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FILTER

• An electrical network that alters the amplitude and/or
phase characteristics of a signal with respect to frequency
• Ideally, a filter will not add new frequencies to the input
signal, nor will it change the component frequencies of
that signal, BUT it will change the relative amplitudes of
the various frequency components and/or their phase
relationships.
• Often used to emphasize signals in certain frequency
ranges and reject signals in other frequency ranges

FILTER TYPES
Low Pass

High Pass

Low Pass

-blocks high frequencies

High Pass

-blocks low frequencies

Bandpass
Bandpass

Bandstop

-blocks high and low
frequencies except in
narrow band

Bandstop

-blocks frequencies in a
narrow band

while avoiding the need for inductors Frequently use op amps so filter may have some gain as well. Alternative to LRC-based filters Benefits Provide improved characteristics Smaller size and weight Monolithic integration in IC Implement without inductors Lower cost More reliable Less power dissipation Disadvantage Added complexity More design effort .• • • • ACTIVE FILTERS A type of analog electronic filter that uses active components such as an amplifier Amplifiers included in a filter design can be used to improve the performance and predictability of a filter.

 However. higher-order filters can more effectively discriminate between signals at different frequencies .  The order of a filter is usually equal to the total number of capacitors and inductors in the circuit  Higher-order filters will obviously be more expensive to build.2nd ORDER SYSTEM  The order of a filter is the highest power of the variable s (poles) in its transfer function. since they use more components. and they will also be more complicated to design.

Second-Order Filter Functions .

 It passes all frequencies with the exception of those within a specified stop band which are greatly attenuated.Stop Band Filters (SBF)  The Band Stop Filter. . (BSF) is another type of frequency selective circuit that functions in exactly the opposite way to the Band Pass Filter we looked at before.  Name Convention: A narrow-band bandstop filter will be referred to as a Notch Filter and the wideband bandstop filter will be referred to as Band-reject Filter.

. the filters actual stop band lies between its lower and upper -3dB points as it attenuates.Stop Band Filters (SBF)  have two cut-off frequencies. commonly known as the -3dB or half-power points producing a wide stop band bandwidth between these two -3dB points. BW = ƒH – ƒL  So for a wide-band band stop filter. or rejects any frequency between these two cut-off frequencies. and pass all those frequencies above its second (upper) cut-off frequency ƒH. but block or reject all those frequencies inbetween.  Then the function of a band stop filter is too pass all those frequencies from zero (DC) up to its first (lower) cut-off frequency point ƒL.

Band Stop Filter Response .

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Band Stop Filter Characteristics .

Band Stop Filter Circuit .

. including: • Twin-T • Fliege • Wien-bridge • State-variable. There are many circuit topologies that can be used for very narrow notch filters.

. • In theory. but this is rarely achieved in practice. • Notch depths of 100dB are easily achieved.TWIN-T NOTCH FILTER • The twin-T (or twin-tee) filter is essentially a notch (band stop) filter. so any signal that is measured is noise and distortion. the notch depth is infinite at the tuning frequency. • It can still give an extremely high Q notch without the use of any opamps. • If the notch is placed at the fundamental frequency of the applied signal. it is effectively removed completely. and are common in distortion analysers.

• The twin-T notch requires extraordinary component precision to achieve a complete notch. However. . and for this reason it's not often recommended. it is without doubt one of the best filters to use when a very deep notch is needed .especially for completely passive circuits.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM .

SOLUTION .

SOLUTION .

ANSWER .

.FLIEGE NOTCH FILTER • Normally. but it makes an easily tuned notch filter with variable Q. but it can be tuned with a single resistor (within limits). • Notch depth is not as good as a twin-T. the Fliege Filter is something of an oddity.

• The output voltage is the difference between the potential of a constant voltage divider and the output of a band-pass filter. • To achieve higher values of Q. the filter is connected into the feedback loop of an amplifier. • Its Q-factor is close to that of the twin-T circuit. .ACTIVE WIEN ROBINSON NOTCH FILTER • The Wien-Robinson bridge in the figure below is a passive band-rejection filter with differential output.

ACTIVE WIEN ROBINSON NOTCH FILTER • The active Wien-Robinson filter in the figure has the transfer function: .

ACTIVE WIEN ROBINSON NOTCH FILTER .

ACTIVE WIEN ROBINSON NOTCH FILTER .

Q. without affecting the quality factor. a fine-tuning • of the resistor 2R2 is required. the Wien-Robinson filter allows modification of the • passband gain. • If fm is not completely suppressed due to component tolerances of R and C. A0. .ACTIVE WIEN ROBINSON NOTCH FILTER • In comparison to the twin-T circuit.

. such as mains hum within a circuit. allowing other frequencies to pass with minimum loss. • Band Stop Filters have many uses in electronics and communication circuits and as we have seen here. Notch filters can be highly selective and can be designed to reject or attenuate a specific frequency or harmonic content generating electrical noise. • Band stop filters block or “reject” frequencies that lie between its two cut-off frequency points ( ƒL and ƒH ) but passes all those frequencies either side of this range. they can be used to remove a band of unwanted frequencies from a system. The range of frequencies above ƒL and below ƒH is called the stop band.SUMMARY: • An ideal band stop filter has a frequency response which is the inverse of the band-pass filter.