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IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM

)
e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. V (Nov. - Dec. 2015), PP 77-82
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Construction of BIBD’s Using Quadratic Residues
Dr.K.Vijayalakshmi,
Loyola Academy, Secunderabad, Telengana
Definition: Let v, k, and λ be positive integers such that v > k ≥ 2. A (v, k, λ)-balanced incomplete block
design (which we abbreviate to (v, k, λ)-BIBD) is a design (X,A) such that the following properties are
satisfied:
1. |X| = v,
2. Each block contains exactly k points, and
3. Every pair of distinct points is contained in exactly λ blocks.
Property 3 in the definition above is the “balance” property. A BIBD iscalled an incomplete block design
because k < v, and hence all its blocks are incomplete blocks.
A BIBD may possibly contain repeated blocks if λ > 1
Example: 1. A (7, 3, 1)-BIBD. X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, and
A = {123, 145, 167, 246, 257, 347, 356}.
The blocks of the BIBD are the six lines and the circle in this diagram.

2. A (9, 3, 1)-BIBD. X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, and
A = {123, 456, 789, 147, 258, 369, 159, 267, 348, 168, 249, 357}.
The 12 blocks of the BIBD are depicted as eight lines and four triangles. Observe that the blocks can be
separated into four sets of three, where each of these four sets covers every point in the BIBD.
3. A (10, 4, 2)-BIBD.
X = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, and A = {0123, 0145, 0246, 0378, 0579, 0689, 1278, 1369, 1479, 1568, 2359,
2489, 2567, 3458, 3467}.
4. A (7, 3, 2)-BIBD containing a repeated block.
X = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, and A = [123, 145, 167, 246, 257, 347, 356,123, 147, 156, 245, 267, 346, 357].
In a (v, k, λ)-BIBD, every point occurs in exactly r = λ(v − 1)/ k − 1 blocks.

I.

Quadratic Residues

2

Consider the congruence ax  bx  c  0 mod p ………………….(1)
Where p is an odd prime and p does not divide a. i.e. g.c.d (a, p) =1.since p is an odd prime we have
(4a,p) = 1, 4 a ( ax

2

 bx  c )  0 mod p using 4 a ( ax

The given congruence can be written as ( 2 ax  b )
Put X  2 ax  b and N = b

2

2

2

 (b

 bx  c )  ( 2 ax  b )
2

2

 (b

2

 4 ac )

 4 ac ) mod p

 4 ac

2

We get X  N mod p……………………..(2)
if x  x 0 (mod p ) is a solution of (1) then X  2 ax 0  b (mod p) satisfies (2).

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11657782

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77 | Page

Construction of BIBD’s Using Quadratic Residues Conversely if y  y 0 (mod p ) is a solution of (2) then 2 ax  y 0  b (mod solution of (1). 10. m 2  1 if n R p. 8.9790/5728-11657782 www. 3. hence 2 is incongruent to 1 mod p is (n/p) =-1. 2 Proof: the numbers given above are distinct mod p. 62 =36  3. From little Fermat‟s theorem we have n p 1 n p 1  1  (n p 1  1 (mod p ) if p does not divide n. Legendre’s Symbol: Let p be an odd prime. 7. Suppose (n /p) =1  an x such that x2 n (modp) and hence p 1 n p 1  (x ) 2 2 2  x p 1  1  ( n / p ) modp p 1 Suppose (n/p) = -1 and consider the polynomial f (x)  x 2 1 p 1 Since f (x) has the degree p-1/2 f(x)0 (mod p) has at most 2 p 1 solutions but the 2 quadratic residues p 1 n mod p are solutions so the non-residues are not. 4.The quadratic residues belong to the residue classes containing the numbers 12. Finding a solution of (1) is equivalent to finding a solution to x p ) can be solved to obtain a 2  a (mod p ) . we define Legendre symbol  n / p  as follows:  n / p   1 if n R p and  n / p    For example 1 / p   1 . If the congruence has no solution then we say that n is a quadratic non residue mod p and we write n R p.……10 and reduce to mod 11.  22 / 11   0 Also  m / p    n / p  whenever m  n(mod p).1 ≤ y ≤ 2 if x 2 p 1 2 2  y (mod p )  ( x  y )( x  y )  0 mod p. For 1≤ x ≤ p 1 . 2 If the congruence x  n (mod p ) where p is an odd prime and p does not divide n Then we say that n is a quadratic residue mod p and we write n R p. 9 and the quadratic non residues are 2. Theorem: Let p an odd prime then every reduced residue system mod p contains exactly p 1 quadratic 2 residues and exactly quadratic non residues mod p. 3. Then for all n we have  n / p   n 2 (mod p ) Proof: clearly the result is true when n  0(mod p)since both the numbers are congruent to 0 mod p. But p 1   1 (mod n 2 p) so DOI: 10. 32 = 9. 22. If p does not divide n. 82=649. p 1  1 )( n 2 2 p 1   1 (mod  1 ) Therefore n p) .so  n / p  is a periodic function of n with period p. 5. 22=4.. 72 = 49  5. 6. ( p 1 2 ) . if n  0 mod p we define  n / p   0  / p  0 . 2 p 1 Euler’s criterion: let p be an odd prime.  7 / 11    1 .……. 52 =253. 12 = 1. x  y  0 mod p (since 1 < x+y < p) 2 2 hence x = y. Since ( p  k )  k (mod p ) every quadratic residue is congruent mod p to exactly one of the numbers. 2.org 78 | Page . Example: To find quadratic residues mod 11 we square the numbers 1. 32. 42 = 16  5. 102= 100 1 Therefore quadratic residues mod 11 are 1.iosrjournals.

 ( p r ) r  Where p1. 2 We know that there exists asemi-primitive root for mod m whenever m = p . Then exp ma = (m).In these cases it was found to be convenient to define a function (m)called universal exponent of mod m (m) is defined as follows: (1) = 1 (2) =  (2) = 2-1if  = 1. for  3 also for m = p1. ----..  1   ( 2 . p 1  n / p   n 2 (mod p ) Definition:We define a semi-primitive root mod mas follows:Suppose „a‟ is any integer and m is a positive integer such that (a. whose exponent mod m is (m). Theorem2: There exists a semi-primitive root for mod m where m = 22. ( p )) 2 Hence there exists a semi-primitive root for mod 22.22.  ( p )]  [  ( 2 ).An integer.org 79 | Page .2p. Theorem 4: There exists a semi-primitive root for mod m when m =p1p2 where p1 and p2 DOI: 10.2.  ( p )] =  (  ( 2 ). there exists a .2 =  (2)/2 = 2-2 if 2.We say that „a‟ is a semi-primitive root mod m if exp m a =  (m ) .p. there exists a semi-primitive root for mod p and for mod 2 p. (p ) 2 2   (m )  =  (p)  (m ) 2 2 2    ( 2 ).pr are distinct odd primes and [ . m ) = 1.p Theorem 3:There exists a semi-primitive root for mod 2if 3. We know that from the properties of exponents that if exp ma = t then expman = t/(n.]denotes L.primitive root for mod 22. Proof: let m = p and 2. ( p ) 2   ( m )   [( 2 ).p) = 2...9790/5728-11657782 www.t) Suppose „a‟ is primitive root mod m. p 1 .expma2 = (m)/(2. (m)) = (m)/2 Therefore whenever a is a primitive root.. p3. p r 2     r )   ( 2 ). Theorem: There exists a semi-primitive root for mod (p ) and for mod 2 p for 2.M of  and .Construction of BIBD’s Using Quadratic Residues p 1 n   1 (mod p )  ( n / p ) mod p 2 . Existence of semi-primitive roots: Now we establish some results on existence of Semi-primitive roots.primitive root of m. p 2 .e for every „a‟ relatively primeto 2suppose m = 2 we have exp  2  a   (2 )  (m) =(2) = (p ) 2 =  (m ) 2 Hence there exists a semi-primitive root for mod 2.p2 where p1 and p2 are distinct odd primes and at least one prime is of the form 4n+3.i..p-1(p-1).p. As there exists primitive roots for mod p and for mod 2 p we have..p Proof: From the definition of .. (p) =  (p) where p is an odd prime.. p2 . a2 is a semi-primitive root. Proof: There exists a -primitive root for mod 2if 3.C. (m) = (22.primitive root..  ( p 1 1 ). is called .iosrjournals.  (m )  = 2..

A subset S of G of order k is called a difference set in G with parameters (v.Then Now  ( m )   (m ) if ( p 1  1 . we writeg + S = {g +s : sS} It is clear that if S is a (v. Thus we see that each non zero element in G Occurs exactly once as a difference of two elements of S.org 80 | Page .Show that S is a difference set in G. For each I = 1.s2. Hence k(k-1) =(v-1). y) of elements in S such that a = x .) . k. 2. 2 .  ( p 2 )  ( p 1  1 ).2 = 2. 4 . G has v-1 non zero elements.p2 is of the form 4n+3. 2 Definition: Let G be an additive abelian group of order v. Proof: Let m = p1p2.Therefore there exists a semi-primitive root for mod m when m =p1p2 where p1 and p2are distinct odd primes and at least one prime is of the form 4n+3. and for each non zero element a G. there are  ordered pairs (x.2. On the other hand. 1).1  k   ( p ) p 1 1 a 2 p 1  (g k 2 ) (mod p) Since g is a primitive root mod p we have p -1 divides k. Proof: Because S has k elements.  ( p 2 )    ( p 1 ).) if for each non zero a G. k. Theorem: Let S be a difference set in a group G with parameters (v. there are exactly  ordered pairs (x. let Bi = gi+ S = S=gi+s :sS}. 4}.9790/5728-11657782 www. Example: Let G = Z7 be the additive group of integers modulo 7. Hence S is a difference set in with parameters (7. ). y) S×S such that a = x – y. We have 1 .  ( p 2 ) (  ( p 1 ). p 1 2  k is an integer 2  a  (g i.……sk}be a difference set in a group G = {g1. then for every g  G.then k(k-1) =(v-1). g  G Theorem:Let S = {s1. Let S= {1.). p 2  1 )  2 2  ( m )   ( p 1 ). g + S is also a (v. we have a = x – y  (g + x) – (g + y) Thus S determines v difference sets g + S.p2-1) = 2 If at least one of p1.  ( p 2 ))  ( p 1 ). p) = 1 we have a  g (mod p ). 3.iosrjournals. the number of ordered pairs (x.gv}with parameters (v.e k  m 2 m 2 ) (mod p )  g m is a solution of x 2  a (mod p ) Therefore a is a quadratic residue mod p.1= 3.difference set in G.  ( p 2 ) ( p 1  1.  ( p 2 )     ( p 1 ).).difference set . k.Construction of BIBD’s Using Quadratic Residues are distinct odd primes and at least one prime is of the form 4n+3. y) S×S such that xy is equal to k(k-1). k. 2 – 4 = 5. p 1 Proof: a is a semi primitive root mod p  a 2  1 (mod Since p is an odd prime p has a primitive root say g. Theorem: If „a‟ is semi-primitive root mod p then „a‟ is a quadratic residue mod p.……v. 4 . and find its parameters.1=1.2 = 6.( p 2  1 ) 2 2  ( m )   ( p 1 ). However converse is not true as there are ((p)/2 semi-primitive roots and p 1 quadratic residues.y. Solution: Writing the non zero differences of all of all ordered pairs of elements in S.4 = 4. k. 1.……. p 2  1 ) Clearly (p1-1. p) k Since (a.g2.( p 2  1 )  (m )  ( p 1  1 ). Given a subset S of G and an element g in G. Then DOI: 10.

there is one to one correspondence between S(1) and S(a). 2 Therefore we have  ( p  1 )  ( p 1 2 )( p 1  1)    2 p 3 4  p 1  2 Thus Qp is a difference set with parameters  p . 2}. p  3 . -ay). i = 0. Now suppose a Qp . given by (x.{2. Then –a  Qp. 1}. a Qp. y) (ax. 1+S = {2. 2}. we have p 1 is an odd integer. ay Qp. . on the contrary . 2. Q11 is a difference set with parameters (11. 3. Thus (  a y .{0. Conversely 1 1 ) y   ( a if ( x . Now a.org 81 | Page . Hence . 3. 5}. 1 a  a 1 -ax) ( x   y )  (  a S(a). DOI: 10. this proves that Qp is a difference set in the additive group Zp. a-1 Qp. 1. Let (x. 2) in the additive group Z11.y‟.3}.……Bv} is a symmetric BIBDonthe set withparameters(v. 6}. y) such that x. 3. 0}. 4  Proof: we first show that -1 Qp. 5. Hence 1 a (–ay. then –a=(-1)a  Qp. t) Example: Find the set of quadratic residues modulo 11. We claim that there is a one to one correspondence between S(1) and S(a). p  3 . If (x. and hence 1  a 1 a  a 1 1 ( x   y )  a 1 x  a 1 y. {6.Then 1= x. 4 + S = {5.Construction of BIBD’s Using Quadratic Residues D = {B1.Thus we have a one to one correspondence between S(1) and S(a). 4. Consider first the case where aQp.a-1 Qp and hence -a-1 Qp. 4. 3}} is a symmetric BIBD on the set Z7 with parameters (7. 0. II.. 3. 5..So there is a one to one correspondence between S(1) and S(a). ay). We now show that Qp is a difference set in the additive group Zp. 4. let S(a) denote the set of ordered pairs (x. 6. y  )  S ( a ) . 5}.y. Hence working in the field Zp. ay  S(a). 1}. Since p  3(mod4). 5. there are exactly  ordered pairs of elements in Zp such that a = x. y) (-ax. k. 2.{4. 4}.  1  (  1) 2  (x ) 2  x Conversely let (x' .{3. 5 + S ={6. then a = x‟.y) = ax-ay. 2. 1. x. It was proved in [ 6 ] that Theorem: Let p be an odd prime such that p  3(mod4).  a x  )  S (1) . y)  S(1). 5. Solution: The quadratic residues modulo 11 are {1. x –y =a. Thus for any a in Zp* either a Qp or -aQp. y) S(1). If possible suppose -1=x2 for some xZp*. then –a = (-1)a Qp. a contradiction. . ButZp*is a group of order p-1 and hence x Thus -1 cannot be a quadratic residue modulo p. 2 +S = ={3.B2. Then S ( a )   for every non zero a in Zp. 1).Then Qp is a difference set in the additive group Zp  p 1  2 with parameters  p . 6. Then )x 1 1 Since a  Qp. 6}.9790/5728-11657782 www. 5. 0}. 1)-difference set in the additive group Z7 = {0. for every non zero a in Zp. ). 4}. 2t +1. So ( a x   a y  )S(1). ……10. Now Z p  p and Q p  p 1 . 4. If .{5. 3. there exists a symmetric BIBD with parameters (4t + 3. 2. i. y Qp. 1 Since Qp is a sub group of Zp*.y‟ ) S(a). 3+S = {4. 0. 4} is a (7. and construct the symmetric BIBD determined by it. 1.y and hence a = a(x. Now we find the symmetric BIBD with the following blocks as follows: 0 + S= {1. 4  Result: For every positive integer t such that 4t + 3 is a prime. 6+S = {0. For any nonzero a in Zp. Example:We have seen that S = {1.e for every non zero a in Zp. So ax.The blocks of the symmetric design D on the set Z11 determined by the difference set S=Q11 are i+s. 1. 6}. given by (x. Let aZp*.iosrjournals. we have 2 p 1 p 1 2 p 1 p 1   1 . 9. Since 113 (mod 4). 3} So D = {{1. We write   S (1 ) .If a Qp. y Qp and hence ax. Then a  a ( x  y )  ax  ay  (  a ) y  (  a ) x .

[4]. 8 . 5 . 3 . 3 . II (March.M. B.10 . Springer. [2]. 6 .iosrjournals. Grimaldi.10 . 4 .Vijayalakshmi “Properties of Semi primitive roots” in IOSR Journal of Mathematics Vol. 2     6 . 9 . References [1]. 5 . 0 . 4 . 9 . 7 .By Dr. 7 . Wilson. 7 . 3 . 9 .10 . 6 .Feb 2013. 9 .5. 3 .1.Vijayalakshmi.K. 0 . [6]. “Existence of Semi Primitive root Mod pα” in IOSR Journal of Mathematics p-ISSN2319-765X. A course in Combinatorics second edition. DOI: 10.1. 9 . Tom M. 2 . Nagpaul and S. Topics in Applied Abstract Algebra by S. 6 . [3]. Jan . 5. PP14-17. 10 . Vol. 7 . 0 . 4 .8 . 8  So D =  D is a symmetric BIBD with parameters (11. 2).No.11. 6 . 4 . Issue2. ver. 2 . Ralph P.1. By Dr. V. 5 .1. Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics “An Applied Introduction” 5 th Edition.Jain American mathematical society. R. 0 . Apostal. 2 .April 2015). 7 .10 .Van Lint and R. [5].H. Ramana.Construction of BIBD’s Using Quadratic Residues  1.9790/5728-11657782 www.K. 8 .K.8 . 5 . 4 .org 82 | Page . Issue 4. 2 . 5 . 3 . Introduction to Number theory. 0 . J.