite series with equation (4) given as;

n0

(t) u

Ru

n0

(t) L

Nu

n0

A

1 d

n! d n

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11654045

N (u )

(5)

www.iosrjournals.org

40 | Page

The recursive relation is found to be

u

g(t)

n 1

(6)

Ru L

(7)

(8)

(t)

n0

is in series form. The series may be summed to provide the solution in closed form. Or, for concrete problems

the nth partial sum may be used to give the approximate solution.

We give the simple modification to the Adomian Polynomial of equation (5) as;

A

1 d

(u u

i j

n! d n n 0

(9)

where

n

...

i0

j 0

... u

n i

In this section, we present some examples that resulted from the use of the simple modified Adomian

polynomial.

1. For N(u) = u , 3 and using equation (9), the first ten plus one Adomian Polynomials are given as;

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3

0

2

0

3u u

10

2

0

3u u

2

1

6u u u

0

6u u u

2

0

2

3u u

0 8

6u u u

0

2

1

3u u

6u u u

2

1

2

1

2

1

3u u

6u u u

3u u

6u u u

2

2

3u u u

6u u u

0

3u u

3u u

1

2

2

3u u

0

2

3

6u u u

1

6u u u

0

2

3u u

1 6

6u u u

2

1

6u u u

4

5

6u u u

1

6u u u

1

4

5

3

2

3u u

2

3

3u u

3u u

2

4

6u u u

2

2

3

3

2

2

3u u

2

u

2 3

2

0

3u u

2

u

4 1

2

0

3u u

3

1

3u u

0 1 3

2

0

3u u

6u u u

6u u u

3u u

3u u

2

3u u

0 5

3u

A

2

0

3u u

3u

A

2

3u u

0 2

6u u u

0

6u u u

2

10

2

3u u

5 0

6u u u

1 8

3

6u u u

0

6u u u

1

9

5

3u u

6u u u

1

6u u u

0

6u u u

1

2

2

3u u

3

u

3

6u u u

0

6u u u

2

2

1

3u u

3u

2

u

4 2

6u u u

0

6u u u

1

6u u u

0

6u u u

1

2

2

3u u

2

3u u

3 4

2. For N(u) = u , 4 and using equation (9), the first ten plus one Adomian Polynomials are also given as;

A

A

A

A

0

1

2

3

4

0

3

0

4u u

3

4u u

0 2

3

0

4u u

2

0

6u u

2

0

2

1

12 u u u

1

4u u

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11654045

3

1

www.iosrjournals.org

41 | Page

A

A

A

3

0

3

0

3

0

2

1

2

2

3

0

4u u

4u u

4u u

6u u

A

4u u

3

4u u

0 8

2 2

6u u

1 3

3

0

4u u

2

1

3

0

10

2

1

4

2

2

u

2 3

2

0

1 8

4u u

2

0

24 u u u u

0

2

4

2

0

2

3

2

0

3

3

2

5

2

1

2

1

2

2

12 u u u

3

1

12

2

2

12 u u u

0

2

0

6u u

2

3

2

2

2

1

4u u

3

1

24 u u u u

12 u u u

3

2

3

1

4u u

3

1

4u u 4u u

2

u u

2 0 5

2

1

12 u u u

12

24 u u u u

12 u

2

u u u

0 3 2

12

4u u

0

3

2

2

0

12 u u u

1

12 u

2

u u u

3 0 5

6

12 u

2

0

12 u u u

2

u u

4 0 1

12

2

0

12 u u u

3

1

4u u

2

u u

2 0 6

24 u u u u

2

u u u

1 2 5

2

u u u

3 1 2

12

3

2

2

0

12 u u u

24 u u u u

2

u

2 4

2

u u u

1 0 7

4u u

2

0

2

0

12 u u u

2

u u

2 1 4

12 u u u

4

1

12

6u u

12 u u

4u u

8

24 u u u u

2 2

6u u

0 4

6u u

24 u u u u

12 u u u

24 u u u u

2

u u

2 1 4

12 u

2

0

12 u u u

2

0

12 u u u

12 u

12 u u u 12 u u u

2

u u u

1 0 6

12

2

1

12 u u u

12 u u u

2

u u

4 0 3

12 u

24 u u u u

2

1

2

2

12 u u u

12 u u u

6u u

2

0

12 u u

4u u

12 u u u

12 u u u

10

2

0

2

0

6u u

12 u u u

24 u u u u

12 u u u

2

u u

2 0 5

12 u

2

0

12 u u u

2

u u u

1 2 6

2

2

12 u

12 u u u

0

24 u u u u

0

2

u u

2 1 5

2

4

12

12 u u u

0

2

0

12 u u u

2

u u u

1 3 5

4u u

7

3

1

12

24 u u u u

2

u u u

1 0 8

4u u

1

3

3

12

4u u

4

2

u u u

3 0 4

3

2

2

3

CONCRETE PROBLEMS

In this section, we apply the modified Adomian polynomials to concrete problems.

Problem 1

Consider

du

5u u

, u(0) = 1

(10)

dt

5

u

6e

10 t

(11)

u 1 6 t 24 t

100 t

470 t

(12)

u ( t ) u (0) L

(5 u ) L

(A

A

N (u ) u

u

u

u

u

u

1

t

0 ( 5 u 0

0 ( 5 u 1

0 ( 5 u 2

0 ( 5 u 3

3

0

u ) dt 6 t

3

0

3 u u ) dt 24 t

2

0

2

0

3u u

3u u

2

1

3 u u ) dt 100 t

0

6u u u

0

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11654045

3

1

u ) dt 470 t

www.iosrjournals.org

42 | Page

u

u

u

0 ( 5 u 4

0 ( 5 u 5

0 ( 5 u 6

t

0 ( 5 u 7

6681580

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

3u u

3u u

3u u

3u u

6u u u

0

6u u u

0

6u u u

0

6u u u

0

3u u

0

2

2

2

1

3 u u ) dt 2336 t

3u u u

0

6u u u

0

6u u u

0

2

1

2

1

2

1

3u u

3u u

3u u

2

2

3 u u ) dt

1

3u u

0

2

3

3

6u u u

6u u u

0

35588

6u u u

1

3

2

u ) dt

1282984

21

3u u

1

2

3

2

2

3 u u ) dt

3

21

Continuing in this order, the sum of the first few terms of u n, is given as;

n0

1 6 t 24 t

100 t

470 t

2336 t

35588

1282984

. . .

21

This is obviously the same as the series form of the exact solution given in equations (12). The similarity

between the exact solution, equation (11) and the numerical solution of the first 12th terms is further given in

Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 respectively.

Problem 2

Consider

du

u u , u (0) 1

(13)

dt

u

2e

3t

(14)

u 1 2t 5t

49

701

. . .

(15)

12

u ( t ) u (0) L

(u ) L

(A

An = N(u) = u4

Also, applying the recursive relation and the simple modified Adomian polynomial to equation (13), we obtain;

u

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11654045

www.iosrjournals.org

43 | Page

u

u

u

u

0 ( u 0

0 ( u 1

0 ( u 2

0 ( u 3

t

0 ( u 4

t

0 ( u 5

t

0 ( u 6

4

0

u ) dt 2 t

3

0

4 u u ) dt 5 t

3

0

3

0

3

0

3

0

3

0

4u u

4u u

4u u

4u u

4u u

2

1

2

2

2

0

2

1

6 u u ) dt

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

12 u u u

12 u u u

12 u u u

12 u u u

6 u u ) dt

49

8231329

3

1

2

0

2

2

4 u u ) dt

6u u

12

2

1

12 u u u

0

2

0

2

0

12 u u u

12 u u u

701

4

1

u ) dt

2

2

1

2

1

12 u u u

0

12 u u u

0

13081

60

12 u u u

0

2

0

2

2

3

1

4 u u ) dt

2

2

3

24 u u u u

60193

72

6u u

60193

3

1

4u u

4u u

0

3

2

2520

n0

1 2t 5t

49

3

701

13081

12

60

72

8231329

. . .

2520

The first few terms of the series are obviously the same as equation (15) of the exact solution of Problem 2.

The resemblance of the numerical solution using the simple modified Adomian polynomial of equation (9) and

the exact result is further depicted in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4.

11

In Fig. 2 and Fig. 4, finite terms of the series, u u n , were used in the plot. The remarkable similarities

n0

between the exact and ADM using equation (9) (the simple modified Adomian polynomial) of problems 1and 2

is further shown in Tables 1 and 2.

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11654045

www.iosrjournals.org

44 | Page

Exact solution

Solution by ADM, u 11

n 0

t

-0.14

-0.13

-0.12

-0.11

-0.10

0.00

0.10

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

t

-0.14

-0.13

-0.12

-0.11

-0.10

0.00

0.10

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

-1

4.5480323980 x 10

4.8432134540 x 10-1

5.1270154680 x 10-1

5.4143250440 x 10-1

5.7131765330 x 10-1

1.0000000000 x 10-1

2.0345383800 x 100

2.2372482020 x 100

2.4825644110 x 100

2.7861415940 x 100

3.1707781130 x 100

-1

4.6293121480 x 10

4.8776680970 x 10-1

5.1406304520 x 10-1

5.4192787600 x 10-1

5.7148099190 x 10-1

1.0000000000 x 10-1

2.0350805430 x 100

2.2391733070 x 100

2.4888789140 x 100

2.8056466280 x 100

3.2288930710 x 100

Exact solution

Solution by ADM, u 11

n 0

7.8784892490 x 10-1

7.8797386830 x 10-1

7.9983309430 x 10-1

7.9988581050 x 10-1

-1

8.1214566950 x 10

8.1216639740 x 10-1

-1

8.2483167170 x 10

8.2483917380 x 10-1

-1

8.3792754430 x 10

8.3793000380 x 10-1

1.0000000000 x 10-1

1.0000000000 x 10-1

0

1.2757283730 x 10

1.2757342650 x 100

0

1.3168990780 x 10

1.3169189670 x 100

0

1.3624449460 x 10

1.3625060770 x 100

1.4113293205 x 100

1.4137672060 x 100

0

1.4706510740 x 10

1.4711161140 x 100

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed an efficient simple modification of the standard Adomian Polynomial in

the popular Adomian decomposition method for solving nonlinear functional whose nonlinear term is of the

form N(u) = un. The study showed that the modified Adomian polynomial is simple and is efficient, and also

effective in any computer algebra system to get as many term of the Adomian polynomials as required without

difficulties. The outcome from the modifications is the same as those presented by Adomian himself. And when

applied to concrete problems the results were remarkable.

REFERENCES

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

[8].

[9].

G. Adomian, A Review of the Decomposition Method in Applied Mathematics, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and

Applications, 135, 1988, 501 - 544.

J. Biazar, E. Babolian, A. Nouri, S. Islam, An Alternative Algorithm for Computing Adomian Polynomials in Special cases, Applied

Mathematics and Computation 138, 2003, 523 - 529.

A. M. Wazwaz, A new Algorithm for Calculating Adomian Polynomials for Nonlinear Operator, Applied Mathematics and

Computation, 111, 2000, 53 - 69.

G. Adomian and R. Rach, Polynomials Nonlinearity in Differential Equations, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Application,

109(1), 1985

G. Adomian, Solving Frontier Problems of Physics: the Decomposition Method, Springer New York, 1993

K. Abaoui and Y. Cherruault, Convergence of Adomian's Method Applied to Differential Equations, Computer and Mathematics

Applications, 28(5), 1994, 103 - 109.

E. U. Agom and F. O. Ogunfiditimi, Adomian Decomposotion Method for Bernoulli Differential Equations, International Journal

of Science and Research, 4(12), 2015, 1581 - 1584.

R. Rach, G. Adomian and R. E. Meyers, A Modified Decomposition, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 23(1), 1992,

12 - 23.

M. Almazmumy, F. A. Hendi, H. O. Bakodah and H. Alzumi, Recent Modifications of Adomian Decompositon Method for Initial

Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, American Journal of Computational Mathematics, 2, 2012, 228 - 234.

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11654045

www.iosrjournals.org

45 | Page

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