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Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Available online at
©2013 TJEAS Journal-2013-3-15/1626-1629
ISSN 2051-0853 ©2013 TJEAS

Determining the kind of porosity and permeability
trend by velocity deviation log (VDL) in well number
3 in Kangan formation (southern Pars field)
Akbar firouzi Niya*, Ali Kadkhodaee and Fariborz Gharib
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding author: Akbar firouzi Niya
ABSTRACT: Today by using the common diagrams including neutron, density and sonic logs it can
found the porosity kind. The velocity deviation log (VDL) is among these cases, that is made by
combining the sonic and density-neutron diagrams and it can got some information about dominant
kinds of porosity in carbonates. In present research the information obtained from different wells as
three well of Kangan formation, was used. The results of changes in VDL in well number 3 revealed
6 zones and by further investigations on these six zones, the permeability of that well determined as
middle to good. It is necessary to note that in some points the porosity and permeability increases is
attributed to dolomite presence and increasing the seam and cracks and in some regions due to
presence of clay, the permeability is reduced.
Keywords: velocity deviation log (VDL), Kangan formation, porosity, permeability
In this research for determining the petrophysical properties (porosity and permeability) in Pars
reservoir, the different well exploration logs (sonic, neutron, density and etc) was used so that by a combination
of resulted logs from them it can found the type of rock, the kind and amount of porosity, permeability and water
saturation rate in examined formations. The porosity and its kind is a significant parameter the control the
sound velocity and for due to this any changes in porosity kind is the main reason for velocity changes in
porosity of reservoirs. Typically the hydrocarbon reservoirs are found in sand stones or carbonates. The
mechanism of porosity making and its parameters is different in sand stones and carbonates. Due to a dynamic
relation between digenesis process, porosity and its kinds, all of these changes and deformations are a cause
to changing the elastic properties of rock and therefore to changing the sound velocity so that its result is a
broad range of sound velocities in carbonates (while their mineralogy is limit, pure carbonates can cover a wide
domain of density wave velocity from 1700 to 6600 m/s). Investigations show that in carbonate sediments, the
initial rock composition and the total ratio to magnitude in determining the sound wave velocity are important. In
younger carbonate rocks clearly the cements can change the elastic behavior of rocks but the type of cement
rather than its rate can determine the rock hardness degree and velocity of sound. In old carbonate rocks the
sound velocity not only is a function of total porosity, but it is a function of dominant kind of porosity.
The region geology
The Dahrom group is a very important horizon in view point of gas accumulation. The main gas
reservoirs of Zagross are located in this group. The main reservoir rock in Dahrom group is constituted from
Kangan formation and upper section of Dalan formation. The Dahrom group in sampling position is divided to
three formations from old to new as below:
the Fraghoon formation with an age equal to pre periman that its total petrology is including sand
the Dalan formation with Permian age that is compromised from carbonates and vaporized sediments.
the Kangan formation with pre terriase age that its petrology is compromised from one carbonate
sequence of limes containing the worm traces.

58% anhydride and this zone hasn’t any quarts. and positivenegative 500 velocity deviation (near to zero). tracing the diagentic free space distribution and prediction for permeability trend. inter grain or micro porosity. The Kangan formation is among the most important formations of region that the velocity deviation studies were done on them. 2013 The Fraghoon and Dalan formations are related to Paleozoic and the Kangan formation is related to Teriase (Darwishzadeh. In surface samples that cut from Soormeh mountain. Its approximate range is ±500m/s. 3 (15): 1626-1629. 7. 1993. The observed velocity in this zone is 500m/s. the composition is including 14. anhydride 1.26%. the maximum of velocity deviation in this zone is about +500m/s and its minimum rate is -500m/s. The negative-positive 500 velocity deviation (near to zero) can be an indication of inter crystalline.05%. Gardner et al. Khosro Tehrani. Kangan formation The lime row formation of Kangan is located in depth of 2691-2869m and its total thickness is 178m. also the negative velocity deviation can be result of free gas in reservoir. thus the DTfl is equal to 189. the rock kind of it is calcite-dolomite (based on sediment rocks classification. quartz 0% 1627 . The positive velocity deviation (near to 1000) indicates those porosities that in them the rock background is steady and cemented and there isn’t a good permeability and connection between porosity spaces (Enselmetti & Eberli.. Petty John. 2003). One wells that investigated is the well number 3 in sought Pars field. The abundance percent of different materials in this zone is as follow: Lime 33.63%. 1999): the positive velocity deviation (near to 1000). By given to high percent of dolomite in this zone. by given that the fluid is the brine water. Zone 2 This zone located in depth between 2385m and 2494m. clay 0. 1999). based on velocity deviation log.09%. because the free gas can reduce the sound velocity. The sound velocity deviation log was drawn in Excel software and permeability trend in well number 3 determined in qualitative manner and compared by results that found by Geolog software. The studied position started from depth of 2344m and continued to 2847m. PetrologyI n this formation three certain facies are distinguishable (Zabo and Khordpir.5 micsec/ft. 5. dolomite 63. Velocity deviation log of well number 3 In this well the drill depth of 2344 to 2847 was studied so this length that is about 500m located in Kangan and Dalan formations. the fracture in small scale (Enselmetti & Eberli.03% dolomite. The limits that are indicated by negative velocity deviation can be interpreted in three manners as follow: the landfall horizons in well (that can cause difference between calculated velocity and measured velocity) the porosity resulted from fracture (Shlumberger. 1995). 1978): the clean carbonate facies (with some vaporized layer) the bottom silt and clay facies (that gradually is changed to lime and dolomite) the vapor carbonate facies METHOD The velocity deviation log is calculated from a combination from sonic log and neutron and density logs and by this it can obtain some information about the main porosity types in carbonates. this 500m section is distinguishable to 6 zones in respect to velocity changes: Zone 1 In this zone that started from 2344 to depth of 2385. 72. DTmat in lime formation is assumed as 49.78% clay. this formation reaches to 140m of thickness (Motiee.15% lime. Many studies show that unlike what that was imagined. The work manner is that firstly the synthetic sound passage time is calculated by equation 1 as follow: (1) where in this relation. By obtaining the synthetic DT diagram it can determine the velocity by equation 2 as follow: (2) also the actual velocity is obtained by follow relation: (3) The difference between velocities that obtained from 2 and 3 equations is calculated as velocity deviation log (VDL): (4) The velocity deviation log is seen in three modes that each of them has its own explanation (Enselmetti & Eberli. 2004. thus the porosity due to fracture is located in negative limits of velocity deviation.Tech J Engin & App Sci. 2004. 1974) and in large scale can reduce the velocity. 2003). the negative velocity deviation. Motiee. 1975).

Totally in this zone rocks are hard and cemented and their permeability is quite poor. Porosity and permeability percent in some depths is high and in some is low and this indicate that in zone 1 the maximum of velocity deviation reaches to +1800m/s and its 114 2 1628 . anhydride 0. Zone 3 This zone is located in depth between 2494 and 2627m. thus its permeability is better and its dominant porosity is include inter crystalline and inter grain that is a very fine porosity. quartz 0%. its permeability percent would increase significantly. 1975). The velocity deviation log of well number 3 109 that anhydride is pervaded in the rock The clay and anhydride percent in this zone is high and it is likely background as nodules. Petty John. 3 (15): 1626-1629. clay 2. In this zone unlike to zone 1. the rocks of this zone compromised from lime-dolomite stones (based on sediment stones classification.Tech J Engin & App Sci. the rocks of this zone compromised from lime-dolomite stones (based on sediment stone classification. + VDL(m/s) 1 2 Permeability 942 3 4 5 6 7 8 992 9 12 ( 11 ) Depth(m) 10 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 104 2 20 21 Axis Title 22 Figure 1.79%. the porosity percent increase significantly but in this zone the dominant porosity is the mold and cavity kinds and its porosity is poor. Petty John. 1975). the clay percent is very low.83%. 2 By given that in changing the lime stone to dolomites one. The maximum velocity deviation in this zone is +1300m/s and the minimum of it is -1000m/s. Thus it can conclude that increasing the clay percent in dolomite stones cause to reduce the permeability in stone and if the clay percent in this zone was smaller. the abundance percent of materials in this zone is: Lime 81.13%.41%. dolomite 14. In respect to these amounts. 2013 In respect to high percent of dolomite..

3348%. the follow results were obtained. it is likely due to presence of gaps and seams in lime stones such as other zones. In those points that permeability is better. The stone type in this zone is lime – dolomite (based on sediment stones classification. Anhydride percent in this zone is zero and clay percent in contrast is higher. The permeability in this zone is very variable. dolomite 41.45%. In some points of this zone the permeability is reduced likely due to presence of clay (the velocity deviation +1800m/s) and in some points the permeability is good (the velocity deviation -1500m/s) that is likely due to presence of gaps and seams. geology and mine exploration organization).2003. clay 5. The abundance percent of materials in this zone is as bellow: Lime 73.82%. Reducing the dolomite percent in this zone caused to reduce in porosity and permeability of stones and the lime stones are strong with a good cementation. its porosity is better than zone 5. 2004.90%. the maximum velocity deviation in this zone is +1800m/s and its minimum is -1500m/s. This well is middle to good in view point of permeability. Iran.65%. quartz 0%.25%. Totally presence of dolomite in rock cause to increase the porosity and permeability percent. In this zone percent of lime and dolomite approximately is the same and due to increasing the dolomite percent. Geology of Iran.5m. anhydride 0%. clay 1. Presence of clay and anhydride in some points is the main reason for reducing the porosity and permeability in layers and making the deviation in velocity log. Amir Kabir press Khosrov Tehrani Kh. Geology of Iran. anhydride 0. 1975). 1975). quartz 0%. 1975). REFERENCES Aghanabati A. Khordpir. The stone type in this zone is lime – dolomite (based on sediment stones classification. 3 (15): 1626-1629.Tech J Engin & App Sci. CONCLUSIONS In respect to changes in velocity deviation log of six identified zones in well number 3. The abundance percent of materials in this zone is as bellow: Lime 44. (stain-geology of Zagross. Zone 6 This zone is started from depth of 2800. Kliddar press Motiee H. 1978. translated by Mohammad Reza Jalali (1984) 1629 . Zone 4 This zone is located in depth between 2627m and 2722m. 2004. The maximum of velocity deviation in this zone is about +2300m/s and its minimum value is about -800m/s. dolomite 11. anhydride 11. Vol 1. Petty John. clay 1. 2013 minimum value is related to positions where lime stone is strong and have a good cementation and in points that permeability is good it is likely that rock has some gaps or seams.5m and continued to 2847m.Geology of Iran. therefore in this zone permeability is very poor. Presence of gap and seams and dolomite has an important effect on increasing the porosity and permeability. Geology of Iran. Petty John. Zabo.63%.30%. 2004. strait-geology of Zagross (west sought of Iran). The abundance percent of materials in this zone is as bellow: Lime 86. dolomite 20. quartz 0%. training and planning for human resource of exploration management in national petroleum Co.37%. The dolomite and clay percent in this zone is lower than zone 4. The stone type in this zone is lime – dolomite (based on sediment stones classification.91%. The maximum of velocity deviation in this zone is +1500m/s and its minimum value is -500m/s. Petty John.48%. Zone 5 This zone located in depth between 2722 and 2800. the press of national organization of geology and mine explorations Darwishzadeh A. It is should be noted that velocity deviation log beside other logs is a suitable tool for determining the porosity type in carbonate stones and these date was verified by comparing them to results that obtained from investigating the thin sections..