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CVG4143 References

Composite Design
Chapter 6 in Text
Clause 17 in Handbook

Handbook

Text
1

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Conceptual Introduction
Concrete vs. Steel

Composite Design

Composite Sections

Plain Concrete
Strong in Compression
Weak in Tension

Main Idea:
Use Concrete to carry Compression
Use Structural Steel to carry Tension

Structural Steel
This is the philosophy
of a composite
composite section
section

Strong in Tension
Weak
k iin Compression
i
Local Buckling
Overall Buckling
Lateral Torsional Buckling
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Composite Design

Composite Beam

Composite Action

concrete

Introductory
y Examples:
p
Example 1:
Given:
A simply supported beam has a 10 m
span is subject to a factored load P at
mid-span. Cross-section is 100 mm
wide x 300 mm deep. Material is
Fy=300 MPa
Required:

structural Steel

A
Composite Beam

c onc rete

Calculate maximum load P based on


Elastic Flexural Resistance
Sketch the deformed configuration of
the beam under load P

structural Steel

Section A-A
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Composite Action

Example 1-Solution:
1 Based on Elastic Analysis (only
1.
outermost fibres are assumed to
yield) , Elastic Flexural Resistance
bh 2
Fy
6
100 3002
= 0.90
300 106 = 405kNm
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Deformed Configuration
g
P

M rx = S x Fy =

P/2

P/2

2. External Moment =
M fx =

PL 10 P
=
= 2.5P ( kNm )
4
4

3. Equate external moment to


flexural resistance
M fx = M rx 2.5P = 405kNm P = 162kN
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Example 2:
A
Assume
we hhorizontally
i t ll slice
li the
th beam
b
cross
section into two pieces (along the NA)
1.

2.

What would be the maximum factored load P


that can be carried by a single beam?
What would be the maximum factored load P
that can be carried by the system?

Example
p 2-Solution for Single
g Beam
For a single piece:
2
b ( h 2)
M
F
= S F =
rx (1/2 )

= 0.90

100 150
300 106 = 101.25kNm
6
2

M fx = M rx (1/2) 2.5 P(1/2) = 101.25kNm P(1/2) = 40.5kN

Resistance dropped to 25% of that


determined in Example 1

Sketch the deformed shape in both cases

P/2

P/2
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Composite Action

We have jjust demonstrated,, that for


the given problem, as the system
deforms, the internal moment carried
by both beams is equal

P/2

M rt = M rb

Notes
1. Slippage takes place between the underside of the
top beam and the top of the bottom beam
2 Since there are no gaps between both beams,
2.
beams they
have the same deflection curve , i.e., vt = vb
Also, vt '' = vb ''
3. Since both beams have identical cross-sections, their
moment of inertia is identical. Also they are made of
the same material, thus they have the same moment
Young Modulus. We have
Et I t vt '' = Eb I b vb ''
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Composite Action

Example 2-Solution for the System


For both pieces (system), deformed configuration is

P/2

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4. Thus, when the top beam attains its


elastic flexural resistance, the bottom
beam will also attain the same
flexural resistance.
(This would not be the case if we
had sliced the original beam into two
unequal cross sections)
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Composite Action

Composite Action
Q How can we recover the full
Q:
resistance attained in Example
1?

5. Thee resistance
es sta ce of
o the
t e system
syste iss
the sum of the resistances of the
two beams
M rs = M rt + M rb = 2 M rt
= 2 101.25 = 202.5kNm
M fx = M rs 2.5 P2(1/2) = 202.5kNm P2(1/2) = 81kN

The capacity of the system of sliced


beams is twice that of a single
beam, but half that of the unsliced
beam in Example 1
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Composite Action

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What is a full Connection?

If we fully reconnect the two pieces together,


the deformed shape of the composite system is
P

P/2

A: By reconnecting both pieces


at the interface, we are able to
recover
a) the full original capacity (if
connection is fully effective) or
b) part of it (when connection is
partially effective)

P/2

Note
The deformed configuration of the system is
identical to that in Example 1. Thus, capacity
of the composite system is no different from
that
h off Example
l 1

A full connection:
Prevents relative slip between the
two connected pieces
Forces the plane section of the
whole system to remain plane
after deformation (as for the case
of a single beam-Example 1)

How much did we gain due to composite


action in this problem?
The capacity of the composite system doubled
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Types of Composite
Sections

Composite Action
To think about:

1. Solid Slabs (our focus)

How to modify the above


solutions to calculate the plastic
flexural resistance of the systems?

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2. Ribbed Slabs with ribs parallel


to the beam
3. Ribbed Slabs with ribs
perpendicular to the beam

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Determine Effective
Slab Width b

Effective Slab Width


The portion of the slab width that
can be considered to act with the
structural steel section is called
the effective slab width b
Bb

Case 1: (central beam)


Slabs extending on both sides of steel
beam, b = lesser of (Span/4, centre to
centre distance between steel beams)

Case 2: (edge beam)


Slabs extending on one side of the steel
beam b =
flange width of steel section bfl +
the lesser of (Span/10, clear distance
to adjacent steel beam)

(Clause S16-01 Cl. 17.4)

Effective Slab Width


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Definitions for determining


Effective Slab width b

Centre
to centre
Distance

Text Fig. 6.1 P 156 (9th ed.)

For central beam,,


Slab extends
from both sides

Span

Methods of connecting
solid slabs and steel

1. End Welded Studs

clear distance to
adjacent beam

(most common-our focus)

flange width of
steel section b

Support

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2. Channel Connectors

For edge beams,


Slab extends
from one side

Support

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Fundamental Concepts

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Also,
Sum of the moments of
Internal forces
(M internal)
=
Internal moments
Induced by loads
(M external)

sum of the internal


axial forces
(N internal)
=
internal normal force
induced by loads
(N external)
=
zero -for a beam
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Fundamental Concepts

At any
y section of a composite
p
(or
(
plain) beam:

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Components of
Composite Sections

Preliminaries

Cr
conc rete slab
Vh
Shear studs
Vh
structura l steel

sec tion
of
zero
moments
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Tr

sec tion
of
m axim um
m oment

Composite Design

It is of interest to calculate the


capacity of each of the three
components
Compressive capacity
of concrete slab
Shear capacity of studs
Tensile capacity of structural steel

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Preliminaries

Important Note

Maximum compressive
resistance of the effective width
of the concrete slab
max C 'r = c1 f 'c bt

The capacity of the concrete


slab, studs, and structural steel
is in general different from the
actual internal forces induced in
each of them.

Maximum tensile resistance of


the structural steel section
max Tr = As Fy

This fundamental concept is


best explained using the
following weakest link analogy

Sum of the factored resistances


of shear connectors at the
(S16-09 Cl. 17.7)
interface Qr
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The weakest link


analogy
Cr

The weakest link


analogy
Each of the three rings has a
different capacity

conc rete
compressive
ca pac ity
Crma x
r

conc rete sla b


Vh
Shear stud s
Vh

max C '

struc tura l steel

sec tion
of
zero
m oments

Tr

However, under any applied


load, all three rings are subject
to the same load

shear studs Qrr

section
of
m axim um
m omentt

Struc tura l
Steel Se c tion
Tensile Capa c ity
Tr m ax
r

max T

Depending on the capacities of


the rings, there are three
conceivable failure scenarios

Loading
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The weakest link


analogy

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Classification of
Composite Sections
Case 1: S16-09 Cl.17.9.3 (a)
( )

Possible failure Scenarios

[max Tr is the weakest link]


max Tr max C 'r

Cr
=max Tr

Vh= max Tr

max Tr Qr

Cr =Qr

Vh = Crmax

Full shear connection at the


concrete steel interface [Qr does
not govern the design]

Tr = max Cr
Tr = Qrr

max Tr weakest
Full interaction
NA lies in concrete

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max Cr weakest
Full interaction
NA lies in steel

Composite Design

Qr weakest
Partial interaction
NA lies in steel &
NA lies in concrete

Plastic Neutral axis lies in the slab


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Classification of
Composite Sections
(contd)

Classification of
Composite Sections
(contd)
Case 3: S16-09 Cl.17.9.3 (c)
( )
[Qr is the weakest link]

Case 2: S16
S16-09
09 Cl.17.9.3 (b)
[ max C 'r is the weakest link]

Qr max C 'r

max C 'r Qr

Qr max Tr

max C 'r max Tr

Partial shear connection [shear


capacity
i off studs
d governs design]
d i ]

Full shear connection [Qr does not


govern design]
Plastic Neutral axis in steel
section
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Two Plastic Neutral Axes, one in


steel and the other in Concrete

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Compressive force in concrete block

Internal Force Diagram

NA

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Case 1-Compressive
Force

Case 1- Internal Forces

t a = 1c

Composite Design

C 'r = c1 f 'c ba

1c f c'

Cr'

e'
Tr

c = 0.65
1 = 0.85 0.0015 f 'c 0.67
f 'c = specified concrete strength

Fy

b = the effective slab width


a = depth of concrete block

Com posite Section


Neutral Axis in Slab
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Case 1
Neutral Axis Depth

Case 1-Equilibrium of
Internal Forces

Note:
Concrete block depth a
Axis (NA) depth c
they are related through

Tensile Force (structural steel)

Neutral

Tr = As Fy

1 = 0.97 0.0025 f c ' 0.67

External applied axial force =


net internal axial force=0

(Cl. 10.1.7 in A23.3-04)

0 = Tr C 'r

Fix Figures 6.2 and 6.3 in Limit


States Design in Structural Steel to
reflect this observation

Solve for a
a=
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As Fy
c1 f 'c b
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Case 1 Resisting
Moment
d
a
+t
2
2

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This force ensures proper


interaction between the two
components (concrete and steel)

M rc = C 'r e ' = Tr e '


M rc = As Fy e '

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A horizontal shear force needs


to be transferred at the concretesteel interface

Resisting moment

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Case 1 - Horizontal
Shear Force

Internal moment arm

e' =

a = 1c

For case 1, the horizontal shear


force Vh = As Fy
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When to design
according to the Case 1
procedure?

Q: When to design
according to the Case 1
Procedure?

Given:

A: When steel section is the


weakest link, i.e. when

Required: Determine whether or not


case 1 procedure should be used

max Tr max C 'r

max Tr Qr

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f c' , Fy ,c , , As , d , b, t , Qr

Hint: put each of the two inequalities


above in a mathematical form,
suitable for design and/or computer
code (refer to your notes to do so)

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When to design
according to case 1
procedure?

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Case 1 Procedure Summary

Determine resistances
1 = 0.85 0.0015 f 'c 0.67

1. Calculate depth
p of concrete
block

max C 'r = c 1 f 'c bt


max Tr = As Fy

2. Calculate internal moment


arm

If
both of the following two
conditions are met

g moment
3. Calculate resisting

max Tr Qr
max Tr max C 'r

4. Calculate horizontal shear


force

then
go to procedure for case 1
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