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an exerciser on how to develop simulink model for rotational pendulam

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Description

The rotational pendulum is in fact a two-link rigid manipulator operating in a vertical plane. The first (lower) joint, is actuated by a torque introduced by a DC motor. The second (upper) joint is free to rotate. Both links (arms) can rotate the full

360 degrees. The objective is to control the motor such that

the joints are stabilized at some desired angles. The easiest

task is to control the links around the stable equilibrium (both

links down). More difficult tasks are when the second link is

in its unstable equilibrium (pointing upward). The schematic

diagram in Figure 1 shows the system including all the relevant parameters and variables. Positive directions of variables

are indicated by arrows.

m2

l2

m2 g

Symbol

g

l1

l2

m1

m2

c1

c2

I1

I2

b1

b2

km

e

Parameter

acceleration due to gravity

length of first link

length of second link

mass of first link

mass of second link

center of mass of first link

center of mass of second link

inertia of first link

inertia of second link

damping of first joint

damping of second joint

motor gain

motor electrical time constant

Value

9.81 ms2

0.1 m

0.1 m

0.125 kg

0.05 kg

-0.04 m

0.06 m

0.074 kgm2

0.00012 kgm2

4.8 kgs1

0.0002 kgs1

50 Nm

0.03 s

Physical Modeling

m1

l1

be derived by using the EulerLagrange equations, neglecting

the Coulomb friction and stiction:

T

M () + C(, ) + G() =

0

with

m1 g

motor

This system has one control input u, which is the torque

that accelerates the lower link (delivered by the motor). This

input is commanded from the computer and is scaled between -1 (corresponding to the maximal torque moving the

arm clockwise) and +1 (corresponding to the maximal torque

moving the cart counter-clockwise). There are two measured

outputs: 1 the angle of the lower joint, and 2 the angle

between the lower and upper joint. These measured values

are given in radians. The physical parameters of the system

are listed in Table 1.

Control Objective

Design a controller to stabilize the second link in the upright

position. It is easier to start with the stable equilibrium (both

links down) and just make a controller to damp the swing (like

an overhead crane). The controlled system should have zero

steady state error in 1 (small oscillations around the reference are permitted, as these are caused by Coulomb friction

and stiction and are difficult to avoid when using linear control only) and adequate disturbance rejection properties, i.e.,

it should be able to recover from a small tick against the pendulum.

T + e T = km u and =

1

2

Here, are the joint angles, M is the (positive-definite) inertia matrix, C contains the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, G

contains the effects of gravity, and T is the torque applied to

the first link. The matrices are:

P1 + P2 + 2P3 cos 2 P2 + P3 cos 2

M () =

P2 + P3 cos 2

P2

b1 P3 2 sin 2 P3 (1 + 2 ) sin 2

=

C(, )

P3 1 sin 2

b2

g1 sin 1 g2 sin(1 + 2 )

G() =

g2 sin(1 + 2 )

with

P1

P2

=

=

m1 c21 + m2 l12 + I1

m2 c22 + I2 ,

P3 = m2 l1 c2

g1

(m1 c1 + m2 l1 )g,

g 2 = m 2 c2 g

use the MATLAB Function block in the Functions & Tables library. The inverse of M can be computed by using the

Product block in the Math library.

Simulink Template

A Simulink template rpendtemplate.mdl contains the

necessary real-time interface blocks and some scopes. Make

your own copy of this file and use it as a starting point for your

experiments. Before starting the first simulation, define the

sampling period h as a variable in the workspace of M ATLAB.

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