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CS_Ch7_PeriodicTbl

2/28/05

10:04 AM

Page 428

The Periodic Table

these sublevels are filled, the atom


exhibits a higher degree of stability.
In this model, the sublevels are
designated by the four letters s, p, d,
and f.

graph, not just those elements


with higher values.)
b) Which elements in the second
period (atomic numbers 3 through
10) of the periodic table have the
most stable arrangements of
electrons in their atoms?

The periodic table shows the atomic


number, the chemical symbol, and
how many electrons in an atom of
each element are in each sublevel.
The total number of electrons is
equal to the atomic number of the
element. This is because the atoms
are neutral and therefore have a
number of electrons equivalent to the
number of protons. This arrangement
of the electrons in each sublevel will
be referred to as the electron
assignment or electron configuration
of the element. Use this periodic table
to answer the following questions:

c) Which elements in the third period


(atomic numbers 11 through 18)
of the periodic table have the most
stable arrangements of electrons in
their atoms?
d) Which elements in the fourth
period (atomic numbers 19
through 36) of the periodic table
have the most stable arrangements
of electrons in their atoms?
6. As mentioned earlier, the Bohr model
was not able to account for the
spectrum of an element containing
more than one electron. A more
elaborate model was needed. In this
new model, the energy levels are
broken down into sublevels. When
GROUP
1

a) In what sublevel (include number


and letter) are the electrons in
hydrogen (1 electron) and helium
(2 electrons) found?

10

11

12

IA/1A

Periodic Table of the Elements

2.1

1.00794

1.0

Li

Be

1.00794

6.941

9.012182

Hydrogen

1s 2s

1s 2s

Atomic Number
Electronegativity
Oxidation Number
Symbol
Average Atomic Mass
Electron Configuration
Name

Gases at room temperature

KEY

1s
IIA/2A
Hydrogen Alkaline Earth
Metals
Alkali Metals
1.5
3
1.0 4

1s

Liquids at room temperature


Solids at room temperature
Metals

Na

Mg

22.98977

24.3050

[Ne]3s

[Ne]3s

Transition Metals
IIIB/3B

Sodium Magnesium
0.8 20
1.0 21

PERIOD

19

Al

Si

Ga

Ge

Nonmetals

Beryllium
Lithium
1.2
0.9 12

11

Metalloids

IVB/4B

1.3 22
3

VB/5B

1.5 23
3,4

1.6 24

2,3,4,5

VIIB/7B

1.6 25
2,3,6

VIIIB/8B

1.5 26

2,3,4,6,7

1.8 27
2,3

IB/1B

1.9 28
2,3

1.9 29
2,3

Ni

IIB/2B

1.9 30
1,2

Cu

1.6
2

Ca

Sc

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

39.0983

40.078

44.95591

47.867

50.9415

51.9961

54.93805

55.847

58.93320

58.6934

63.546

65.39

[Ar]4s1

[Ar]4s2

[Ar]4s23d1

[Ar]4s23d2

[Ar]4s23d3

[Ar]4s23d4

[Ar]4s23d5

[Ar]4s23d6

[Ar]4s23d7

[Ar]4s23d8

[Ar]4s23d9

[Ar]4s23d10

Potassium

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium Chromium Manganese

Iron

Cobalt

Nickel

Copper

Zinc

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb 428Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Cs

Ba

*La

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Ti

VIB/6B

Zn

Active Chemistry

CS_Ch7_PeriodicTbl

2/28/05

10:04 AM

Page 429

Activity 6 Atoms with More than One Electron

As you move to the second period


(second row on the periodic table)
each new element has one more
proton in its nucleus and one more
electron. The electrons must find a
place to reside an energy level and
a sublevel within that energy level.
As you move along in the periodic
table to increasing atomic
numbers, you see that the
additional electrons fill the
sublevel. A completed sublevel is
one that is holding the maximum
number of electrons allowed to it
before electrons must be placed in
the next higher sublevel.
b) In what region of the periodic
table are electrons added in an
s sublevel? What is the greatest
number of electrons found in any
s sublevel?
c) In what region of the periodic
table are electrons added in a
p sublevel? What is the greatest

13

14

15

16

17

18
VIIIA/8A or 0

Noble Gases

He
4.002602

IIIA/3A

2.0
3

B
2

2.5
-4,2,4

1s 2s 2p

3.0

12.011
2

VA/5A

VIA/6A

VIIA/7A

1s

Chalcogens

Halides

Helium

3.5

-3,2,3,4,5

10.811
2

IVA/4A

1s 2s 2p

4.0 10

-2

-1

14.00674
2

1s 2s 2p

15.9994
2

1s 2s 2p

Ne

18.998403
2

1s 2s 2p

20.1797
2

1s 2s 2p

Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
13
1.5 14
1.8 15
2.1 16
2.5 17
3.0 18
3

2,4

-3,3,4,5

-2,2,4,6

Al

Si

-1,1,3,5,7

26.981539

28.0855

30.973762

32.066

35.4527

39.948

[Ne]3s23p1

[Ne]3s23p2

[Ne]3s23p3

[Ne]3s23p4

[Ne]3s23p5

[Ne]3s23p6

Cl

Ar

number of electrons found in any


p sublevel?
d) In what region of the periodic
table are electrons added in a
d sublevel? What is the greatest
number of electrons found in
any d sublevel?
e) In what region of the periodic
table are electrons added to an
f sublevel? What is the greatest
number of electrons found in any
f sublevel?
f) Select a column in the periodic
table. (A column of elements on
the periodic table is called a family
or group.) Look at the electron
configuration for each element
within the column. Take special
note of the last entry, the sublevel
to which the last electron in an
atom of each element in that
column is added. What do all of
these sublevels have in common?
How many electrons are in these
particular sublevels?
g) Mendeleev assigned elements to
the same column of the periodic
table because the elements had
similar properties, both physical
and chemical. How, then, does
the number and location of the
electrons in the outermost
sublevel relate to chemical
properties? We can now
acknowledge that electrons (as
opposed to the nucleus) are the
key to the chemical properties
of elements.

Aluminum
Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur
Chlorine
Argon
1.6 32
1.8 33
2.0 34
2.4 35
2.8 36

31

Cu

Zn

-3,3,5

-2,4,6

Ga

Ge

As

Se

-1,1,5,7

Br

Kr

69.723

72.61

74.92159

78.96

79.904

83.80

[Ar]4s23d104p1 [Ar]4s23d104p2 [Ar]4s23d104p3 [Ar]4s23d104p4 [Ar]4s23d104p5 [Ar]4s23d104p6

Ag

Cd

Gallium

Germanium

Arsenic

Selenium

Bromine

Krypton

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xe

429
Coordinated Science for the 21st Century

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn