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You are on page 1of 11

Composite Design

Chapter 6 in Text

Clause 17 in Handbook

Handbook

Text

1

CVG4143

Conceptual Introduction

Concrete vs. Steel

Composite Design

Composite Sections

Plain Concrete

Strong in Compression

Weak in Tension

Main Idea:

Use Concrete to carry Compression

Use Structural Steel to carry Tension

Structural Steel

This is the philosophy

of a composite

composite section

section

Strong in Tension

Weak

k iin Compression

i

Local Buckling

Overall Buckling

Lateral Torsional Buckling

CVG4143

Composite Design

CVG4143

Composite Design

Composite Beam

Composite Action

concrete

Introductory

y Examples:

p

Example 1:

Given:

A simply supported beam has a 10 m

span is subject to a factored load P at

mid-span. Cross-section is 100 mm

wide x 300 mm deep. Material is

Fy=300 MPa

Required:

structural Steel

A

Composite Beam

c onc rete

Elastic Flexural Resistance

Sketch the deformed configuration of

the beam under load P

structural Steel

Section A-A

CVG4143

Composite Design

CVG4143

Composite Action

Composite Design

Composite Action

Example 1-Solution:

1 Based on Elastic Analysis (only

1.

outermost fibres are assumed to

yield) , Elastic Flexural Resistance

bh 2

Fy

6

100 3002

= 0.90

300 106 = 405kNm

6

Deformed Configuration

g

P

M rx = S x Fy =

P/2

P/2

2. External Moment =

M fx =

PL 10 P

=

= 2.5P ( kNm )

4

4

flexural resistance

M fx = M rx 2.5P = 405kNm P = 162kN

CVG4143

Composite Design

CVG4143

Composite Design

Composite Action

Composite Action

Example 2:

A

Assume

we hhorizontally

i t ll slice

li the

th beam

b

cross

section into two pieces (along the NA)

1.

2.

that can be carried by a single beam?

What would be the maximum factored load P

that can be carried by the system?

Example

p 2-Solution for Single

g Beam

For a single piece:

2

b ( h 2)

M

F

= S F =

rx (1/2 )

= 0.90

100 150

300 106 = 101.25kNm

6

2

determined in Example 1

P/2

P/2

CVG4143

Composite Design

CVG4143

Composite Action

the given problem, as the system

deforms, the internal moment carried

by both beams is equal

P/2

M rt = M rb

Notes

1. Slippage takes place between the underside of the

top beam and the top of the bottom beam

2 Since there are no gaps between both beams,

2.

beams they

have the same deflection curve , i.e., vt = vb

Also, vt '' = vb ''

3. Since both beams have identical cross-sections, their

moment of inertia is identical. Also they are made of

the same material, thus they have the same moment

Young Modulus. We have

Et I t vt '' = Eb I b vb ''

CVG4143

Composite Design

10

Composite Action

For both pieces (system), deformed configuration is

P/2

Composite Design

11

elastic flexural resistance, the bottom

beam will also attain the same

flexural resistance.

(This would not be the case if we

had sliced the original beam into two

unequal cross sections)

CVG4143

Composite Design

12

Composite Action

Composite Action

Q How can we recover the full

Q:

resistance attained in Example

1?

5. Thee resistance

es sta ce of

o the

t e system

syste iss

the sum of the resistances of the

two beams

M rs = M rt + M rb = 2 M rt

= 2 101.25 = 202.5kNm

M fx = M rs 2.5 P2(1/2) = 202.5kNm P2(1/2) = 81kN

beams is twice that of a single

beam, but half that of the unsliced

beam in Example 1

CVG4143

Composite Design

13

Composite Action

CVG4143

Composite Design

14

the deformed shape of the composite system is

P

P/2

at the interface, we are able to

recover

a) the full original capacity (if

connection is fully effective) or

b) part of it (when connection is

partially effective)

P/2

Note

The deformed configuration of the system is

identical to that in Example 1. Thus, capacity

of the composite system is no different from

that

h off Example

l 1

A full connection:

Prevents relative slip between the

two connected pieces

Forces the plane section of the

whole system to remain plane

after deformation (as for the case

of a single beam-Example 1)

action in this problem?

The capacity of the composite system doubled

CVG4143

Composite Design

15

CVG4143

Composite Design

16

Types of Composite

Sections

Composite Action

To think about:

solutions to calculate the plastic

flexural resistance of the systems?

CVG4143

Composite Design

17

to the beam

3. Ribbed Slabs with ribs

perpendicular to the beam

CVG4143

Composite Design

18

Determine Effective

Slab Width b

The portion of the slab width that

can be considered to act with the

structural steel section is called

the effective slab width b

Bb

Slabs extending on both sides of steel

beam, b = lesser of (Span/4, centre to

centre distance between steel beams)

Slabs extending on one side of the steel

beam b =

flange width of steel section bfl +

the lesser of (Span/10, clear distance

to adjacent steel beam)

CVG4143

Composite Design

19

CVG4143

Composite Design

20

Effective Slab width b

Centre

to centre

Distance

Slab extends

from both sides

Span

Methods of connecting

solid slabs and steel

clear distance to

adjacent beam

flange width of

steel section b

Support

CVG4143

2. Channel Connectors

Slab extends

from one side

Support

Composite Design

21

Fundamental Concepts

CVG4143

Also,

Sum of the moments of

Internal forces

(M internal)

=

Internal moments

Induced by loads

(M external)

axial forces

(N internal)

=

internal normal force

induced by loads

(N external)

=

zero -for a beam

Composite Design

22

Fundamental Concepts

At any

y section of a composite

p

(or

(

plain) beam:

CVG4143

Composite Design

23

CVG4143

Composite Design

24

Components of

Composite Sections

Preliminaries

Cr

conc rete slab

Vh

Shear studs

Vh

structura l steel

sec tion

of

zero

moments

CVG4143

Tr

sec tion

of

m axim um

m oment

Composite Design

capacity of each of the three

components

Compressive capacity

of concrete slab

Shear capacity of studs

Tensile capacity of structural steel

25

CVG4143

Composite Design

26

Preliminaries

Important Note

Maximum compressive

resistance of the effective width

of the concrete slab

max C 'r = c1 f 'c bt

slab, studs, and structural steel

is in general different from the

actual internal forces induced in

each of them.

the structural steel section

max Tr = As Fy

best explained using the

following weakest link analogy

of shear connectors at the

(S16-09 Cl. 17.7)

interface Qr

CVG4143

Composite Design

27

CVG4143

Composite Design

28

analogy

Cr

analogy

Each of the three rings has a

different capacity

conc rete

compressive

ca pac ity

Crma x

r

Vh

Shear stud s

Vh

max C '

sec tion

of

zero

m oments

Tr

load, all three rings are subject

to the same load

section

of

m axim um

m omentt

Struc tura l

Steel Se c tion

Tensile Capa c ity

Tr m ax

r

max T

the rings, there are three

conceivable failure scenarios

Loading

CVG4143

Composite Design

29

analogy

CVG4143

Composite Design

30

Classification of

Composite Sections

Case 1: S16-09 Cl.17.9.3 (a)

( )

max Tr max C 'r

Cr

=max Tr

Vh= max Tr

max Tr Qr

Cr =Qr

Vh = Crmax

concrete steel interface [Qr does

not govern the design]

Tr = max Cr

Tr = Qrr

max Tr weakest

Full interaction

NA lies in concrete

CVG4143

max Cr weakest

Full interaction

NA lies in steel

Composite Design

Qr weakest

Partial interaction

NA lies in steel &

NA lies in concrete

31

CVG4143

Composite Design

32

Classification of

Composite Sections

(contd)

Classification of

Composite Sections

(contd)

Case 3: S16-09 Cl.17.9.3 (c)

( )

[Qr is the weakest link]

Case 2: S16

S16-09

09 Cl.17.9.3 (b)

[ max C 'r is the weakest link]

Qr max C 'r

max C 'r Qr

Qr max Tr

capacity

i off studs

d governs design]

d i ]

govern design]

Plastic Neutral axis in steel

section

CVG4143

Composite Design

steel and the other in Concrete

33

CVG4143

NA

34

Case 1-Compressive

Force

t a = 1c

Composite Design

C 'r = c1 f 'c ba

1c f c'

Cr'

e'

Tr

c = 0.65

1 = 0.85 0.0015 f 'c 0.67

f 'c = specified concrete strength

Fy

a = depth of concrete block

Neutral Axis in Slab

CVG4143

Composite Design

35

CVG4143

Composite Design

36

Case 1

Neutral Axis Depth

Case 1-Equilibrium of

Internal Forces

Note:

Concrete block depth a

Axis (NA) depth c

they are related through

Neutral

Tr = As Fy

net internal axial force=0

0 = Tr C 'r

States Design in Structural Steel to

reflect this observation

Solve for a

a=

CVG4143

As Fy

c1 f 'c b

Composite Design

37

Case 1 Resisting

Moment

d

a

+t

2

2

38

interaction between the two

components (concrete and steel)

M rc = As Fy e '

Composite Design

Composite Design

to be transferred at the concretesteel interface

Resisting moment

CVG4143

CVG4143

Case 1 - Horizontal

Shear Force

e' =

a = 1c

force Vh = As Fy

39

CVG4143

Composite Design

40

10

When to design

according to the Case 1

procedure?

Q: When to design

according to the Case 1

Procedure?

Given:

weakest link, i.e. when

case 1 procedure should be used

max Tr Qr

CVG4143

Composite Design

f c' , Fy ,c , , As , d , b, t , Qr

above in a mathematical form,

suitable for design and/or computer

code (refer to your notes to do so)

41

When to design

according to case 1

procedure?

CVG4143

Composite Design

42

Determine resistances

1 = 0.85 0.0015 f 'c 0.67

1. Calculate depth

p of concrete

block

max Tr = As Fy

arm

If

both of the following two

conditions are met

g moment

3. Calculate resisting

max Tr Qr

max Tr max C 'r

force

then

go to procedure for case 1

CVG4143

Composite Design

43

CVG4143

Composite Design

44

11

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