You are on page 1of 7

This page, clockwise from top

:
Active Site Plan

That the Roma have managed
to engineer an empire that
moves through geographical,
psychological, historical, and
political space is perhaps the
crux of their frictional passage
through American law.

Current Drainage System (Photography Adam Davis)
Circulation Routes
Hydrogen Cistern Location
Movement of Goods

Caravan city, plan of ancient Palmyra
(From Syria [journal], 1926, pl. xii, used by
permission of Editions Geuthner)

Winnebago
Architecture for a Nomadic Modernity

Gabriela Sarhos, Bill Caulin, Hollie Landela, David Schweim

Active Site Plan

“The consequence is that architects, critics, historians, and
everyone else concerned with environmental management in
civilized countries, lack a range of spatial experience and cultural
responses that nomad people have always enjoyed.” Reyner Banham,
The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment (1969)

proliferation. Camel trade, as a synthesis
of scarce native fauna and rigorous human
explication, represents the power of a special
machine to transform the limits of human
behavior. As such, it is a salient precursor to
modern nomadic behaviors investigated in this
paper and a powerful symbol for subsequent
nomadic manifestations.

The sparse record of antiquity
provides evidence that nomadic
lifestyles exerted broad influence on both
individual

and

collective

perspectives,

delivering surprisingly complex modes of
companionship and city planning. The caravan
cultures of the ancient Near East provide a
model for collective behavior that engages

Terra Nullius

Open Source Urbanism, Adam Davis

from desert to marshland and an era of
bewildering mercantile traffic. To survive and
flourish, traders understood the nuances
of their camel ‘ships of the desert’ and
accordingly navigated political factions and
competing

commercial

interests.2

Camel

owners benefited from their animals’ traits

Caravans
As a rigid or ‘military’ body, the precise
structure of the caravan hierarchy is not
so pertinent; more important are the links
that developed from a unique arrangement
emerging from individuals and groups in
constant flux between exclusivity—being
alone

in

a

desert—and

inclusiveness—

dynamic belonging with clarity and structure,

most advantageous to desert subsistence:

and more clearly informs the types of fluid

the camel’s capacity to conserve water, its

cultural

durability, speed, and exceptional variety

maintenance of peak performance in trading

of diet. The camel’s ultimate performance

groups. As the commercial importance of

was more than a significant investment of

caravan trade blossomed, hierarchies based

The romantic legacy of the caravan era

time, money, and intellectual perspicacity:

on merit crystallized throughout the region. A

eclipses the systematic rigor of nomadic

integration and cultivation of the camel’s

differentiation of roles developed, and a deeply

life. As in much of North America, ancient

biological mechanisms proved vital to caravan

integrated hierarchical social, political, legal,

relationships

between

travelers,

devices, and their ports of interest.

30

Arabia’s interior supported environs ranging

within networked trade settlements. Explicit
leadership and organization were vital to the

Winnebago, Sarhos, Caulin, Landela, Schweim

Terra Nullius

31

On the opposite end of the scale and encouraging longer-term living.”4 That the Roma have managed to engineer an empire that moves through geographical. historical. manufacturers such as Redman Trailer Company linked nomadic life to the next frontier of space-craft technology: driven by vernacular. seems both an “object and an agent of change. environmental efficiency. Unlike their Quartzsite counterparts. observe social and material conditions for which they deserve close attention. and thus was born the These early self-built units set a precedent precursor to the modern home-on-wheels. displays many such formal characteristics.”9 the 3. avoiding the risks involved with explicit declaration of a permanent mobile transparency. integrating technological advances Winnebago Evolution the same name. forms a radical and marginal worldview perceiving travel-trade mastery as a means of ordering life as a transient affair. though encouraging theory on freedoms of belief. nomadic homes are self-propelled or towable curtains. On the other hand. a hotel-for-a-year. and weak external relations with Early twentieth-century vernacular vehicle adaptations (Photography: Motor Magazine.”7 their “New Moon” trailers were advertised as the world’s largest. Despite enduring repression from surrounding cultures. In the NASCAR aggregation. The caravanserai (location 18 on the plan of Palmyra) presents a novel ‘airlock’ space that defies classical definitions of ‘inside’ or ‘outside’ the city proper. the these cost. enthusiasts and manufacturers developed units of varying scales to cater to various lifestyles. have led to resilient mobile organizations for the Roma for thousands of years. disappeared. Caulin. new commercial and infrastructural demands reset the fundamental assumptions of city planning. vacation spot. Although NASCAR and individual venues determine the regulations of the sport and sets guidelines for settlement. frame coupled with dry ice air conditioning and Named after the Native American tribe of electricity. NASCAR National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) events happen many times a year at different locations for short periods of time. The wide breach in the city’s fortification. led Roma enclaves to seek the fledgling America which. similar to their caravan and Roma predecessors. technological Technological innovation provided a solution to innovations. Evolving as a result of a series of adaptations While the Dymaxion House was a one-sizefits-all solution. all of which provide parking in or around their locations where winnebagos park. for instance. the ease and leisure of city living to any outof-doors destination. Landela. increasing decentralizations and globalization. and so on.000-pound self-contained Dymaxion vogue again. trailers. Difficulty in permeating the tectonic privacy of the Roma structure is clear in a 1972 US census that lists the number of American Gypsies at “between 20. and even toilets with running water. As in the first decade of the The first vernacular forms of the winnebago House also used aluminum. Their machine of choice. included dwellers a quick escape for greener pastures. and political space is perhaps the crux of their frictional passage through American law. one that extended to individuals. there were almost forty NASCAR racing events at nearly thirty different tracks. Caulin. nomadism quickly came into after the patterns of a “nomadic modernity. so too were the cities visited by caravans. the Winnebago became Winnebago. mass migrations and resettlement. Right: Coca Cola 600 event (Photography: David Grove) psychological. customized to gargantuan lengths of over fifty feet. Just as caravaners were molded by the pressures of their profession. ‘machines for living. and caravan trading points. The smallest and most affordable units.3 The American system. and Arabian trade fell with catastrophic results in the second century A. The ‘trade of trade’ grew in stride with a gregarious. for light. we have adapted a small planet. strict social rules within and among groups. or lifestyle. the Shortly frontier recreation or camping to exemplify in essence production. Because unifying as Buckminster Fuller. wardrobes. The massive demographic home on wheels. was designed twentieth century. The Roma people of Southern Europe. Palmyra. champion of ideas for terminology does not exist. often referred to as Gypsies. groups. but its unstable aristocracy compromised both the political and physical walls. contained water and waste disposal tanks and The generator or solar-powered electrical systems. today’s fixed dwelling: bedrooms. and mass home on wheels. and a changing worldview. enforces 32 Terra Nullius Palmyra’s implicit trust in the frequency and importance of the caravan’s vital commerce.’ equipped with self- showers. market. have similarly demonstrated insistence on mobility and perspectives divergent from Western worldviews. NASCAR grounds devote more space to winnebagos than to tents. In 2006. conceived a habitable space The business and pleasure of leisure-seekers the term ‘winnebago’ to describe any moving in 1929 that addressed affordability. 1909) regulatory and land authorities. plastic infrastructure.5 The plug/unplug configuration of Palmyra’s caravanserai and the precise rules of its trade networks led to great commercial success. where the soft winnebago assemblies meet high technology. no brand name implies the to develop a more efficient prototype. etc. innovations. Like the Winnebagos of the era. refrigerators. In 1928.000 and 200. The constant march of the Roma across most of Europe. Sarhos. and financial organization governed the caravan’s success. the Roma’s coda. frequently labeled the land of freedom. Schweim Modernity—its technologies.”6 But we must keep in mind that the principal lesson from Arabian caravan trade is the necessity for a welldeveloped system of transparencies and “Although the RV might appear to be an ultimate manifestation of American individualism. Landela. conveniently located just to the southeast of the caravanserai. chairs.8 units to be mounted on existing automobile vehicles). measuring four by eight feet and intended for short-term living. producing what are now referred to as a caravan cities.— transforms permanence into a search for novel orders of spatial occupation. resulting in frequent policy clashes between the government and the Roma minority. More cooling. Henry Ford’s assembly- appeared in the early 1900s as automobile to be packaged and shipped to any location line city- owners altered their vehicles by installing where it could easily be assembled. and featured a modular floor plan vehicles with portable units intended to bring complete modifications included building houses on top of the automobile chassis.a comfortable home for a nomadic people. a construction to create a cheaper and lighter political consistency. frequently due to xenophobia or persecution. brand name Winnebago. Pre-Christian cities of comparable size and strategic importance to Palmyra generally contest this layout. market embraced these vernacular chassis or as independent tow-able trailers. the social interests of the participants are more diverse and their interactions less connected. mobile dwellings that included Generically most of the necessities and luxuries of a automobile the American afforded American known as RVs (recreational or campers. Protected by a partial and deferential wall.000 individuals. Yet America failed to produce the rolling freedom for which Gypsy communities had yearned. Schweim Terra Nullius 33 .D. wooden boxes along the running boards that systems for grey water reuse and passive Adventurous urban dwellers adapted their would convert into kitchens or cots.and weight-prohibitive commercial current-day ‘home-on-wheels’ is more than versions. Modular an immediate success and a synonym for the idea of home-on-wheels as strongly as the static living adopted ideas from nomadic living Class “C” motor home. When Winnebago Industries introduced their product to the market in the 1960s at nearly half the price of their competitors. It is a a metal tube and wire cable assembly of aircraft home-away-from-home. it is interpersonal relations between the various participants that allows for the flexibility of the nomadic arrangements. a pattern indicative of collective interests in vehicle ownership and technology. ease of only partially pushed the development of the vehicle that has transcended the function of transport. and commercial production began and can function in isolation or plugged into in the 1920s with manufacturers producing fixed infrastructures. collective opinions formed through free exchange of information impel subtle technological shifts and (directly or indirectly) affect future patterns of occupation. a movable office. customizable to each owner’s needs. Modern nomadic communities. would seemingly provide Winnebago. aviator Glen Curtis employed a recreational vehicle or a camper. The result is a highly regularized but often curving linear organization designed for fast set up and expedient dismantling. the permeability of Palmyra offers a model sharply different than the walled fortresses of popular antiquity. just like the trailer campers of the 1910s. were either manufactured or built by individuals following designs included in popular publications. RV’ers generally see themselves as part of a community. was not prepared for a dedicated group practicing their ideas of space-making openly and aggressively. kitchens with stoves. Sarhos.

Like the Winnebagos of the era. though encouraging theory on freedoms of belief. the Roma’s coda. it is interpersonal relations between the various participants that allows for the flexibility of the nomadic arrangements. The ‘trade of trade’ grew in stride with a gregarious. Modern nomadic communities. where the soft winnebago assemblies meet high technology. customized to gargantuan lengths of over fifty feet. just like the trailer campers of the 1910s.and weight-prohibitive commercial current-day ‘home-on-wheels’ is more than versions. Although NASCAR and individual venues determine the regulations of the sport and sets guidelines for settlement. disappeared. there were almost forty NASCAR racing events at nearly thirty different tracks. Sarhos. strict social rules within and among groups. In 1928. seems both an “object and an agent of change. no brand name implies the to develop a more efficient prototype. and political space is perhaps the crux of their frictional passage through American law. Despite enduring repression from surrounding cultures. conveniently located just to the southeast of the caravanserai. kitchens with stoves. In the NASCAR aggregation. a construction to create a cheaper and lighter political consistency. etc. The massive demographic home on wheels. observe social and material conditions for which they deserve close attention. nomadism quickly came into after the patterns of a “nomadic modernity. or lifestyle. displays many such formal characteristics. but its unstable aristocracy compromised both the political and physical walls. The wide breach in the city’s fortification. Schweim Modernity—its technologies. the permeability of Palmyra offers a model sharply different than the walled fortresses of popular antiquity. the social interests of the participants are more diverse and their interactions less connected. have led to resilient mobile organizations for the Roma for thousands of years. Right: Coca Cola 600 event (Photography: David Grove) psychological. and mass home on wheels. and thus was born the These early self-built units set a precedent precursor to the modern home-on-wheels. producing what are now referred to as a caravan cities. market. and financial organization governed the caravan’s success. frame coupled with dry ice air conditioning and Named after the Native American tribe of electricity. the ease and leisure of city living to any outof-doors destination. NASCAR National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) events happen many times a year at different locations for short periods of time. RV’ers generally see themselves as part of a community. contained water and waste disposal tanks and The generator or solar-powered electrical systems. The Roma people of Southern Europe. Pre-Christian cities of comparable size and strategic importance to Palmyra generally contest this layout. NASCAR grounds devote more space to winnebagos than to tents. Protected by a partial and deferential wall. ease of only partially pushed the development of the vehicle that has transcended the function of transport. mobile dwellings that included Generically most of the necessities and luxuries of a automobile the American afforded American known as RVs (recreational or campers. On the opposite end of the scale and encouraging longer-term living. Henry Ford’s assembly- appeared in the early 1900s as automobile to be packaged and shipped to any location line city- owners altered their vehicles by installing where it could easily be assembled. On the other hand. Landela. was not prepared for a dedicated group practicing their ideas of space-making openly and aggressively. and weak external relations with Early twentieth-century vernacular vehicle adaptations (Photography: Motor Magazine. Unlike their Quartzsite counterparts.3 The American system. Because unifying as Buckminster Fuller. 1909) regulatory and land authorities. new commercial and infrastructural demands reset the fundamental assumptions of city planning. wooden boxes along the running boards that systems for grey water reuse and passive Adventurous urban dwellers adapted their would convert into kitchens or cots. often referred to as Gypsies. manufacturers such as Redman Trailer Company linked nomadic life to the next frontier of space-craft technology: driven by vernacular.8 units to be mounted on existing automobile vehicles).”6 But we must keep in mind that the principal lesson from Arabian caravan trade is the necessity for a welldeveloped system of transparencies and “Although the RV might appear to be an ultimate manifestation of American individualism. was designed twentieth century. champion of ideas for terminology does not exist. Landela. were either manufactured or built by individuals following designs included in popular publications. Their machine of choice. innovations. technological Technological innovation provided a solution to innovations.”7 their “New Moon” trailers were advertised as the world’s largest. collective opinions formed through free exchange of information impel subtle technological shifts and (directly or indirectly) affect future patterns of occupation. vacation spot. Caulin. enforces 32 Terra Nullius Palmyra’s implicit trust in the frequency and importance of the caravan’s vital commerce. Difficulty in permeating the tectonic privacy of the Roma structure is clear in a 1972 US census that lists the number of American Gypsies at “between 20. In 2006.5 The plug/unplug configuration of Palmyra’s caravanserai and the precise rules of its trade networks led to great commercial success. plastic infrastructure. integrating technological advances Winnebago Evolution the same name.— transforms permanence into a search for novel orders of spatial occupation. and featured a modular floor plan vehicles with portable units intended to bring complete modifications included building houses on top of the automobile chassis. wardrobes. increasing decentralizations and globalization. the Winnebago became Winnebago. The result is a highly regularized but often curving linear organization designed for fast set up and expedient dismantling.a comfortable home for a nomadic people. environmental efficiency. Yet America failed to produce the rolling freedom for which Gypsy communities had yearned. forms a radical and marginal worldview perceiving travel-trade mastery as a means of ordering life as a transient affair. groups. a movable office. Just as caravaners were molded by the pressures of their profession. historical. chairs. aviator Glen Curtis employed a recreational vehicle or a camper. frequently labeled the land of freedom. a hotel-for-a-year. resulting in frequent policy clashes between the government and the Roma minority. all of which provide parking in or around their locations where winnebagos park. the these cost.’ equipped with self- showers.”9 the 3. a pattern indicative of collective interests in vehicle ownership and technology. customizable to each owner’s needs. Evolving as a result of a series of adaptations While the Dymaxion House was a one-sizefits-all solution.D. The caravanserai (location 18 on the plan of Palmyra) presents a novel ‘airlock’ space that defies classical definitions of ‘inside’ or ‘outside’ the city proper. measuring four by eight feet and intended for short-term living. one that extended to individuals.000-pound self-contained Dymaxion vogue again. When Winnebago Industries introduced their product to the market in the 1960s at nearly half the price of their competitors. The smallest and most affordable units. Caulin. Schweim Terra Nullius 33 . and commercial production began and can function in isolation or plugged into in the 1920s with manufacturers producing fixed infrastructures. and caravan trading points. mass migrations and resettlement. included dwellers a quick escape for greener pastures. ‘machines for living. More cooling. and Arabian trade fell with catastrophic results in the second century A. for light. so too were the cities visited by caravans. Sarhos.000 and 200. refrigerators. and so on. frequently due to xenophobia or persecution. brand name Winnebago. nomadic homes are self-propelled or towable curtains. similar to their caravan and Roma predecessors. Palmyra. It is a a metal tube and wire cable assembly of aircraft home-away-from-home. and even toilets with running water. have similarly demonstrated insistence on mobility and perspectives divergent from Western worldviews. conceived a habitable space The business and pleasure of leisure-seekers the term ‘winnebago’ to describe any moving in 1929 that addressed affordability. and a changing worldview. enthusiasts and manufacturers developed units of varying scales to cater to various lifestyles. for instance. would seemingly provide Winnebago. we have adapted a small planet. Modular an immediate success and a synonym for the idea of home-on-wheels as strongly as the static living adopted ideas from nomadic living Class “C” motor home. trailers.”4 That the Roma have managed to engineer an empire that moves through geographical. today’s fixed dwelling: bedrooms. The constant march of the Roma across most of Europe. the Shortly frontier recreation or camping to exemplify in essence production. avoiding the risks involved with explicit declaration of a permanent mobile transparency. As in the first decade of the The first vernacular forms of the winnebago House also used aluminum. market embraced these vernacular chassis or as independent tow-able trailers.000 individuals. led Roma enclaves to seek the fledgling America which.

Though occupants seek solitude in the peripheral campsites. and developed motor- advances in technology have caused human caravans trekking around the world. demographics. residential spaces have become testing grounds for organizational typologies that anticipate solutions to nomadic Winnebago. or develop a much more intimate relationship with their neighbors.”15 The power-based solution is flexible and yields a unique ethicalaesthetic imperative of its own. one would be hard-pressed to find a simple linearity that has led to. the heyday of “self-sufficient land-yachts” (AUDC. Structural architectures place a great demand on natural resources and lead “to increasing complexity of supplemental organs—from huts. converted to “mobile home” manufacturing. Organized and networked. generates income from the quartz trade.”12 Population growth. and ultimately the nation-state… produc[ing] an ethical-aesthetic imperative of architectural permanence delineating bounded contours of political and social space. makes mobile living a full-time affair. and the mobile home became static: reliant on external “For the 20th century and indeed for the present. Legislative.14 The arbitration of their broad cultural referencing finds architectural form in the winnebago’s illustration of self-assembly and transience.’ competing 2. 90% of people will certainly not be working or living in the same place. infrastructure. If you ask the average contemporary American citizen where he or she was born. and objectives. it is also a space of leisure. and code procedures classified mobile homes as permanent housing in the 1970s. Caulin. Arizona McLuhan noted as early as is at once the agent and result of seemingly ideas of mass consumption Bottom left: By the mid 1960s. 11. increasing globalization. At the height of the season. ailments are born. low-cost alternatives in housing. which was a markedly different occupied environment in that the only time it was mobile was between the factory and the final destination of the unit. more responsive organizations. regulatory. the most luxurious Class “A” units are built on extended commercial truck chassis to allow for continuous space between the cab and the living space of the vehicle.662 owners polled in 1993. technologies. and certainly in Africa. are not based on strict structural solutions and could be called “softspace” communities. challenges related to larger structural cities begin to develop in Quartzsite: congestion often causes people to either move their Winnebago toward the periphery. zoning. Wally Byam. Caulin. the flurry of invention of individual Marshall units in early and mid-twentieth century 1964 that “after three thousand years of corresponded for the most part to individuals explosion. themes amplified this boredom. Six or seven other units on wheels are towable but incorporate many of the infrastructural plug-ins available in their motorized counterparts (Illustration by authors adapted after RV-Coach. utopian Four Freedoms added up to a “vision issues of fragmentary identity.10 4. In the 1960s. The smallest and most affordable of the self-propelled units. and these administered by institutions and ordered into cities. This trend eventually led to a split in the industry as manufacturers like Schult Trailer Co. individual desires. a small Arizona town of about 4. WWII workers sought longer-term arrangements. Primarily a residential form. Great Depression migrants and The Winnebago and Nomadic Modernity: thus beginning the mainstream use of trailers (UN)-Plugged as more ‘permanent’ housing.com) Above: Quartzsite Peak Occupation (Photography: Quartzsite Business Chamber of Commerce) Bottom: Quartzsite Off-Season (Photography: Bob Lankford.com) Edward Bernays. you meet people in their homes and the Great Depression fostered the way for they meet you in theirs. the Western world pace of the modern world. Industry figures is imploding. others thrive on the instant city with its densely packed neighborhoods and dwelling units. yet rules of trade and groupings of interest or familiar association established in previous years determine occupation patterns. thereby recapturing the treasured anonymity and sameness” of the 1950s.” wholly embodied in and ecology. The 92 Faces of Peter Greenaway utility networks and lacking nomadic traits. “Tales of Desert Nomads. Ours is a “nomadic modernity. and I’m told that 25 thousand young people enter Beijing and Shanghai every night with their suitcases and stay there. shifting such as Airstream founder. Freedom from arrangements: ‘Home is The nomadic identity of post-frontier America where you stop. each of today’s three major classes of self-propelled RV had been born. Sarhos. to houses that are then assembled into neighborhoods. Arguing that the structural solution embodied in conventional architectures—structural architectures—“requires a stable and massive orchestration and division of labor” that ultimately leads to a “sedentary and striated social order of ever greater complexity. Banham refers to the campfire as the source of power and the subsequent fluid community gathering of early hunters and gatherers. Landela.’ by the rapidly developing ‘desire’ economy 3. Often referred to as motor coaches. (2002) However.” the fourth “freedom”:11 1. like winnebago communities. Quartzsite. Sarhos.19%. are vans converted to incorporate living space. a space that upholds the global exodus or aggregation of individuals to which Peter Greenaway refers. Class “C” motorized homes are bed-over-cab units built on a truck or van chassis. some six months in length. by means of fragmentary and seeking certain freedoms from the increasing mechanical technologies. A large percentage. 37-38). for a mobile adventure. The physical intensities of Quartzsite at its peak occupation seem haphazard. cult-like Quartzsite. the winnebago suggests a set of relationships—among individual units and with the site of temporary settlement—that make it a model worth studying.13 In this nomadic modernity. the suitcase is the most excellent metaphor for mobility. With a pre-Civil War history of hosting military camel settlements. Freedom from the problems of age: ‘Out of and individual identity. Byam’s settlements to reconsider. These. Schweim Terra Nullius 35 . Freedom for fun. or aptly defined. this is the largest gathering of winnebagos in the world with over a million occupants.” Banham encourages power-based solutions that supersede static structural architectures. Landela. on a global scale. from October to March. BL Digital Photography) Bottom right: On the Road. Freedom to know: ‘When you travel in a observed and exploited by figures such as followings of Every year.” Cabinet 21 (Spring 2006): pp. choosing a vacant spot to inhabit next to others just like themselves. These nomads annually “re-enact the process of settling the suburbs.shifts of migrant workers resulting from trailer. Reyner Banham’s Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment embraced 34 Terra Nullius Winnebago. communities fluctuate in a polemical spacetime synchronized by series of events. “snowbirds” escape their northern homes and travel to Quartzsite. Schweim a “power-based” solution between man and architecture that would yield suppler. suggesting plausible solutions to the instabilities of the contemporary condition.” Peter Greenaway. Historically. campervans or Class “B” units. How Long? Of the 1. the majority spend one to two months mobile. (Illustration by authors adapted after RVTravel.’ simple. As the nomad city grows and social patterns begin to calcify.000 fulltime inhabitants. And we know about the involuntary movements of people in middle Europe.

11. which was a markedly different occupied environment in that the only time it was mobile was between the factory and the final destination of the unit. the Western world pace of the modern world. infrastructure. demographics. converted to “mobile home” manufacturing. makes mobile living a full-time affair. Class “C” motorized homes are bed-over-cab units built on a truck or van chassis.” wholly embodied in and ecology. individual desires.’ competing 2. increasing globalization. This trend eventually led to a split in the industry as manufacturers like Schult Trailer Co. If you ask the average contemporary American citizen where he or she was born. Freedom for fun. and the mobile home became static: reliant on external “For the 20th century and indeed for the present.”12 Population growth. Ours is a “nomadic modernity. thereby recapturing the treasured anonymity and sameness” of the 1950s.10 4. Sarhos. Primarily a residential form. ailments are born. the suitcase is the most excellent metaphor for mobility. each of today’s three major classes of self-propelled RV had been born. or develop a much more intimate relationship with their neighbors. These nomads annually “re-enact the process of settling the suburbs. Though occupants seek solitude in the peripheral campsites. this is the largest gathering of winnebagos in the world with over a million occupants. Schweim a “power-based” solution between man and architecture that would yield suppler. one would be hard-pressed to find a simple linearity that has led to. Great Depression migrants and The Winnebago and Nomadic Modernity: thus beginning the mainstream use of trailers (UN)-Plugged as more ‘permanent’ housing. and ultimately the nation-state… produc[ing] an ethical-aesthetic imperative of architectural permanence delineating bounded contours of political and social space. the winnebago suggests a set of relationships—among individual units and with the site of temporary settlement—that make it a model worth studying. Reyner Banham’s Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment embraced 34 Terra Nullius Winnebago.’ simple. Caulin. to houses that are then assembled into neighborhoods. Schweim Terra Nullius 35 . BL Digital Photography) Bottom right: On the Road. the heyday of “self-sufficient land-yachts” (AUDC.’ by the rapidly developing ‘desire’ economy 3. and objectives. cult-like Quartzsite.662 owners polled in 1993. Six or seven other units on wheels are towable but incorporate many of the infrastructural plug-ins available in their motorized counterparts (Illustration by authors adapted after RV-Coach.com) Above: Quartzsite Peak Occupation (Photography: Quartzsite Business Chamber of Commerce) Bottom: Quartzsite Off-Season (Photography: Bob Lankford. communities fluctuate in a polemical spacetime synchronized by series of events. themes amplified this boredom. are not based on strict structural solutions and could be called “softspace” communities. choosing a vacant spot to inhabit next to others just like themselves. yet rules of trade and groupings of interest or familiar association established in previous years determine occupation patterns. by means of fragmentary and seeking certain freedoms from the increasing mechanical technologies. campervans or Class “B” units. utopian Four Freedoms added up to a “vision issues of fragmentary identity. A large percentage.” Banham encourages power-based solutions that supersede static structural architectures. on a global scale. more responsive organizations. Freedom from the problems of age: ‘Out of and individual identity. the flurry of invention of individual Marshall units in early and mid-twentieth century 1964 that “after three thousand years of corresponded for the most part to individuals explosion. Arizona McLuhan noted as early as is at once the agent and result of seemingly ideas of mass consumption Bottom left: By the mid 1960s. These. regulatory. a space that upholds the global exodus or aggregation of individuals to which Peter Greenaway refers. the most luxurious Class “A” units are built on extended commercial truck chassis to allow for continuous space between the cab and the living space of the vehicle. zoning. Wally Byam. generates income from the quartz trade. low-cost alternatives in housing.14 The arbitration of their broad cultural referencing finds architectural form in the winnebago’s illustration of self-assembly and transience. (Illustration by authors adapted after RVTravel.com) Edward Bernays. And we know about the involuntary movements of people in middle Europe.13 In this nomadic modernity.” Peter Greenaway.” the fourth “freedom”:11 1. Landela.”15 The power-based solution is flexible and yields a unique ethicalaesthetic imperative of its own. are vans converted to incorporate living space. (2002) However. suggesting plausible solutions to the instabilities of the contemporary condition. “Tales of Desert Nomads. As the nomad city grows and social patterns begin to calcify. Caulin.” Cabinet 21 (Spring 2006): pp. Quartzsite. Industry figures is imploding. and I’m told that 25 thousand young people enter Beijing and Shanghai every night with their suitcases and stay there. With a pre-Civil War history of hosting military camel settlements. and developed motor- advances in technology have caused human caravans trekking around the world. “snowbirds” escape their northern homes and travel to Quartzsite. The 92 Faces of Peter Greenaway utility networks and lacking nomadic traits. 90% of people will certainly not be working or living in the same place. The physical intensities of Quartzsite at its peak occupation seem haphazard. others thrive on the instant city with its densely packed neighborhoods and dwelling units. Sarhos. At the height of the season. Often referred to as motor coaches. Byam’s settlements to reconsider. Freedom to know: ‘When you travel in a observed and exploited by figures such as followings of Every year. 37-38). from October to March. Organized and networked. Landela. How Long? Of the 1. Structural architectures place a great demand on natural resources and lead “to increasing complexity of supplemental organs—from huts. WWII workers sought longer-term arrangements. and these administered by institutions and ordered into cities.19%. and code procedures classified mobile homes as permanent housing in the 1970s. residential spaces have become testing grounds for organizational typologies that anticipate solutions to nomadic Winnebago.000 fulltime inhabitants. shifting such as Airstream founder. a small Arizona town of about 4. for a mobile adventure. some six months in length. Historically. Legislative. you meet people in their homes and the Great Depression fostered the way for they meet you in theirs. Banham refers to the campfire as the source of power and the subsequent fluid community gathering of early hunters and gatherers. challenges related to larger structural cities begin to develop in Quartzsite: congestion often causes people to either move their Winnebago toward the periphery. technologies. like winnebago communities. In the 1960s. the majority spend one to two months mobile. and certainly in Africa. Arguing that the structural solution embodied in conventional architectures—structural architectures—“requires a stable and massive orchestration and division of labor” that ultimately leads to a “sedentary and striated social order of ever greater complexity. Freedom from arrangements: ‘Home is The nomadic identity of post-frontier America where you stop. it is also a space of leisure. The smallest and most affordable of the self-propelled units.shifts of migrant workers resulting from trailer. or aptly defined.

16. so too are instant transient cities syntheses of new. as a borrowed term that expresses all mobile living. like a big piece of equipment. invention and market. It has become a sort of symbol as well as a sign of ‘population in flux. 9 Christopher Hight. Hancock writes: “Gypsies remain the only American ethnic minority against whom laws still operate. cfm. 2006).”18 not Winnebago. independence. [and] easy to manipulate and though subject to a framework of taxation alter. We are concerned with differences in patterns of occupation and related technologies not necessarily in the brand or the type of vehicle. Sarhos.” in Softspace: p.” Architectural Design 29. “Caravan: Embryo Appliance House. of the city-in-flux”: understandable. Those using provided electricity have partial hookups. Rockefeller Institute of Government. also produces a more supple social-spatial mapping. techniques using elements. and as such contained structural and power solution. xviii-xix. modern transient settlements occur through gathering for a specific purpose: joining a community. “RV Info. 2000): p. nonprescriptive space. First. The early travel trailer embodied the other manufactured housing also known City nevertheless was its urban alternative ideas of the American frontier and “was clearly as mobile home. Banham’s theories on structural accretion is substantiated in the story of emergence of cities as articulated in Manuel Delanda’s theories of complexity in A Thousand Years of Non-Linear History (New York: Zone. light. are forced by the desire of Architectural and high-design proposals of to alternative space-making has perhaps authorities to preserve “the order of things. eds. 15 Hight. the caravan represents a new freedom. Upper case Winnebago refers to this particular brand name of motor vehicle. reusable. is as comfortable as this year’s space heated car. be it a conference. No longer contrast. 2006): p. not just its parts. embody many of these principles.” Softspace: p.24 structurally bound to a foundation. and changing their lifestyles for a specific time. Airstream: The History of the Land Yacht (San Francisco: Chronicle Books. architectural permanence delineating bounded observed in many other itinerant cultures contours of political and social space…. roads. Urban experience would consequently be less determinate. Schweim assume a series of complex relationships between the built environment and the modular units that make up the community organizations. and aggregation. The lack of calcification hosting campsites. Airstream: p. Vehicles that take full advantage of site infrastructures have full hookups. We will henceforth use lower-case winnebago. Archigram: Architecture Without Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press.” Architectural Design 30 (September 1960): p. See also Rally 2007 Organizers. and who are specifically named in those laws. Caulin. 16 Sean Lally. a short vacation on wheels.. Why the Many Are Smarter than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business. independence.21 The private ownership “devised to prompt circulation and accelerate a form of soft or low technology: accessible. And like the car. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline. Matter and the Gradients of Space. whereby people come together in their winnebagos simply to connect with one another. Arizona. and individuals who seek “ideal on high-profile predictions made by economic a “soft architecture” which existed prior to affordable detached housing.. “Episode 1: Happiness Machines. The Pariah Syndrome: An Account of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution. has miniature appliances in scale with the spaces like a toy home. (New York: Routledge. Archigram: p. 1 Ian Hancock. 105. Hancock writes: “Gypsies remain the only American ethnic minority against whom laws still operate. and one locale or die off…. not just recreational or camper. traffic authorities. 9 (September 1959): p. 1. 27 Sadler. 849. as processes opposing trailer market to unprecedented highs. 91-98. Though there were a few high- organizations they form: vernacular and design innovations during the early stages high design. Invention vernacular and regulated by an eagerness of is propelled by the housing market. 42. 1971): pp. 1988): p. Mary Banham et al. zoned. Wallis. groups Terra Nullius underlie the the the 36 parallel of literally similar organizational principles as Plug-In City. and “lumped” them with railroad cars. 10 Bryan Burkhart and David Hunt. continual circulation. form soft organizations with the potential of reframing the city. and who are specifically named in those laws. 8 See Deane Simpson.com/media. 1. techniques allowing the provision of supplies (water. As with Banham’s discussion of those expression of the winnebago unit and The most important trend from the point of view of the urbanist is the need for recreation. Sarhos. 17. and caravans. marginal understandings of the body in space and time. 843-884.” Critical Inquiry 18. Winnebago assemblies thus operate through the four-dimensional interplay of community. The physical properties and organizations of winnebago communities. The second set of criteria also significant of winnebago organizations are the four characteristics evident in “intelligent” crowds. 26 Simon Sadler. making a pilgrimage or visit to a place.” Rockefeller Institute Working Papers 28 (New York: SUNY Nelson A. Landela. In the United States official resistance innovation. Archigram: p.. invention and regulation. 18 Hight.’” Alison Smithson. 13 Adam Curtis. and communities occupy a liberated. place. No. Alison Smithson writes that “Against the standard solution to the permanent dwelling the caravan is neat.”19 Warren Chalk. “Taking It With You. sporting event. and of the winnebago. “The Time of the Gypsies: A ‘People without History’ in the Narratives of the West. attending an event/activity. the 1960s strove to expunge the structuralist encouraged rather than hampered transient limiting the range of acceptable housing” by solutions of early Modernism. (New York: Oxford University Press. The reason for the existence of towns is the struggle against boredom….. Sean Lally and Jessica Young. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline”: p. vehicles. and human interactions driven by those constraints.”26 conditioning. Societies. and Because the early winnebago was a widely began to offer a new context for fantastic and like the Roma of southeastern Europe. Spring 1987): p. 370. Reyner Banham. 16. Archigram. Understanding Media (New York: McGrawHill. “Mobile Home Growth. simple to erect. Charles C. v. Straddling both borders. and the related characteristics of decentralization. Thesis] (ETH: Zurich. 64. politics. electric and sewer infrastructures are dry camping or boondocking. (Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. lifestyles.” Softspace: From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. 24 Reyner Banham. 2005): p.” individual winnebago modules realm of centralized regulatory institutions may be equipped with energy harvesting and processes (ordinances. (London: Routledge. eager “backyard entrepreneurs eager to capitalize In effect. 25. 38. The winnebago’s Archigram’s visionary proposals for the Plug- a “source of energy and a territorial organizer. eds. In historical records of the winnebago. Edward Bernays. Plug-In infrastructure. Regulation and Discrimination in the Hinterland. 20 See Wallis. 22 Hight. are “time-based events that [can] only be realized by the active involvement of its inhabitants. 2006): p. the use of free time. 19 Wallis. eds. deals with both of Reyner relations between the avant-garde and the Banham’s propositions: it is both a self- vernacular. Trailer Travel Here and Abroad (1961). 2nd ed. 3 Katie Trumpener. event. “The Time of the Gypsies”: p.D. sewage disposal) capable of rapid alteration and reutilization. If city planning had traditionally encouraged contemplation of the fixed. See also Wally Byam. 348.or large-scale fragmentary identity is represented by loose communities: “The power-based solution… formal community organizations between has produced no cultures that have ‘shaped the various units which are pre-agreed social world architecture. transitional organizations—like those of the In City (1964) embody the “principles of creating micro-climates of heat. Caulin. plugging into and unplugging from their work and writings as individuals and larger systems allows for a more flexible leading practitioners. diversity. rather than leisureseeking ones. “The Future: Mobile Architecture. easy to transport. As the camel trade and settlements like Palmyra were syntheses of object.”22 This that self-organize into small. interchangeable apartment units. the high-design modular solutions functions. diversity of opinion. 23 Burkhart and Hunt. 17 Wallis. is arguably the inventor of the field of public relations and marketing. 356. scrambled a set of vernacular operations. 2006).’ since they must always be contracts within an infrastructural framework The clean. as a form of spatial and of the winnebago is the curious result of social organization. Economies. Plug-In planning promoted architecture as an event that could only be realized by the active involvement of its inhabitants. the American frontier epitomizes and the “ethical-aesthetic imperative[s] of what Banham calls the power-based solution.” Century of the Self [Episodes 1-4] (London: BBC Four. and Roma or Palmyra’s caravans—are uncertain collectivity. hierarchical separation that characterized orthodox urban planning gave way to what Cook would call the ‘comego’ of Plug-In City.. Wheel Estate: The Rise and Decline of Mobile Homes. Geisler and Hisayoshi Mitsuda. 1991): p. plugged and unplugged bodies. We propose mobile urbanism which would search for techniques allowing the construction of large units within which an infinite flexibility is required. designed for Bangkok. and others for ways to regain certain freedoms. or bazaar for some shared interest. Vehicles using sites without plugging into water. 1997). (Berkeley: University of California Press.28 Certain physical and behavioral characteristics—decentralization.25 organizations. heavy regulation. Wheel Estate: p. and in the documentary Bernays is portrayed as having single-handedly begun exploiting mass desires at the hand of capitalist and political bodies in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. 14 An architectural discussion and context of “softspace” appears in Softspace: From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. Correlations between these intelligent assemblies and Wally Byam’s “vision for a mobile adventure” suggest themselves.” Regulation sages like Roger Babson” that pushed the the 1960s in the vernacular cultures of the and categorization.” 6 Allan D. 29 Sadler. blurring boundaries. vernacular form. 17. Although technologies that can furnish a localized power and zoning) that have put a stranglehold on campfire that Banham proposed. 4 Trumpener. Caravan Cities (New York: AMS Press for Oxford University. has a space for everything like a well run office. Regulation and official classification is a second important factor in the formal 16 a self-contained machine for living.23 nomad. the The winnebago. Sean Lally and Jessica Young. 7 Architecture Urbanism Design Collaborative (AUDC). 4 (Summer 1992): pp. 28. 223-226. and time. which include connections to water. energy. these architects are all proposing developers. 3.” A Critic Writes: Essays by Reyner Banham. 14. 1996): pp.”17 Rather than subscribing to a structural and localized rules. facilitated by technologies to transform the limits of human behavior. spatial organization than fixed architectures. 25 Yona Friedman and Roger Aujame. tents and shacks. About the home on wheels. and Potteries Thinkbelt nevertheless regulated by an alternate force: evolution of winnebago units and the ultimate the market. Both Cities on the Move. 20. RV Urbanism: Nomadic Network Settlements of the Senior Recreational Vehicle Community in the US [Ph. and aggregation (collective decisions as the sum of individual judgments)— have allowed modern nomads to be object and agent of a changing worldview.”29 Relationships between regulated and deregulated dynamics. two sets of criteria define these marginal group organizations. 37-38. and proposed by Banham and his colleagues in In The Future: Mobile Architecture. inexpensive. Yona functions of a module create intelligent local The aesthetic qualities the 1960s helped define the debate through Friedman and Roger Aujame note: conditions. Schweim Terra Nullius 37 . “Energies. physically and mentally. Landela. or something in the middle. Any attempt at a static solution would be unwise.” Cabinet 21 (Spring 2006): pp. 105.power and authority over it. 1964): p. The Wisdom of Crowds.27 in flight or they will deplete the energies of any of energy supply. invention played a strong part visionary architectures that dealt with mega- practice ideas of space-making through in its formal and functional development.therally. Airstream: p. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline. Cedric Price’s Potteries Thinkbelt confronts modular aesthetic and functionality that plug and unplug into communities around a proverbial campfire. 5 Hancock: p. Modern winnebago groups search “preserving. and it has potential as both an object and agent it is based on the kind of micro-organizations of change.20 In structures. environment.” 2 Mikhail Rostovtzeff. Wheel Estate: p. vi. Wheel Estate: p. darkness with the potential for variable targets and fall outside the slow and inflexible and incorporation of rapid transit links. either choosing a full-time mobile existence. No. escapes classification organization. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline”: p. electricity and sewer. Winnebago. NASCAR racing events and the snowbird populations of Quartzsite. encouraging the public to buy to satisfy the self. and Nations (New York: Doubleday): pp. which traditionally stand out as community aggregations. like Archigram’s Plug-In City. 12 Marshall McLuhan. most of the activity was individuality and collective behavior. “Tales of Desert Nomads. the nephew of Sigmund Freud.modernity. 17. The largely unregulated road and community experience Several processes power-based motor home was except that the entire organization moves. 21 After the Great Depression the Census Bureau associated mobile homes with migrant settlements.” Source: http://www. ideal architectural object. 28 James Surowiecki. 11 Burkhart and Hunt.

invention played a strong part visionary architectures that dealt with mega- practice ideas of space-making through in its formal and functional development. modern transient settlements occur through gathering for a specific purpose: joining a community. of the city-in-flux”: understandable. a short vacation on wheels. Archigram: p. We propose mobile urbanism which would search for techniques allowing the construction of large units within which an infinite flexibility is required. tents and shacks. 91-98.D. The Wisdom of Crowds. Though there were a few high- organizations they form: vernacular and design innovations during the early stages high design. and Potteries Thinkbelt nevertheless regulated by an alternate force: evolution of winnebago units and the ultimate the market. like Archigram’s Plug-In City.. Airstream: p. heavy regulation. Correlations between these intelligent assemblies and Wally Byam’s “vision for a mobile adventure” suggest themselves. 105.” 2 Mikhail Rostovtzeff. 17. Winnebago. 64. 356.”22 This that self-organize into small.” Source: http://www. traffic authorities. The Pariah Syndrome: An Account of Gypsy Slavery and Persecution. is arguably the inventor of the field of public relations and marketing.” Architectural Design 30 (September 1960): p. Understanding Media (New York: McGrawHill. the caravan represents a new freedom. blurring boundaries.therally. Sean Lally and Jessica Young.20 In structures. In historical records of the winnebago. darkness with the potential for variable targets and fall outside the slow and inflexible and incorporation of rapid transit links. the nephew of Sigmund Freud. 22 Hight. roads. Hancock writes: “Gypsies remain the only American ethnic minority against whom laws still operate. Both Cities on the Move. and who are specifically named in those laws. 16. 25. Archigram. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline. As with Banham’s discussion of those expression of the winnebago unit and The most important trend from the point of view of the urbanist is the need for recreation.” Century of the Self [Episodes 1-4] (London: BBC Four.” 6 Allan D. electricity and sewer. 16 Sean Lally. [and] easy to manipulate and though subject to a framework of taxation alter. No. vi. embody many of these principles. Straddling both borders. 105. has a space for everything like a well run office. Wallis. zoned. invention and regulation. 843-884. and it has potential as both an object and agent it is based on the kind of micro-organizations of change. 24 Reyner Banham. eds.27 in flight or they will deplete the energies of any of energy supply. eds. energy. 2006).28 Certain physical and behavioral characteristics—decentralization. Caravan Cities (New York: AMS Press for Oxford University. The winnebago’s Archigram’s visionary proposals for the Plug- a “source of energy and a territorial organizer. v. and “lumped” them with railroad cars. (Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. 849. rather than leisureseeking ones. and as such contained structural and power solution. The early travel trailer embodied the other manufactured housing also known City nevertheless was its urban alternative ideas of the American frontier and “was clearly as mobile home.” individual winnebago modules realm of centralized regulatory institutions may be equipped with energy harvesting and processes (ordinances.com/media. 9 Christopher Hight. “Mobile Home Growth. 4 (Summer 1992): pp. Rockefeller Institute of Government. has miniature appliances in scale with the spaces like a toy home. See also Rally 2007 Organizers.’ since they must always be contracts within an infrastructural framework The clean. 1991): p.”19 Warren Chalk. Wheel Estate: p. 3 Katie Trumpener. The reason for the existence of towns is the struggle against boredom…. Thesis] (ETH: Zurich.23 nomad.power and authority over it. Why the Many Are Smarter than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business.” A Critic Writes: Essays by Reyner Banham. 17. so too are instant transient cities syntheses of new. simple to erect. 12 Marshall McLuhan. Wheel Estate: p. sporting event. As the camel trade and settlements like Palmyra were syntheses of object. ideal architectural object. Airstream: p. It has become a sort of symbol as well as a sign of ‘population in flux. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline. vehicles. In the United States official resistance innovation. event. 20 See Wallis. 13 Adam Curtis.modernity. Alison Smithson writes that “Against the standard solution to the permanent dwelling the caravan is neat. and communities occupy a liberated. most of the activity was individuality and collective behavior. 2005): p. 26 Simon Sadler. eager “backyard entrepreneurs eager to capitalize In effect. spatial organization than fixed architectures. electric and sewer infrastructures are dry camping or boondocking. If city planning had traditionally encouraged contemplation of the fixed. 20. as a form of spatial and of the winnebago is the curious result of social organization. 38. 1 Ian Hancock.”29 Relationships between regulated and deregulated dynamics. Sean Lally and Jessica Young. deals with both of Reyner relations between the avant-garde and the Banham’s propositions: it is both a self- vernacular. these architects are all proposing developers.. “Taking It With You. cfm. 4 Trumpener. techniques using elements. encouraging the public to buy to satisfy the self. 1964): p. 28 James Surowiecki. Archigram: Architecture Without Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press. independence. sewage disposal) capable of rapid alteration and reutilization.” Architectural Design 29. And like the car. “Episode 1: Happiness Machines. politics. Hancock writes: “Gypsies remain the only American ethnic minority against whom laws still operate. Vehicles that take full advantage of site infrastructures have full hookups. Wheel Estate: p. “RV Info. The largely unregulated road and community experience Several processes power-based motor home was except that the entire organization moves. 1996): pp. 2006). “The Future: Mobile Architecture. and in the documentary Bernays is portrayed as having single-handedly begun exploiting mass desires at the hand of capitalist and political bodies in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. hierarchical separation that characterized orthodox urban planning gave way to what Cook would call the ‘comego’ of Plug-In City. Banham’s theories on structural accretion is substantiated in the story of emergence of cities as articulated in Manuel Delanda’s theories of complexity in A Thousand Years of Non-Linear History (New York: Zone. 11 Burkhart and Hunt. We will henceforth use lower-case winnebago. 18 Hight. 2006): p. Spring 1987): p. not just recreational or camper. and individuals who seek “ideal on high-profile predictions made by economic a “soft architecture” which existed prior to affordable detached housing. Upper case Winnebago refers to this particular brand name of motor vehicle. transitional organizations—like those of the In City (1964) embody the “principles of creating micro-climates of heat. 14.”17 Rather than subscribing to a structural and localized rules. environment. which include connections to water. independence. 29 Sadler. Urban experience would consequently be less determinate. Vehicles using sites without plugging into water. and the related characteristics of decentralization. which traditionally stand out as community aggregations. 10 Bryan Burkhart and David Hunt. either choosing a full-time mobile existence. and changing their lifestyles for a specific time. and who are specifically named in those laws. techniques allowing the provision of supplies (water. Economies. and aggregation (collective decisions as the sum of individual judgments)— have allowed modern nomads to be object and agent of a changing worldview. “The Time of the Gypsies: A ‘People without History’ in the Narratives of the West. two sets of criteria define these marginal group organizations. 37-38. making a pilgrimage or visit to a place. 2000): p. Schweim assume a series of complex relationships between the built environment and the modular units that make up the community organizations. 5 Hancock: p. Edward Bernays. continual circulation. scrambled a set of vernacular operations. 1988): p. The lack of calcification hosting campsites. Winnebago assemblies thus operate through the four-dimensional interplay of community. 19 Wallis.21 The private ownership “devised to prompt circulation and accelerate a form of soft or low technology: accessible.. 42.” Regulation sages like Roger Babson” that pushed the the 1960s in the vernacular cultures of the and categorization. Societies. interchangeable apartment units. 348. and caravans. like a big piece of equipment. 2nd ed. also produces a more supple social-spatial mapping. Yona functions of a module create intelligent local The aesthetic qualities the 1960s helped define the debate through Friedman and Roger Aujame note: conditions. attending an event/activity. No. is as comfortable as this year’s space heated car. vernacular form. 27 Sadler. “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline”: p. 1997). Regulation and Discrimination in the Hinterland. Although technologies that can furnish a localized power and zoning) that have put a stranglehold on campfire that Banham proposed.24 structurally bound to a foundation. Regulation and official classification is a second important factor in the formal 16 a self-contained machine for living. 9 (September 1959): p. Modern winnebago groups search “preserving. or bazaar for some shared interest. as processes opposing trailer market to unprecedented highs.. and others for ways to regain certain freedoms. “Tales of Desert Nomads. 370. Archigram: p. 14 An architectural discussion and context of “softspace” appears in Softspace: From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. the high-design modular solutions functions. 1. plugged and unplugged bodies. physically and mentally.” Cabinet 21 (Spring 2006): pp. inexpensive.” Softspace: From a Representation of Form to a Simulation of Space. easy to transport. are “time-based events that [can] only be realized by the active involvement of its inhabitants. Caulin. the use of free time. (New York: Routledge. escapes classification organization. or something in the middle. Wheel Estate: The Rise and Decline of Mobile Homes. Mary Banham et al. 23 Burkhart and Hunt.. Landela.”18 not Winnebago. and Nations (New York: Doubleday): pp. 17 Wallis. 15 Hight. 3. Those using provided electricity have partial hookups. designed for Bangkok. “Energies. whereby people come together in their winnebagos simply to connect with one another. groups Terra Nullius underlie the the the 36 parallel of literally similar organizational principles as Plug-In City. Airstream: The History of the Land Yacht (San Francisco: Chronicle Books. “The Time of the Gypsies”: p. The physical properties and organizations of winnebago communities. diversity of opinion. Matter and the Gradients of Space.or large-scale fragmentary identity is represented by loose communities: “The power-based solution… formal community organizations between has produced no cultures that have ‘shaped the various units which are pre-agreed social world architecture. Landela. the American frontier epitomizes and the “ethical-aesthetic imperative[s] of what Banham calls the power-based solution. 1971): pp. See also Wally Byam. (New York: Oxford University Press. (Berkeley: University of California Press. lifestyles. “Caravan: Embryo Appliance House. place. invention and market.”26 conditioning. facilitated by technologies to transform the limits of human behavior. form soft organizations with the potential of reframing the city. 223-226. Sarhos. Charles C. Plug-In planning promoted architecture as an event that could only be realized by the active involvement of its inhabitants. 17. Reyner Banham. the The winnebago. and Roma or Palmyra’s caravans—are uncertain collectivity.” Softspace: p. diversity. xviii-xix.25 organizations. (London: Routledge. architectural permanence delineating bounded observed in many other itinerant cultures contours of political and social space…. Sarhos. Invention vernacular and regulated by an eagerness of is propelled by the housing market. be it a conference. 28. No longer contrast. 21 After the Great Depression the Census Bureau associated mobile homes with migrant settlements. 2006): p. light. Trailer Travel Here and Abroad (1961). “Putting Out the Fire With Gasoline”: p. plugging into and unplugging from their work and writings as individuals and larger systems allows for a more flexible leading practitioners. 7 Architecture Urbanism Design Collaborative (AUDC). and of the winnebago. and one locale or die off….” in Softspace: p. as a borrowed term that expresses all mobile living. NASCAR racing events and the snowbird populations of Quartzsite. The second set of criteria also significant of winnebago organizations are the four characteristics evident in “intelligent” crowds. RV Urbanism: Nomadic Network Settlements of the Senior Recreational Vehicle Community in the US [Ph. eds.” Critical Inquiry 18. the 1960s strove to expunge the structuralist encouraged rather than hampered transient limiting the range of acceptable housing” by solutions of early Modernism. Cedric Price’s Potteries Thinkbelt confronts modular aesthetic and functionality that plug and unplug into communities around a proverbial campfire. and Because the early winnebago was a widely began to offer a new context for fantastic and like the Roma of southeastern Europe. 25 Yona Friedman and Roger Aujame. and proposed by Banham and his colleagues in In The Future: Mobile Architecture. 16. are forced by the desire of Architectural and high-design proposals of to alternative space-making has perhaps authorities to preserve “the order of things. Arizona. marginal understandings of the body in space and time. and aggregation. and human interactions driven by those constraints.” Rockefeller Institute Working Papers 28 (New York: SUNY Nelson A. About the home on wheels. Geisler and Hisayoshi Mitsuda. First. We are concerned with differences in patterns of occupation and related technologies not necessarily in the brand or the type of vehicle. Schweim Terra Nullius 37 . and time. not just its parts. 1. nonprescriptive space. Any attempt at a static solution would be unwise. 8 See Deane Simpson. reusable.’” Alison Smithson. Caulin. Plug-In infrastructure.