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LEADERSHIP SKILLS

SELF-STUDY SCRIPT

This project is financed by the UK Government.

Managers manage tasks, leaders develop people.

I.

Leading with Values

5

YOUR LEADERSHIP ROLES

II.

What is a Leader?

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ELEPHANT AND THE BLIND MEN
ISHAK ADIZEZ: WHAT IS A LEADER?

III. Qualities of a Good Leader

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BUILDING EXCELLENCE
TRAITS OF A GOOD LEADER
LEADERSHIP SELF-ASSESSMENT

IV. Situational Leadership

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YOUR LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR
ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF AN INDIVIDUAL
BUILDING COMPETENCE AND COMMITMENT
LEADERSHIP STYLES
MAPPING LEADERSHIP TO DEVELOPMENT LEVEL

V. Leadership and Human Behaviour

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MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
EXPANSION OF THE PYRAMID
CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ACTUALIZING PEOPLE

VI. Motivating Others

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GOING BEYOND MASLOW
HERZBERG’S HYGIENE AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
WHY DO PEOPLE NOT PERFORM WELL?
WHAT DO PEOPLE WANT FROM THEIR JOBS?

VII. Inspiring Leaders

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McGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y

VIII. Leadership Tools: Coaching and Decision Making

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COACHING
DECISION MAKING
CONSISTENCY AND FEEDBACK
THE BASIS OF RAPPORT

IX. Life Giving Feedback
THE GIFT OF FEEDBACK
SET OF STATEMENTS
INTERVIEW

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g. These key words should reflect how you perceive yourself when performing each role. Ken Kesey YOUR LEADERSHIP ROLES In this activity we would like to encourage you as leaders to think about your daily leadership role. You don’t lead by pointing and telling people some place to go. Then quickly write down key words that come to your mind when you think of those roles (listed below). You lead by going to that place and making a case. successful.com Self-Study Script 5 . solution Referee (settles interpersonal issues) Process Manager (ensures that goals are met) Procurer (finds and manages resources) Visionary Crisis Manager Motivator Task Master (good at delegating and performing tasks) Counsellor (helps with personal issues) Risk Taker Conduct a customer satisfaction survey 1 Leadership Activities and Exercises. Reality Check: www.1 Leader Roles Problem solver Key Words e. You may want to add a role that you perform but is not listed below.Leading with Values ◊ I. creative.workshopexercises. Complete the chart below and then use the key words to write a leadership statement that characterizes your approach to leadership.

either as manager or team member? c.I. What do I like most about my current job? b. What am I looking forward to most about the course? Leadership Skills 6 . What’s my leadership experience. WRITE A LEADERSHIP STATEMENT THAT CHARACTERIZES YOUR APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP: SUITCASE ACTIVITY In each corner of the suitcase please write: a.

” said the first man who touched his leg. One day the villagers told them.What is a Leader? ◊ II. “Even though we would not be able to see it. the elephant is a pillar.” Said the sixth man who touched the tusk of the elephant.e. “It is like a solid pipe.” said the fifth man who touched the belly of the elephant.” said the second man who touched the tail. there is an elephant in the village today. This indicates how through sharing and reflecting we can learn together. “Hey. “It is like a huge wall. let us go and feel it anyway.” They had no idea what an elephant is.” All of them went where the elephant was.2 2 British Council Active Citizens Facilitators’ Manual Self-Study Script 7 . Leader is a thumb Ishak Adizez ELEPHANT AND THE BLIND MEN Summary: The story introduces the idea that all of us have a piece of the puzzle and there is value in the many different ways we view the world Approach: 1. The moral of the story is that all of us have a piece of the puzzle. there lived six blind men in a village. no! It is like a thick branch of a tree. Every one of them touched the elephant. • • • • • • • • “Hey.” said the third man who touched the trunk of the elephant. They began to argue about the elephant and every one of them insisted that he was right. “Oh. they began to shout louder out their perspective louder and louder… 1. “Oh. They decided. What does this story tell us about the value of different perspectives? i. The blind men disagreed and fell into arguing but all of them had something to offer in understanding what an elephant looks like. “It is like a big hand fan” said the fourth man who touched the ear of the elephant. Share the below story with the group Once upon a time. there is a value in the many multiple realities through which we see the world. no! It is like a rope.

In my judgement. and what makes a good leader. The management process did not produce the results that were expected so a new fad emerged. we are actually changing the phenomenon. The word leadership is very much in vogue today. when amplifying the concept. Leadership Skills 8 .II. They are just management . this is another fad. At the beginning the process was called “administration”. And we believe that by changing the name. we are not. Whether it is an administrator. manager or leader the paradigm is still staying the same and that’s why it won’t work. What we really need is: Leadership. Now the word “executive” is not doing well either. We have seen the word “management” change over the years. And it’s the word executive. and some people are born leaders or how do you develop leaders. The executives are on a much higher level. There are many books written about leadership. Well.they are not executives. the word administration was relegated to some middle management. And the word management now was relegated to middle management. But then when administration didn’t produce the desired results.you see. Administration. But I would like to give a word of warning. That’s why the first books in management were about administration and the first journal in the field was “Administrative Science Quarterly”. Executive Programmes. is it? So now the new word has emerged – Leadership. And a new word was created – “management”. Executive development and training. To the bureaucrats. They still are administrators. It is a subject that preoccupies us a lot. And what is not working? The expectation that a single individual can manage anything. The words have changed . executive. Because it was found that administration is only a piece of the action and what we really need to amplify and to understand the concept in a much wider way. I am suggesting to you: it is the same lady in a different dress. CEO. We have not changed the paradigm of our thinking. Chief Executive Officer. and that we all need to be leaders. That didn’t work either. That’s why many business schools changed their names from Graduate School of Business Administration to Graduate School of Management. We are still individualizing and personifying the process of management. ISHAK ADIZEZ: WHAT IS A LEADER? (TRANSCRIPT) Part 1: By Changing Terminology we are not Changing a Concept Good day.

Everything because of change has strength and weaknesses. Self-Study Script 9 . We need a complementary team in our marriage in order to raise our children healthy. executive. That is natural – that is normal. Prime minister. If anything is perfect. But. to be healthy is far complicated for every single individual to do. is it? Every human being has its strengths and their weaknesses. So what do we need? We need a complementary team. but we don’t like it. We think differently. don’t hold your breath – it’s only for a short term.II. we need each other. spouse. Different styles of making decisions. You married a complementary team. forever. ISHAK ADIZEZ: WHAT IS A LEADER? (TRANSCRIPT) Part 2: About Complementary Teams It’s difficult being a single parent. manager. the job of making an organization to be effective and efficient in the short and long run. We have different needs. I already said it in another segment. The outstanding leader. You fell in love with your own weaknesses that come as strength in the other person. But the managerial job – the job of leading an organization. Nobody can be outstanding on every subject in every situation. Why? Because we are different. Different expectations. that means what? That we are different. There is nothing perfect. parent child does not exist. Look at whom did you marry. Same thing is true for organization – you need a complementary team. And that creates a lot of conflict. So who is this righteous person that is always right? That is impeccable. Never makes mistake? That’s too much to expect. but the essence is. everything has its false somewhere. We think differently and in some segments in this program I’ll tell you how these differences work and what to do about it.

It’s like a group of people that are blind describing an elephant. would you have a good hand? It’s the best finger there is. The cost of time is higher than the value that we are getting out of it. Then the totality is stronger than the parts. What we really need is to work with each other. If you don’t have a thumb. when the five fingers are together that’s called “a hamsa”. Telling people what to do. Let’s be approximately right than precisely wrong. But it’s only appropriate for a start-up. Time is too expensive. Make us work together. Five different fingers. That’s leadership. To complement each other. That’s a blessing. Please. So what is the role of leadership then? Look at my hand. No question about it. Do you see that the hand has five different fingers. a surgeon will have to break your healthy finger to make it perform like a thumb so that you can have a hand. to enrich each other with their different points of view. As a matter of fact if you have lost your thumb by some accident. Or are we different and separate? . And that’s what we need in management. Or under tremendous time pressure. To cross-pollinate. By communicating they can see the total picture. ISHAK ADIZEZ: WHAT IS A LEADER? (TRANSCRIPT) Part 3: Leader is a Thumb So now. it’s the only finger that works with other finger. When the five fingers are separate that’s a curse. No! You would not have a good hand. Each one of them feels a piece. Leadership Skills 10 . what do we do? What is a leader? Please look at my hand.That’s a curse. What is the difference between a blessing and a curse? Probably two inches: are we different and together? . So if you put it in front of somebody’s face (fingers separate) – you are actually cursing them. this is leadership: thumb – to get the different people to work together. Because you need things that this finger can do that this finger cannot do. or very risky situations. I have also told you that in the Middle East. a normal situations. Somebody has to say: “Stop talking.That’s a blessing. In another segment. That’s also a leadership. But for a Prime Organization that is not under some crisis. you don’t have a hand. And we need the five different fingers in order to get a hand because every finger does something different than another finger. You know what the leadership is? Being a leader is being a thumb. Which finger is the most important one? Thumb. You know why? Because the thumb is what makes a hand. None of us is outstanding.II. Do something”. If you had five fingers like the pointing finger. so many people think that leadership is pointing finger: do this! Do this! Pointing. That’s ok. Make our differences work as a hand. None of us can do everything.

But how to make the disagreement and thinking harder not to be exhausting. And why in another situation a conflict is really constructive. you constantly move you wheels. they think harder. energized. There is even a Zen expression that says “if all people think alike none of them is thinking too hard”. When people disagree. that makes you constantly think. You know some ethnic groups are extremely smart. They constantly challenge each other. you learn something. discouraging. you appreciate what you learn. You feel invigorated. That makes you think. When you walk into the meeting and everybody says: “I agree. It is by having a culture of Mutual Trust and Respect. Self-Study Script 11 . nobody is thinking too hard. Jewish people are one of them. We cannot handle it anymore. You are appreciative of the difference. It robs us of energy. disruptive. When do you start thinking? When people disagree with you. They constantly disagree with each other. dysfunctional. ISHAK ADIZEZ: WHAT IS A LEADER? (TRANSCRIPT) Part 4: Making Differences Work Together How does the leader do that? How do you make the differences work together? What I found out is what makes a difference between a constructive and destructive conflict – why some conflicts end up in an “I can’t stand you anymore” syndrome. “I can’t work with you”. It’s not a very easy way to live.II. I agree”. They disagree on anything. They will always try to find out the hole in your argument to disagree with you. but you constantly think. It’s very destructive. but pay attention to what is happening to those ethnic groups.

I found it with the philosopher Emmanuel Kant. To recognize the sovereignty. It is not how nicely you speak. if they stab you.” It isn’t. They speak very nicely. Most people think “Oh.” Wow. and how you smile and listen and look the person in the eye. A leader has to make differences work synergistically. since we share the same interest. I respect people I learn from. when I was a professor. when there is common interest. but it’s not it. I mean. this is totally inappropriate!” What are you really saying to the other person? “Don’t you dare to think differently. ISHAK ADIZEZ: WHAT IS A LEADER? (TRANSCRIPT) Part 5: Culture of Mutual Trust and Respect And what does it really mean? What does it mean Mutual Respect? Let’s start with Mutual Respect. Trust is when you believe. I trust people that share my interest. they actually stab themselves. You trust those people that have your interest – when you share interest. but you see the big teeth behind it. I’ve seen these in the faculty meetings. You know that the guy is pulling a knife to stab you with. Leadership Skills 12 . who says: “Respect means to recognize the sovereignty of the other person to be different. it is one and the same. This is idiotic. It doesn’t mean you have to agree with them. Talk to yourself – what do you need the other person for? So what is a leader? A leader has to make the different fingers work together like a hand. some people. Respect means to accept that the other person has the right to think differently. what does it mean? Undeniable right of the other person to think differently. That’s why with a person you trust you can turn your back to them.” That’s showing disrespect. And what is trust? Trust is not synonymous with respect. That’s not the essence. you just want to kill them. That’s respect. And I was looking for many years – what is the essence? What does really respect mean. You must think like me. but you give them space to think differently. And how does he or she do it? By creating and nurturing a culture of Mutual Trust and Respect. I mean. So it’s not the tone of voice.II. we learn from each other. When do we show disrespect to somebody? When we say “How can you think like that? How can you say that? It’s unbelievable. How does he do that? That is the role the leader has to perform. That having your interest at heart. Why can you turn your back to them? Because. because hurting you is hurting themselves. So we kind of enrich each other with our differences. If two people think alike or identically – one of them is unnecessary. That’s why you can trust them. It helps. They are not going to hurt you. you have faith that the other person has your interest at heart.” Let’s go over it very slowly. when the professor was starting a meeting and saying “May I disagree with my learned colleague.

the children are different – this can be a mess. How to create a culture in your country where Mutual Trust and Respect dominate? Because when the trust and respect is gone that’s when the dysfunctions.3 3 Ishak Adizez. That’s how you raise your children too: the children are different – how do you make a family out of different styles? You and your spouse are different. May I suggest you the same is true for a country – if you are a Prime Minister. And the same thing is true for a company. can it not be? How do you make a family out of it? There must be Mutual Trust and Respect. the conflicts are enormous and the country gets stymied or even disappears as a country. We must respect our differences and we must share the common interest as a family. Thank you very much. video: What is a Leader? Self-Study Script 13 . that’s the most important thing you have to work on.II.

A strong person can be good or bad. they build excellence. loyalty. Leadership not salesmanship. You must do everything you are supposed to do. And the first process is being a person of honourable character. they build excellence. She attracts followers. we do not know exactly how much or how early character develops. Korn-Ferry International. values. A gang leader is an example of a strong person with a bad character. Many think that much of a person’s character is formed early in life. you do it by backwards planning. performed a survey on what organizations want from their leaders. But you do not achieve excellence by backwards planning. John F. Courage — not complacency — is our need today. a leader’s actions set the pace. people who will guide them to the future and show that they can be trusted. Organizations will not achieve excellence by figuring out where it wants to go. However. A person with strong character shows drive. a person with weak character shows none of these traits. and then hope their leaders acted with good character. Marcus Aurelius Character develops over time. 1973): Leadership Skills 14 . BUILDING EXCELLENCE Leaders do not command excellence. But. an executive search company. and ensures the organization’s continued vitality. Army Handbook. skills. and traits (U. Excellence starts with leaders of good and strong character who engage in the entire process of leadership. On the other hand. To reach excellence you must first be a leader of good character. while an outstanding community leader is one with both strong and good characteristics. and nerve. good or bad. your followers must have trust in you and they need to be sold on your vision. she vacillates and is inconsistent. self-discipline. She sees what she wants and goes after it. One of the ways to build trust is to display a good sense of character composed of beliefs. This type of thinking is backwards. Kennedy To be an effective leader. This behaviour can be strong or weak. Be one. Her traits are disorganized. determination.S. This behaviour wins trust. She will attract no followers. In any organization. She does not know what she wants. then having leaders do whatever they have to in order to get the job done. Pursuing excellence should not be confused with accomplishing a job or task.III. Qualities of a Good Leader ◊ Leaders do not command excellence. Excellence is “being all you can be” within the bounds of doing what is right for your organization. energy. Waste no more time arguing what a good man should be. An organization needs leaders with both strong and good characteristics. it is safe to claim that character does not change quickly. A person’s observable behaviour is an indication of her character. The respondents said they wanted people who were both ethical and who convey a strong vision of the future. willpower. When you do planning.

what is human nature. you will inspire others to reach for new heights. Straightforward — Use sound judgment to make a good decisions at the right time. concepts. and candour in all your actions. or things. study. Values are attitudes about the worth of people. and methods. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. personal comfort. Display a confident calmness when under stress. or relatives. The ability to learn a new skill varies with each individual. The vision must be owned throughout the organization. Take charge when necessary. Intelligent — Read. as well as each leader is unique. Beliefs are what we hold dear to us and are rooted deeply within us. TRAITS OF A GOOD LEADER Compiled by the Santa Clara University and the Tom Peters Group: Honest — Display sincerity. while character is the sum total of these traits. physical. or things. The more of these you display as a leader. Traits are distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person. Be innovative! Each and every person. values. the more your followers will believe and trust in you. death. and spiritual stamina. what is bad. you might value a good car. while others come only by complete devotion to study and practice. while others might be the opposite. interests. and well-being of others. you might value friends more than privacy. Describe a person you believe is particularly skilful leader. For example. Some leaders inspire through intellect. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings. That can be someone you’ve worked with or you’ve heard of. They could be the beliefs about life. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to get it. Some skills come almost naturally. ideas. and seek challenging assignments. plans. Courageous — Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal. concepts. home. religion. Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings. and solutions to problems. Others engage by strengthening interpersonal relations. we will focus on a few that are crucial for a leader. what is good. Competent — Base your actions on reason and moral principles. regardless of the seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Values are important as they influence a person’s behaviour to weigh the importance of alternatives. friendship. Imaginative — Make timely and appropriate changes in your thinking. They could be assumptions or convictions that you hold true regarding people. By showing endurance in mental. Fair-minded — Show fair treatment to all people. Inspiring — Display confidence in all that you do. Broad-minded — Seek out diversity. creating new visions and opportunities. They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values. »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» Forward-looking — Set goals and have a vision of the future. etc. For example. Skills are the knowledge and abilities that a person gains throughout life. far too many to be discussed here. There are hundreds of personality traits. Self-Study Script 15 . Deceptive behaviour will not inspire trust. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals.III. Instead. integrity.

.1 2 3 4 5 .I am good at planning.I enjoy working on teams.I can interpret rules and regulations.I am effective at handling employee complaints.I enjoy relating to others on an interpersonal basis.1 2 3 4 5 .1 2 3 4 5 . .1 2 3 4 5 .1 2 3 4 5 . .III. I would admit it and correct it.1 2 3 4 5 .1 2 3 4 5 . A score of fifty or less indicators a general dislike of wanting to become a leader or a perceived inability to perform the tasks required of a leader.1 2 3 4 5 . Circle the number which you feel most closely represents your feelings about the task: NO YES . .I am comfortable writing emails to others.I believe in diversity in the workplace. . .1 2 3 4 5 . . • • • Who is the person? What leadership skills does the person have? Describe situations in which you find such type of leadership useful for your development or achieving goals and tasks.Giving directions is comfortable for me. desire. .1 2 3 4 5 .I know how to develop goals and carry them out.I enjoy collecting and analysing data. . . .1 2 3 4 5 . . .I can delegate work to others. .I feel confident appraising performance and giving feedback.1 2 3 4 5 . How did the leadership style influence people in task involvement and achievement? LEADERSHIP SELF-ASSESSMENT Notes: This self-survey will provide you with feedback as to your feelings of leading others. Scoring Score the survey by adding the numbers that you circled: ________ A score of fifty or higher indicates a desire to become a leader and a perceived ability to perform the tasks required of a leader.I thrive on change. your commitment. Leadership Skills 16 . .I am comfortable at implementing new techniques.I am able to resolve conflict in the workplace.I feel comfortable asking others for advice.1 2 3 4 5 .1 2 3 4 5 .1 2 3 4 5 . .I am good at solving problems. BUT.1 2 3 4 5 . Be honest about your answers as this survey is only for you own self-assessment.1 2 3 4 5 . . Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 5.1 2 3 4 5 . with 5 being a definite YES and 1 being a definite NO.1 2 3 4 5 .If I made a mistake.One of my greatest desires is to further develop as a leader.I am able to speak clearly to others. . . and determination are the biggest indicators of your ability to become a leader. no matter what your score is.1 2 3 4 5 .

com Self-Study Script 17 .nwlink. Use this assessment to help you to determine what skills and abilities you can continue to improve (Strengths) and what skills and abilities you need to develop (Opportunities for growth).III.4 What are your strengths? What are your opportunities for growth? 4 www.

Are there some strategies that you can employ that would move you closer to your ideal distribution of behaviour?5 5 www. Using the list of behaviours below. determine the amount of time (in percentages) that you generally spend on each behaviour. determine what you feel would be ideal distribution of time (in percentages). Generally speaking. Then in the second column. determine the actual behaviours that define that interaction. Behaviour Percentage of time spent on each behaviour Ideally the percentage of time you would devote to each behaviour Informing Directing Clarifying or Justifying Persuading Collaborating Brainstorming or Envisioning Reflecting (Quiet Time for Thinking) Observing Disciplining Resolving interpersonal conflicts Praising and/or encouraging Follow Up Questions 1. Then draw generalizations about how you spend your leadership time. YOUR LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR Think about what you actually do on a daily basis. Is there a gap between how you should spend your energy and how you actually spend it? 2.com Leadership Skills 18 .workshopexercises. Situational Leadership ◊ A good leader inspires others with confidence in him. Complete the Leadership Behaviour Chart below. a great leader inspires them with confidence in themselves. Think about your daily interaction with the people who you lead.IV. Are there some behaviours that are taking up too much of your leadership time? Why? 3.

The four levels of development are the following: D1 – Enthusiastic Beginner (Low Competence. There are two elements that need to be measured when assessing an individual: Competence and Commitment. High Commitment) D2 – Disillusioned Learner (Low to Some Competence. You can match the two elements competence and commitment to one of the four development levels. Variable Commitment) D4 – Self-reliant Achiever (High Competence. The assessment is a skill that needs to be developed and understood. ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF AN INDIVIDUAL The first step to utilize Situational Leadership is to perform an assessment of the development level of the person that you are leading. Low Commitment) D3 – Capable but Cautious Performer (Moderate to High Competence. High Commitment) The following diagram shows from right to left (direction of Red arrow) the levels of development: Self-Study Script 19 . The following are questions that you can use: Competence »» »» Do They Already Have The Skill or Knowledge? Do They Have a Transferrable Skill or Knowledge? Commitment »» Are They Motivated? »» Are They Confident? Once we have an understanding of the Competence and Commitment level of an individual we can then assess their development level. Once you understand these two elements you can assess the individual’s development level. Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey identified that the leader must have an awareness of the development level of the person they are trying to lead.IV.

BUILDING COMPETENCE AND COMMITMENT The following will provide the information to build these two elements: • Provide Direction to Build Competence – to build competence the following components will be needed: »» »» »» »» »» Structure – important to know how to work Organize – what are the steps to do the work Teach – help or coach the person on what to do or how to do the work Supervise – provide guidance throughout the task to the individual Evaluate – provide feedback to the person on the work they completed • Provide Support to Build Commitment – to build commitment the following components will be needed: »» »» »» Ask (for input) – ask the person what they need help with or how you can help them Listen – be sure to listen to their concerns and avoid being judgmental Facilitate or Problem Solving – provide help to the person by facilitating or problem solving that is needed on a task Explain – be patient and explain the steps or details about the task or activity that the individual is working on Encourage – be sure to encourage them about the work they are doing and the growth that you see in them. Sharing Feedback. The individual’s skill level and motivation for that task indicate the appropriate style to employ. Redirecting. Challenging) Leadership Skills 20 . Teaching. Confirming. Empowering. Checking/Mentoring. »» »» Situational Leadership II defines four leadership styles for leading an individual on a specific task.IV. Explaining/Clarifying. LEADERSHIP STYLES The four leadership styles and the types of activities the leader will use within the respective style: S1 – Directing (Defining. Appreciating) S4 – Delegating (Allowing/Trusting. Encouraging Feedback. Collaborating. Encouraging. Acknowledging. Reassuring. Giving Feedback) S2 – Coaching (Exploring/Asking. Praising) S3 – Supporting (Asking/Listening. Orienting. Planning.

IV. MAPPING LEADERSHIP TO DEVELOPMENT LEVEL How to match the leadership style to the development level? The following diagram will help to see the mapping: S1 Directing style is used for a D1 Enthusiastic Beginner S2 Coaching style is used for a D2 Disillusioned Learner S3 Supporting Style is used for a D3 Capable But Cautious Performer S4 Delegating style is used for a D4 Self Reliant Achiever6 Here is the summary of applying this model in your workplace: 6 S3 = Supporting D3 = Capable but Cautious Contributor S2 = Coaching D2 = Disillusioned Learner S4 = Delegating D4 = Self-Reliant Achiever S1 = Directing D1 = Enthusiastic Beginner http://keepyourselfrelevant.uk Self-Study Script 21 .blogspot.co.

but to elicit it. and capabilities (Bootzin. Basic needs normally take priority over these meta needs. shelter. sex. few doubts about self. water. for the greatness is there already. Loftus. potential. Maslow (1970) felt that human needs were arranged in a hierarchical order that could be divided into two major groups: basic needs and metaneeds (higher order needs): »» Basic Needs are physiological. For example. »» Metaneeds or being needs (growth needs). unity. and psychological. where you are going. These needs are normally listed in a hierarchical order in the form of a pyramid to show that the basic needs (bottom ones) must be met before the higher order needs: »» 5. recognition. Belongingness and love — belong to a group. close friends to confide with. Leadership and Human Behaviour ◊ The task of leadership is not to put the greatness into people. such as affection. then they come into play as the source and direction of a person’s goal if they are not satisfied. These include justice. 4. water. »» »» »» »» Maslow posited that people want and are forever striving to meet various goals. security. Self-actualization — know exactly who you are.V. beauty. Esteem — feeling of moving up in world. order. A state of well-being. then that person will strive to make up the deficiency. His methodology differed from most other psychological researchers at the time in that these researchers mainly observed mentally unhealthy people. Leadership Skills 22 . Hall. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Unlike others researchers in the earlier days of psychology. and what you want to accomplish. These basic needs are also called “deficiency needs” because if they are not met by an individual. and sleep. Zajonc. and self-esteem. Safety — feel free from immediate danger. 3. etc. 2. 1. Abraham Maslow’s based his theory of human needs on creative people who used all their talents. Because the lower level needs are more immediate and urgent. goodness. Physiological — food. a person who lacks food or water will not normally attend to justice or beauty needs. such as food. 1983).

It should be noted that almost no one stays in one particular hierarchy for an extended period.e. as long as the basic needs have all been met. Our goal as leaders therefore is to help people obtain the skills and knowledge that will push them up the hierarchy on a more permanent basis.e. Unsatisfied lower needs will dominate unsatisfied higher needs and must be satisfied before the person can climb up the hierarchy. such as Robert Frost. we are simply animals or machines. He later theorized that this level does not stop.V. motivating a middle-class person (who is in range 4 of the hierarchy) with a certificate will have a far greater impact than using the same motivator to effect a minimum wage person from the ghetto who is desperately struggling to meet the first couple of needs. For example.g.. A need higher in the hierarchy will become a motive of behaviour as long as the needs below it have been satisfied. Knowing where a person is located on the pyramid will aid you in determining effective motivators. Gandhi. Mother Theresa. Those on top get pushed down for short time periods. e. We constantly strive to move up. rather than consistently struggling to make ends meet. while at the same time various forces outside our control try to push us down. which is almost never fully attained but rather is something we try to always strive for. Self-Study Script 23 . i. he become more interested in the higher order or metaneeds and tried to further distinguish them. come across a small prize. while those on the bottom get pushed up. compassion and spirituality. This expansion of the higher order needs is shown here: Note that the four meta needs (above the inner pyramid) can be pursued in any order. death of a loved-one or an idea that does not work. Without this spiritual or transegoic sense. or even poets.. Dalai Lama. Maslow theorized that the ultimate goal of life is self-actualization. Maslow’s selftranscendence level recognizes the human need for ethics. it goes on to self-transcendence. which carries us to the spiritual level. creativity. People who have their basic needs met become much better workers as they are able to concentrate on fulfilling the visions put forth to them. i. EXPANSION OF THE PYRAMID In Maslow’s (1971) later years. depending upon a person’s wants or circumstances.

com Leadership Skills 24 .nwlink. They like privacy and tend to be detached. Have a deep feeling of kinship with others. The trans is related to transcendence. and unity consciousness.V. recognition. Self-actualization — know exactly who you are. Appreciate the basic pleasures of life (e. • • • • • • • • 8. less constricted and fresher than others7 www. Aesthetic — to do things not simply for the outcome but because it’s the reason you are here on earth — at peace. or spiritual state of development. few doubts about self. Safety — feel free from immediate danger. 5. psychic. 4. more curious about the inner workings of all things. Ego equates with the personality. They focus on problems outside themselves and are concerned with basic issues and eternal questions. where you are going. do not take blessings for granted). 2. EGOic levels to transEGOic. Belongingness and love — belong to a group. Self-transcendence — a transegoic (see Note below) level that emphasizes visionary intuition. Are deeply democratic and are not really aware of differences. sex. A state of well-being. Physiological — food. shelter. Cognitive — to be free of the good opinion of others — learning for learning alone. Are original. 3. water. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ACTUALIZING PEOPLE »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» 7 Have better perceptions of reality and are comfortable with it. contribute knowledge. The EGO in all three terms are used in the Jungian sense of consciousness as opposed to the unconscious. close friends to confide with. Rely on their own development and continued growth. while the ego is based on Freud’s work. Accept themselves and their own natures. inventive. Have strong ethical and moral standards. 7. and what you want to accomplish. Note: Transegoic means a higher. 1. 6. Esteem — feeling of moving up in world.g. Lack of artificiality. altruism.

which brings us to the next models. Other researchers have taken up his cause and furthered refined them. a lot of concerns are directed at his methodology in that he picked a small number of people that he declared self-actualizing and came to the conclusion about self-actualization. In addition. except his version is more closely related to the working environment: Self-Study Script 25 . He was considered both an icon and legend among visionaries such as Abraham Maslow. However. and McGregor’s research are all closely tied to Maslow’s theory. HERZBERG’S HYGIENE AND MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS Frederick Herzberg was considered one of the most influential management consultants and professors of the modern postwar era. Herzberg. In addition. The only constant is change. it still remains quite popular due to its simplicity and being the start of the movement away from a totally behaviourist/ reductionist/mechanistic approach to a more humanistic one. Herzberg (1966) is best known for his list of factors that are based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. he hoped that others would take up the cause and complete what he had begun.Motivating Others ◊ VI. rather than being the final say. GOING BEYOND MASLOW While the research of Maslow’s theory has undergone limited empirical scrutiny. mostly in the area of organizations and work. and Douglas MacGregor. Herzberg was probably best known for his challenging thinking on work and motivation. then you can do what you know. Peter Drucker. he understood this and thought of his work as simply a method of pointing the way. When you know what to do. Alderfer.

VI. Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» Working conditions Policies and administrative practices Salary and Benefits Supervision Status Job security Co-workers Personal life Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors Dissatisfiers Motivators Working conditions Policies and administrative practice Salary and Benefits Recognition Supervision Achievement Status Advancement Job Security Growth Co-workers Responsibility Personal life Job challenge Motivators or Satisfiers: »» »» »» »» »» »» 8 Recognition Achievement Advancement Growth Responsibility Job challenge8 www.net Leadership Skills 26 .slideshare.

WHY DO PEOPLE NOT PERFORM WELL? 1.needs to take charge of life Substance abuse Physical and emotional health Lifestyle 5. Unrealistic standards Poor work station design Inadequate tools available Process needs improved WHAT DO PEOPLE WANT FROM THEIR JOBS? »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» »» Promotion in the company Tactful discipline Job Security Help with personal problems Personal loyalty of supervisor High wages Full appreciation of work done Good working conditions Feeling of being in on things Interesting work Self-Study Script 27 . Never had them Needs practice Can’t apply them 2. then you can do what you know. Environmental Issues: Employer Responsibility . Motivational Issues: Employer and employee jointly responsible . ◊ When you know what to do. The only constant is change.redesign is needed. Things and people that make work punishing (feels they are working in a hostile environment) Personal attitudes and issues 4. Lack of Information: This is also an employer responsibility .need to supply information or train how to use or collect readily available information.VI.need to supply training. Does not know expectations Does not have current data Cannot apply information that was there 3. Lack of Skills: This is mainly an employer responsibility .requires mutual discussion. Personal Issues: Employee responsibility .

VI. 9. when employees were given the same exercise. 6. 2. 3. 3. 5. 4. 10. 10. Discussion Questions 1.com/487339 Leadership Skills 28 . 9 Full Appreciation of Work Being Done Feeling of Being In On Things Help on Personal Problems Job Security High Wages Interesting Work Promotion in the Company Personal Loyalty of Supervisor Good Working Conditions Tactful Discipline9 Article Source: http://EzineArticles. 9. 8. their rankings tended to follow this pattern: 1. 2. 7. what would the results be? Supervisors ranked the items in this order: 1. 5. 6. High Wages Job Security Promotion in the Company Good Working Conditions Interesting Work Personal Loyalty of Supervisor Tactful Discipline Full Appreciation of Work Being Done Help on Personal Problems Feeling of Being In On Thin However. what might account for the different opinion? 2. If this survey was given to your department. 7. 4. 8. What might be the cause of the supervisor’s rankings being so different from the employees? 3. In comparing the different ratings.

If your actions inspire others to dream more. while a leader takes the theory Y approach. McGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y Douglas McGregor (1957) developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y — two opposing perceptions about how people view human behavior at work and organizational life. McGregor’s Theory X is based on workers caught in the lower levels (1 to 3) of Maslow’s theory due to bad management practices. while his Theory Y is for workers who have gone above level 3 with the help of management. and have little or no ambition. you are a leader. A boss can be viewed as taking the theory X approach. People must be coerced. controlled. or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People prefer to be directed. In an organization with Theory Y assumptions. In an organization with Theory X assumptions. do more and become more. People have potential. People have potential. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem. McGregor felt that organizations and the managers within them followed either one or the other approach: Theory X »» »» »» »» »» People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. learn more. directed. Creativity. McGregor’s Theory X is also based on workers caught in Herzberg’s Hygiene Dissatisfiers. Theory Y »» »» »» »» »» »» Work is as natural as play and rest. management’s role is to coerce and control employees. People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the objectives (they are NOT lazy). Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. ingenuity. Theory X is the view that traditional management has taken towards the workforce. and McGregor’s theories all tie together: »» »» »» »» 10 Herzberg’s theory is a micro version of Maslow’s theory that is focused in the work environment.com Self-Study Script 29 . Herzberg.Inspiring Leaders ◊ VII.10 www. management’s role is to develop the potential in employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals. do not want responsibility. Notice that Maslow. while Theory Y is based on workers who are in the Motivators or Satisfiers section. Most organizations are now taking the enlightened view of theory Y (even though they might not be very good at it).nwlink. People seek security above all else. People learn to accept and seek responsibility.

not in terms of their behaviour • give constructive advice Leadership Skills 30 . Leadership Tools: Coaching and Decision Making ◊ Never tell people how to do things. COACHING Coachee: I could never get that promotion. I am afraid of speaking in front of large group of people. (write down advice given by your coach) Coach: • assist your coachee to move beyond their fears and difficulties • help your coachee to discover they have far more resources than they think they have • think about your coachee in terms of their potential. I am afraid of speaking in front of large group of people. (write down advice given by your coach) Coach: • assist your coachee to move beyond their fears and difficulties • help your coachee to discover they have far more resources than they think they have • think about your coachee in terms of their potential. tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity. not in terms of their behaviour • give constructive advice Coachee: I could never participate in meetings in English language. I just don’t have what it takes. not in terms of their behaviour • give constructive advice Coachee: I could never participate in meetings in English language. not in terms of their behaviour • give constructive advice Coachee: I could never get that promotion.VIII. I just don’t have what it takes. (write down advice given by your coach) Coach: • assist your coachee to move beyond their fears and difficulties • help your coachee to discover they have far more resources than they think they have • think about your coachee in terms of their potential. (write down advice given by your coach) Coach: • assist your coachee to move beyond their fears and difficulties • help your coachee to discover they have far more resources than they think they have • think about your coachee in terms of their potential.

What if something good did happen to you . options and ideas which they may previously have considered beyond the scope of their abilities or the realms of possibility. Rather it is a catalyst intended to trigger a chain reaction of processes in the subject to go around. The intention is that by facilitating that person in trying on those different beliefs their rigid model of the world is given a good hard shake (or a gentle shake if that’s more appropriate) and they push past their limiting beliefs in the direction of more useful beliefs.Well.VIII. also know as the as if frame is used to negotiate resistance and limiting beliefs by assisting a person in considering more fully those possibilities.I could never tell her how I feel • You respond . If we think of the limiting beliefs and generalisations as a dam across the river of creativity and infinite possibility.Nothing good ever happens to me .how would you recognise it? Would you even notice if something good happened to you. what would happen if you did get that promotion? If you had that promotion now what would you look like? What skills and abilities would you have? or • Friend says . The what if frame allows a person to suspend those limiting beliefs which have negative impacts on their lives and try on more useful beliefs. For the purposes of illustration let’s imagine that you are coaching a friend or work colleague: • Friend says . or would you be too busy searching for bad luck? The what if frame is not a complete intervention in and of itself.What would happen if you did tell her how you feel? What specifically would you say to her? What would her reaction most likely be? or • Friend says .11 11 Intelligent Business Advanced Unit 12. Coaches see people who they are in terms of their unfolding development. I just don’t have what it takes • You respond . the what if frame is the key process that triggers the collapse of that dam and releases the flow of generative change which acts to enrich a person’s model of the world.I could never get that promotion. safe in the knowledge that they are only ‘pretending’ to believe something different and that they can easily return to their original belief if they wish.if it wasn’t for bad luck I’d have no luck at all • You respond . over or through a limiting belief and begin to generate more useful beliefs and generalisations. WHAT IF or AS IF frame is essence of coaching The what if frame. p 130 Self-Study Script 31 .

DECISION MAKING Making choices is an integral part of the decision-making process. Consider all the angles. d. Leaders who make good choices without wasting time are seen as decisive. Leaders who stall and who can’t make up their minds have difficulty motivating and inspiring their teams. p 98 Leadership Skills 32 . 4 _____ If there are several alternatives open to you.12 12 Intelligent Business Advanced Unit 12. etc. which could include cost. c. This is an important step for further development of your decision-making skills and judgement. insightful and successful. f. Consider the consequences. Go for it! Narrow down the options. 6 _____ When the action has been put into place ask yourself what lessons can be learnt from the decision making procedure used. a. we generally have to make snap decisions about choices. 2 _____ Find out what options are open to you and collect as much data and information as you can about each option. Evaluate the outcome. Make your choice and start a plan of action to be executed. To do this you can ask yourself the following questions: • • • What exactly is the reason for making a change? What do we hope to obtain from the outcome? If you never lose sight of the answers to these questions. 5 _____ There always comes a time to stop talking and start acting. try to reduce them to a limited few and reconsider the situation with these restricted choices. Asking for advice isn’t a weakness – it can be very beneficial to learn from other people’s experience. energy and time. 3 _____ List and brainstorm all the pros and cons of every option. e. Get the facts. However. 1 ______ You need to clearly identify and define the reason and purpose for the decision you are about to make. you will more likely make the best choice. Read the list of techniques and match the headings (a-f) to each of the points below (1-6). the following techniques can help make the most appropriate choice. In such situations the best strategy is to keep our goals in mind and trust our intuition to make the right choices. Set your goal. Consider whether positive outcomes can outweigh any losses. In everyday life. when time is available.VIII. b.

and in the future? Or if it’s positive feedback. If you don’t have any specific examples. when you said ‘x’ yesterday. what they said or did (or didn’t say or do) WITHOUT making judgements that you can’t validate (such as “you were lazy” or “you didn’t care”) Example: Make sure you have one or two specific examples of when they displayed this behaviour that you can give them. your point loses credibility and clarity.e. how could they use that behaviour more and to better effect? Self-Study Script 33 . CONSISTENCY AND FEEDBACK Task: Discuss the following questions in groups: • • • • • What do we understand by ‘being consistent’? What can we do to help ourselves to continuously self-develop? How can we help others develop? How does the way we communicate help me notice the factors that affect my behaviour and enable me to challenge the behaviour of others? How do I understand emotional intelligence? Behaviour: Begin by identifying and referring to the persons behaviour. it had X effect on the people around you Future focus: What should they try to do different next time.VIII. Effect: What was the effect their behaviour had on you or other people around them? i.

where there are common experiences and frames of reference that give you a common ground for communication and interaction. It’s very easy to get into rapport with a person you identify with strongly.VIII. Rapport is something that we as human beings do naturally every day and often without being consciously aware of it.edu/agpsd/focus. As a rule of thumb people like people who are like themselves. Building Rapport Successful coaching can only take place if there is a rapport between the two people involved. One way to help people to develop their coaching skills is to use exercises and simulations to develop awareness of the key techniques.uky. THE BASIS OF RAPPORT Have you ever had an experience where you were chatting with a person you had just met and you felt as if you had met them before or that you had known them your whole life? Have you ever formed an instantaneous connection with another person for no particular reason other than you felt that they were your kind of person? Have you ever had an experience where you were working with another person on a particular task and your combined input led to the task flowing effortlessly to completion and produced results far in excess of what you had both originally thought possible individually? Have you ever had an experience where your communication with another person was so effortless and synergistic that you found yourselves completing each other’s sentences? The chances are that you can answer Yes to at least one of these questions and if you can then you have experienced rapport. 2 http://www. The following exercise focuses on how to build a rapport with the person who is being coached.pdf Leadership Skills 34 .ca.

Give yourself space to reflect on the assumptions you have made and the reality you have created before acting SET OF STATEMENTS Here is a set of statements from appraisal interviews. 4. and person B is relieving. Form pairs. only feedback. Give time and space to deal with the feedback you have given and to act on it. Person A is giving feedback. Create a space to think before you act or give feedback. You should have known better by now. 5. What was it about the feedback that made it life-giving? Share a story of an incident in your life when you gave behaviour-challenging feedback that the received found to be life-giving. 6. Pay attention to the language used. 2. It is important to always pay attention to the context. for example: Frankly your performance was quite disappointing. THE GIFT OF FEEDBACK Share a story of an incident in your life when you received life-giving feedback that challenged your behaviour. purpose and timing of the feedback. How can you make them more appropriate for giving feedback. wasn’t it? Shall we discuss how you could go about improving your performance? 1. isn’t it? Didn’t I already tell you that I expect you to write this report according to standards! This is not good enough! You need to work harder than that.Life Giving Feedback ◊ IX. 8. Why have you sometimes found it difficult to meet your deadlines? I have heard that you are not getting on well with your new colleague? You are planning to do something about your attendance record. What was it about the feedback that made it life-giving? • • • • • • • • It may not be appropriate in all situations to challenge behaviour. aren’t you? Would you agree that you are clearly out of your depth when it comes to analysing documents? Is it true that you have been losing your temper quite a lot recently. Read the card and conduct a short interview Self-Study Script 35 . Consider the strength of your relationship. 3. Not acceptable! This is not what I expected from you. There is no failure. Read the following short descriptions of situations at work. the emotional state and the maturity of the person you are giving feedback to Reflect on the possible impact/response that this feedback may have and assess whether it will deliver the results you want/intend to achieve. 7.

their performance has been erratic of late and they can no longer be considered for the programme. and person B is relieving. »» Situation This employee has had a long history of absenteeism. Person A is giving feedback. The last time he/she received feedback it was agreed that he/she would make a special effort to improve in this area. Finding new opportunities Making contacts. However. Keeping everything well-coordinated Knowing what everyone does and involving them Completing and finishing without mistakes Making sure everything happens well and on time Being enthusiastic. Having great new ideas Being original. However. creative. INTERVIEW Read the following short descriptions of situations at work. »» Situation 2 This employee has always made a mayor contribution to the institution and has consistently met performance targets. Form pairs. This is still the case. new challenges Shaping everyone’s contributions Uniting the group to meet challenges Leadership Skills 36 .IX. there have been a number of incidents with fellow employees where tempers have become an issue and the atmosphere in the department has deteriorated to a point where it is starting to affect performance. »» Situation 3 This employee was originally tipped to become one of the young stars of the department and last year it was agreed that if he/she continued to produce above average results then he/she would be allowed to join prestigious internal group of fast track high potential staff. Unfortunately the attendance record shows that only minor progress has been made. Read the card and conduct a short interview.

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