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e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. V (Nov. - Dec. 2015), PP 56-59

www.iosrjournals.org

to Initial Value Problem of Linear Odes

*

Oko, Nlia

**

Sambo, Dachollom

Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Abstract: The application of Laplace transformation in solving Initial value Problems (IVPs) of Ordinary

Differential Equations (ODEs) of order , + is well known to scholars. The inversion of Laplace

transformation in solving initial value problems of ODEs by the traditional algebraic method (i.e. through

resolving into partial fraction and the use of Laplace Transforms table) can be very tedious and time

consuming, especially when the Laplace transforms table is not readily available, thus renders the researcher

handicapped. In this paper, we have reviewed the traditional algebraic method and now show how the Residue

Theorem of complex analysis can best be applied directly to obtain the inverse Laplace transform which

circumvents the rigor of resolving into partial fraction and the use of Laplace transforms table which normally

resolve into resultant time wastage as always the case with the traditional method. Results obtained by applying

the Residue approach in solving initial value problems of linear ODEs are experimented and proven to be

elegant, efficient and valid.

Key Words: Laplace transforms, Residue, Partial fractions, Poles, etc.

I. Introduction

Laplace transforms helps in solving differential equations with initial values without finding the general

solution and values of the arbitrary constants.

Definition 1: let () be a function defined for all positive values of , then

= 0

(1.1)

Provided the integral exist, is called the Laplace transform of () [2]

(1.1) is denoted as

= = 0

The Laplace transform of simple functions especially those of derivatives are well known to scholars

and are normally tabulated.

Consider

= 1 0 2 (0) 3 (0) 1 0

where = 2 0 0 .

The Laplace inverse transform of () written as

1 =

is a reverse process of finding when is known. The traditional method of finding the inverse Laplace

()

transform of say =

where () 0, is to resolve into partial fractions and use tables of Laplace

()

()

()

If

()

()

Then,

()

()

()

Hence,

1

= 1

+ 1

= +

The extension of Cauchys Integral Formula of complex analysis to cases where the integrating

function is not analytic at some singularities within the domain of integration, leads to the famous Cauchy

Residue theorem which makes the integration of such functions possible by circumventing those isolated

singularities [4]. Here, each isolated singularity contributes a term proportional to what is called the Residue of

the singularity [3]. Here, the residue theorem provides a straight forward method of computing these integrals.

Definition 2: If =

= = lim

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11655659

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56 | Page

II. Methodology

+1

, which is the Laplace transform of a certain function .

+2

But,

= 1

= 1

+1

= 1

2 +2

+1

(2.1)

(+2)

+1

= +

+2

+2

1

+1

= 2 + 2

+2

+2

1

=

1

+1

2 +2

= 1

(2 )

( )

2

( )

2

+2

+ 1

(2 )

+2

+1

2 +2

= + 2

(2.2)

The same result in (2.2) above can be obtained by the use of residue Inversion formula for Laplace

transform:

THOEREM 1. If the Laplace Transform of

= =

Then

1 =

Where is the sum of Residues of () at the poles of () [3].

Now, consider (2.1) above, where =

+1

+2

Then,

= 0 = lim 0

0

= lim0

+1

+2

+1

= 0 =

2

2

+1

= 2 = lim + 2

2

+2

= lim0

Hence, from Theorem 1

1

+1

2 +2

+1

+2

= 2

2

= + 2

This is the exact result obtained using partial fractions method and Laplace transforms table.

Consider the initial value problem of Linear Ordinary Differential equation with constant coefficients

2 = 4 , 0 = 2 0 = 3

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11655659

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(3.1)

57 | Page

By solving (3.1) using Laplace transform method

Given

2 = 4 0 = 2 0 = 3

+ 2 = 4

2 0 0 + 0 2 = {4}

=

2 0 0 + 0 2 =

4

2 2 3 + 2 2 =

2 + 2 = + 2 + 5

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

1 = 1

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

(3.2)

Express

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

= +

11

3

+2

1

3

+2

Now,

1

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

= = 1

+ 1

1

3

+2

+ 1

11

3

1

11

= 2 + 2 +

(3.3)

3.4.

SOLVE (3.2) USING RESIDUE INVERSION APPROACH

Consider the working of problem (3.1) up to (3.2) above. The same result in (3.3) above can be obtained from

(3.2) above by the application of residue Inversion approach for inverse Laplace transform as establish above;

Recalled from Theorem 1

1 = the sum of Residues of () at the poles of ()

From (3.2), =

2 2 +5+4

+2)(1

But,

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11655659

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58 | Page

= 0 = lim 0

0

2 2 + 5 + 4

2 2 + 5 + 4

= lim

= 2

0

+ 2)( 1

+ 2)( 1

Similarly,

11

= 1 =

3

And

1

= 2 = 2

3

Hence,

1

2 2 + 5 + 4

+ 2)( 1

1

11

= 2 + 2 +

=

3

3

IV. Conclusion

In comparing the methods of finding the inverse Laplace transform from the Residue inversion

approach and the traditional method of resolving into partial fraction with the use of tables, both results are

exact and valid. However, the method by Residue inversion is more direct, precise, efficient, time saving and

has no need of resolving into partial fraction nor referring to Laplace transform tables at anytime for the

complete solution of the ODE. Also, the residue inversion approached has to its advantage a fast and direct way

of obtaining the solution of the ODE without the rigor of solving for the Homogeneous solution first, then

finding the particular solution before applying the initial conditions in other to get the final solution of the ODE

as it is the case with other algebraic methods of solving linear ODEs.

Reference:

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

Churchill R.V, Brown J.W and Verhey R.F (1974). Complex Variables and Applications, 3rd Edition, Mac Graw-hill book.co

Dass, H.K (2008). Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 21st Revised Edition, pg 927-931. S.Chand and Company Ltd. New Delhi.

Mark J. Ablowitz, Athanassios S. Fokas: Complex Variable; Introduction and Application.Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-48523-1

Sambo Dachollom, Abashi, Bulus Ayuba and Dongs, Dung Pam. (2015). Application of Cauchy Residue Theorem in the solution of

Some Integrals, Proceeding of International Conference on Humanities, Science and Sustainable Development, Vol. 8, Number10,

Pg 93-103.

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11655659

www.iosrjournals.org

59 | Page

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