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Term Assignment Report on:



Prepared by:
Aakash Bhavsar(13bcl001)
Pankil Lad(13bcl044)
Parth Patel(13bcl080)
Kashish Sonpal(13bcl112)

Civil Engineering Department

Institute of Techmology,
Nirma University


Sr. No.


Page No.



Selection of Bamboo and its preparation for


Construction details and casting

Mechanical properties of bamboo



Uses of Bamboo in Construction

Examples of Bamboo used in Construction
around the Globe




The phenomenon remains same that no project ever can be executed proficiently and efficiently
without sharing the meticulous ideas, technical expertise and innovative thoughts put forwarded
by the technical and non-technical veterans.
In this regard first of all we would like to express our deep gratitude towards PROF. KEYUR
SHAH & PROF. DIPAN SHAH for sharing his precious knowledge, time and innovative ideas
for the successful execution of the assigned project. They have inspired and guided us for the
right track to be followed for all the system analysis section of this project.
Many people, especially our classmates and team members itself, have made valuable comment
suggestions on this proposal which gave us an inspiration to improve our assignment. We thank
all the people for their help directly and indirectly to complete our assignment. The whole project
really brought us together to appreciate true value of friendship and respect of each other.


In its natural form, bamboo as a construction material is
traditionally associated with the cultures of South Asia, East Asia
and the South Pacific, to some extent in Central and South
America, and by extension in the aesthetic of Tiki culture. In China
and India, bamboo was used to hold up simple suspension
bridges, either by making cables of split bamboo or twisting whole
culms of sufficiently pliable bamboo together. One such bridge in
the area of Qian-Xian is referenced in writings dating back to 960
AD and may have stood since as far back as the third century BC,
due largely to continuous maintenance.
Bamboo has also long been used as scaffolding; the practice has
been banned in China for buildings over six stories, but is still in
continuous use for skyscrapers in Hong Kong. In the Philippines,
the nipa hut is a fairly typical example of the most basic sort of
housing where bamboo is used; the walls are split and woven

bamboo, and bamboo slats and poles may be used as its support.
In Japanese architecture, bamboo is used primarily as a
supplemental and/or decorative element in buildings such as
fencing, fountains, grates and gutters, largely due to the ready
abundance of quality timber.

The central government had cleared the establishment of NECTAR

(North East Centre for Technology Application and Reach) at
Shillong, Meghalaya under Department of Science and Technology
with a total expenditure of Rs 292 crore during 12th Plan period in
Earlier, the NECTAR was only a research wing which did not have
lab-to-land connection, but later, its innovations, in particular with
bamboo, became popular and useful. The lab grew different
hybrids of bamboo and tested them for change to climate and
quakes. The 'Reinforcement Compact Bamboo Material' was found
to be one of the most resilient bamboo, which could be used in
construction in places prone to quakes.
Architects from various parts confirmed that the material provides
shock cover to the structure due to which life of the building is
prolonged and the technique and the material will prove to be a
good alternative to concrete houses in the hill state.
Since bamboo is the prime material used in construction of such
buildings, it is safe for hill districts instead of concrete structures.
A report in TOI stated that more than 15% of buildings in the

urban areas of Nainital and Mussoorie can collapse and create

huge damage if an earthquake strikes the two popular hill
stations. The fact was revealed in a study carried out by the
Dehradun-based Disaster Management Mitigation Centre (DMMC)
which surveyed 3,344 structures in Mussoorie and 2,865 buildings
in Nainital.

The report also revealed that people in the Uttarakhand hills,

which fall in the high-risk seismic zones IV & V, are dismantling
their traditional wood and stone roofed houses, which were
earthquake-safe, and replacing them with modern cement and
concrete structures which were more vulnerable in case of
seismic activity.
In recent times, the high cost and general shortage of reinforcing
steel in many parts of the world has led to increasing interest in
the possible use of alternative locally available materials for the
reinforcement of concrete. This is the case especially in the
developing countries where about 80% of the population live in
villages. This has led to research on several non-ferrous
reinforcing materials in structural concrete.
One natural material which has great appeal in terms of
availability and ease of use in the rural and farming communities
in the developing world is bamboo. Bamboos occur mostly in
tropical and subtropical areas, from sea level to snow-capped
mountain peaks, with a few species reaching into temperate
areas. They are most abundant in south-eastern Asia, with some
species in the Americas and Africa and none in Australia. A single

bamboo that grows in clumps can produce up to 15km useable

pole (up to 30cm in diameter) in its lifetime.
The plant sways easily and snaps rarely due to the nodes and
hollow stems. One of the major applications of bamboo is for
construction and housing. It is estimated that one billion people
live in bamboo houses. For ages bamboo has been used in
construction and currently they are used as props, foundations,
framing, scaffolding flooring, walls, roofs and trusses. Bamboos
are tied together to make grid reinforcement and placed in soft
clay to solve deformation problems in embankments. It is
encouraged that bamboo be used as reinforcement material for
construction of walls in place of mud walls since they have quite
higher strength and they are environmentally sustainable.
There are about seven species of bamboo in Ghana. These are;
Bambusa arundinacea, Bambusa bambus, Bambusa multiplex,
Bambusa pervariabilis, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa vulgaris var
vitata, and Dendrocalamus strictus. Only Bambusa vulgaris is
indigenous to Ghana while the others were introduced into the
country from Asia. Bambusa vulgaris is the predominant bamboo
species in southern Ghana constituting 95% of the stocks in this
area. In Ghana, the annual deficit in the building industry is about
200,000 housing units. The cost of building keeps increasing as
inflation and material costs especially steel reinforcement
increase. This limitation has adversely affected the provision of
housing units in the rural and farming communities where adobe
and mud house constructions are common.
Selection of Bamboo and its preparation for construction
The following factors should be considered in the selection of
bamboo for use as reinforcement in concrete structures:
1. Use only bamboo showing a pronounced brown color. This
will insure that the plant is at least three years old.
2. Select the longest large diameter culms available.
3. Do not use whole culms of green, unseasoned bamboo.

4. Avoid bamboo cut in spring or early summer. These culms

are generally weaker due to increased fiber moisture
Sizing. Splints (split culms) are generally more desirable than
whole culms as reinforcement. Larger culms should be split into
splints approximately 3/4 inch wide. Whole culms less than 3/4
inch in diameter can be used without splitting.
Splitting the bamboo can be done by separating the base with a
sharp knife and then pulling a dulled blade through the culm. The
dull blade will force the stem to split open; this is more desirable
than cutting the bamboo since splitting will result in continuous
fibers and a nearly straight section.
Seasoning. When possible, the bamboo should be cut and allowed
to dry and season for three to four weeks before using. The culms
must be supported at regular spacings to reduce warping.
Bending. Bamboo can be permanently bent if heat, either dry or
wet, is applied while applying pressure. This procedure can be
used for forming splints into C-shaped stirrups and for putting
hooks on reinforcement for additional anchorage.
Waterproof Coatings. When seasoned bamboo, either split or
whole, is used as reinforcement, it should receive a waterproof
coating to reduce swelling when in contact with concrete. Without
some type of coating, bamboo will swell before the concrete has
developed sufficient strength to prevent cracking and the
member may be damaged, especially if more than 4 percent
bamboo is used. The type of coating will depend on the materials
available. A brush coat or dip coat of asphalt emulsion is
preferable. Native latex, coal tar, paint, dilute varnish, and waterglass (sodium silicate) are other suitable coatings. In any case,
only a thin coating should be applied; a thick coating will lubricate
the surface and weaken the bond with the concrete.
Construction details and casting

In general, techniques used in conventional reinforced concrete

construction need not he changed when bamboo is to be used for
The same mix designs can be used as would normally be used
with steel reinforced concrete. Concrete slump should be as low
as workability will allow. Excess water causes swelling of the
bamboo. High early-strength cement is preferred to minimize
cracks caused by swelling of bamboo when seasoned bamboo
cannot be waterproofed.

Bamboo reinforcement should not be placed less than 1-1/2

inches from the face of the concrete surface. When using whole
culms, the top and bottom of the stems should be alternated in
every row and the nodes or collars, should be staggered. This will
insure a fairly uniform cross section of the bamboo throughout the
length of the member, and the wedging effect obtained at the
nodes will materially increase the bond between concrete and
The clear spacing between bamboo rods or splints should not be
less than the maximum size aggregate plus 1/4 inch.
Reinforcement should be evenly spaced and lashed together on
short sticks placed at right angles to the main reinforcement.
When more than one layer is required, the layers should also be
tied together. Ties should preferably be made with wire in
important members. For secondary members, ties can be made
with vegetation strips.
Bamboo must be securely tied down before placing the concrete.
It should be fixed at regular intervals of 3 to 4 feet to prevent it
from floating up in the concrete during placement and vibration.
In flexural members continuous, one-half to two-thirds of the
bottom longitudinal reinforcement should be bent up near the
supports. This is especially recommended in members continuous

over several supports. Additional diagonal tension reinforcement

in the form of stirrups must be used near the supports. The
vertical stirrups can be made from wire or packing case straps
when available; they can also be improvised from split sections of
bamboo bent into U-shape, and tied securely to both bottom
longitudinal reinforcement and bent-up reinforcement. Spacing of
the stirrups should not exceed 6 inches.

Dowels in the footings for column and wall reinforcement should

be imbedded in the concrete to such a depth that the bond
between bamboo and concrete will resist the allowable tensile
force in the dowel. This imbedded depth is approximately 10
times the diameter of whole culms or 25 times the thickness of
3/4 inch wide splints. In many cases the footings will not be this
deep; therefore, the dowels will have to be bent into an L-shape.
These dowels should be either hooked around the footing
reinforcement or tied securely to the reinforcement to insure
complete anchorage. The dowels should extend above the
footings and be cut so that not more than 30 percent of the
splices will occur at the same height. All such splices should be
overlapped at least 25 inches and be well tied.

Splicing reinforcement in any member should be overlapped at

least 25 inches. Splices should never occur in highly stressed
areas and in no case should more than 30 percent of the
reinforcement be spliced in any one location.
Bamboo reinforced concrete design is similar to steel reinforcing
design. Bamboo reinforcement can be assumed to have the
following mechanical properties:

Mechanical properties of bamboo reinforcement

Mechanical Property



Allowable compressive stress

Value (psi)

Ultimate tensile strength


Allowable tensile stress


Allowable bond stress


Modulus of elasticity


When design handbooks are available for steel reinforced

concrete, the equations and design procedures can be used to
design bamboo reinforced concrete if the above mechanical
properties are substituted for the reinforcement.

Due to the low modulus of elasticity of bamboo, flexural members

will nearly always develop some cracking under normal service
loads. If cracking cannot be tolerated, steel reinforced designs or
designs based on unreinforced sections are required.
Experience has shown that split bamboo performs better than
whole culms when used as reinforcing. Better bond develops
between bamboo and concrete when the reinforcement is-split in
addition to providing more compact reinforcement layers. Largediameter culms split into 3/4-inch- wide splints are recommended.

Costing of Bamboo in Construction

A score of bamboo of 25mm diameter and 2.5 meter long will cost

Uses of Bamboo in Construction

Bamboo construction goes back to medieval times. Since then it
has been an important building material. Bamboo provides an
economical structure and it becomes accessible even to the
unskilled and young labourers. Bamboo materials are also have
wide usage. Except for fireplaces and chimneys, bamboo finds it
usage in all parts of house construction. They are as follows:
1. Foundation: Bamboo is not much used in foundation, owing
to the fact that wood gets decayed when it comes in contact
with water. They need to be treated with preservatives.
However, bamboo are still used as foundation material or
supporting posts for houses built on platforms in spite of
their short life.
2. Flooring: Floors which are made up of bamboo can be raised
above the ground creating a stilt type of construction. This
will improve hygiene and comfort and will also provide a
small storage area between the floor and ground.

3. Walls: Bamboo used as walls and partitions is the most

expensive use of bamboo in construction. They are created
to carry the loads acting on the building. An infill is provided
between the layers for safety and privacy functions.
4. Roofing: Bamboo is a perfect roofing material as it is light
weighted, strong and resilient. Purlins, trusses and rafters
can be part of a bamboo structure of a roof.
5. Scaffolding: Bamboo can be used for the construction of
save scaffolding even for tall structures. The canes used for
scaffolding are exclusively joined using soft lashing.

Examples of Bamboo used in Construction around the

Bamboo Car Park,
It is located at the
Medical Center. It
has 5 levels and
space for 1200

Bamboo Parking Garage, The Hague

It is the first of several upcoming projects in the Netherlands. It
has 7 levels and can accommodate nearly 250 vehicles.

Bamboo Vacation
Casa Atrevida is a
luxurious vacation
home made up of
Preciosa Beach in
Costa Rica. It is
flood resistant.

Treehouse, Yangzhou
It is a floating tea house
located in Yangzhou. It is
cubes that sit on a lake.

Kontum Indochine Caf

It is a waterside
caf with striking
bamboo columns.
The shape of the
columns in this
traditional fishing
baskets used in
the region.

Salon in Bangkok
To give an effect of
natural divisions in
architect has used
ceiling in different
separate coloring

Wind and Water Bar, Vietnam

rods are bound
together and bent
into the form of an
arch to create a
structure for the
which is present in
the middle of a
lake. It is used as
a venue for local
meetings, music
performances and
other events.

Indian Pavilion,
It is the worlds
largest bamboo
dome of nearly
35m diameter.
The dome was
created at the
West Kowloon Bamboo Theatre, Hong Kong

It is designed like
theatres of the
1950s. It is a popup
building in Hong
Kongs new West
Kowloon Cultural

The ceiling at the
airport consists of
which are gently
makes the airport
bamboo structure


Since the ancient times, bamboo has been a vital part of building
structures. It has the properties of a top grade building material
and its easy availability makes it a great building material. Also
bamboo is economic to use and has a high productivity rate.
Bamboo being easily workable, doesnt require skilled labour and
thus reduces the overall cost. Bamboo has a wide range of
everyday use, as a woody material and as food too.