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**Support Vector Regression
**

Yexin Liu*, SoftMirrors Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada

yexinliu@softmirrors.com

and

Zhuoheng Chen, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Canada

Kezhen Hu, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Canada

Chris Liu, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Summary

There are four basic quantitative methods for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) from well

logs, which include: 1) directly from regression of core TOC versus core bulk density; 2) ΔlogR

technique presented by Passey (1990); 3) based on the petrophysical response model; 4) an artificial

neural network. Currently ΔlogR technique is the most popular approach and widely used in shale gas

reservoir evaluation.

In this study we propose an improved ΔlogR equation to calculate apparent logs (density, sonic,

gamma ray and neutron) as a function of resistivity log for identifying potential shale plays reservoir

intervals, then use support vector regression (SVR) to quantify the relationship between the TOC and

apparent well logs and other well attributes. One of the advantages of using SVR method is that it will

automatically remove redundant samples and keep only relevant support vectors (samples) to build a

non-linear relationship in a hyper space that predicts TOC. The SVR method can also overcome the

over-learning problem in artificial neural network (to handle as many as core samples), and integrate

ΔlogR attributes with the apparent logs (gamma ray, density, sonic and neutron) as the SVR input

attributes. The method has the flexibility of introducing additional variables if data indicate good

relationships between TOC and other well log responses.

The method has been tested using real dataset from the Devonian Duvernay Formation of Western

Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The results show that the predicted TOCs match well with the

observations from core samples. In addition to the TOC prediction, the proposed approach is also

capable of generating synthetic logs or other core properties curves from available well logs.

Introduction

Total organic carbon (TOC) is one of major parameters to assess the potential of shale gas resources.

Several methods have been published to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) from well logs. There are

four common methods: 1) directly by regression of core TOC with core bulk density; 2) ΔlogR technique

(Passey, 1990); 3) based on the petrophysical response model; 4) using an artificial neural network.

The bulk density regression method is a simple method and has produced some satisfactory results

when the formation is fairly homogeneous, but in heterogeneous formation such attempts will result in

poor correlations. The petrophysical model approach requires accurate porosity values to determine the

GeoConvention 2013: Integration

1

The followings are the ΔlogR attributes based on the different well logs (Passey et al. neutron and sonic logs. density. neutron and sonic. In ΔlogR technique porosity effects are minimized. sometimes it is difficult to determine the petrophysical baseline for estimating ΔlogR. Usually LOM needs laboratory experiment to measure. the method is difficult to predict the TOC because some meaningful core samples might not be available for the neural network training. 1990) is the most common method and widely used for TOC determination in shale gas plays. 1990): ( ) ( ) (1) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (2) (3) In fact the ΔlogR can be converted into TOC using the level of organic maturity (LOM): ( ) (4) Apparent logs to identify the shale gas plays Based on the Passey equations (1. the Passey’s ΔlogR can also be used as the SVR input attributes to predict TOC. In addition. which can be converted into TOC through the level of organic maturity parameter (LOM). Usually additional logs such as NMR and SpectroLith logs are required to determine the effective porosity and shale content for shale gas reservoir (Boyer et al. Basically the three porosity well logs. Passey’s attributes to determine the TOC Geological and petrophysical studies suggest that the density. In addition to the density. However. In practice core TOC and calculated ΔlogR assist in calibration to estimate the LOM. In order to minimize the effect of baseline determination and incorporate multi porosity inputs. On the other hand. and gamma ray readings are often affected by variable kerogen content of the shale gas rocks. ΔlogR technique can be used for the wells with one porosity log or multi porosity logs. and apply support vector regression (SVR) to establish the relationship between well responses and TOC content in shale. 3). In a highly heterogeneous case. estimated TOC values might be different. neutron and sonic logs have direct correlation with TOC. 2003).amount of TOC/kerogen. Currently ΔlogR technique (Passey et al. can be used to calculate the ΔlogR based on the separation between the deep resistivity curve and the porosity logs. 2006). Instead we presented the RMS (root mean square) of standard shale intervals to generate the different apparent logs. ( ( ( ( GeoConvention 2013: Integration ) ) ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( (5) ) (6) 2 . The artificial neural network can use one or multi-log curves to estimate other log properties (Arbogast and Utley. we propose the use of improved ΔlogR equations to calculate the apparent logs. sometimes the Passey well logging baselines determination is very challenging. Unfortunately the neutron and density logs can’t separate porosity and kerogen content. but the technique needs extensive trial and error to select partial samples to overcome the over-learning problems. clay quantification can prove problematic in the shale formation. If multi porosity log curves are used in ΔlogR technique. which can identify the shale gas plays anomalies. 2.

and 8). 2. 〈 〉 Utilizing regression. We can relax this restraint with slack variables that allows us to cope with otherwise infeasible constraint. such as apparent density. . B. we want a function ( ) that has at most deviation from the actual sparse core analysis properties . 1999. . and it also has excellent performance in dealing with these sparse inputs. and errors less than ) with precision. 7 and 8 can be used to estimate the TOC using the equations 4 or 9. have zero cost. C can be estimated from the core dataset. In fact SVR has been popular for regression problems because the SVR method has the capability to handle the sparse measurements. A. In light of this. neutron and gamma ray well log data . apparent sonic and apparent neutron. 7. . 3 and equations 5. are sonic. which is the case for TOC samples obtained at the core analysis. 6. errors those are greater than have infinite cost. . we note that the standard regression is a hard-margin convexoptimization problem. neutron and gamma ray apparent logs. density. 2004) ‖ ‖ GeoConvention 2013: Integration ∑ ( ) (11) 3 . 2004): ( ) (10) on a feature space F. That is. This requires our function successfully approximating all pairs ( which may not be feasible. This shall be denoted as 〈 henceforth. We note 〉 ( ) denotes the kernel functions. . It is difficult for us to determine which equation is best for the determination.( ( ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ) ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ( ) ) (7) (8) Where DT. we have the following formulation (Smola and Schölkopf. along with the corresponding sparse core analysis properties like TOC. Unfortunately the TOC will be different based on these different equations. density. Here is a vector in F and ( ) maps the input to a vector in F. Smola et al. such as Gaussian function. Support Vector Regression Solution The equations 1. The SVR requires a set of well logging samples . Like the Passey equations. 6. can be calculated from the shale intervals of well logs. Liu et al 2003. So we presented the Support Vector Regression (SVR) method to generate the non-linear relationship between the core data and different equation samples. CNL and GR are sonic. it is possible to convert the apparent logs to TOC using the LOM: ( ) (9) Where are the apparent logs from equation (5. DEN. The SVR makes the training and prediction based on the following linear regression function (Schölkopf et al. Before we present the formula.

are not perfect and are never exactly representative of the process. meaning our linear regression. but for non-linear problems. although a larger sample size will give more accurate results. can take a distinctive non-linear nature. we need to select the attributes (such as apparent logs and modified Passey’s attributes) and their samples to build a reasonable relationship. we are able to evaluate a regression function in terms of the training example's inner products. Several TOC datasets from wells penetrated the Duvernay Formation in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) have been tested and satisfactory TOC prediction results are achieved. The contour lines suggest that the TOC has complicated relationship with modified Passey sonic and apparent gamma log. the optimization problem for matrix notation as: regression can be expressed in (13) Where [ and ( ( ) ) are the row matrices with values ( ( ) ]. The tracks 1 to 4 display the well logs and track 5 is the TOC prediction curve using SVR and the green dots and blue dots are the core TOC samples. We gain additional insight in the form. GeoConvention 2013: Integration 4 . Figure 1 is a crossplot between modified Passey sonic and apparent gamma ray log with sample TOC contours superimposed. But the number of attributes and samples for generating a reasonable relationship depends on the complexity of the problem. Track 6 is the apparent logs and track 7 is the modified Passey attributes and track 8 shows other log attributes. can be described by a linear combination of training examples . . In order to solve (11) and (12). [ ]. We have now formulated the optimization problem in SVR in terms of a quadratic-optimization matrix form (13). real datasets. The constant is a parameter that determines how costly training examples that do not satisfy the constraint cost with regard to our optimization equation. when mapped using ( ). . Usually we can build the crossplots to validate the sample distribution. figure 2 compares predicted TOC and measured TOC and they show a good correspondence in the test well. And furthermore. Validation and TOC prediction For any statistical method. . If the problem is linearly separable. Generally it is possible to achieve good performance with few attributes and samples. noting that our regression function. the rule is: the less the better. As an example. However. A larger simulates hard-margin regression while a smaller means that the objection function.{〈 We note that the and 〈 〉 〉 (12) together determines the regression function completely. Validation is crucial to determine the sample selections base on the SVR well training satisfactory. is allowed to deviate larger than with a low cost. the rule is: the more the better. such as well logs and core measurements. ) [ and ].

121-129. S. G.. 199222 GeoConvention 2013: Integration 5 . and M.. Burges. Moretti.. and Smola. CSEG Recorder. High-speed Inversion Modeling of Resistivity and SP Logs: Supplementing Incomplete Log Suites and Editing Poor Quality Log Data Using Neural Networks. 2006. In the well training phase. J. Extracting Hidden Details from Mixed-vintage Log Data Using Automatic. Advances in Kernel Methods: Support Vector Learning. D. Schlumberger Oilfield Review. The proposed methods can be extended to generate the synthetic logs and other core properties from available well logs if necessary.. Producing Gas from Its Source. 1984. the MIT Press 9) Smola A. Sacchi. ERCB/AGS Open File Report 2010-04 3) Boyer. J.. J. B. Pawlowicz.58 6) Meyer. the proposed method utilizes apparent well logs to minimize the effect of baselines determination..J. Q. Autumn. J. R. 2003. Direct Method for Determining Organic Shale Potential from Porosity and Resistivity Logs to Identify Possible Resource Plays. 2010. A.. 28. A. B.. 2010. 7) Passey. Creaney. M.2004. H. Kieschnick. Propagation of Borehole Derived Properties via a Support Vector Machine (SVM).. April 2010 5) Liu. Anderson. J. R. L.. Reference 1) Arbogast. C. D. P.. Utley. Several real datasets have been tested and the results demonstrated that the proposed approach works well. B. Y. density.H. Kulla. D. X.. AAPG Bulletin. 2003. C. J. Lewis.Conclusions We have first put forward methods to generate apparent logs (gamma ray. E. Practical Model for Organic Richness from Porosity and Resistivity Logs. R. 74. F. Waters..L. J. AAPG Annual Convention. D. Berhane. 1777-1794 8) Schölkopf. C. sonic and neutron) from resistivity to identify the shale gas plays anomalies.. T. 68. In addition. the proposed approach can automatically remove the redundant samples and keep few support vectors (samples) to build a hyper-regression relationship....C.. 1999. 54 .. Stroud. S.. 36-49 4) Bowman. Identification of Source Rocks on Wireline Logs by Density/Resistivity and Sonic Transit/Resistivity Crossplots: AAPG Bulletin. 1990. S. Rivera. and Rokosh. then used the trained support vector regression (SVR) model to predict TOC from apparent well logs and modified Passey attributes. May 2003 2) Beaton.. B. AAPG Annual Convention.... S. Statistics and Computing 14.. A Tutorial on Support Vector Regression . Nederlof. A. G. and Schölkopf.. J.

Figure 1: Modified Passey sonic and apparent gamma ray log crossplot demonstrated the complex distribution between TOC and Passey sonic/apparent Gamma Ray log Figure 2: TOC prediction (track 5) from well log attributes and core TOC samples GeoConvention 2013: Integration 6 .

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