You are on page 1of 19

Fluid Mechanics – AS102

Class Note No: 03

Wednesday, August 1, 2007

Phone: 4003 Email: luoyitao@ae.in.Review of Last Lecture: contact info ◮ Luoyi Tao. ◮ Interactive & Open door policy luoyitao@iitm.ac.in .ac. Office: 104.iitm.

.. 40% ◮ Plus the extra points ◮ Homework assignments collected. Randomly select problems to grade . 20% ◮ Two quizes. ◮ Homework assignments & Tutorials.Review of Last Lecture: grading policy. 20% each ◮ Final exam.

1:50pm ◮ Special Attention: ◮ ◮ ◮ key concepts. problems in assignments & tutorials will appear in the quizes and the final...Review of Last Lecture: grading policy. with “slight” modifications Attendancy: I & you follow the rules . will be repeatedly tested in the quizes and the final. to be identified. ◮ Tutorial time: Friday 1:00pm .

. B.. and Liu C. C.. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.. Third Edition.Review of Last Lecture: reference books ◮ Yuan. D. S. E. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics. Schaum’s ouline of Tensor Calculus. V. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.. (Dover edition?) ◮ Subramanya. Schaum’s ouline of Continuum Mechanics. ◮ Kay. A. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. K. ◮ Granger R. Fluid Mechanics.. Foundations of Fluid Mechanics. 1000 Solved Problems in Fluid Mechanics (includes hydraulic machines). Evett J. ◮ any fluid mechanics books in the library and Wiley-India Edition in the bookstore .. ◮ Mase. W.. G. ◮ Giles R.

multiplication. y. i2 . z} ⇒ {x1 . x2 . {i. j. i3 } # summation rules/conventions a = ax ix + ay iy + az iz ⇒ a = a1 i1 + a2 i2 + a3 i3 = ak ik # addition. x3 } .Review of Last Lecture: calculus ◮ vector algebra & calculus – refreshment: # in rectangular coordinate systems # indicial notations {x. dot & cross products . subtraction. k} ⇒ {i1 .

Review of Last Lecture: calculus ◮ vector algebra & calculus: # the Kronecker delta δij :=  1 0 if i = j if i 6= j # the alternating tensor   0 if two or more have the same value 1 if ijk = 123. 312 ǫijk :=  −1 others . 231.

k # the curl / rotation curlq := rotq := ▽ ×q = ǫijk ∂i qj ik = ǫijk qj .k # the divergence divq := ▽·q = δik ∂i qk = ∂k qk = qk .Review of Last Lecture: calculus ◮ vector algebra & calculus – refreshment: # the gradients grad φ := ▽φ = ik ∂k φ = ik φ.i ik .

C S I qi dxi = C Z ni ǫijk qk . Z V qi .i dV = Z S ni qi dS .j dS S # the divergence theorem of Gauss: Z V ▽·qdV = Z S n·qdS.Review of Last Lecture: calculus ◮ vector algebra & calculus – refreshment: # Stokes’ theorem: I Z q·dx = n·(▽×q) dS.

k dV = Z Aki .k ik ii ij # the divergence  divA := ▽·A := ik ∂k · Aij ii ij = Aij .k δki ij = Akj .k dV = V Z S Z S nk Aik dS.Review of Last Lecture: calculus ◮ 2nd order Cartesian tensors – sketch: A = Akl ik il = A′kl i′k i′l ...k ij # the Z divergence Ztheorem ▽·AdV = n·AdS. A′kl = Qkm Qln Amn # the gradient  grad A := ▽A := ik ∂k Aij ii ij = ik Aij . V S Z V Aik .k ii ij = Aij . nk Aki dS .

s.s.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis Purpose: outline the scheme for writing equations of motion in curvilinear c. Example: in RCS: △ψ = ▽ · ▽ψ := ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ∂2ψ = + + ∂xi ∂xi ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 in cylindrical c.: 1 ∂2ψ ∂2ψ ∂ 2 ψ 1 ∂ψ + + + ? △ψ = r ∂r ∂r 2 r 2 ∂θ2 ∂z 2 Will learn the techniques .

z = x3 x1 x3 gz P i3 r z i2 O r i1 θ gθ gr ˆ 1(x1 . x2 = r sinθ.s. q x2 r = (x1 )2 + (x2 )2 . x2 ) θ ⇒ u2 = u 3 ˆ 3(x3 ) z⇒u =u x2 x1 Figure: cylindrical coordinates . θ = tan−1 . x3 = z. x2 ) r ⇒ u1 = u ˆ 2(x1 .Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis example: cylindrical c. x1 = r cosθ.

ui = u     r = xi ii = xˆi u j ii =: ˆr u j u3 g1 x3 P u1 u2 O i2 x1 g2 r i3 i1 g3 x2 Figure: curvilinear coordinates (1) . (short-hand writing & 1-1)    ˆ i xj .Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis In general. xi = xˆi u j .

u ∗k to denote the curvilinear coordinates # WARNING: pay attention to the positions of the indices in c. Akl you will know the reasons . ◮ Amn .Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ convention 1:  will use {xk }. ◮ Ak . xk∗ to denote the rectangular coordinates ◮ convention  2:  will use u k . Aj ◮ Ajk .s.c.

x ⇒ the tangent to the curve is i1 ◮ ⇒ fix u 2 .c.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ fix θ = 0.s.s. u 3 & vary u 1   ⇒ a space curve r = ˆr u j = xˆi u j ii in r. z = 0 & vary r in cylindrical c. ∂u 1 ∂u 1 ∂u 1 u 2 .c. u 3 fixed (2) .s ⇒ a space curve r = x1 i1 in r. x ⇒ the tangent to the curve (of varying u 1 ): g1 = ∂r ∂(xi ii ) ∂  j = = xˆi u ii .

Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ ⇒ tangent to the curve of u k : gk := ∂r ∂xi = ii . 3 important to the tensor analysis ⇒ ii = ∂u k gk ∂xi gk ·gl = ∂xi ∂xi ∂u k ∂u l (4) (5) . k = 1. 2. 3 (3) called the covariant / natural base vector for u k . 2. k ∂u ∂u k k = 1.

q ⇒ the surface of (x1 )2 + (x2 )2 = 10 in r.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ take r = √ 10 in cylindrical c.c.s.s.s. ⇒ the surface of u ⇒ normal to the surface is g 1 = im ∂u 1 ∂xm .c. ⇒ normal to the surface is 1 (x1 i1 + x2 i2 ) 10 ◮ ⇒ take u 1 = constant  ˆ 1 xj = constant in r.

2.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ normal to the surface of u k = const: gk := ▽u k = ∂u k ii ∂xi (6) contravariant / dural base vector for u k . 3 important to the tensor analysis ⇒ gk ·gl = δkl =?δkl (7) ∂u k ∂u l ∂xi ∂xi (8) gk ·gl = . k = 1.

.Curvilinear Coordinate Systems & Tensor Analysis ◮ metric tensor: ds2 := dx·dx = gkl du k du l .. k . g kl glm = δm gk = g kl gl . Specific examples: next class (9) (10) (11) . gk = gkl gl . gkl := gk ·gl = ∂xi ∂xi ∂u k ∂u l g kl = gk ·gl = g lk = = glk ∂u k ∂u l ∂xi ∂xi ...