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University of California Riverside

Laboratory 4

EE 123

Winter 2013

LABORATORY 4

MANUAL

Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters

CONTENT

Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 2

Hardware ............................................................................................................................. 2

Software .............................................................................................................................. 2

Parts .................................................................................................................................... 2

Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3

PART 1. Full-Wave Controlled Converters in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) ............ 3

1.2 Laboratory Procedures and Report ............................................................................... 6

PART 2. Controlled Converters in Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction

Modes .................................................................................................................................. 8

2.2 Laboratory Procedures and Report ............................................................................. 10

Presentation and Report .................................................................................................... 11

Prelab ................................................................................................................................ 11

2

Objectives

Lab 4 contains two parts and the objectives are:

rectifiers and inverters;

2. Understanding of thyristor conduction properties in full-wave bridge

converters;

3. Understanding the difference between rectifiers and inverters, and how to

obtain these modes with gate-pulse delay angles;

4. Understanding of how inductive ac sources affect the output parameters

commutation time, average output voltage and power;

5. Understanding of two modes of operation in controlled converters

continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode

(DCM);

6. Understanding of how to simulate fully loaded or completely unloaded

circuits.

Hardware

none

Software

EE123 Power Electronics Spice Library

Parts

none

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

3

Introduction

There is an increasing number of applications, particularly in power systems,

battery chargers, ac, dc motor drives, which require a controllable ac-to-dc

conversion. More than that, applications may also require bi-directional flow of

power, that is, from the ac-side to the dc-side and vice versa*.

While current state of power transistors allows thyristors to be replaced in low-, to

medium-power applications, thyristors are yet irreplaceable in high-power

applications.

In this laboratory we will analyze SCR based single-phase converters which may

operate as rectifiers (power flow ac dc) and inverters (power flow dc ac).

PART 1. Full-Wave Controlled Converters in Continuous Conduction

Mode (CCM)

1.1 Theoretical Analysis

Figure 1.2 Thyristor converter with Ls = 0 (left), and its alternative representation (right)

*

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

(also called firing angles) while thyristors are forward-biased. The thyristors

will be turned off only when their current becomes zero, no matter what voltage is

across them. Note that in the bridge configuration as shown in Figure 1.2,

assuming that Ls = 0, only pairs T1, T2 and T3, T4 can conduct current at any

given time. On the other hand if Ls 0 then it will take some time for current

flow to completely switch from one pair to the other. In interpreting waveforms

of Figure 1.3, it is essential to realize that in the ideal case when thyristors are

conducting they act as short circuits (the voltage drop across them is zero), and

when not then as open circuits. Observe in Figure 1.3, that while T3, T4 are still

conducting at t = 0 even though they are reverse biased, and when a gate pulse is

applied to T1, T2 (at which time they are forward biased), they turn on and reduce

current in T3, T4 to zero thus turning them off. Again, with Ls = 0 only one pair of

thyristors may conduct since otherwise this would violate one of Kirchhoffs

Laws. Note that out of two pairs the winner will be the pair which is forwardbiased at the time a gate pulse is applied. Another important observation is that if

the delay angle = 0 then the circuit acts as a regular diode based rectifier.

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

5

Assuming the ac source voltage to be vs(t) = Vm sin(t), the average output

voltage for the controlled converter is given by

+

Vd =

(1.1)

Vm sin d =

2Vm

cos , where = t

then

Vd 0 =

(1.2)

Vm sin d =

2Vm

, where = t

Vd = Vd Vd 0 =

(1.3)

2Vm

cos

(1.4)

P=

1

2

vd ( )d =I dVd =

2Vm I d

cos

So that

(1.5)

Vd 0, 00 900

0

0

Vd < 0, 90 < 180

(rectifier mode)

(inverter mode)

If the ac source is inductive (Ls 0) as in Figure 1.1 then the commutation time,

given by the commutation angle u, is not zero:

(1.6)

2 Ls I d

u = cos 1 cos

Vm

(1.7)

Vd =

2Vm

cos

Ls I d

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

It will be required to analyze a phase-controlled bridge converter schematically

shown in Figure 1.5 containing a constant current source load, and analyze its two

modes of operation with both inductive and non-inductive ac voltage source.

ee123_isrc_const components. In this experiment it will be required to use

the scr_mod/mn model of SCR. To choose it, select ee123_scr from the

library, right-mouse click on Value cell of SpiceModel line in the

Component Attribute Editor window. From the drop-down list select the

required SCR model as shown in Figure 1.6.

This model was developed by Professor Ned Mohan of the University of Minnesota at

Minneapolis.

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

7

2. During our first experiment we will assume that the ac source is noninductive. Set Ls to have a very small, non-zero value, say Ls = 1 pH. The

resistor, parallel to Ls serves as a snubber circuit to reduce voltage spikes

and the so-called ringing effects when currents become zero**;

3. To be effective, run the simulation for three different delay angles = 45,

90, and 135 by using the SPICE directive .step param as shown in the

schematic. In order to choose corresponding results go to MenuPlot

SettingSelect Steps, and choose one or any combination of steps to be

displayed simultaneously in the plot window;

4. For each delay angle, in the steady-state, determine the average voltage

across the load, and compare it with theoretical predictions;

5. For each delay angle, in the steady-state, determine the power

consumed/generated by both the ac-source and the dc-load. Compare the

results with theoretical predictions. For which delay angles do the two

sources act as power generators or consumers?

6. In the same plot pane, plot the thyristor currents ID1 and ID3. What is the

commutation time?

7. Add another plot pane, and plot thyristor voltages to determine times at

which they are forward or reverse biased and, act as short or open circuits

while conducting current. Discuss the results.

8. Set the delay angle to 0. Do the results look like those obtained with fullwave bridges built with regular diodes?

9. Study the effects of inductive ac-sources by changing the source

inductance value to Ls = 1 mH;

10. For a delay angle = 45 determine the commutation time and the

commutation angle u, and compare it with the theoretical predictions;

11. Determine the average voltage Vd and check how the inductive source

affected the average output voltage with respect to the non-inductive

source. Compare it with theory;

12. Discuss the results.

As a welcome bonus, this will also speed up SPICE computations.

**

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

Conduction Modes

2.1 Theoretical Analysis

Figure 2.1 Full-Wave Bridge converter with RL+E load (left), and quadrant modes of

operation (right)

Figure 2.2 Waveforms of Figure 2.1 assuming very large L so that i0 = Ia or -Ia

The circuit of Figure 2.1 represents a converter with a controlled full-wave bridge

and an equivalent electrical model of a DC motor armature as a RL+E load. The

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

9

theoretical analysis requires a solution of the first-order ODE resulting from the

application of Kirchhoffs Laws:

dio

+ Rio + E = Vm sin t , for io 0

dt

(2.1)

(2.2)

io =

Vm

E

sin (t ) + Ae ( R / L ) t

Z

R

where

(2.3)

Z = R 2 + ( L ) , = tan 1 ( L / R )

2

Based on the value of i0, two modes of operation can be identified continuous

conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).

(2.4)

io =

Vm

E

E V

Z

R

R Z

(2.5)

I LO = I L1 =

( R / L )( / )

Vm sin ( ) sin ( ) e

E

, for i0 0

( R / L )( / )

Z

1 e

R

where

(2.6)

I LO = i0 (t = ) and I L1 = i0 (t = + )

(2.7)

I LO = I L1 =

( R / L )( / )

Vm sin ( ) sin ( ) e

E

, for i0 = 0

( R / L )( / )

Z

1 e

R

The critical angle c at which ILO becomes zero follows from (2.7):

1 + e ( R / L )( / ) E

Vm

sin ( )

+

( R / L )( / )

Z

1 e

R

(2.8)

0=

(2.9)

tan

1

e

x

1

c = sin

,

cos

tan

1 e

x=

E

Vm

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

10

In this experiment it will required to:

Fully Loaded Converter ~ output resistance RL = 0 (short circuit)

Unloaded Converter

from the CCM to DCM mode of operation.

1. Capture the schematic with LTspice, and assume the delay angle = 45

for the whole experiment;

2. Determine power consumed by the load for two output resistance

nominations: RL = 1 (close to a short circuit) and RL = 1 MEG (close

to an open circuit). Run the simulation long enough for steady-state to be

established;

It can be taken lower then that but this will substantially increase the simulation time.

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

11

3. Plot power P consumed by the load by both load resistors. For which

resistor m=nomination the power consumption is larger? Verify the claim

made above;

4. Now it is required to find experimentally such a critical load resistance RL

at which the mode of operation is at the edge between CCM and DCM.

Re-run simulations with different RL values until IRL current just becomes

zero for certain angles. Make a record of this value;

5. With the value of RL obtained in 4. verify the theoretical result for the

critical angle c given by (2.9);

6. Discuss the results.

Lab report must be presented according to the general EE123 lab guidelines.

Prelab

1. Study the theoretical materials provided in this manual, and familiarize

yourself with lab procedures.

2. Why is the commutation time non-zero only when the ac source is

inductive, and zero otherwise?

EE123 Power Electronics

University of California - Riverside

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