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Solid waste management

Introduction
† What is solid waste? Due to rapid increase in the production
and consumption processes, societies generate as well as reject
solid materials regularly from various sectors – domestic,
agricultural, commercial, industrial and institutional. Therefore,
the solid wastes are the wastes arising from human and
animal activities that are normally solid and are discarded as
useless or unwanted.
† Why study solid waste? The huge amount of waste generated
places an enormous strain on natural resources and seriously
undermines efficient and sustainable development. One of the
ways to control the situation is through efficient management of
solid wastes.
† The “solid waste management” topic deals with mostly the
municipal solid waste (MSW).

Problem of open dumping
Open dumping may involve minimum effort
and expense, but this practice :
• Is not sustainable
• Is unsanitary, smelly and unsightly
• Attracts flies, pests and stray animals – that
spreads diseases
• Contaminates soil, water and air
• Creates fire hazard
• Clogs drainage systems

Sources and types of solid waste
† Sources of solid wastes in a community are:

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Residential
Commercial
Institutional
Construction and Demolition
Municipal Services
Treatment Plant Sites
Industrial

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Agricultural

† MSW includes all the community waste with the exception of industrial
process waste and agriculture wastes

hazardous wastes . textiles. oil. yard wastes.. construction sites. glass. locations where wastes are generated Types of solid wastes Residential Single and multifamily dwellings Food wastes. leather. ashes . rubbish.industrial waste including food wastes. cardboard.Sources and types of solid waste Source Typical facilities. activities. ashes. construction and demolition wastes.g. bulky items. metals. and household hazardous wastes Industrial Light and heavy manufacturing. batteries. plastics. tires). consumer electronics. paper. fabrication. etc. special wastes (e. wood. power and chemical plants Industrial process waste. scrap materials. Non .

Paper. etc. hazardous wastes Institutional Schools. demolition of buildings. cardboard. renovation broken pieces of bricks. sites. government centers Same as commercial Construction and Demolition New construction sites. dirt. restaurants. special wastes. activities. steel. broken pavement . Wood.Sources and types of solid waste Source Typical facilities. office buildings. road repair. food wastes. wood. hotels. locations where wastes are generated Types of solid wastes Commercial Stores. plastics. prisons. hospitals. etc. metals. concrete. markets. glass.

dairies. water and wastewater treatment plants Street sweepings. farms. treatment facilities) beaches. landscape and tree trimmings. orchards. sludge Agricultural Spoiled food wastes. and other recreational areas. beaches. general wastes from parks. parks. agricultural wastes. etc. hazardous waste. Field and row crops. . activities. Services (excluding landscaping. rubbish. locations where wastes are generated Types of solid wastes Municipal Street cleaning. vineyards.Sources and types of solid waste Source Typical facilities. other recreational areas. feeding place.

clothes. metals. herbicides. paper (can also be recycled). fungicides Medical waste . batteries bulbs. Hazardous waste including most paints. Inert waste: construction and demolition waste. Recyclable material: paper. etc. TVs. fluorescent tubes. green waste.electrical appliances. waste plastics such as toys. fertilizer and containers Toxic waste including pesticide. bottles.Classification of MSW † Waste can be classified in several ways but the following list represents a typical classification: „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste. debris. glass. Electrical and electronic waste . spray cans. Tetra Packs. Composite wastes: waste clothing. rocks. certain plastics. chemicals. dirt. screens. batteries etc. fabrics. computers. cans.

Components of solid waste management † The key steps in management of MSW are „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Storage Sorting and separation Collection Transfer and transport Disposal Recycling Reuse .

recyclables (paper. Storage bins may be colour coded for easy identification for their waste types. etc. litter bins (“use me” bins) at public places.Storage † Storage is the first essential step because collection of wastes never takes place at the source or at the time of their generation. † Some of the options for storage are plastic containers. glass. † Storage can be done in separate containers for different types of wastes. . plastic). used oil drums. large storage bins (for institutions and commercial areas or servicing depots). for example. food wastes. etc. conventional dustbins (of households).

Separate colored collections bins are provided to deposit separate waste material .Segregated storing † Developed countries have recycling system starting from household premises to curbside collection system.

.Sorting and separation † The sorting or separation of MSW can be done at their source. † Separation of waste according to their types makes the subsequent steps in waste management process like recycling. recovery and disposal convenient. at curbside trash collection points and at the destination.

Sorting and separation In developed countries the sorting facilities are well organized and materials are separated for further processing .

Sorting and separation † In India this process is mostly done in a non-formal and unorganized way through the Rag-pickers and kabbadiwalas. About 9-15% of urban solid waste are recycled by Rag-pickers in India .

or by motorised vehicles. tricycles. like: „ municipal services „ under various forms of contracts „ involvement of NGOs † Collection can be done door-to-door by hand carts. † Collection can be provided under various management arrangements. The collected MSW is then transported to other facilities for separation and recycling. The wastes generated in residential areas or at other sources must be removed within a week due to shortage of storage space and presence of biodegradable material.Collection † The next step after storage is waste collection. .

Means of collection .

Means of collection .

tractors. This can be done through a variety of vehicles such as: hand drawn small carts. trucks. travelling distance. Collection and transport may be done early morning or late night to avoid traffic problems and road congestion. Therefore.Transfer and transport of MSW † † Transportation of waste from the sources to a common facility is an essential step for further processing of MSW. This is the step is where maximum cost is involved. etc. An efficient management of transportation of MSW would depend upon the quantity of waste. „ „ If the distance to the final site is long then smaller vehicles should be used to collect and transfer the waste to a temporary storage facility. optimization of transportation system would considerably reduce the MSW management cost. . road conditions and the traffic. afterwards large vehicles should be used to transport to the final depot. bullock carts.

reuse and recovery (of any material and/or energy). These steps are recycling. . reduction in release of pollutants. and to make the system sustainable by making a little profit from the management of MSW. † There are many benefits of these steps that include: reduction or prevention of green house gas emissions. conservation of the resources. saving of energy and reducing the demand for waste treatment technology and landfill space.Recycling. Before disposing off the waste several steps are taken to reduce the wastage and the cost of disposal. reuse and recovery † The final step in management of MSW is safe disposal of waste.

• Waste paper and cardboard can be used by paper industry • Glass components are taken for sterilization and reuse while broken glass is taken for remelting and manufacturing new glassware. consumers must buy goods made from recycled materials. • Aerobic decomposition of biodegradable waste will generate excellent quality manure. • Plastic materials can also be recycled to new products. ‰ For recycling to work. .Recycling ‰ Recycling: Processing of a waste item into usable forms ‰ The sorted and separated recyclable waste materials are used as the raw material to produce new objects. • Cotton waste can be recycled to make new fabrics.

which means the prevention of waste being created.Waste minimization † An important step in waste management is the waste minimization. † This can be achieved through „ „ „ „ „ reduction in waste production at the source maximum reuse of the waste training and educating public to participate encouraging the public to choose reusable products retailers making it mandatory for customers to take their own reusable shopping bags .

Reduction and reuse of waste † Source reduction. steps should be taken to prevent wastage of food material Personal/consumer behavior: • Use fewer items • Buy less-packaged and longer-lived goods • Reuse items by repairs than buying new • Optimum use of consumer products • Buying second hand products • Donate reusable items to charity „ Manufacturer behavior: • • • • Make goods with less packaging Making products that can be refilled and repaired Make longer-lived goods Adopt more-efficient production methods . This depends upon: „ „ „ Optimum use of resources and materials In domestic front. or preventing waste in the first place. is a better option than disposal.

Disposal † The ultimate step in the management of MSW is safe disposal of the waste. which cannot be recycled or reused. by: „ Land filling „ Incineration .

. poorly designed landfills or open dumps can create a number of adverse environmental impacts and health hazards. However. The design of a modern landfill should include methods to contain the leachate by clay or plastic lining material. otherwise it can contaminate the ground water. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. The landfills generate gas due to biodegradation of waste.Land filling † † † † † The disposal of waste by burying it in a site is called land filling. The landfill site can be reclaimed afterwards and be used as a park or play ground. This remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills are often established in abandoned or unused quarries. The leachate should be properly treated before disposing. mining voids or borrow pits away from the cities. This gas (landfill gas) can be extracted by installing gas extraction systems and be used to generate electricity.

† The advantages of this method are: „ Reduces volume by 90% „ Requires little of landfill site and transportation cost to landfill site is very low „ Generation of electricity from the combustion of waste.Incineration † Incineration is controlled combustion of solid waste in presence of oxygen. † The disadvantages are : „ It can create new chemical compounds and emit toxic and environmentally harmful gases from the stacks .

Hazardous wastes † Hazardous wastes refer to wastes that may. India. or tend to. are: „ Ignitability „ Corrosivity „ Reactivity „ Toxicity „ Acute toxicity „ Infectious property . either alone or in combination with other materials. † The six basic characteristics of hazardous wastes as recognised by Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF). cause adverse effects. on public health or the environment.

Battery acid is an example. Examples: waste oils and used solvents.5) and/or are capable of corroding metal containers. or ≥ 12. or have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F). and barrels. are spontaneously combustible.Characteristics † Ignitability: Ignitable (or flammable) wastes can create fires under certain conditions. † Corrosivity: Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH ≤ 2. such as storage tanks. † Reactivity † Toxicity † Acute toxicity † Infectious property . drums.

Characteristics † Ignitability .

† † † † † Safe and secure from unauthorised entry Clearly signed as to the hazards of their contents Suitably bunded for liquid containment Designed to facilitate effective segregation Designed to minimise the chance of accidents .Storage Facilities Storage facilities for Hazardous Waste should be….Segregating HW .

Hazard Code(s) and EWC Code . clinical waste bags in lidded bins or other strong sealable containers are suitable † Properly Labelled „ Name. Description.Suitable Containers Suitable containers for Hazardous Waste should be…. † Original Containers where possible „ For many substances the original containers are the most suitable for storing them as waste † Robust and Sealable „ For other wastes.Segregating HW .

Management Control Managed control of Hazardous Waste should include the following….000 litres of liquid or 50m² of Hazardous Waste on a Premises requires a licence † Dedicated Personnel „ Trained personnel for undertaking the handling and storage of Hazardous Waste † Audit Provision „ Audit of your HW management system will be necessary to satisfy EA Regulators . † Active Inventory Control „ Exceeding 23.Segregating HW .

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† Request assistance from Safety Office when needed!. . † Conduct internal inspections. † Retain all training records.Information and training people † Inform and train employees. † Implement and enforce rules and standards.

By Safety Office MSDS Safety Handbooks Container labels Knowledgeable Co-workers Use Common Sense „ „ „ Ask Questions Be Aware Safety First .COMMON SOLUTIONS: † † † Proper Supervision Daily Inspections Continuous Training „ „ † Use Reference Materials „ „ „ „ † By lab P.I.

and dept. to container labels. name. 8. Document all training. Maintain emergency equipment and know what to do in the event of a spill. . 10. phone#.10 RULES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT: † Label all chemical containers. 6. DO NOT dispose of hazardous waste in the trash. or evaporate in fume hoods. † Add words “hazardous waste”. 9. start date. † Segregate containers by hazard class. Use pollution prevention techniques to reduce amounts of hazardous waste. fire. Fill out tags for waste collection 7. fill date. † Keep containers closed at all times. † Use secondary containment for all liquids. release or explosion. down drains.

Structure/Composition Of Municipal Solid Waste .

RECYCLABLE WASTES † † † † PCB ballasts and capacitors Batteries Oil. oil filters. and antifreeze Mercury „ In thermometers (See our web page for mercury thermometer replacement program) „ In switches „ In amalgam fillings † Circuit boards and color monitors † Fluorescent and HID lamps .

Separation of Recyclable and Placing Separately .

These Scavengers Collect the Recyclables and Separate in their Own Premises .

Recyclables collected from scavengers are deposited in one place .

About 9-15% of Urban Solid Waste are recycled by Rag Pickers in India .

.WASTE MINIMISATION Prevention of waste being created is known as waste reduction which is an important method of waste management. repairing broken items instead of buying new etc. designing products to be refillable or reusable. Reuse and Recycle. The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second hand products.

Waste to energy † Many incinerators now generate electricity from waste combustion. . Steam turns turbines and generators. but income from power is low and expense is high. † Waste to energy (WTE) facilities use heat from furnaces to boil water. so it takes many years to recoup the investment. † WTE is efficient and effective.

„ are highly corrosive. or tend to. due to the fact that they: „ are non-degradable or persistent in nature „ can be biologically magnified „ are highly toxic and even lethal at very low concentrations.Hazardous wastes † Hazardous wastes refer to wastes that may. present or carry potential risks to human health or living organisms. reactive and flammable . either alone or in combination with other materials. These wastes pose. on public health or the environment. cause adverse effects.