19 views

Uploaded by zoulzz0903

Case study

- Acceptance speech on behalf of the 2009 Metrobank Foundation Outstanding Teachers
- Teacher Job Discription
- university learning objectives worksheet
- teacher
- Samuel Kingsbury's Resume
- Deped Forms
- CSR Proposal Template
- 08.sahebzadeh
- teacher resume
- çeviri yılaaan
- C5 Arifuddin - Timber and Tree.docx
- Dagli Hand Out
- observation paper
- Genikes Xrisimes Plirofories Gia Comenius, Istoria Kostos Klp
- sept 18 2pt1
- HR Ranking File Ms. Jenny Garcia 2011-2012
- Action Research Assignment
- Rational Standard 2
- Teaching Reading Explicit- An Instructional Approach
- Being a teacher is a holy job because it can make the generation of a nation to be brilliant and have good morals.docx

You are on page 1of 8

FUNCTIONS

Yusminah Mohd Yusof

Effandi Zakaria

<ymy277@yahoo.com>

<effendi@ukm.my>

Khalid Abdullah

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstract

This case study was conducted to explore, describe and determine the level of Pedagogical

Content Knowledge (PCK) of three school teachers, focusing on the topic of Functions. The

teachers PCK levels were analyzed based on the techniques used in delivering the lessons.

This study was conducted using a qualitative approach where interviews based on teachers

answers to the vignette and observations were used as instruments for collecting data. These

data were analyzed using a similar approach by Ebert (1993). The findings showed that the

PCK of these three teachers were in mediocre levels with the more experienced teachers, A

and B had better level of PCK. Nonetheless, due to their lack of conceptual knowledge on

certain aspects, these teachers failed to deliver the related concepts of Functions accurately

and clearly in class. Alternatively, the students were taught the detailed procedures on how to

solve Mathematics problems with less emphasis on the conceptual understanding. The

textbook was seen as the main resource for teaching and organizing the lessons. The findings

suggested that teachers be adequately supplied with resource book on Mathematics consisting

of concepts and procedures to improve their knowledge, understanding and teaching of this

subject. Teachers should also be assisted consistently through in-service trainings and courses

to improve their PCK. This is to ensure the betterment of teachers quality in teaching and

furthermore will help produce meaningful learning of Mathematics for students.

Introduction

As agents of mind innovation and a countrys development, teachers are directly responsible for

performing the Integrated Curriculum of Secondary School (KBSM) and expected to materialize the aspiration

of National Education Philosophy. In relation to that, teachers need to equip themselves with the knowledge,

skills and positive attitude in line with the requirement of KBSM (Alimuddin 2008). Shulman (1987) has

developed a theoretical framework to conceptualize the required teachers knowledge in performing effective

teaching and learning process. This theoretical framework is given the term Pedagogical Content Knowledge

(PCK). PCK is a combination of content knowledge, knowledge about the students and a variety of how content

knowledge is applied in a classrooms teaching and learning process (Hill et al. 2004).

Furthermore, experts in education claim that pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is critical and it is

very important for a teacher to master it to be able to convey lesson content to students effectively (Ball et al.

2003; Hill et al. 2005; Lilia 1997; Shulman 1987). This is because PCK enables a teacher to predict

complications that may be faced by students and thus prepare themselves with methods, explanations including

useful and suitable analogies or representation /symbols in expressing certain lesson topics (Ball et al. 2001;

Shulman 1987).

Although the PCK construct has been in the education milieu for more than 20 years, it is still a useful

construct and idea in educational research as the understanding towards PCK allows a teacher to provide

knowledge, methods and objectives in preparing educators capital or manpower and also teachers

professionalism enhancement course (Abell 2008). In a mathematics class specifically, teachers are responsible

to play the active role in the teaching and learning process until the desired change of behaviour among students

take place. To perform such task, each mathematics educator or teacher should acquire an in depth knowledge

of the mathematics lesson intended to be taught (Ma 1999) and also the pedagogical knowledge that suits the

level of the students taught (Ball et al. 2001). Moreover, Ball et al. (2001) emphasizes that the most essential

factor in determining the result of the learning process from the teaching strategy is how far the strategy used

could assist students in a meaningful lesson. Hence, the most important question is not just how much can a

teacher know about a form of knowledge but how a teacher uses what he knows to perform the teaching task by

providing results of the learning to the students effectively.

Statement of the Problem

In performing the process of teaching and learning, teachers bring along with them the knowledge

components. Content knowledge, knowledge about the students and the various ways of using content

knowledge in a classrooms teaching and learning process indeed play a role (Hill et al. 2004). The integration

of these knowledge is recognized as Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Based on literature reviews, it is

discovered that pedagogical content is an essential and critical element in determining a teachers success in

handling the teaching and learning process and further produces effective teaching (Shulman 1986; Ball & Bass

2000; Hill et al. 2004). However, the trainings given by teacher training institutes are incapable of equipping

teachers with sufficient PCK skills. Lilia (1997) discovered that the educational trainings given by 4 teacher

training institutes provide limited opportunity for teachers to develop their PCK. Ratnadivel et al. (2002) next

summed up that only 2 out of 18 courses in mathematics major in Sultan Idris Teacher Training Institute gives

emphasis or attention to PCK. The educational trainings given by teacher training institutes are only a small part

of the real teaching and learning process and the teachers PCK development is restricted to certain aspects only

(Noor Shah 2008).

Besides that, mathematics teachers educational programme is said to be only focusing on the

acquiring of knowledge and the trainees skills and not to train them to teach mathematics at school (Tengku

Zawawi 2005). Lesson on the pedagogy of teaching mathematics is centralized on the technical form of

teaching education only (Cheah 2001). Meanwhile, content knowledge and pedagogy are taught separately and

this is against the reality of teaching and learning whereby these knowledge function in integration or

assimilation (Tengku Zawawi 2005). Therefore, if teacher training could not provide a comprehensive

opportunity to teachers to develop their PCK, how do these teachers teach in schools? How do teachers use their

existing PCK while performing the mathematics teaching process? Thus, it is obligatory for us to acquire

understanding in performing teaching process centralized on PCK.

Conceptual Framework

This study is based on a conceptual framework that is partly adapted from a research conducted by

Ebert (1993), who studied about the Assessment of Secondary School Teachers Pedagogical Content in the

topics of Functions and Graphs. The conceptual framework is as shown in Figure 1.

PCK

Giving explanation concept and procedure

Using Analogy

Using Representation/ Symbol

Giving Example

Teachers method in stimulating teaching & learning

Enquiry technique

Activity performed

Assessment of students understanding

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of Teachers PCK on the topic of Functions.

Shulman (1987) stated that PCK means teachers knowledge about what is taught and a teachers

ability to adapt his existing content knowledge into a form feasible for students understanding or

comprehension. In this study, PCK means a mathematics teachers ability to interpret the content of the topic of

Functions based on teachers content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge with the intention of providing

understanding to students. This conceptual framework observes PCK as the way to provide conceptual

explanation and procedure to students using suitable analogy, representation/ symbol or example and the way a

teacher stimulates learning (Ebert 1993).

Purpose of the Study

This study was designed to determine teachers PCK in the topic of Functions. The topic was chosen

considering the Functions concept is the base for all mathematics fields (Spanier & Oldham 1987; Zaslavsky

1997). Among the vital concepts in Mathematics Curriculum starting from elementary to tertiary level is the

Functions concept in mathematics ( Dubinsky & Harel 1992). The Functions concept plays important role in our

lives as almost all lifes significant processes can be summarized and simplified as a Functions process (Stein et

al. 1990; Zaslavsky 1997). In New Curriculum for Secondary School for Additional Mathematics, Functions

is an algebra component, which is the foundation for other topics. Meanwhile, students grasp of the topic is a

necessity before they are exposed to a more complex topic (Additional Mathematics Syllabus Specification

2003).

In this study, the researcher would only focus on how the lessons content is conveyed to students. The

PCK elements that would be observed in it involve the use of analogy, representation/symbols, examples,

explanation or demonstration that are suitable in providing conceptual and procedural explanation or account

and the ways on how a teacher stimulates the teaching process (Ebert 1993).

Objectives of the study. This study is to explore and describe the elements of teachers PCK on the

topic of Functions. It is also to determine teachers level of PCK in the topic of Functions.

Research Design

The study used a qualitative approach based on the design of a case study in a certain school. The case study

was a research conducted intensively by the researcher on a social unit such as individual, a family, a village, a

school or a community. The method of the case study was an empirical enquiry, investigating a phenomenon in

the real context using various means to collect the data (Yin 1994). The qualitative approach of the case study

combines interview, observation and document analysis, which are required to administer or manage the data on

teachers PCK.

As content knowledge is fundamental to PCK, questions and vignette on the topic of Functions were

used in this study to perceive teachers content knowledge. Other than that, the instrument used could also

provide insights on the way teachers deliver understanding or comprehension to students. Meanwhile, verbal

interview was conducted on the research subjects upon the responses given towards the Functions questions and

vignette. In addition, observations on all the teachers in their classrooms were conducted throughout the

teaching of the Functions topic.

Participants and Location of the study

The research participants were all teachers who taught Form 4 Additional Mathematics in a school

with a qualification of at least professional certificate in Mathematics Education. There were 4 of them.

Nevertheless, there were only 3 teachers who fit the characteristics given in operational definition to become

research participants. All of them have been teaching Form 4 Additional Mathematics for more than a year and

acquired professional eligibility in Mathematics education.

Instrumentation and Data Collection

The instrument used was a set of vignettes on the topic of Functions and observation protocol. Next,

the data collection is illustrated as the following;

Vignette based on the topic of Functions. The study conducted is a qualitative research that involves

questions in the form of vignettes on Functions. Vignettes are questions based on a certain scenario. As a

research instrument, vignette is gaining constant use in qualitative research on teachers knowledge (Aini 2001),

for instance as what was conducted by McDiarmid and Wilson (1991) who gave out questions based on a series

of teaching scenarios to gather more detailed information on teachers knowledge and belief.

The vignettes used in this study are questions along with students responses that consist of several

errors or mistakes that require teachers capability or skill to identify and correct those errors. Ebert (1993)

stated that the use of vignette could also provide alternatives to evaluate content knowledge and teachers PCK

by looking at teachers structural responses and the kind of activity that they suggest to answer questions and

prevent confusion or uncertainty among students in learning the topic of Functions. The teachers were also

interviewed based on their responses in the vignette.

Observation protocol. Observation is used to gain a more accurate account on the teaching method

applied in teaching all units of the lesson on the chosen topic. The teaching aspect that would be observed is on

how teachers explain in providing comprehension to students and how they evaluate students understanding.

Besides that, this method is conducted to observe the elements of content knowledge and teachers pedagogical

knowledge in forming teachers PCK. The observation applied is unstructured observation and non-participant

observation whereby the researcher was not involved in the teaching session but acted merely as an observer.

This is because the researcher planned to record the teaching session that took place in its natural state. The

researcher recorded and took notes of all that are observed throughout the participants teaching process. This

method was also conducted according to the teachers teaching schedule. The observation was done for each

teaching session on the sub topics of Functions. Whenever the researcher was unable to attend the class during

which a subtopic is taught, she would ask the participants to flashback or recapitulate the teaching session

conducted and the notes that had been taken. However, there was only one session that could not be observed or

administered by the researcher that is on the topic of Inverse Function conducted by participant C.

Data Analysis of Interview and Observation. The data analysis is done through questions and

responses of the participants towards the vignettes on the topic of Functions and the observation done is

recorded based on how the teachers provide explanation on the concepts and procedures to students using

suitable analogy, representation/symbols or examples and how teachers stimulate the teaching process.

Teachers pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). A teachers PCK is formed when he conveys lesson

content for students understanding. This element can be observed through the data collected based on teachers

responses in the aforementioned vignettes and classroom observation. Through the data obtained, a teachers

approach in conveying lesson content to students is through having lectures and minimal discussion activities.

The themes are how the teacher provides conceptual explanation, the method of providing procedural

explanation related to the concept taught and how the teacher stimulates the teaching process.

Level 1 PCK. At this level, the PCK reveals that the teacher explains the wrong concept or that is not

quite clear. The examples given are limited to a certain form only. The procedures explained are integrated with

its conceptual understanding, whereas the teachers question techniques, if existed, are of low level. The teacher

is the main medium and students participation is very minimal throughout the teaching and learning process.

The teacher may not realize students difficulties within the topic. There is no clear indication of the teacher

relating the lesson with students existing knowledge.

Level 2 PCK. At this level, the teachers explanation of concept is accurate but with limited variety of

examples. There are attempts to integrate conceptual understanding with the knowledge of performing

mathematics procedures. However, the focus of the teaching remains on performing a systematic or organized

mathematics procedures that must be adhered to by students. Activities that involve students are provided but

of limited participation. The teaching is teacher-centered. The teacher is aware of students difficulties but

perhaps there is no attempt for further explanation through the teaching and learning process. The questions

forms are of no variety. The use of analogy, representation /symbols and demonstration may be observed at this

level.

Level 3 PCK. The teachers explanations of concept are more accurate and clear along with suitable

examples. The examples given are of many variety including situational and application concepts. The

questions asked towards students are to stimulate their minds and comprehension. Students participation is

active through activities focused towards providing conceptual and procedural understanding that are integrated,

creating conjectures and generalization of mathematics. The use of meaningful analogies, representations/

symbols and demonstrations occur at this level. Suggestions on the use of technological application are also

possible. Students mistakes are seen as a way to observe the process of performing the correct procedures

besides evaluating students understanding of the concept. The teaching is also considered as student-centered

and the development of conceptual understanding is accurate without neglecting procedural understanding and

knowledge.

Findings

The results of the study are presented in table form as well as descriptive analysis.

Background of Research Participants

Three teachers are involved as the research participants this study.

Table 1

Participants Background

Demographic Characteristics

Teacher A

Teacher B

Teacher C

Gender

Academic Qualification

Male

Bachelor of Marine

Science

Male

Bachelor of Finance

Profesional Qualification

Science)

KPLI (Mathematics)

Female

Bachelor of

Education

(Mathematics)

Bachelor of

Education

(Mathematics)

2

Course attended

Additional Mathematics

Enhancement Course

Contextual Learning

(Science and

Mathematics)

None

Mathematics SPM Result

2A, 6C

Additional

Mathematics

2A, 5C

As displayed in Table 1, the three research participants: Teacher A, Teacher B and Teacher C have

been teaching Additional Mathematics for 7, 4 and 2 years respectively. All the teachers have acquired

professional trainings in mathematics education whether in teacher training institute or in university. Teacher C

is a graduate of Bachelor of Education in Mathematics from a local university, whereas Teacher A and Teacher

B had received training to be a qualified mathematics teacher through the post-graduate teacher training course

(KPLI) for a year in a teacher training institute. Teacher A and Teacher C had taken the subject while in

secondary school whereas Teacher B did not have Additional Mathematics background. Their performance of

2A and 3B in Malaysia Certificate of Education Mathematics is considered as good and excellent whereas

Teacher A and Teacher Cs performance in Additional Mathematics is considered as average.

Teacher A and B each has had the opportunity to attend contextual teaching and learning enhancement

course respectively once within their working experience so far. All three of them have positive perceptions

towards Additional Mathematics and claimed that they enjoy teaching the subject. Nevertheless, perhaps due to

different educational backgrounds and the duration of working experience, there are differences among them

especially in terms of the knowledge of Functions concept.

Teacher A is the head panel of Additional Mathematics in the school, teaching the subject in 4 classes

(1 Form 4 class (16-year old students) and 3 Form 5 classes (17year old students)). The teacher also had taught

Science and Mathematics for 5 years before being appointed as the head panel. The teacher is considered as

relaxed and poised while performing his teaching session.

Teacher B teaches two Additional Mathematics classes (one Form 4 class and one Form 5 class) and

two Science classes. This teacher does not have Additional Mathematics background throughout secondary

school. He is the schools head of cooperative unit. He frequently claimed that he has been constantly busy

since being appointed with the position. While the researcher was at the research location, he was seen occupied

with distributing necessity items to Form 4 students. This research participant also stated his lack of preparation

for the lesson in the third observation. He has a clear and distinct voice, good humour and provides systematic

solution with reason so that it is easier for students to memorize or understand it.

Meanwhile, Teacher C has started teaching Additional Mathematics in the school for about one year.

She also teaches 2 Additional Mathematics classes, which are one Form Four class and one Form 5 class and

the other 3 classes are for mathematics subject. The teacher seemed a bit passive probably due to the lack of

experience being this is only her second year of teaching. She was seen to have less communication with the

students and did not give out many questions. All the three participants expressed that they enjoy teaching

Additional Mathematics that is compulsory for all students under the technical stream in the school.

Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Overall, the participants PCK level can be categorized as at Level 1

and 2 with minimum difference. Examples on the aspects of domain, co-domain, image, object and range were

not given accurately. The teacher also did not explain explicitly that equation is also a form of representation

/symbols for Functions and this reveals the teachers inability to identify that linear equation is a Function. The

examples given were also limited to examination form without any application form question. The elements of

teachers PCK were summarised in Table 2 below

Table 2

Teachers Pedagogical Content Knowledge

No. TEACHERS EXPLANATION

CONCEPT EXPLANATION

1

Introduction to Functions

Teacher A

Teacher B

Teacher C

Composite Function

Give definition of Composite Function

Explain the definition and concept with charts in general

Use Analogy

Inverse Function

Give definition

Give examples of diagram that display inversion

Use analogy

Provide relationship aspects

Give relationship example in the form of graphs, diagram

and organized pairs.

Give numerical, situational and trigonometric function

examples

Give definition of Functions in general

Explain domain, codomain, range, image, object

Provide inaccurate list of image, object, domain,

codomain and range

2

1

Give examples of questions and the solutions

Emphasize image concept and object in explanation

Composite Function

Gives examples of questions and the solutions

Use analogy

Provide solutions and their steps

Provide solutions with more systematic steps

Inverse Function

Give examples of questions and the solutions

Use analogy

Emphasize the need to maintain using one a variable

only due to students difficulties.

Discuss questions based on non-linear stimulus

Integrate concept and procedure

Perform Organized solutions and their steps

1

2

3

Question Techniques

Low level question; Knowledge stage what

Analysis stage why

Enhancement Exercises

Examination form questions

Monitoring and providing guidance

Request students to demonstrate on blackboard

Guide students while answering on the blackboard

Provide explanation on students answers

Solve the question

The result of this section is to answer the research question that is what is the teachers level of PCK

in performing the teaching and learning process in the topic of Functions? PCK is defined as how a teacher

provides explanation on the lesson content and how a teacher stimulates the lesson to assist in providing

understanding to students.

Teachers Methods of Explanation. Based on the details in Table 2, it is understood that the knowledge

in the topic of Functions conveyed by the teacher to the students is based on what has been prepared in the

textbook. The teachers felt that the lesson content arranged in the textbook is simplified and suit the level of

their students. There was no discrepancy in the teachers explanation with what has been prepared.

The teachers also did not realize that their knowledge on domain, co-domain, image, range and object

is not quite strong and hence gave students the wrong information regarding those aspects. Meanwhile, the

explanation on the concept of Composite Function was just to provide a diagram for Composite Function and

later give explanation on the procedures involved. The belief that Mathematics must be mastered with the

ability to perform its procedures justifies the approach taken by the teachers in the teaching and learning process

conducted in classrooms. Providing intensive and repetitive exercises has become the practice of these teachers.

Furthermore, based on the teachers limited knowledge in the application of Functions, thus the

questions and whatever examples given by them do not involve Functions application. The conceptual

explanation among these teachers does not differ much even though Teacher A has a more stable content

knowledge than the other two research participants. This results supports the statement by Nik Azis and Ng

(1991) that claimed, although an in-depth content knowledge in mathematics is required, it is not enough as a

prerequisite to teaching mathematics. This is because all three participants rely very much on the textbook for

lesson content as well as organizing and performing the lesson content. Therefore, the teaching and activities

performed in the classroom are not much different among these teachers.

Teacher B also has his own strengths in providing clear and systematic explanation that did make it

easier for his students to understand the lesson specifically in performing the Mathematics procedures involved.

The teacher also has attempted to use analogy even though it was only to provide procedural comprehension.

Besides that, his traits such as having a clear voice, cheerful and using the blackboard systematically and neatly

are perceived by the researcher as the teachers individual strengths while performing lessons in the classroom.

This result is in contrast with the study conducted by Noorhashikim (2002) that discovered experienced teachers

have better PCK level than those with less working experience. This may be due to the lack of differences

resulting from the 7 years and 4 years of experience between Teacher A and Teacher B respectively.

Teachers Methods of Stimulating the Lesson. Moreover, students active involvement in mathematics

activity is limited because teachers were also seen as less stimulating in the lesson without having high level

questions. The students only participated in providing answers to exercises in the classroom. They were not

given the chance to explain or justify how an answer is obtained.

The exercises questions were taken from textbook and also examination questions. The application

form questions provided in the textbook were not given to the students even though the questions could provide

students with the opportunity to explore Functions better and face more challenges. This is because the teachers

are of the opinion that the questions are not based on examination format and are more difficult for students to

solve.

Besides that, the teachers knowledge towards students conceptual understanding is also limited.

Although the teachers realized students difficulty in learning certain topics, they did not take any step to

explain further or provide better clarification for the students. For instance, Teacher B realized the difficulty that

the students may face regarding the concept of variable in learning Functions, but the teacher did not attempt to

explain further. The teacher just chose to limit the use of one variable that is a in solving related questions.

This is against the importance of variable concept as being something fundamental in the topic of Functions

(Leinhardt et al. 1990). Meanwhile, students mistake is considered as arithmetic error that later provides

options for teachers to just explain to them on the correct mathematical procedures without asking students to

give reasons towards the procedures performed as a way to observe the process that has taken place.

Summary

When someone has chosen a career of teaching mathematics, the passion towards the field or subject

exists inherently. Therefore, a teacher must use this advantage and always look forward to explore a better

understanding of a certain mathematical concept and not only to teach students to pass in the examination. The

passion towards mathematics must be conveyed to students and this can only be done if the teacher himself sees

Mathematics as an interesting subject to be explored and appreciated through more dynamic activities that

maximize students participation. This is possible if the teacher possesses firm conceptual knowledge and could

perceive its relation with the subject or reality of life that is linked to mathematics along with related

pedagogical knowledge.

Teachers must be open and willing to accept changes in the reformation of education towards suitable

technological application for the teaching and learning process, based on research results that have proven the

success of applying technology effectively in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Certain departments

such as the Ministry of Education and Centre of Curriculum Development could never have changed the

attitude and perception of teachers except the teachers themselves believe that dynamic education, technology,

and lesson content will go through changes within time. Teachers must be prepared to change and adapt their

teaching methods starting with shifting their paradigm for the sake of developing a functional generation

effectively in the future.

A good pedagogical content knowledge within teachers would not be developed easily without the

effort of certain departments and also the initiative required within each teacher specifically Additional

Mathematics teachers. Indeed a change could be expedited if the individuals involved, teachers generally, are

ready to change to a better, more progressive stage. With the knowledge that is being enhanced and renewed

consistently, teachers understanding on the subject and its topics that need to be conveyed to students will be

more established and later capable of fulfilling this adage: Those who can, do. Those who understand, teach

(Shulman 1986: 14).

References

Abell, S.K. 2008. Twenty Years Later: Does pedagogical content knowledge remain a useful idea? International

Journal of Science Education. 30 (10): 1405 1416.

Aini Hassan. 2001. Pelbagai kaedah pengutipan dan penganalisisan data pengetahuan guru. In Mahoraini

Yusoff (Ed). Penyelidikan kualitatif: Pengalaman kerja lapangan kajian. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti

Malaya.

Alimuddin

Md

Dom.

2008a.

Pengurusan

kurikulum

yang

berkesan.

Retrieved

from

www.tutor.com.my/tutor/dunia

Ball, D. L., Lubinski, S. T. & Mewborn, D. S. 2001. Research on teaching mathematics: The unsolved problem

of teachers mathematical knowledge. In V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching

(4th. Ed. Hlm 433 456). New York: Macmillan.

Ball, D.L. 2003. Mathematical Proficiency for All Students. Toward a Strategic Research and Development

Program in Mathematics Education. RAND Mathematics Study Panel. Santa Monica, CA: RAND

Ball, D. L. & Bass, H. 2000. Interweaving Content and Pedagogy in Teaching and Learning to Teach: Knowing

and Using Mathematics. In J. Boaler. Multiple Perspective on Mathematics Teaching and Learning.

Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.

Dubinsky, E. & Harel, G. 1992. The nature of the process conception of function. In Harel, G. & Dubinsky, E.

(Eds.). The concept of Functions: Aspect of epistemology and pedagogy. USA: The Mathematical

Association of America.

Ebert, C. L. 1993. An assessment of prospective secondary teachers pedagogical content knowledge about

Functions and Graphs. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research

Association. Atlanta, GA.

Hill, H.C., Ball, D. L. & Schilling, S. G. 2004. Developing measures of teachers mathematics knowledge for

teaching. Elementary School Journal, 105:11 30.

Hill, H. C., Rowan, B. & Ball, D. L. 2005. Effects of Teachers Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching on

Student Achievement. American Educational Research Journal. 42(2): 371 406.

Leinhardt, G., Zaslavsky, O. & Stein, M. K. 1990. Functions, graphs and graphing: Tasks, learning and

teaching. Review of Educational Research. 60(1) : 1 64.

Lilia Halim. 1997. A critical appraisal of secondary science teacher training programes in Malaysia with an

emphasis on pedagogical content knowledge. Kings College, London. Phd Thesis.

Ma, L. 1999. Knowing and teaching elementary mathematics: Teachers understanding of fundamental

mathematics in China and the United States. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

McDiarmid, G. W, & Wilson, S. M. 1991. An expolaration on subject matter knowledge of alternate route

teachers: Can we assume they know their subject? Journal of Teacher Education 42 (2): 93 103.

Nik Azis Nik Pa & Ng See Ngean. 1991. Kajian tentang pelaksanaan Matematik KBSM dan fenomena tahun

pertama (1989) dan kedua (1990). Report for Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, 25

November.

Noorashikim Noor Ibrahim. 2002. Pengetahuan pedagogikal kandungan (PPK) guru matematik dalam tajuk

algebra di daerah Kota Bahru, Kelantan. Project paper for Master in Education. UKM.

Noor Shah Saad. 2008. Developing PCK in Mathematics in the Context of Pre service Education. Paper

presented at the Seminar on PCK in Science and Mathematics Education. 16 19 January. UKM

Shulman, L. S. 1986. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher. 15(2): 4

14.

Shulman, L. S. 1987. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review

57(1): 1 22.

Spanier, J. & Oldham, K. B. 1987. An atlas of functions. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.

Stein, M.K., Baxter, J.A. & Linehardt, G. 1990. Subject-matter knowledge and elementary instruction: A case

from Functions and graphing. American Educational Research Journal 27(4): 639 663.

Tengku Zawawi Tengku Zainal. (tanpa tarikh). Strategi Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Matematik: Satu

kerangka umum. Retrieved from http://members.tripod.com/~MUJAHID/strategi.html

Yin, R. K. 1994. Case study research: Design & methods. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications.

Zaslavsky, O. 1997. Conceptual obstacles in the learning of Quadratic Functions. Focus on Learning Problems

in Mathematics 19(1): 20 44.

- Acceptance speech on behalf of the 2009 Metrobank Foundation Outstanding TeachersUploaded bydinaocampo
- Teacher Job DiscriptionUploaded bySuleman Rana
- university learning objectives worksheetUploaded byapi-300862751
- teacherUploaded byGeneth Ugdamin Balictar
- Samuel Kingsbury's ResumeUploaded bySamuel James Kingsbury
- Deped FormsUploaded byQueenie Butalid
- CSR Proposal TemplateUploaded byAalumgir Shah
- 08.sahebzadehUploaded byLiGhe Phoetra Schiffer
- teacher resumeUploaded byapi-284937286
- çeviri yılaaanUploaded byfyodoroprichnikbasmanov
- C5 Arifuddin - Timber and Tree.docxUploaded byMohamad Arifuddin bin Ab Hadi
- Dagli Hand OutUploaded byKlaris Reyes
- observation paperUploaded byapi-399288821
- Genikes Xrisimes Plirofories Gia Comenius, Istoria Kostos KlpUploaded byNicolas Karampasis
- sept 18 2pt1Uploaded byapi-341635195
- HR Ranking File Ms. Jenny Garcia 2011-2012Uploaded byAngela Garcia
- Action Research AssignmentUploaded byFayolaminata
- Rational Standard 2Uploaded byszavadsky1
- Teaching Reading Explicit- An Instructional ApproachUploaded byDr. M. Enamul Hoque
- Being a teacher is a holy job because it can make the generation of a nation to be brilliant and have good morals.docxUploaded byAnnisa Miftahul Jannah
- Philosophy in TeachingUploaded byldexterjonas
- UntitledUploaded byapi-55503347
- blog templet for weebly aUploaded byapi-391477752
- Contoh Pidato Bahasa InggrisUploaded byalice_dmc
- teaching resume pdfUploaded byapi-331862751
- Evaluation Report Clap-week Rio Maior 8 to 12 MayUploaded byboaera
- resume 1Uploaded byapi-457022425
- Schooling in America M1 dis. 1 intro.docxUploaded byJodie Amato
- cvUploaded byapi-466131740
- Minutes of the Meeting.docxUploaded byHarry Lord M. Bolina

- [3B] Ponte Chapman 2008Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- blueprint LOW CARBON SOCIETYUploaded byzoulzz0903
- ICE HOTS 2016Uploaded byNorhapidah Mohd Saad
- Compare and ContrastUploaded byzoulzz0903
- ExercisesUploaded byzoulzz0903
- 8.9.15 Semakan 1Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- Compare and Contrast.docUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Proceedings Igcesh 2016 Conference Big FileUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Jurnal Tidak Diiktiraf KPTUploaded byzoulzz0903
- p3. Contents (Tables)Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- Nota Form 5Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- 1 Amendment List_Man in India (1)Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- 1. Mjli Fullpaper Id356Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- SETA 17 AugustUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Seta 27 JulyUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Seta 27 SeptUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Abstract Template Icms4 (1)Uploaded byzoulzz0903
- Poster PBL EditedUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Thinking ClassroomsUploaded byGhazally Faridah
- Compare and ContrastUploaded byzoulzz0903
- 'Why' BookletUploaded byzoulzz0903
- pbl book program.pdfUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Reformat PaperUploaded byzoulzz0903
- EN ZUL RM180.pdfUploaded byzoulzz0903
- Ss Compmon PractitionerUploaded byzoulzz0903
- HANDOUT - Critical Thinking - Teaching Methods and StrategiesUploaded byJosé Ángel Zapata Hernández
- Backing Up a CourseUploaded byzoulzz0903

- 4 Types of Vocabulary questions key to success in MAH CET 2014Uploaded byMba Univers
- Cooperative LearningUploaded byever
- hootenannyUploaded byapi-218762447
- Metacognition Awareness Inventory.pdfUploaded byArif Ismanto
- A Model for Speech Processing in Second Language Listening Activities.pdfUploaded byTESOL
- Difficulties and Strategies in Listening ComprehensionUploaded byPhạm Thi Như Nguyệt
- Working With SonfsUploaded byVeronica Williams
- midterm reflection teacher feedbackUploaded byapi-241355869
- Suffix and Unfamiliar Word Lesson Plan_Adrienne Wool Bright_ PTS #6Uploaded byadriennemarie3607
- Research 5Uploaded byMark Andrew Fernandez
- 1-6-213-230-Learning_Theories2012Uploaded byNadia Darma Putri
- 7 Keys to ComprehensionUploaded byEben Botwe
- LPC-ENG8Uploaded byEdward Joseph
- Root Words 2Uploaded bydistanceprep
- 2nd Cycle Evaluation Criteria, Objectives, Competences and ContentsUploaded byAngel Magrañal Guillen
- messages-level2-pre-intermediate-teachers-resource-pack-sample-pages.pdfUploaded bydavid
- Interlingual transferUploaded byzeeeziee
- Journal of Language and LearningUploaded byGracia Friscila
- MetoUploaded byAndreea
- Visualization GRR LessonUploaded byleahjones73
- Abhimanyu Third Integrated Unit PlanUploaded byAbhimanyu Maheshwari
- Teaching Tense Through TextsUploaded byĀmādā Ktn
- MGH.read.and.think.spanish.premium.3rd.edition.1259836312Uploaded byEmlyn Lewis
- ESPUploaded byGenina Dana Melad
- week 10 and 11 lesson plan- readers theater elementaryUploaded byapi-29831576
- beginning reader lesson plan 1 copyUploaded byapi-353329890
- ReadWorks - Important People (1)Uploaded byJeremy
- Every Child ReadingUploaded byeva.benson
- 1 Reading DefinitionsUploaded bySandi Bey
- tips for teachersUploaded byapi-315090123