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SHIP SECURITY OFFICER

(1) COURSE DEVELOPED UNDER ISPS CODE


OF IMO.

(2) AIM OF THE COURSE IS TO PREPARE


PERSONNEL TO UNDERTAKE SHIP
RELATED SECURITY ACTIVITIES AND
UNDERSTAND COMPANY AND PORT FACILITY
SECURITY ACTIVITIES IN ACCORDANCE
TO ABOVE

The Threat To Maritime


Sector

Year 1990
Theft
Piracy
Illegal Drugs
Stowaways
Terrorism

Year 2001
Illegal Drugs
Criminal Acts
Stowaways
Piracy
Terrorism

Impact of Terrorism on
Maritime Industry
(1) Security was breached on 7th October 1985 when 4 armed
Terrorists boarded passenger liner Achille Lauro.
They were from Abu Abbas Palestine Liberation Front.
(2) 26th September 1986- IMO brought out Convention to
prevent Unlawful Acts Against Passengers and Crew on
board merchant ships , called SUA (MSC/CIRC443)

Terrorist Attacks
ACHILLE LAURO

1985

USS COLE

2000

WORLD TRADE CENTER & PENTAGON 2001


VLCC LIMBURG

2002

ISPS CODE & SOLAS


AMENDMENTS 2002
Chapter XI-1
Ships Identification Number and Continuous Synopsis Record

Chapter XI-2
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) code
Part A-- Mandatory
Part B-- Recommendatory guidelines to Part A
(became mandatory in many countries by law)

ISPS Code
ISPS CODE DEFINES CLEAR WAY
TO PROTECT MARITIME INDUSTRY
FROM SECURITY BREACHES OR
SECURITY THREAT

Security Legislation IMO

1983 Assembly Resolutions A545(13)

-Measures to prevent acts of piracy and armed robbery


against ships

1985 Assembly Resolutions A584(14)

-Measures to prevent unlawful acts which threaten the


safety of ships and security of their passengers and crew

1986 MSC/ Circ 443

-Measures to prevent unlawful acts against passengers


and crew on board ships

Security Legislation IMO

1988 SUA Convention


-Convention for the suppression of unlawful acts
against safety of maritime navigation

1988 Protocol to SUA Convention


- Protocol for the suppression of unlawful acts against

the safety of fixed platform located in the continental


shelf 1988

1996 MSC/ Circ 754


- Passenger ferry Security

Reactions of USA

prior to Sept 11 2001

Code of Federal Regulation(CFR)


NVIC 03-96
Security for passenger vessels and passenger
terminals
- Procedures for the implementation of security measures
- Guidelines for ship and terminal security plans
- Verification of security plans done by USCG

Security legislation awaken!

Sept 2001- Terrorist strike in USA shocking whole world


19-30 Nov 2001- 22nd Assembly of IMO proposed to hold a
Conference on Maritime Security in December 2002, to adopt
new regulations to enhance ship and port security
Feb-May 2002- Inter-session Working Group (ISWG) on
maritime security produced series of recommendations
Sept 2002- A second ISWG was held in order to smoothen
out complexity of the issues on security proposals
Dec 2002- Diplomatic conference on maritime security was
held and ISPS code has been developed, scheduled to be
implemented through SOLAS Chapter XI

ISPS Code Applicability

All shipping companies, port authorities and


representative governments to ensure compliance
with ISPS code on or before 1st July 2004
Modifications to Chapter V contain a new time table
for fitting Automatic Information Systems(AIS) to
ships, other than passenger ships and tankers of
300 grt and above, but less than 50000grt not later
than first safety equipment survey after 1st July
2004 or by 31st December 2004 whichever be earlier

ISPS Code Applicability

Chapter XI-- previously covering ship safety are split as


Chapter XI-1 special measures to enhance maritime
safety & inclusion of ships Identification number to be
carved in not later than the first scheduled dry-docking of
the ship after 1st July 2004 and carriage of Continuous
Synopsis Record, for ships constructed before 1st July 2004,
the CSR shall at least provide the history of ship as from 1st
July 2004

Chapter XI-2special measures to enhance maritime


security, includes requirements of ISPS code Part A & Part B

ISPS Code summary

Enables detection and deterrence of security


threats within an international framework
Establishes roles and responsibilities
Enables collection and exchange of security
information
Provides a methodology for assessing security
Ensures that adequate security measures are in
place

The Threat to Maritime


Sector

BOMB THREAT OR HOAX


Disgruntled employee
Mentally unstable person
Politically motivated groups
SABOTAGE
Employee/Passenger

The Threat to Maritime


Sector

BOMB ATTACK (SHIP)


Internal
External
Terrorist groups
BOMB ATTACK (PORT FACILITY)
Terrorist groups
Politically motivated groups

The Threat to Maritime


Sector

SIMULATED ARMS ATTACK


Mentally unstable
person/passenger
PIRACY
Criminal gangs
HI-JACK/ARMED ATTACK
Terrorist group

ISPS Code Objectives

To establish an international framework to detect


security threat and take preventive measures
against incidents affecting ships or port facilities
To establish roles and responsibilities at the
national and international level for ensuring
Maritime Security
To ensure early and efficient collection and
exchange of security-related information
To provide a methodology of Security
Assessment
To ensure confidence in maintaining SECURITY

ISPS code applicability

The following types of ships engaged on


international voyages
Passenger ships including high speed
passenger craft
Cargo ships including passenger craft of 500
GRT and above
Mobile offshore drilling units
Port Facilities serving above ships
internationally

GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY

Approve SSP and relevant amendments


Issuing International Ship security Certificate
Approval of Port Facility Security Assessment
Designating Port Facility to appoint PFSO
Setting applicable Security Level
Approve PFSP and relevant amendments
Exercising control measures
Testing approved plans & liaison with IMO

GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY (CONTD)

Designate or establish. Designated Authorities


within government for Security duty under
ISPS Code
DA may also delegate certain responsibility to
Recognized Security Organizations (RSO)
exceptingSetting of applicable Security Levels
Approval of PFSA (Port Facility Security assessment)
Preparation, alteration of PFSP & Designating Port
Facility
Approving a PFSP and relevant amendments
Exercising Control Measures
Establishing Requirements for Declaration of Security
(DOS)

RECOGNIZED SECURITY ORGANIZATION (RSO)

Ship Security Assessment (SSA)


Preparation of Ship Security Plans (SSP)
Review and approval of SSP, but not in the
case where RSO was involved in preparation of
SSA or SSP
Issuing an International Ship Security
Certificate on behalf of the contracting
Government or DA
Conducting a PFSA
Preparation of PFSP
Verification of Ship Security Systems and any
associated Security Equipment

RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMPANIES

To appoint Company Security Officer


(CSO)
To appoint Ship Security Officer (SSO)
Ship Security Assessments (SSA)
Creation & Implementation of of SSP
Supervision and periodic review of SSP
Training of CSO/DCSO and SSOs
To ensure Maintenance of Continuous
Synopsis Record (CSR)

SHIP SECURITY ALERT


The Ship Security Alert System, when activated, shall
initiate & transmit a ship-to-shore security alert to a
competent authority designated by the Administration,
which in these circumstances may include the Company,
identifying the ship, its location & indicating that the
security of the ship is under threat or has been
compromised.

Ship Security Alert System


Designated Authority (D.A) have to finalize
approval and type of ship security alert
to be used in representative countrys ships
D.A in IndiaD.G.Shipping
It is proposed to activate ship security alert
Through GMDSS
RSO in India-- IRS

SECURITY

The condition achieved when designated info


material, personnel, activities and installation
against Espionage, Sabotage, Subversion, Te
as well as against loss or unauthorized disclo

Attack Elements
Espionage
Sabotage
Subversion
Terrorism
Criminal
-DrugsStowaways--Piracy

Principles of Security

Security Intelligence
Protective Security
Threat Assessment
Identify Targets
Prioritization
Concentration of Effort

Principles of Security
(contd)

The three needs (1) to know (2) to hold


(3) to take
Systematic Audit
Ownership of the Risk
Education and Training
Common sense measures
Effective networking and Vigilance

Risk Assessment
RISK = THREAT + VULNERABILITY

On Board Security Survey

Ship security plan


CSO/SSO/master
Ships IMO marking
Continuous Synopsis
Record
Designated &
possible access
points
Control, Monitoring
& Inspection process

Restricted Areas
Cargo spaces,
equipment & cargo
stowage
Navigation
Communication
Evacuation system
External lighting
Stores/Provisions/
Bunkering/Water

On Board Security Survey

Key controls
IT systems
Security Training
Security Equipment
Contingency Plan
Security Patrols
Records and
Documentation

The Company Security Officer (CSO) shall ensure


that the Ship Security Assessment is carried out
by persons with appropriate skills to evaluate
the SECURITY of a ship, in accordance with Part A
of ISPS code & being guided appropriately by
Part B of the Code

On-scene Security Survey

The on-scene Security Survey is an integral


part of any SSA. The on-scene survey should
examine and evaluate existing shipboard
protective measures as follows
Ensuring the performance of all ship security duties
Monitoring restricted areas for authorized access
Controlling access to ship/ Identification methods
Monitoring of deck areas and areas surrounding ship

Security Levels

Level 1 The level for which minimum appropriate


protective security measures shall be maintained at
all times (NORMAL)
Level 2 The level for which appropriate additional
measures shall be maintained for a period of time as
a result of heightened risk of a security incident
(HEIGHTENED)
Level 3 The level which require further specific
protective security measures, may be for a limited time
when security incident is probably imminent ( high risk
areas),may not be possible to identify specific target
(EXCEPTIONAL)

ACCESS POINTS TO SHIP

Gangways
Ladders
Ramps
Doors and shell openings
Mooring lines and Anchor chains
Cranes and Hoisting gear
Identification systems
Screening measures

Restricted Areas on board


The purposes of Restricted Areas are
(1) To protect sensitive security areas
within the ship
(2) To protect cargo and stores from
tampering
(3) To prevent unauthorized access

Restricted Areas on board

The Bridge
Radio Room (if separate)
Engine Room
Engine Control Room
Bow Thruster Room
Steering Gear Room
Fire fighting control Room

Restricted Areas on board

Emergency Generator Room


Ventilation and A/C system
Cargo Pump Room
Cargo spaces and Provisions area
Crew Accommodation

All above must be clearly marked, indicating


access restricted to authorized personnel only

Measures for Restricted Areas


(1) Locking or Securing access points
(2) Use of surveillance equipment like CCTV

(3) Guards and patrols


(4)Automatic intrusion detection systems

Handling of Cargo and stores


Measures imposed should
(1)
Prevent tampering
(2)
Prevent cargo not meant for carriage being
accepted on board
(3)
Ensure checking of ships stores
(4)
Prevent stores accepted without inspection
(5)
Prevent stores accepted unless ordered

These may be accomplished by

Visual and physical examination


Use of screening equipment
Use of mechanical devices
Use of trained dogs (shore side)
Documentation

Unaccompanied Baggage
This is defined as any baggage that is not taken
personally on to ship by passengers, crew or
visitors.
The following are to be detailed
(1) Identification of baggage e.g labels
(2) Screening and searching methods in the
port or on board
(3) Equipment used for the above

Ship Security Officer (Duty)

Undertakes regular security inspections of ship


Maintains and supervises the implementation of SSP,
including any amendment.
Coordinating the security aspects of the handling of cargo
and ships stores with other ships crew and the PFSO.
Proposing modifications of the SSP.
Reporting deficiencies and NC identified during internal
audits, reviews, security inspections and verification of
compliance and implementing any corrective actions.

Ship Security Officer (Duty)

Enhancing security awareness and vigilance on


board
Ensuring that adequate training has been provided
to crew members
Reporting and recording all security incidents
Coordinating and implementation of the SSP with
the CSO and relevant PFSO
Ensuring that Security Equipment is maintained

Company Security Officer (Duty)

Advising the level of threats likely to be encountered by ship


Ensuring that ship security assessments are conducted.
Ensuring development, submission for approval and
thereafter the implementation and maintenance of SSP.
Ensuring that SSP is modified, as appropriate, to correct
deficiencies.
Arranging for Internal Audits and periodic reviews of ships
Security activities.
Arranging for the initial and subsequent verifications of ship

Company Security Officer (Duty)

Ensuring that deficiencies and non-conformities that are


identified are promptly addressed.
Enhancing security awareness and vigilance.
Ensuring adequate training of personnel responsible for the
security of the ship.
Ensuring effective communication and co-operation
between SSO and relevant PFSO.
Ensuring consistency between security & safety of ships.
If sister ship or fleet security plans in use, plan for each ship
reflects the ship-specific information accurately.

Duties of SSO (Reporting)


The SSO reports to the Master
of the vessel and, where
appropriate, directly to the CSO

Declaration of Security (DOS)

The main purpose is to ensure


agreement is reached between the ship
and port facility or with other ships with
which it interfaces, to confirm the
security measures each will be
undertaken in accordance with the
provisions of their respective approved
security plans
ISPS code part B para 5.4, page 55

DOS Consulting Process

The request for a DOS requires consultation


between the concerned PFSO and SSO
The agreed DOS should be signed and
dated by both the port facility and the
ship, to indicate compliance with the code

Process for DOS

A DOS can be requested at higher security levels or


Where there is considered to be higher risk for reasons
specific to that vessel, its cargo, passengers or the
circumstances at the port facility or any combination of the
above
A change in security level may require a new or revised DOS
The DOS should be completed in English, French or
Spanish, or in a language common to both port facility and
ship(s)

Form of a DOS

Name of the ship


Port of Registry
IMO Number ( a seven digit unique number)
Name of Port Facility
Date the DOS is valid from/to
Security level for the ship
Security level for the port facility

Piracy

Countermeasures

Management Measures

Route Planning
Security of Information
Communications Security
Manning Review
Due diligence and vetting of staff
Incident reports & Monitoring
Training, Skills and Drills
Situation awareness

On Board Measures

Radio Silence
Additional Watch/ Guard/ Patrols
Speed & Man oeuvre
Minimize periods at anchor
Seal & Secure
Rig fire hoses
All round lighting/ illumination

Stowaway countermeasures

Conduct regular stowaway awareness training/drills


Review Port Security for ships
Develop a stowaway-handling manual
Prepare stock media responses
Place equipment and supplies on board each ship
Conduct/ document ship searches following each port of call
Maintain an effective and permanent gangway watch
Supervise longshoremen and stevedores
Be alert to problem ports

TRAINING

Classroom Training course


Practical onboard Training for SSO
and other shipboard personnel
Interactive video Training

Training on board

How to use and calibrate security equipment


How to search a space for devices
How to search a bag or a person or stores
How to recognize persons likely to commit a
breach of Security
How to respond to a breach of security

Training on board

How people try to circumvent Security


What to communicate during a security
incident
How to recognize weapons, dangerous devices
or substances
How to patrol, what to look for, how to control
an area
How to control people

Computer based Training


Very effective in that it allows
A person to train at his own leisure
Records the training regime for evidence
Allows you to train at your own speed
Allows you to train again & again at same cost
Disadvantages
Does not clarify doubts
Very rigid in content
Does not give examples

Security Search Questions

Why am I doing this?

What am I looking for?

Where would I choose to hide


something?

SEARCH PLAN

Search plans should be prepared in advance and


included in ships drill/exercise. The objective is to
make sure that the whole vessel is checked as
quickly and effectively as possible.
If the ship does not have a methodical search plan,
search will be slow, costly and worrying for all
those concerned.

Initiating Search

Sending message to search teams over


a P.A system. It should be coded to
avoid unnecessary disruption & alarm.
Use of personal radios/ pagers.

A telephone cascade system may be


used if there is one.

How to initiate search


The conduct of searches will depend on local
Circumstances and local knowledge.
The overriding principle is that they should be
Conducted in a systematic and thorough manner
So that no part is left unchecked.
The searchers need to practice in regular drills,
To get a feel for the logical progression through
Their area and the length of time taken.

Principles of Search

Staff search areas they work or live in


Two stage search
STAGE 1
-Routes from passenger area to muster station & off the ship
- Muster stations
-Life boats
-Medical facility
-Key locations e.g Bridge, Muster stations
STAGE 2 covers all other parts including crew areas of ship

Action on suspect item

The item must not be moved or interfered with. The


searcher must communicate promptly with SSO
Do not touch the object
Move away from it if it is a suspect IED
Communicate what has been found do not use a
hand held radio in the immediate vicinity of a
suspect IED
The person finding the suspect device/package
must remain on hand to brief security staff on the
exact location and description

Security Policy Notice

All persons boarding are required to


show a Boarding Pass
All persons and baggage are liable to be
searched
No drugs are allowed on board
No weapons are allowed on board
Only authorized visitors are allowed

RISK MANAGEMENT

Determine and enlist all assets to protect


Estimate value by assessing damage
Identify threats by type and current status
Identify vulnerabilities
Review security measures
Review security as a whole and be
prepared to continuously re-assess

What is Physical Security?


The Part of risk management that is concerned
with physical obstacles disposed in depth to

frustrate attempts to penetrate the Security


Defences

Ship Security Assessment

The SSA shall include an on-scene Security Survey and


following

Identification of existing security measures, procedures and


operations
Identification and evaluation of key ship board operations that
it is important to protect
Identification of possible threats to the key ship board
operations and the likelihood of their occurrence, in order to
establish and prioritize security measures
Identification of weaknesses, including human factors in the
infrastructure, policies and procedures

Ship Security Assessment


The Ship Security Assessment is an
essential and integral part of the
process of developing and updating
the Ship Security Plan

Ship Security Plan

Such a Plan must be developed taking guidelines of ISPS


code part B, shall address at least following
Measures designed to prevent weapons, dangerous
substances and devices intended for use against
persons, ships or port facility and the carriage of which
is unauthorized from being taken on board the ship.
Identification of the restricted areas and measures to
prevent unauthorized access to them.
Measures for prevention of unauthorized access to ship.
Procedure for responding to Security threats including
provisions for maintaining critical operations of ship or
ship/port interface.

Ship Security Plan (contd)

Procedure in responding to security instructions


contracting governments may give at level 3
Procedure for evacuation in case of security threats
Duties of shipboard personnel assigned security
responsibilities and of other shipboard personnel on
security aspects
Procedure for auditing the security activities
Procedure for training, drills and exercises on board
Procedure for interfacing with port facility security
Procedure for periodic review of the Plan for updating
Procedure for reporting security incidents
Identification of ship security officer

Ship Security Plan (contd)

Identification of company security officer & 24 hrs


contact details
Procedure to ensure inspection, testing, calibration,
maintenance of any security equipment placed on board
Frequency for testing/ calibration of security equipment
Identification of locations where the ship security alert
system activation points are provided
Procedures, instructions and guidance on the use of the
ship security alert system, including the testing,
activation, deactivation and resetting and to limit false
alerts

Concentration of Effort
Having Identified the likely targets as a result of
Conducting a risk assessment, the available Security
Effort should be concentrated on the most important
Targets, which should lead to an increased degree of
Security and reductions in both expense and
manpower

Defence In Depth
A series of interlocking, interdependent measures,
arranged in depth outwards from target, designed
to protect information, material, personnel and
Installation.
These measures are designed to highlight and
deter intruders, aid investigation and buy time