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[Biology 2] Experiment No.

SIMPLE SUGAR TEST


M.J.D. BAJENTING, J.P.F. CRUZ, R.C.Z. FERRAREN, S.P. NELLAS, AND R.K.L.D.
VERGARA
X-Graviton
Philippine Science High School Central Visayas Campus
Talaytay, Argao, Cebu
Date Performed: November 23, 2015
Date Submitted: December 1, 2015

ABSTRACT
Many foods contain carbohydrates. The simplest carbohydrates are the
monosaccharides, also known as simple sugars. Benedicts solution is commonly
used to detect the presence of reducing sugars, which include all simple sugars. In
the presence of simple sugars, the blue solution changes in color, depending on the
amount of sugar. Complex carbohydrates, such as starch, do not react positively
with Benedicts solution. In order to prove that starch in cooked rice is being
converted into simple sugar during the chewing process, a simple sugar test was
done with the use of Benedicts solution. Cooked rice, chewed rice, cooked rice with
water, saliva alone, and water alone were added respectively to five different test
tubes that had 2mL of Benedicts solution. They were then independently heated in
slanting positions. Only the solution with chewed rice changed in color, which was
orange. Henceforth, it was concluded that the starch in cooked rice had been
converted to simple sugar during the chewing process and that no simple sugar was
present in the other solutions. Knowing the amount of simple sugar in ones food
helps in controlling ones intake of sugar since excess sugar has many harmful
effects to ones health.

INTRODUCTION
Carbohydrates are molecules
made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H),
and oxygen (O) in a ratio of 1:2:1. [1]
Carbohydrates are an important
source of food energy. Many of the
foods
people
eat
contain

carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include


sugars and polymers of sugars. The
simplest
carbohydrates
are
the
monosaccharides, or simple sugars;
these are the monomers from which
complex carbohydrates are built. [2]

Many monosaccharides such as


glucose and fructose are reducing
sugars, which means that they
possess free aldehyde (-CHO) or
ketone (-C=0) groups that reduce
weak oxidizing agents such as the
copper
in
Benedict's
solution.
Benedict's solution contains cupric
(copper) ion complexes with citrate in
alkaline solution. Benedict's simple
sugar test identifies reducing sugars
based on their ability to reduce the
cupric (Cu2+) ions to cuprous oxide at
basic (high) pH. Cuprous oxide is
green to reddish orange. [1] One liter
of Benedict's solution contains 173
grams sodium citrate, 100 grams
sodium carbonate, and 17.3 grams
cupric sulfate pentahydrate. Complex
carbohydrates such as starches do not
react positively with the Benedict's
test unless they are broken down
through heating or digestion. [3]
Knowing the amount of simple
sugar in ones food helps in controlling
ones intake of sugar since excess
sugar has many harmful effects to
ones health, such as depression of
immunity and promotion of heart
disease. [4] In this experiment, a
simple sugar test was done to
investigate the presence of simple
sugars in cooked rice, chewed rice,
saliva, and water, and to prove that
starch is being converted into simple
sugar by a chemical reaction during
the chewing process.
First, the materials given in the
handout were prepared. The materials
were cooked rice, five test tubes, test
tube holder, tube rack, Benedicts
solution, alcohol lamp, medicine

dropper, and matches. Then, 2 mL of


Benedicts solution was added to each
of the five test tubes while a group
member chewed a small amount of
cooked rice. The test tubes were
labeled with letters A, B, C, D, and E.
Cooked rice, chewed rice, cooked rice
with water, saliva alone, and water
alone were then added to test tubes A,
B, C, D, and E respectively. The
solutions were heated until they
boiled. Only the top of the solutions
were heated by holding the test tubes
in slanting position. The observed
color changes were subsequently
recorded. With accordance to the
handout given, they were interpreted
as follows:
Blue No simple sugar
Green Trace amount of simple
sugar
Yellow Moderate amount of
simple sugar
Orange Large amount of simple
sugar
Brick red Very large amount of
simple sugar
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Before
heating
the
five
solutions, they were all blue in color as
shown in Table 1. This was due to the
blue color of the Benedicts solution.
Table 1. Color of the solutions before
heating.
Solution
Color
Cooked rice
Blue
Chewed rice
Blue
Cooked rice with
Blue
water
Saliva alone
Blue
Water alone
Blue

After heating the solutions, their


corresponding colors did not change
except for the solution with chewed
rice. This is shown in Table 2. For the
chewed rice, it first turned into green
directly after heating. Later on,
however,
its
color
turned
and
maintained to orange.
Table 2. Color and interpretation of
the five solutions after heating.
Color
Solution
Interpretation
change
Cooked
No simple
Blue
rice
sugar
Large amount
Chewed
Orange
of simple
rice
sugar
Cooked
No simple
rice with
Blue
sugar
water
Saliva
No simple
Blue
alone
sugar
Water
No simple
Blue
alone
sugar
With accordance to the handout
given, it was interpreted that the
chewed rice had a large amount of
simple sugar while the rest still had no
simple sugar even after heating.
When Benedict's solution and
simple carbohydrates are heated, the
solution changes to orange red or to
brick red. This reaction is caused by
the reducing property of simple
carbohydrates. The copper (II) ions in
the Benedict's solution are reduced to
Copper (I) ions, which causes the color
change. [4] Again, starch do not react
positively with the Benedicts solution
since it is a complex carbohydrate. [3]

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Only the solution with chewed
rice changed in color. The no change
in color of the solution with cooked
rice and the change in color of the
chewed rice proved that starch was
converted into simple sugar during the
chewing process. Based on the results,
it can be concluded that cooked rice,
cooked rice with water, saliva alone,
and water alone do not obtain simple
sugars.
In its overall, the simple sugar
test had been successfully performed.
Expected results were achieved. It is
recommended that the simple sugar
test be done to a wider variety of food
for further investigation of simple
sugars.
REFERENCES

[1] BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically


Important Molecules. Retrieved on
November
29,
2015
from
http://www.saddleback.edu/faculty/th
untley/bio3a/labs/bio3alabmolecules.
pdf

[2] Reece JB, Urry LA, Cain MA,


Wasserman SA, Minorsky PV, and
Jackson RB. (2011). Campbell Biology.
Illinois: Pearson Education, Inc.

[3]
The
Columbia
Electronic
Encyclopedia.
(2012).
6th
ed.
Columbia University Press.

[4] SEP Staff. (2013). Testing for Lipids,


Proteins,
and
Carbohydrates.
Retrieved on November 29, 2015 from
http://www.seplessons.org/node/362
[5] Guia, E.B. (n.d.). Simple Sugar
Test Handout.

APPENDIX
RAW DATA
Table 1. Color of the solutions before heating.
Solution
Cooked rice
Chewed rice
Cooked rice with
water
Saliva alone
Water alone

Color
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue

Table 2. Color and interpretation of the five solutions after heating.


Color
Solution
Interpretation
change
Cooked
No simple
Blue
rice
sugar
Large amount
Chewed
Orange
of simple
rice
sugar
Cooked
No simple
rice with
Blue
sugar
water
Saliva
No simple
Blue
alone
sugar
Water
No simple
Blue
alone
sugar

Figure 1. Ms. Ferraren adds


Benedicts solution to each
test tube.

Figure 2. Ms.
Vergara puts the rice
she chewed inside
Test Tube B.

Figure 3. Ms.
Bajenting heats Test
Tube A.

Figure 5. Test Tube


C before heating.

Figure 4. Ms. Bajenting


shows Test Tube Bs
appearance directly after
heating.

Figure 6. Test Tube B


being heated.

Figure 8.
Appearances of the
solutions after heating.
Figure 7.
Appearances of the
solutions after heating.