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Fluid Mechanics – AS102

Class Note No: 02

Tuesday. July 31, 2007

Review of Last Lecture: contact info

Luoyi Tao; Office: 104; Phone: 4003
Email: luoyitao@ae.iitm.ac.in,

Interactive & Open door policy

luoyitao@iitm.ac.in

. ◮ Homework assignments & Tutorials. 20% each ◮ Final exam. 40% ◮ Plus the extra points ◮ Homework assignments collected. 20% ◮ Two quizes.. Randomly select problems to grade .Review of Last Lecture: grading policy.

1:50pm ◮ Special Attention: ◮ ◮ ◮ key concepts.Review of Last Lecture: grading policy. to be identified. with “slight” modifications Attendancy: I & you follow the rules .. will be repeatedly tested in the quizes and the final. ◮ Tutorial time: Friday 1:00pm .. problems in assignments & tutorials will appear in the quizes and the final.

. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. W.Review of Last Lecture: reference books ◮ Yuan. Third Edition. Fluid Mechanics. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. V. (Dover edition?) ◮ Subramanya.. ◮ Giles R. .. B.. Foundations of Fluid Mechanics.. . and Liu C. 1000 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics (includes hydraulic machines). Evett J. K. ◮ Granger R. S. A.

Review of Last Lecture: why continuum treatment What is a fluid (gas. liquid)? ◮ “shape determined by its confines”? ◮ “unable to resist shearing”? .

integral.. pressure. etc. differential equations of motion adequate (continuum treatment) ..Review of Last Lecture: why continuum treatment why not deal with individual molecules & atoms in this course ◮ Interests – Macro-scale motions such as ◮ ◮ ◮ Air flow around an airplane (Water or Air) Pipe flows (of large size) Atmospheric & Oceanic motion. where ◮ ◮ ◮ enough number of molecules present details of micro-scale motions not essential & collectively accountable through temperature..

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review What is a Cartesian tensor? ◮ Cartesian? ∵ the rectangular coordinate systems (RCS) involved z x3 i3 k j O y i x i2 O i1 x1 Figure: Standard & Indicial x2 .

a – both magnitude & direction # (*) Order two.Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review ◮ Cartesian Tensors? Examples: # Order zero... # easy for bookkeepping & mathematical operation . P – only magnitude # Order one. scalars like T. vectors like V. like Cauchy stress (to be introduced later) ◮ Why? # essential for formulating and solving problems in fluid mechanics .

ay . replaceable by others (3) . az ∈ R (1) Indicial Notation: a = a 1 i1 + a 2 i 2 + a 3 i3 = 3 X a k ik (2) k =1 Summation Convention: a = ak ik := 3 X k =1 ak ik = 3 X a j ij = a j i j j=1 ◮ index k repeated twice and twice only (!) ◮ k taking on all the values of its range ◮ k dummy.Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector representation & operation rules: Standard notation: a = ax i + ay j + az k. a x .

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: addition : a + b := (ak + bk ) ik ⇒ a+b=b+a (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (4) subtraction : a − b := (ak − bk ) ik ⇒ −b + a = a − b (5) multiplication by a (real) scalar : m a := (m ak ) ik ⇒ m (n a) = (mn) a = n (m a) (m + n) a = m a + n a m (a + b) = m a + m b (6) .

∀ j. ij · ik = δjk = ?. k δjk – the Kronecker delta (8) .Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: dot product & cross product of vectors: PSfrag b θ a Figure: dot product a · b definition 1 of dot product : a · b := |a| |b| cos θ. 0≤θ≤π (7) e. g.

.c.Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: given a = 101i1 + 3i2 + 239i3 .. b = −1i1 + 20i2 + 11i3 a · b = ? or θ = ?.): a · b := ak bk (summation convention) (independent of any specific rectangular coordinate systems) (9) Xdefinition 1 & definition 2 are equivalent ⇒ a·b=b·a a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c m (a · b) = (m a) · b = a · (m b) = (a · b) m (10) . definition 2 of dot product (in a r.s.

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: v=a×b b θ ˆ v a Figure: cross product a × b definition 1 of cross product : ˆ. |v ˆ ⊥ the Plane (right-handed) v (11) . 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. a × b := |a| |b| sin θ v ˆ| = 1.

∀ i. even. i2 × i3 = i1 .Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: e. odd. i1 × i2 = i3 . not permutation = ? . j. i3 × i1 = i2 or ii × ij = ǫijk ik . 2. 3 ǫijk – the alternating tensor. g. k = 1. ij × ij = 0.

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: given a = 101i1 + 3i2 + 239i3 .): a × b := ǫijk ai bj ik (summation convention) (12) Xdefinition 1 & definition 2 are equivalent ⇒ a × b = −b × a (a + b) × c = a × c + b × c m (a × b) = (m a) × b = a × (m b) (13) . a × b = ? or θ = ?.s.. v definition 2 of cross product (in a r.. b = −1i1 + 20i2 + 11i3 ˆ = ?.c.

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector algebra: Apply the rules to verify: (a × b) · c = a · (b × c) = b · (c × a) = det [abc] (a × b)i ci = a × (b × c) = (a · c) b − (a · b) c ǫijk ai (b × c)j = .

k := ◮ ∂ ∂xk (14) the gradient grad φ := ▽φ = ik ∂k φ = ik φ.k ∂k := ().k (from the scalar multiplication ?) (15) .Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector calculus: ▽ := ik ∂ ∂xk = ik ∂k = ik ().

k (16) (from the dot product ? ) ◮ the curl or rotation curlq := rotq := ▽ ×q = ǫijk ∂i qj ik = ǫijk qj .Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector calculus: ◮ the divergence divq := ▽·q = ∂k qk = qk .i ik (from the cross product ? ) (17) .

k = .i = ▽ ·(a × b) = b ·(▽ × a) − a ·(▽× a) . (φψ) .i ▽ × (φa) = (▽φ)× a + φ▽× a.i = φ.   ǫijk ∂i φaj = ǫijk φaj .Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector calculus: ▽ (φψ) = φ▽ψ + ψ▽φ. (a × b)k .i ai + φai .i = φ.i ▽ (φa) = (▽φ)· a + φ▽· a.i ψ + φψ. (φai ) .

ik = ▽ ×(▽ × a) = ▽(▽· a) − ▽2 a .jj ▽×▽φ = 0.k = ǫijk aj .i = ▽(a · b) = (a ·▽) b + (b ·▽) a + a ×(▽ × b) + b ×(▽ × a) ▽2 φ := ▽·▽φ = ∂j ∂j φ = φ.Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector calculus: ▽ ×(a × b) = (b ·▽) a − (a ·▽) b + a (▽ · b) − b (▽ · a)  ǫijk ∂i (a × b)j = ǫijk ǫmnj am bn j . ǫijk ∂i (▽φ)j = ǫijk φ. (▽ × a)k .k = ǫijk ∂i aj .ji =  ▽ ·(▽ × a) = 0.

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector calculus: Stokes’ theorem: n S dS x3 dx C x2 x1 Figure: Stokes’ theorem (right-handed) I C q·dx = Z S n·(▽×q) dS. I C qi dxi = Z S ni ǫijk qk .j dS (18) .

Cartesian Tensor Calculus: review Vector calculus: the divergence theorem of Gauss: Let S denote the surface bounding a volume V .i dV = n·qdS. and n the (outward) unit vector normal to the surface. Then Z Z Z Z ni qi dS (19) qi . ▽·qdV = V S V S .

Q? (20) .Cartesian Tensor Calculus Vector to Second Order Tensor: What is a vector? x1′ x3 x2′ ′ =Q x xm mn n Qik Qjk = δij Qij = i3 i′1 i′2 i′m = Qmn in i2 i1 ∂xi′ ∂xj x2 i′3 x1 x3′ Figure: coordinate transformation a = ak ik = al′ i′l ′ am = Qmn an ⇒ as the def...

ak′ bl′ = Qkm Qln am an ⇒ In general. a second order tensor A is A = Akl ik il = A′kl i′k i′l .Cartesian Tensor Calculus Vector to Second Order Tensor: Let a. Aij ai ? A′kl = Qkm Qln Amn Aij aj ? Aij ai bj ? (21) . b be vectors ab := ak′ bl′ i′k i′l = ak bl ik il .

k ii ij = Aij .. ◮ the Z divergence Ztheorem n·AdS.k ij . (23) nk Aki dS (24) S (25) ..k ik ii ij (22) ◮ the divergence  divA := ▽·A := ik ∂k · Aij ii ij = Akj .Cartesian Tensor Calculus ◮ the gradient  grad A := ▽A := ik ∂k Aij ii ij = ik Aij ..k dV = V Z Aki ..k dV = V Z S Z nk Aik dS ? . ▽·AdV = S V Z Aik .