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Topic 1: Selection of Engineering Materials and Equipments

Materials Selection Criteria and
Standards

UEMK1103 - Introduction to Chemical Process and Electrical System - Rev Jan 2015

Material Selection is Important!
Besides than SOFTWARE ENGINEER, the designers of
any products must involve in material selection.

Your Decision!
So many materials! Too much information!

How do we decide?

How do we begin to choose?

Types of Materials • Metals • Alloys • Ceramics • Polymers .

fusible. malleable. with good electrical and thermal conductivity. shiny.METALS  a solid material that is typically hard. and ductile. .

ALLOYS  An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. .

Zinc Tin Brass Bronze Solder Copper + Zinc Copper + Tin Lead + Tin Steel Iron High Speed Steel High Speed Steel Cutting Tools Lead Silver Gold Mercury Mercury is the only non ferrous metal that is liquid at room temperature. Alloying. .Metals Ferrous Pure Ferrous Metals Non Ferrous Pure Non Ferrous Metals Ferrous Alloys Non Ferrous Alloys Copper Alum.

The rusting and magnetic properties in ferrous metals are both down due to the iron. Rusting. cast iron and steel. These materials are prone to rusting if exposed to moisture.Ferrous Metals / Alloys Ferrous metal is referring to iron (Fe). . Ferrous metals / alloys can also be picked up by a magnet. Ferrous alloys are consist mostly of iron and small amounts of other elements. Magnetism. Typical examples include mild steel.

Example: Stainless Steels  Type SS316 → 16% chromium.08%) Avoid corrosion problem caused by welding Used in pharmaceutical and food industry. no molybdenum. and 2% molybdenum  Type SS304 → 18% chromium. 8% nickel. SS316L SS304L • • • • ‘L’ → Low carbon content Maximum 0. .03% carbon (regular max 0. 10% nickel.

Example: Cast Iron  Is a very strong metal when it is in compression and is also very brittle.  It consists of 93% iron and 4% carbon plus other elements. manhole covers etc. car cylinders.  Used as car brake discs. .

Example: Mild Steel  Mild steel will rust quickly if it is in frequent contact with water.  Used as nuts and bolts. car bodies. building girders. gates etc .  Ductile and malleable.

tin and zinc.Non-ferrous Metals / Alloys Non-ferrous metals / alloys are metals /alloys that do not have any iron in them at all. Typical Non-ferrous metals include copper. This means that non-ferrous metals are not attracted to a magnet and they also do not rust in the same way when exposed to moisture. aluminium. .

Example: Aluminium  It is very light in weight. cooking foil. ladders. expensive bicycles.  Used for saucepans. . window frames.

Aluminium Extraction: Bauxite Mining .

Pahang (Source: Bernama / Astro Awani. Jan 6.Bauxite mining in Kuantan. 2016) (Source: Sinarharian. 2016) . Jan 12.

.Message  It’s important to recycle the aluminium cans.

Example: Copper  It is a very good conductor of heat and electricity.  red / brown in colour  Used for plumbing. electric components. cookware and roof coverings Heat Conductor Electricity Conductor .

Example: Solder  an alloy of Lead and Tin  fusible metal alloy used to join together metal work pieces and having a lower melting point than the work pieces (200C). .

Ceramics  Made of nonmetallic (clay) and firing at a high temperature. .Types of Materials .

Polymers  A polymer is a large molecule. composed of many repeated subunits. You will learn more in Polymer Science and Technology .Types of Materials . or macromolecule.

cheap. durable (for cables). cables  Light.Example: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)  Production of PVC  Applications: Piping & fittings. chemical resistant. rust resistant.  Can’t sustain under high temperature. non biodegradable .

PVC fittings PVC cables .

Material Properties • Chemical Properties • Physical Properties • Mechanical Properties • Dimensional Properties .

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES  Compositions  Crystal structure  A crystal structure composes of a unit cell.  Reactivity  The chemical reactions of two or more substances that interact with each other. which is periodically repeated in three dimensions on a lattice.  Corrosion resistance  The ability of a substance (especially a metal) to withstand damage caused by oxidization or other chemical reactions. . a set of atoms arranged in a particular way.

 Color . a measure of the void (empty) spaces in a material. refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment.  Porosity  Also known as void fraction.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  Melting point  Thermal conductivity  The property of a material to conduct heat  Electrical conductivity/resistivity  Material's ability to conduct an electric current/opposes the flow of electric current  Grain size  Also known as particle size.

 Ductility  The ability of a material to deform under tensile stress  Compressive properties  The capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size  Fracture toughness  The ability of a material containing a crack to resist fracture .MECHANICAL PROPERTIES  Tensile properties  Indicate the response of a material when tension/force is being applied.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES  Hardness  The resistant of solid matter to various kinds of permanent shape change  Creep resistance  The ability to resist any kind of distortion when under a load over an extended period of time. .  Fatigue  The weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads  Reinforcement  The process of strengthening or increasing the mechanical properties of a material.

flatness…) You will learn more in Material Science . length.DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES  Available shapes  Available sizes  Surface textures  Manufacturing tolerances (thickness. width.

Materials Selection What does it do? How does it do it? Where does it do it? Who uses it? What should it cost? .

For fizzy drinks. withstand pressure. Brand image & identity Easy to open Easy to store & transport Cheap for high volumes .Case Study – Soft Drink Container  Provide leak free environment for storing liquid.  Comply with food standards & protect liquid from health      hazards.

Case Study – Soft Drink Container Possible materials:  Aluminium  Glass  Plastic  Paper .

 Philosophy applied for maintenance and degree of system redundancy.  Design life time.  Environmental issues related to corrosion inhibition and other chemical treatments.  The number of different material types shall be minimized considering costs.Key factors applied to material selection  Operating conditions. interchangeability and availability of relevant spare parts.  Good market availability and documented fabrication and service performance. .

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.  Standard: A document which gives sizes/ rating/ joining methods of components.  Each country has its own Codes and Standards. which are converted into law. construction and installation. Normally American National standards are most widely used all over the world and compliance with those requirements are accepted globally.Engineering Codes and Standards  Code: A document which gives guidelines for design.

ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM The American Society for Testing and Materials ANSI The American National Standards Institute United Kingdom BSI British Standards Institute Germany DIN Deutsches Institute Normung France AFNOR Association Francoise Europe CEN Europe Community of Standardization Japan JIS Japanese Industrial Standards .Major Organizations of Standards Countries Organization U.S.A.