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2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012


Shanghai, 5-6 Sep. 2012

The Current Situation And Development Of Active Power
Filter Technology
Xuan Hu
Guodian Nanjing
Automation Co., Ltd.

Shibao Qian
Guodian Nanjing

Mingjin Ding
Guodian Nanjing

Automation Co., Ltd.

Automation Co., Ltd.

Abstract—With the wide range of power electronic device
applications and the connection of new energy resources to
the electricity grid, a lot of harmonic problem will cause the
instability of the grid system, the interference and
malfunction of the other electric equipment, and affect the
safety of the power supply system and equipment operation.
This paper mainly discusses the comprehensive research
background and development situation of the APF (Active
Power Filter) technology, summarize the future development
and the market prospect.
Keywords—APF, Harmonic Suppression, Reactive Power

With the development of power electronic devices and the
access of new energy, power quality is becoming
increasingly important, the electrical equipments with
nonlinear characteristics are widely used in metallurgy,
steel, transportation, chemical and other industrial fields.
Firstly, the high order harmonics in the grid will cause the
overheating of rotating electric machine and transformers,
working improperly of power capacitor bank, or even the
thermal breakdown damage. Secondly, that will cause
great harm of relay automatic devices, and energy metering
devices, and lead to serious equipment malfunction, which
results in a major accident. Thirdly, harmonic pollution
seriously influences the communications, computer
instrumentation and other electrical equipment. Harmonic
pollution also affected the normal production of various
types of large factories and mines, such as steel, coal,
chemical, textile and other enterprises, as well as IT and
large-scale microelectronic integrated circuit enterprises,
with the result of product obsolescence, stopping of the
production line, life reducing and damage of the
production equipments. Therefore, we must take effective
measures to eliminate harmonics in grid system.
Active Power Filter (abbr. APF) is capable of harmonic
suppression dynamically, reactive power compensation,
and has a better ability to adapt to the changes in load and
harmonic. Following the description of the active filter
technology background; this article undertakes a
comprehensive exposition of the technical characteristics
of the APF, the development status and market
applications and prospects.

CICED2012 Session 2


Bing Li
Nanjing New

Technology Co., Ltd.


2.1 Technical features
There are traditional harmonic control and reactive power
compensation in passive filter. a low-pass circuit is formed
by paralleling RLC with the load, with the simple features,
but shortcomings of fixed compensation and easily
resonant, poor adaptability, bulky volume. Active power
filter shows the characteristics of fast response time,
tracking compensation of specific harmonics, small size,
not affected by system parameters, etc.. In the power
system, the main role of the APF is to reduce the harmonic
pollution and improve power quality. And APF also the
function of reactive power compensation and three-phase
equilibrium control.
After sampling the voltage and current of the
compensation object, APF output the compensation current
through computing step and power loop amplifier.
Compensation current offset the harmonic current of load
current to remove the harmonic components of the
fundamental supply current.








Figure 1 schematic of the shunt APF system
Figure 1 shows schematic of the shunt APF system.
harmonic sources is the power load, which generates
harmonics and reactive power consumption, iL 、 iS stands
for current of the load side and the network side

Paper No CP0518


which apply to reactive power compensation harmonic governance. which share the same DC capacitor or inductive energy storage devices. so the capacity of the active filter part can be very small. complex structure and higher power loss. When shunt active power filter is applied to filter out the harmonic separately. such as high cost. there are request of large amount of capacity requires. uneasy to exit and the complexity of the various protections. and adjusts the DC voltage. With the coupling transformer stringing into the power supply system. That is quite mature technically. Series-type APF compensates voltage harmonics. and active power filter has been put [1] into use in the industrial application. And that will bring a range of issues. the series-type active power filter can be equivalent to a controlled voltage source. while the shunt APF compensates current harmonic imbalance. parallel-type and mixed-type. But Compensation performance is not good under the circumstances of different load or operation status changes. the hybrid series APF and PF type is shown in Figure 4b. in which parallel LC passive filter part is used to eliminate a large number of low order harmonics. flexible and simple protection. 5-6 Sep. with the system in parallel. The shunt active power filter is used for harmonic compensation current source inductive load. composed by two structures of the series-type APF and shunt APF. series active power filter has shortcomings such as big loss. 2012 is es iL Nonlinear load ic 2.2 Major categories of active power filter independent Seried-type hybrid Seried type Parallelledtype Parallel hybrid type independent A P F Series resonant APF Parallel resonant b)Shunt APF Figure 3 the basic topology of APF application Injection circuit mode hybrid type Unified Power Quality Conditioner Figure 2 Active Power Filter Category 2. switching conveniently. and the size and cost of the active filter will be greatly reduced. es us uc uL The hybrid parallel APF and PF type is shown in Figure 4a.. electromagnetic interference.1 The way of access to the grid According to the way of access to the grid. the active power filter can be divided into three categories: series[4] type. compensation of reactive power load. also known as the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC).2.. is es iL Nonlinear load ic APF PF a)The hybrid parallel APF and PF type es is ic Nonlinear load iL Nonlinear load PF APF b)the hybrid series APF and PF type Figure 4 the basic topology of hybrid APF application APF a)Series-type APF CICED2012 Session 2 Figure 5 shows a series – parallel type of APF. Currently series-type active power filter form the series hybrid active power filter in combination with the LC passive filter. with the advantages of the less power loss. iC stands for compensating current of the Shanghai. Shown in Figure 3a. Series resonant injection APF and parallel resonant injection use the impedance characteristics of the LC circuit at the fundamental and harmonic. Shown in Figure 3b.2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) respectively. switching. to solve power quality problems. active filter. As the ideal active Paper No CP0518 Page2/4 . Compared with shunt active power filters. the series-type active power filter is to eliminate the voltage harmonic. shunt active power filter can be equivalent to a controlled current source. fluctuations or flicker.

three-phase three-wire and three-phase four-wire system. storage. and output PWM switching control signal by high frequency triangular carrier modulation so as to obtain compensation current. 5-6 Sep.2. Ⅲ HARMONIC DETECTION METHODS Response speed and detection accuracy is an important indicator to determine the detection methods. Harmonic detection method based on instantaneous reactive power theory is relatively mature. the active filter can be divided into single-phase. 2012 load current are detected. Space Vector Control (SVC).Akagi 1983. Application of active power filter control algorithm should be based on the harmonic Paper No CP0518 Page3/4 . and the required compensation current instruction value will be calculated. Most single-phase loads are powered with the center line of three-phase system. fast response.2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) filter structures.3 One-Cycle Control(OCC) One cycle control method is a generic non-linear largesignal control method. In addition. and the harmonic and reactive current will come out ultimately. It has a fast response. further study and practical application should be made. while the converter's switching frequency can be high. In addition to the introduction of a variety of current tracking control strategy. but the calculation routine is large. such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC). and the detection accuracy is not high. etc. modern detection methods have advantages and disadvantages. independent control of three phases result in phase [2] interference in none neutral line three-phase inverter. it’s difficult to achieve practical application. The introduction of three-phase four-wire active filter is to reduce this type of system problems.4 Dead-Beat Control (DBC) The method is actually a pre control. make the average of the switch variable equal or proportional to the reference signal. There are other detection methods. and easy software implementation.1 Fourier transform-based frequency domain analysis algorithm The algorithm uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to calculate the harmonic components. but the switching frequency of the system response speed and current tracking accuracy is affected by the hysteresis broadband. there will be some delay. With The instantaneous reactive power theory. which scales difference between the APF output current and command current. such as neural network learning algorithm and the wavelet analysis method. There are a few commonly used detection methods shown below. there are many modern control methods. and becomes the most widely used method. es us uc uL is iL Nonlinear load ic Shanghai. The [8] disadvantage is more switching losses. and maintain system voltage stability. but because of the complexity. which forms a dead zone of a given current by hysteresis comparator.. By removing the fundamental component. and the basic idea is to calculate the switch control to the next sampling period by the load current and compensation current in the previous sampling period. but because of digital low-pass filter.2 Triangular Carrier Control (TCC) The triangle carrier PWM is one of the most simple linear control method. simple control circuit. and thereby eliminate the steady and transient errors. 3. Single-phase active filter handle the load of low-power. robust. it is difficult to achieve the instantaneous detection and compensation requirements. 4. This method has the characters of simple circuit. The switching action of the PWM converter is controlled through hysteresis error of the feedback current and command current. 3. 4. The basic idea is to control the duty cycle of the switch in each period. Single-phase power causes the problems of neutral current harmonics. the instantaneous active power and instantaneous reactive power of three-phase voltage and CICED2012 Session 2 Hysteresis current control is a nonlinear closed-loop current control method and currently the most widely used in the APF control.2 The compensation system according to the compensation system. Ⅳ CURRENT TRACK STRATEGY 4. 4. reactive and threephase unbalance. UPQC can achieve short-term uninterruptible power supply. high-order harmonic of instantaneous active power and instantaneous reactive power is computed. fast dynamic response. and good control characteristics in high-frequency switching system.2 Algorithm based on instantaneous reactive power theory Instantaneous reactive power theory is proposed by the Japanese scholar H. the disadvantages are the amount of calculation and dependence on the system parameters. high precision control. It is easy to realize the specific harmonic elimination. By sampling the voltage and current signals of one cycle.1 Hysteresis Current Control (HCC) Control and drive circuit UPQC Figure 5 topology of Unified Power Quality Conditioner 2. reactive power compensation. and real-time can not be guaranteed. The advantages of this method are the stability of the switching frequency. the elimination of voltage fluctuation and flicker. But for its high cost and complex of control. and particularly suitable for the control of the switching circuit. small switching loss. The disadvantage is easily affected by circuit changes in working conditions. harmonic suppression. Although the method is able to track compensation current fast and timely. The advantages are fast dynamic response.

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