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# CVG4143 References

Composite Design
Chapter 6 in Text
Clause 17 in Handbook

Handbook

Text
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CVG4143

Conceptual Introduction
Concrete vs. Steel

Composite Design

Composite Sections

Plain Concrete
Strong in Compression
Weak in Tension

Main Idea:
Use Concrete to carry Compression
Use Structural Steel to carry Tension

Structural Steel
This is the philosophy
of a composite
composite section
section

Strong in Tension
Weak
k iin Compression
i
Local Buckling
Overall Buckling
Lateral Torsional Buckling
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Composite Design

Composite Beam

Composite Action

concrete

Introductory
y Examples:
p
Example 1:
Given:
A simply supported beam has a 10 m
span is subject to a factored load P at
mid-span. Cross-section is 100 mm
wide x 300 mm deep. Material is
Fy=300 MPa
Required:

structural Steel

A
Composite Beam

c onc rete

## Calculate maximum load P based on

Elastic Flexural Resistance
Sketch the deformed configuration of

structural Steel

Section A-A
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Example 1-Solution:
1 Based on Elastic Analysis (only
1.
outermost fibres are assumed to
yield) , Elastic Flexural Resistance
bh 2
Fy
6
100 3002
= 0.90
300 106 = 405kNm
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Deformed Configuration
g
P

M rx = S x Fy =

P/2

P/2

2. External Moment =
M fx =

PL 10 P
=
= 2.5P ( kNm )
4
4

## 3. Equate external moment to

flexural resistance
M fx = M rx 2.5P = 405kNm P = 162kN
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Example 2:
A
Assume
we hhorizontally
i t ll slice
li the
th beam
b
cross
section into two pieces (along the NA)
1.

2.

## What would be the maximum factored load P

that can be carried by a single beam?
What would be the maximum factored load P
that can be carried by the system?

Example
p 2-Solution for Single
g Beam
For a single piece:
2
b ( h 2)
M
F
= S F =
rx (1/2 )

= 0.90

100 150
300 106 = 101.25kNm
6
2

## Resistance dropped to 25% of that

determined in Example 1

P/2

P/2
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## We have jjust demonstrated,, that for

the given problem, as the system
deforms, the internal moment carried
by both beams is equal

P/2

M rt = M rb

Notes
1. Slippage takes place between the underside of the
top beam and the top of the bottom beam
2 Since there are no gaps between both beams,
2.
beams they
have the same deflection curve , i.e., vt = vb
Also, vt '' = vb ''
3. Since both beams have identical cross-sections, their
moment of inertia is identical. Also they are made of
the same material, thus they have the same moment
Young Modulus. We have
Et I t vt '' = Eb I b vb ''
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Composite Action

## Example 2-Solution for the System

For both pieces (system), deformed configuration is

P/2

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## 4. Thus, when the top beam attains its

elastic flexural resistance, the bottom
beam will also attain the same
flexural resistance.
(This would not be the case if we
had sliced the original beam into two
unequal cross sections)
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Composite Action

Composite Action
Q How can we recover the full
Q:
resistance attained in Example
1?

5. Thee resistance
es sta ce of
o the
t e system
syste iss
the sum of the resistances of the
two beams
M rs = M rt + M rb = 2 M rt
= 2 101.25 = 202.5kNm
M fx = M rs 2.5 P2(1/2) = 202.5kNm P2(1/2) = 81kN

## The capacity of the system of sliced

beams is twice that of a single
beam, but half that of the unsliced
beam in Example 1
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Composite Action

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## If we fully reconnect the two pieces together,

the deformed shape of the composite system is
P

P/2

## A: By reconnecting both pieces

at the interface, we are able to
recover
a) the full original capacity (if
connection is fully effective) or
b) part of it (when connection is
partially effective)

P/2

Note
The deformed configuration of the system is
identical to that in Example 1. Thus, capacity
of the composite system is no different from
that
h off Example
l 1

A full connection:
Prevents relative slip between the
two connected pieces
Forces the plane section of the
whole system to remain plane
after deformation (as for the case
of a single beam-Example 1)

## How much did we gain due to composite

action in this problem?
The capacity of the composite system doubled
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Types of Composite
Sections

Composite Action

## How to modify the above

solutions to calculate the plastic
flexural resistance of the systems?

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## 2. Ribbed Slabs with ribs parallel

to the beam
3. Ribbed Slabs with ribs
perpendicular to the beam

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Determine Effective
Slab Width b

## Effective Slab Width

The portion of the slab width that
can be considered to act with the
structural steel section is called
the effective slab width b
Bb

## Case 1: (central beam)

Slabs extending on both sides of steel
beam, b = lesser of (Span/4, centre to
centre distance between steel beams)

## Case 2: (edge beam)

Slabs extending on one side of the steel
beam b =
flange width of steel section bfl +
the lesser of (Span/10, clear distance

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## Definitions for determining

Effective Slab width b

Centre
to centre
Distance

## For central beam,,

Slab extends
from both sides

Span

Methods of connecting
solid slabs and steel

## 1. End Welded Studs

clear distance to

## (most common-our focus)

flange width of
steel section b

Support

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2. Channel Connectors

## For edge beams,

Slab extends
from one side

Support

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Fundamental Concepts

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Also,
Sum of the moments of
Internal forces
(M internal)
=
Internal moments
(M external)

## sum of the internal

axial forces
(N internal)
=
internal normal force
(N external)
=
zero -for a beam
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Fundamental Concepts

At any
y section of a composite
p
(or
(
plain) beam:

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Components of
Composite Sections

Preliminaries

Cr
conc rete slab
Vh
Shear studs
Vh
structura l steel

sec tion
of
zero
moments
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Tr

sec tion
of
m axim um
m oment

Composite Design

## It is of interest to calculate the

capacity of each of the three
components
Compressive capacity
of concrete slab
Shear capacity of studs
Tensile capacity of structural steel

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Preliminaries

Important Note

Maximum compressive
resistance of the effective width
of the concrete slab
max C 'r = c1 f 'c bt

## The capacity of the concrete

slab, studs, and structural steel
is in general different from the
actual internal forces induced in
each of them.

## Maximum tensile resistance of

the structural steel section
max Tr = As Fy

## This fundamental concept is

best explained using the

## Sum of the factored resistances

of shear connectors at the
(S16-09 Cl. 17.7)
interface Qr
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analogy
Cr

analogy
Each of the three rings has a
different capacity

conc rete
compressive
ca pac ity
Crma x
r

Vh
Shear stud s
Vh

max C '

sec tion
of
zero
m oments

Tr

## However, under any applied

load, all three rings are subject

## shear studs Qrr

section
of
m axim um
m omentt

Struc tura l
Steel Se c tion
Tensile Capa c ity
Tr m ax
r

max T

## Depending on the capacities of

the rings, there are three
conceivable failure scenarios

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analogy

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Classification of
Composite Sections
Case 1: S16-09 Cl.17.9.3 (a)
( )

max Tr max C 'r

Cr
=max Tr

Vh= max Tr

max Tr Qr

Cr =Qr

Vh = Crmax

## Full shear connection at the

concrete steel interface [Qr does
not govern the design]

Tr = max Cr
Tr = Qrr

max Tr weakest
Full interaction
NA lies in concrete

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max Cr weakest
Full interaction
NA lies in steel

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Qr weakest
Partial interaction
NA lies in steel &
NA lies in concrete

## Plastic Neutral axis lies in the slab

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Classification of
Composite Sections
(contd)

Classification of
Composite Sections
(contd)
Case 3: S16-09 Cl.17.9.3 (c)
( )

Case 2: S16
S16-09
09 Cl.17.9.3 (b)
[ max C 'r is the weakest link]

Qr max C 'r

max C 'r Qr

Qr max Tr

## Partial shear connection [shear

capacity
i off studs
d governs design]
d i ]

## Full shear connection [Qr does not

govern design]
Plastic Neutral axis in steel
section
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## Two Plastic Neutral Axes, one in

steel and the other in Concrete

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## Internal Force Diagram

NA

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Case 1-Compressive
Force

## Case 1- Internal Forces

t a = 1c

Composite Design

C 'r = c1 f 'c ba

1c f c'

Cr'

e'
Tr

c = 0.65
1 = 0.85 0.0015 f 'c 0.67
f 'c = specified concrete strength

Fy

## b = the effective slab width

a = depth of concrete block

## Com posite Section

Neutral Axis in Slab
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Case 1
Neutral Axis Depth

Case 1-Equilibrium of
Internal Forces

Note:
Concrete block depth a
Axis (NA) depth c
they are related through

Neutral

Tr = As Fy

## External applied axial force =

net internal axial force=0

0 = Tr C 'r

## Fix Figures 6.2 and 6.3 in Limit

reflect this observation

Solve for a
a=
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As Fy
c1 f 'c b
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Case 1 Resisting
Moment
d
a
+t
2
2

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## This force ensures proper

interaction between the two
components (concrete and steel)

M rc = As Fy e '

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## A horizontal shear force needs

to be transferred at the concretesteel interface

Resisting moment

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Case 1 - Horizontal
Shear Force

e' =

a = 1c

## For case 1, the horizontal shear

force Vh = As Fy
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When to design
according to the Case 1
procedure?

Q: When to design
according to the Case 1
Procedure?

Given:

## Required: Determine whether or not

case 1 procedure should be used

## max Tr max C 'r

max Tr Qr

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f c' , Fy ,c , , As , d , b, t , Qr

## Hint: put each of the two inequalities

above in a mathematical form,
suitable for design and/or computer
code (refer to your notes to do so)

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When to design
according to case 1
procedure?

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## Case 1 Procedure Summary

Determine resistances
1 = 0.85 0.0015 f 'c 0.67

1. Calculate depth
p of concrete
block

max Tr = As Fy

## 2. Calculate internal moment

arm

If
both of the following two
conditions are met

g moment
3. Calculate resisting

max Tr Qr
max Tr max C 'r

## 4. Calculate horizontal shear

force

then
go to procedure for case 1
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