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EE3033 – Electrical Machines & Drivers III

Semester 5

: Ediriweera W.E.P.S
: 120138A
: Electrical Engineering
DATE OF SUB: 30/10/2015

it can make the motor operate in quadrants in the upper plane.2nd Quadrant). feeding a DC motor with armature voltage of three phase or single phase provides one-polarity current Ia. In case converter operates in rectifier mode (positive voltage). A Thyristors converter. For such drives the converter must have the properties of four quadrant operation. as motor (Figure 1.These converters are capable of operating in all the four quadrants. Figure 2: Three phase thyristor converter Dual converter The configuration where two quadrant thyristors converters connected back to back is called a dual converter. while inverter mode of converter (negative voltage) results in machine. working as generator (Fig. Figure 1: Four quadrant operation What we have done is reverse the direction of the armature voltage keeping armature polarity constant and change the direction of rotation. Most of the motors are separated excited due to their higher performance. and twopolarity output voltage. A comparison with full thyristors converter and a semi convertor shows that neither of them can operate in two quadrant operation by varying the firing angle.1. 1stQuadrant). machine works. The converter for the frequently occurring drives requiring driving and braking in either direction are not the same as converters designed for two quadrant operation. .Even though it cannot operate as a two quadrant driver( 1st quadrant and 4th quadrant). So we have two winding and then speed of the DC motor can be reversed by a) Reversing the armature current direction b) Reversing the field current direction I thought it is better to continue the discussion with armature revising mode as it is the generalized case and to take the three phase inverter for further explanation. Such a converter is used to feed a DC motor when it is required to rotate it in either direction of current flow.A converter which allows power flow in either direction through the load are sometimes required .

But the instantaneous voltages of the converters are not equal due to the ripple content So that infinite circulating current may flow due to the difference in the voltage.Now the voltage polarity can be altered keeping the unidirectional current in each converter. Therefore the two converter should have so called “complementary” phase-angle control (αneg=180°-αpos).So now DC voltages of two converters are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity. The power can be made to flow in either direction. Two converters are controlled independently as required. negative converter or N converter.Figure 3: A dual converter with a DC motor Left converter is called positive converter or p converter and left converter. Figure 4: P converter voltage waveform Figure 5: N converter voltage waveform Figure 6: Ripple voltage waveform in a mid-point dual converter Figure 7:mid-point dual converter . Then a solid connection between the DC terminals of the two converters is inserted to limit circulating current. When positive converter have minimal phase angle α~0. .  Circulating current mode Output DC voltage mean value of three-phase bridge thyristors converter is a cosine function of the firing angle. the negative converter have maximal phase angle α~180. So it is necessary to have a current flow in both direction in the load besides having the possibility of altering the polarity of voltage. But we control firing angle keeping supply voltage same in both converters.

At the instance current become zero. Soon the DC circuit inductance discharges its stored energy in to the motor. Instead of two converters as in dual converter. But using contactors we can make converter operate as p and n converters. So I do not intend to discuss about single phase supply DC motor. In the following figure we can see a four quadrant driver having field current controlling converter. Circulating current free mode Only one rectifier bridge conducts at any particular instant. a logic circuit withdraws gating pulses from the converter for an interval of time called dead time to ensure turn of the conducting SCRs. the current come down to zero. The gating pulses to the other converter are completely block during steady state operation of the drive. But load voltage is different in two cases. Figure 9: Thyristor dual converter with field current controlling mode For single phase supply single phase thyristors converters can be used and same principle we discussed is applied. the other converter is gated with firing angle greater than 90 degree. Both are two pole switches. there is only one converter. When it is desired to reverse the speed setting the conducting converter is made to operate with firing angle greater than 90 degree. For single phase drives 2√2 ( )= cos − 4 For three phase drivers ( )= 3√2 cos −6 . One thyristors converter and four nos of electromagnetic contactor Figure 8: Electromagnetic contact thyristor driver F and R are interlock switches so that only one of them can switch on at any time. After this period of time. the AC source and circuit resistance.

Application of four quadrant thyristors DC motor drives  Conveyor .’Analysis of thyristor power conditioned motors’ [4] Google pictures .Reversible Conveyor Conveyor belt applications that require bi-directional operation Oriental Motor offers a wide range pillai. For fixed or constant speed applications  Electric vehicles  Elevators  Variable speed controlled applications References [1] Lecture notes [2] http://www.html [3] S.