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Chemical Engineering Department

CHE470 project

Controlling Benzene Emissions by using Catalytic Oxidation


Students Name
Bbbbb Abdulrahman Omar
bMohammed AL-Ahmari
bBarakat AL-Hamed
bbAbdulkarem Farsi

ID
201174730
201128390
201139030
200917890

Prepared for: Dr. Mohammed Ba-Shammakh


Submission Date: 15/12/2015


ABSTRACT:

In order to control benzene emissions, there are many different techniques, among these
techniques, catalytic oxidation were studied. In this technique, both controlling benzene using
zeolite-supported metal oxide nanoparticles and nanoscale HZSM-5 supported Pt bimetallic
catalyst. By using zeolite-supported metal oxide nanoparticles, we found that the removal
efficiency of benzene is the highest for MnO2 followed by CoO, while CeO2 showed the lowest
efficiency. MnO2/ZSM-5 also showed the highest activity toward catalytic ozonation of benzene.
For the second case study, nanoscale HZSM-5 supported Pt bimetallic catalyst was discussed. In
this technique, we found that using nanoscale HZSM-5 will improve the surface area and the
adsorption capacity comparing to the conventional microscale HZSM-5. Using three different
catalysts, PtAg/HZ-S, PtAg/HZ-M, and PtAg/HZ-L, we found that PtAg/HZ-S is the best catalyst
in term of highest conversion of formaldehyde at lowest temperature and also for the benzene
capacity and oxidation. The highest removal efficiency that can be obtained is 99% using Thermal
Oxidation or Membrane Separation, while the lowest removal efficiency is 60% using Biofiltration. Membrane Separation has the best efficiency per cost value.









OUTLINE:
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. BACKGROUND

3. BENZENE PROPERTIES ...2


3.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ...2
3.2 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES .2
3.2.1 ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTIONAL REACTIONS ......4
3.2.2 ADDITIONS REACTIONS ..6
3.2.3 OXIDATION OF BENZENE ...7
4. BENZENE TOXICITY . ..8
4.1 HEALTH EFFECTS ..8
3.2.1 SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE ..8
3.2.2 LONG TERM EXPOSURE .8
4.2 EXPOSURE LEVELS ...9
4.3 EPA REGULATIONS .10
5. SOURCES OF BENZENE EMISSIONS .11
5.1 INDOOR SOURCES ...11
5.2 INDUSTRIAL SOURCES ..11
5.3 OTHER SOURCES .11
6. CONTROLLING METHODS OF BENZENE ...12
6.1 DESTRUCTION ..12
6.1.1 THERMAL OXIDATION .12
6.1.2 CATALYTIC OXIDATION ..13
6.1.2.1 CASE STUDY I: REMOVAL OF FORMALDEHYDE AND
BENZENE USING NANOSCALE PTAG/HZSM-5 CATALYST 14
6.1.2.2 CASE STUDY II: CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF BENZENE
WITH OZONE USING ZEOLITE SUPPORTED METAL OXIDES
NANOPARTICLES 16
6.2 RECOVERY .21
6.2.1 ADSORPTION OF BENZENE BY USING ORDERED MESOPOROUS
CARBON 21
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION..22

1. Introduction:

With the world becoming more and more dependent on industrial processes, air pollution became
a huge concern. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) is considered as one of the major pollutants.
BTEX, which stands for Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene, were selected as the major
components of VOC. Among these four major pollutants, Benzene is the most emitted pollutant.
Benzene, with a molecular structure of C6H6, is considered as the basis of aromatics. Benzene, also
called cyclohexa-1,3, is colorless and clear chemical compound, it has a sweat odor and it is
both flammable and volatile. What makes Benzene a public concern matter is its ability to react
with body tissues, which make it a carcinogenic pollutant. Benzene is most often used as a
feedstock to create other chemicals, also as a solvent to extract or dissolve other materials. The
major two sources of Benzene emission are the industrial processes and the indoor residential air.

2. Background

In 1865, Kekule found that all the aromatics compounds have at least six carbons. Kekule proved
that Benzene, with its six carbons, is the simplest aromatic and with a structure of a cyclic planner
six carbons unit where each two atoms is attached to each other by covalent bond. In the past,
Benzene was commonly produced in the refinery depending on the gasoline production. These
processes includes: tire manufacture, painting, adhesives, gas, petroleum, cleaning products and
as a by-product the cracking of naphtha. However, these common ways for producing benzene
have changed. Nowadays, increasing in the demand of PET production from Para-xylene in Asia
lead to the production of benzene as a by-product and the great expansion in the processing of
heavy oil in the refinery and the cracking for the production of lighter olefins have led to more
benzene production.

3. Benzene Properties:

Benzene is considered as the simplest aromatic compound. In Benzenes hexagonal ring, there
are three alternating PI bonds. The length of carbon-carbon single bond is about 154 pm, and
for the double bond 134 pm. Due to resonance in molecule, the carbon-carbon bond length is
intermediate to these two values and it is equal to 139 pm. In order to understand how to control
the emission of benzene, it is important first to understand its physical and chemical properties.

3.1 Physical properties:


In general, aromatics have a unique odor and they are colorless. In nature, Benzene is carcinogenic
and toxic and it is a highly flammable, non-polar liquid. Benzene is less denser than water and
burns with a dusty flame, due to the high percentage of carbons comparing to alkenes. The freezing
point of benzene is 278.8 K and the boiling point is 353.3 K. The density of benzene is 0.8765
g/cm3. A complete table of benzenes physical properties is shown in Appendix.1 (Table.1).

3.2 Chemical Properties:


Since a large percentage of Benzene emissions is due to a chemical processes, it is important to
understand the different chemical properties of benzene and most importantly, its reactions. Due
to the high degree of unsaturation, Benzene will undergoes substitution reactions, which is a
behavior called aromatic character of aromaticity. Benzene will lose its aromaticity when it is
undergoes additional reactions, hence, benzene preferred to undergoes substitution reactions
instead of additional. As mentioned before, benzene has three alternating pi bonds. These bonds
make the molecule stable. The carbons atoms are sp2 hybridized with each carbon having one
unhybridized p-orbital. The delocalization of theses six p-orbitals can be shown in the following
figure.

Figure.1: The delocalization of p-orbitals

Over the whole ring, the six pi-electrons are delocalized. This results in a circle representation of
the conjugated double bonds with carbon-carbon bond length becomes equal. Benzene usually
represented by a structure called resonance hybrid of benzene, which is shown below in the
figure.

Figure.2: Resonance hybrid of benzene

The high density of electrons and the resonance makes benzene undergoes electrophilic
substitution reaction. In the presence of a strong reagents, benzene can undergoes additional and
oxidation reactions. The common chemical properties of benzene are shown below:

3.2.1. Electrophilic substitution reaction


This considered as the common substitution of benzene. The reaction is a multi-step reaction
with an initial step containing a generation of a strong electrophilic species using catalysts and
co-reagents. The electrophile interacts with benzene, forming a cyclohexadienyl cation (known
as Wheland complex or s complex or Arenium ion). In the second step, a base is introduced in
the reaction and react with s complex forming substituted product through deprotonation. This
steps are shown in the following figure:

Figure.3: Steps of electrophilic substitution reaction of benzene

This Arenium ion is a stable intermediate. This is due to the delocalization of the positive charge
on the ring.

Figure.4: The stability and delocalization of Arenium ion

The table below will show different electrophilic substitution reactions with its corresponding
electrophile, catalyst and product.

Table.2: Different electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene

The intermediate of the substitution reaction is not aromatic in nature. As a result, the reaction
will continue happing until the aromaticity regained. The energy versus reaction coordinate is
shown in the following figure:

Figure.5: Reaction mechanism diagram of electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene

3.2.2. Addition reaction of benzene


Under more drastic conditions, Benzene shows some of addition reactions such as alkyne and
alkene.. The products formed behaved as saturated hydrocarbons and they are more stable.
Halogenation and hydrogenation are the most common addition reactions of benzene and results
from the formation of benzene hexachloride and Cyclohexane, respectively. In the presence of
catalyst like nickel or palladium with a reaction temperature of 475-500K, benzene will
undergoes hydrogenation to form cyclohexane.

Figure.6: Hydrogenation of benzene

Halogenation of benzene can occur in the presence of sunlight without the need of a catalyst. The
addition of chlorine with benzene under these conditions will produce benzene hexachloride
(also Known as BHC). The reaction follows free radical mechanism:

Figure.7: Halogenation of benzene

3.2.3. Oxidation of benzene


Benzene combustion, like any other hydrocarbons, will produce water and carbon dioxide. As
mentioned before, benzene burns with dusty flame due to the high carbon ration compares to
hydrocarbons.
2C6H6+15O2

2CO2 + 6H2O + HEAT

Further research was obtained to control the oxidation by using catalyst such as vanadium
pentaoxide (V2O5) at a temperature of 725 K. This will results in producing maleic anhydride.

Figure.8: Controlled oxidation by using V2O5

Furthermore, glyoxal can be produce from the ozonolysis of benzene through the formation of an
intermediate known as benzene triozonide:

Figure.9: The oxidation of benzene to produce glyoxal

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4. BENZENE TOXICITY
4.1 Health Effects:
4.1.2 Short-term Exposure:
Short Exposure to benzene emissions (not lasting more than a day) may cause loss of
consciousness, confusion, drowsiness, tremors, headaches, narcosis and dizziness. Benzene is
also known to cause skin and eye irritation.
4.1.2 Long-term Exposure
Long exposure to Benzene emissions (usually from 7 to 70 years) is very dangerous for several
reasons:
1) Benzene is well known for its ability to cause cancer. The International Agency for
Research on Cancer has classified benzene as carcinogenic to humans. Exposure to
benzene can cause leukemia, which is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone
marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells that are not fully
developed.

Table.3: Individuals chance of developing cancer due to Chronic exposure of Benzene (USEPA)

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2) The reduction in the production of white and red blood cells from the marrow in humans.
3) Benzene emissions can decrease the host resistance to infection by reducing the
proliferation of both the B-cell and T-cell as reported by several laboratory when the
animals were exposed to benzene.

4.2 Benzene exposure levels:


The following tables shows the population-weighted personal exposure to benzene outweigh the
outdoor air concentration. It was found that the total mean personal exposure is 15 g/m3 compared
with only 6 g/m3 of total mean outdoor concentration, which means that the contribution of
personal activities or in home sources exceeds outdoor sources for benzene exposure. Tables
showing the population exposure level to benzene in different U.S. cities is shown in Appendix.1.
It was also noticed that smoking has great impact on the concentration of benzene that is being
breathed by the people. It was found that the concentration of benzene in the home of smokers was
50% higher than in the homes of non-smokers:

Figure.9: Geometric mean benzene concentrations in the breath ofSmokers exceeded breath
concentrations of nonsmokers.

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4.3 EPA REGULATIONS:


The environmental protection agency (EPA) has developed the Tier 3 program which aims to
protect the public health and air quality by reducing motor vehicles impacts. The following table
shows an estimated emission reduction from Tier 3 standards.

Table.4: estimated emission reduction from Tier 3 standards.

As we can see from the above table it is expected that by 2030 the benzene emission will
increase to reach 26% on road.

v The Tier 3 program by 2030 will annually prevent the following:


1. 1.4 million lost school and working days.
2. 2200 hospital entrance and emergency room visits for asthma ill situations.
3. 19000 asthma worsening.
4. 770-2000 early deaths.
5. 30,000 lower and upper respiratory symptoms in children.

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5. SOURCES OF BENZENE EMISSIONS

5.1 Indoor sources:

Most of the Benzene emissions indoor comes from smoking in both homes and public areas.
Some of the emissions also come from building materials like adhesives and paints. Houses with
attached garages show a higher benzene concentration in the air than those with detached
garages. It is also known that when unflued oil is heated it emits benzene and the closer the
house to a petrol filling station the higher the levels of benzene are.

5.2 Industrial Sources:

Generally, the processing of petroleum products, coking of coal and the production of aromatics
(Toluene and Xylene) are the main sources for benzene emissions in the industry. Usually
workers in in industries like oil refineries, rubber industry, shoe manufacturers and chemical
plants are exposed to high levels of benzene.

5.3 Other Sources:

Other sources include:


1- Vehicle exhausts.
2- Automobile service stations.
3- Paints and Glues.
4- Waste sites and leakage from storage tanks.
5- Waterborne and foodborne benzene.

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6. CONTROLLING METHODS OF BENZENE:


6.1 DESTRUCTION
6.1.1

THERMAL OXIDATION:

The heart of any thermal incinerator is a nozzle-stabilized flame maintained by a combination of


auxiliary fuel. Polluted gas is passed through the flame then it is heated from its inlet temperature
to its ignition temperature. Ignition temperature varies for widely for different VOCs and is
usually determined empirically. Units should be operated at temperatures higher than ignition
temperature to ensure auto ignition. For Polluted gas with typical temperatures of 1,200 to
2,000oF, most thermal units are designed to provide no more than 1 second of residence time.
The selected temperature must be maintained for the full, selected residence time for combustion
to be complete. The most common Incinerators are:
Direct Flame Incinerators
By raising the VOC containing stream to the desired reaction temperature and then holding it
there for the given reaction time to achieve the required destruction efficiency
Recuperative Incinerators
Improving energy efficiency by placing heat-exchangers in the gas downstream

Figure.10: Typical thermal incinerators

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6.1.2

CATALYTIC OXIDATION:

Catalytic incinerators uses catalyst that effectively increase the overall combustion reaction
given in. To enable conversion at lower reaction temperatures than normal temperatures, the
catalyst increase the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy. The polluted stream is
preheated either directly in a preheater combustion chamber or indirectly by heat exchange. After
that, gas stream is passed over the catalyst bed. The combustion reaction takes place at the
catalyst surface between the oxygen in the gas stream and the gaseous pollutants.

Figure.11: Typical catalytic incinerators

Back in history, organic compounds containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen is oxidized
by catalytic oxidation for control of gaseous pollutants and has only been restricted to them.
Gases containing compounds with chlorine, sulfur, and other atoms that may deactivate the
supported noble metal catalysts often used for VOC control were not suitably controlled by
catalytic oxidation systems. However, recently catalytic combustion has been intensively studied
to be able to use it in industrial application. However, it can only proceed at high temperature,
therefor, needs heating equipment and energy consumption with the risk of explosion. The
catalysts could be easily deactivated due to sintering at high temperature. Thus, it is highly
desirable to catalytic oxidation of VOCs at low temperature, preferentially at room temperature.
Catalytic oxidation has been successfully achieved under the help of ozone since it greatly
decreases the apparent activation energy. Main concerns with catalytic ozonation that it is not

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suitable for high concentration VOCs and with catalyst issues such as catalytic deactivation and
poor capacity for the complete mineralization of VOCs
Deactivation of catalyst could be overcome by the modification of catalyst, supports and
operating parameters; however, CO2 selectivity was still not satisfactory. These issues greatly
prevent the industrial application of catalytic ozonation.

Case study I: Removal of formaldehyde and Benzene Using Nanoscale PtAg/HZSM-5


Catalyst (By Catalyst Today):
In some cases, benzene will be emitted along with formaldehyde, especially from materials used
in construction and from decorative materials. It is important to remove both formaldehyde
(HCHO) and benzene (C6H6) simultaneously in indoor air because of their effects on human
health. The removal of HCHO and benzene simultaneously remains challenging. Using physical
adsorption seems to be promising, but the problem with the adsorbing material (usually zeolites or
carbon activated) that it cannot adsorb HCHO and benzene effectively in the presence of water
(which is inevitably present). A new approach for the removal of HCHO and benzene
simultaneously is proposed. The process combines both the benzene storage-oxidation and
formaldehyde oxidation processes. The catalyst proposed is work under room temperature and
elevated temperature. At room temperature, formaldehyde is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide,
while benzene is stored on the catalyst. The catalyst is regenerated by heating when the saturation
point of benzene storage is reached. During the regeneration phase, the catalyst activity will
increase with increasing the temperature and the stored benzene will completely oxidized to water
and carbon dioxide. The regenerated catalyst can then be used for a new cycle. In other word, the
catalyst for this process should not be only good for the oxidation of formaldehyde and storing of
benzene, but also the ability to oxidize the benzene at elevated temperature without release.

Nanoscale HZSM-5 zeolites is a promising catalytic and adsorbing material for this process with
reduced diffusion path lengths and higher surface area comparing to the conventional microscale
HZSM-5 zeolite. The overall adsorption capacity of HZSM-5 (15 nm) is about 50% higher than
HZSM-5 (>60 nm). Other studies was devoted to study PtM bimetallic catalyst (where M stands
for Fe,Pd,Ni, and Au) with enhanced catalytic performance. Furthermore, Ag shows a good
formaldehyde oxidation and benzene storing properties. A series of HZSM-5 with different crystal
size supported PtAg bimetallic catalysts were investigated at room temperature.

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Figure: Complete oxidation of HCHO to CO2 over the PtAg/HZ-S , -M & -L


As the figure shows, PtAg/HZ with different surface adsorption site. Results showed at room
temperature PtAg/HZ-S had the highest formaldehyde conversion to CO2 then comes PtAg/HZ-M
& PtAg/HZ-L, respectively. With increasing temperature HCHO conversion increased rapidly.
The addition Pt and Ag has great influence on benzene adsorption on the zeolite. For temperature
higher than 100 Co, the catalyst start to generate and benzene start to oxidize. Complete oxidation
happen at 150 Co for PtAg/HZ-S while higher temperature are required for complete oxidation for
both PtAg/HZ-M & PtAg/HZ-L, 165 Co & 190 Co respectively.

Figure: Complete oxidation of C6H6 to CO2 over the PtAg/HZ-S, -M & -L

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Adsorption capacity of PtAg/HZ-S is the highest among all of the catalyst studied. Also the results
showed that for non-supported HZ-S the capacity is 0.055 mmol/g.cat and increased by 70% in
the case of supported PtAg/HZ-S. The increase of storage capacity on PtAg/HZ can be attributed
to adsorption via -complexation of Ag with benzene.

Figure: Comparison of C6H6 storage capacity over the PtAg/HZ-S, -M & -L

Case study II: Catalytic oxidation of Benzene with ozone using zeolite supported metal oxides
nanoparticles (By Catalytic Today):

The following metal oxide (Co, Mn, Cu, Ce, Zn and Ni) were supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite. At
ambient temperature (25 1C), catalytic ozonation of benzene was carried out in a PBR.
Concentration of benzene and ozone, together with the humidity level, can be obtained at the
desired concentration. Some of the macro-pores of ZSM-5 were filled by metal oxides on the
supported ZSM-5, leading to the increased amount of mesoporous.

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Figure.12: Diagram showing Benzene OZCO system

Diffraction lines patterns to those of unsupported ZSM-5 and metal oxide showed quite similar
patterns, indicating that framework structure was reasonably remained even after ncorporation of
metal oxides. However, no significant diffraction peaks of metal oxides can be found in the
patterns of all the samples, indicating that metal oxides are highly and uniformly dispersed on the
support, as con-firmed by TEM. The time course for catalytic performance over various ZSM-5supported metal oxide catalysts.

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Figure.13: Time course for benzene oxidation over ZSM-5 supported metal oxide

In the absence of O3, benzene quickly appeared at the outlet after reaction for70 min due to the
gradual saturation of the sorption sites and no CO and CO2 was generated. It is interesting to find
that the introduction of metal oxides on ZSM-5 can greatly promote benzene oxidation. The
metal oxides exhibited great difference in catalytic ozonation of benzene. Benzene removal
efficiency over them followed the order: MnO2> CoO > CuO > NiO > ZnO > CeO2. Benzene
appeared at the outlet of reactor after reaction for about 100 min and benzene removal efficiency
was dropped to nearly 0 after reaction for about 300 min. Benzene removal was attributed to not
only catalytic oxidation, but also the adsorption. The initial CO2 concentration is only 120 ppm,
indicating that not all of the removed benzene was oxidized and some of them was adsorbed on
the surface of MnO2/ZSM-5. Besides the highest benzene removal efficiency, MnO2/ZSM-5 also
achieved the best CO2 selectivity of 84.7%, followed by 63.8% over CoO, 52.5% over NiO and
36.6% over CuO.

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Figure.14: Benzene catalytic ozonation over ZSM-5 supported metal oxide

In this study, the CO2 selectivity over MnO2/ZSM-5reached as high as 84.7% and no CO was
generated, indicating that most of the benzene was completely oxidized into CO2 and few
intermediates was formed. This is important for its catalytic stability and industrial application
since the intermediates would bring new pollutants as well as block active catalytic sites for
benzene oxidation. It is considered that the key step of VOCs catalytic ozonation is the formation
of active oxygen species. Active oxygen species are necessary for benzene oxidation.

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Figure.15: Ozone decomposition rate over ZSM-5 supported metal oxide

It is clear that highly dispersed MnO2 nanoparticles acted as the active centers for ozone
decomposition and benzene catalytic ozonation. ZSM-5 played a key role in ozone
decomposition. The active metal oxide and support synergistically work, which leads to the high
catalytic activity toward benzene catalytic ozonation. Benzene removal efficiency was not
always proportional to ozone decomposition efficiency over a specific metal oxide since the
adsorption also contributed to benzene removal besides catalytic ozonation in the initial stage. In
the case of MnO2, ozone decomposition efficiency was slowly decreased to 90% at 300 min,
while benzene removal efficiency could be kept the same (100%).

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6.2 RECOVERY:

6.2.1 Adsorption of benzene by using ordered mesoporous carbon


(OMC):

Adsorption is a separation process where adsorbate will be attached on the surface of solid material
adsorbent (catalyst). After the reactant that we want to be reacted quickly is being attached on the
surface of the catalyst, then the activation energy will be lowered which will allow the reaction to
take place faster than if there was no catalyst. Desorption will take place after the end of the
reaction and the desired product will be collected. There are different factors that will affect the
rate at which the reaction will take place such as: catalyst surface area, pours size and the
adsorption amount. Carbon catalyst is made out many component including: coal, wood and peat.
This process is used for the disposal of VOC's, where benzene was used as the adsorbate and
ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) as the adsorbent. Static adsorption measurement were
obtained at 298, 308 and 318 K, where the VOC's emissions were controlled by using turbo
molecular pump. OMC weight loss was obtained in temperatures greater than 373K. OMS was
used because of its excellent potential in the adsorption of VOC's. The reason why OMC had
excellent potential in the adsorption of VOC's is due to its large pour size, high surface area,
different available sizes, large volume of the porous and great recovery regime because of its fast
diffusion process. The proper OMC pour size was found to be (5-1.8) nm.

Table.5: The adsorption amount of benzene for different adsorbate temperature.

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7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:


In conclusion, benzene is major industrial compound and a health concern for the world.
Benzene can cause cancer and other major health effects. In order to control the benzene
emission, a number of controlling techniques were developed in order to keep the benzene
emission within the limits given by the countries regulations. In this report, we mainly
discussed controlling the benzene emission using catalytic oxidation. In this technique, we
explained two different case studies. In the first case study, controlling the benzene and
formaldehyde emission was discussed using PtAg/HZSM-5 catalyst. In this technique, we
found that using nanoscale HZSM-5 will improve the surface area and the adsorption
capacity comparing to the conventional microscale HZSM-5. Using three different
catalysts, PtAg/HZ-S, PtAg/HZ-M, and PtAg/HZ-L, we found that PtAg/HZ-S is the best
catalyst in term of highest conversion of formaldehyde at lowest temperature and also for
the benzene capacity and oxidation. In the second case study, we discussed about different
metal oxides supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite for the controlling of benzene. We showed
that at room temperature, MnO2/ZSM-5 has the highest activity toward catalytic ozonation
of benzene and can remove the benzene completely at room temperature. This catalyst
shows high selectivity for CO2 of 85%. In order to compare these techniques with other
techniques of removing the benzene, we generate a figure showing the efficiency of these
techniques with the operating cost. The figure is shown below:

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Removal Efficiency vs Annual Operating Cost


100
95
Removal Efficiency (%)

90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Annual Operating Cost ($/cfm)


Thermal Oxidation

Catalytic Oxidation

Bio-filtration

Condensation

Absorption

Activated Carbon

Zeolite

Membrane Separation

Fig.

The highest removal efficiency that can be obtained is 99% using Thermal Oxidation
or Membrane Separation, while the lowest removal efficiency is 60% using Biofiltration. Membrane Separation has the best efficiency per cost value. For Membrane
Separation,

"($%%&'&()'*)
"(',-.)

= 0.6 .Thermal Oxidation has the lowest efficiency per cost

value. For Membrane Separation,

"($%%&'&()'*)
"(',-.)

= 0.053. The highest cost of 120 $/cfm

came from Condensation and Absorption, but for the same price absorption gave better
efficiency (98%). The lowest cost of 10 $/cfm came from Activated Carbon.

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APPENDIX.1

Table.1: Physical properties of Benzene

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Table.4: Population-weighted personal exposure to benzene in five U.S. cities

Table.5: Outdoor concentration of benzene in three U.S. cities

28

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