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EE 123 Power Electronics

Department of Electrical Engineering


University of California Riverside

Laboratory 4
EE 123
Winter 2013

Instructor: Roman Chomko

LABORATORY 4

MANUAL
Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters

CONTENT
Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 2
Hardware ............................................................................................................................. 2
Software .............................................................................................................................. 2
Parts .................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3
PART 1. Full-Wave Controlled Converters in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) ............ 3

1.1 Theoretical Analysis ..................................................................................................... 3


1.2 Laboratory Procedures and Report ............................................................................... 6
PART 2. Controlled Converters in Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction
Modes .................................................................................................................................. 8

2.1 Theoretical Analysis ..................................................................................................... 8


2.2 Laboratory Procedures and Report ............................................................................. 10
Presentation and Report .................................................................................................... 11
Prelab ................................................................................................................................ 11

2
Objectives
Lab 4 contains two parts and the objectives are:

1. Become familiar with the principles of controlled full-wave converters


rectifiers and inverters;
2. Understanding of thyristor conduction properties in full-wave bridge
converters;
3. Understanding the difference between rectifiers and inverters, and how to
obtain these modes with gate-pulse delay angles;
4. Understanding of how inductive ac sources affect the output parameters
commutation time, average output voltage and power;
5. Understanding of two modes of operation in controlled converters
continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode
(DCM);
6. Understanding of how to simulate fully loaded or completely unloaded
circuits.
Hardware

none

Software

LTspice IV Spice Simulator


EE123 Power Electronics Spice Library

Parts
none

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual


EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

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Introduction
There is an increasing number of applications, particularly in power systems,
battery chargers, ac, dc motor drives, which require a controllable ac-to-dc
conversion. More than that, applications may also require bi-directional flow of
power, that is, from the ac-side to the dc-side and vice versa*.
While current state of power transistors allows thyristors to be replaced in low-, to
medium-power applications, thyristors are yet irreplaceable in high-power
applications.
In this laboratory we will analyze SCR based single-phase converters which may
operate as rectifiers (power flow ac dc) and inverters (power flow dc ac).
PART 1. Full-Wave Controlled Converters in Continuous Conduction
Mode (CCM)
1.1 Theoretical Analysis

Figure 1.1 Thyristor converter

Figure 1.2 Thyristor converter with Ls = 0 (left), and its alternative representation (right)
*

This is especially essential in contemporary power systems.


Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual
EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

Figure 1.3 Waveforms resulting from the converter of Figure 1.2

SCRs are turned on by applying a periodic gate pulse at delay angles t =


(also called firing angles) while thyristors are forward-biased. The thyristors
will be turned off only when their current becomes zero, no matter what voltage is
across them. Note that in the bridge configuration as shown in Figure 1.2,
assuming that Ls = 0, only pairs T1, T2 and T3, T4 can conduct current at any
given time. On the other hand if Ls 0 then it will take some time for current
flow to completely switch from one pair to the other. In interpreting waveforms
of Figure 1.3, it is essential to realize that in the ideal case when thyristors are
conducting they act as short circuits (the voltage drop across them is zero), and
when not then as open circuits. Observe in Figure 1.3, that while T3, T4 are still
conducting at t = 0 even though they are reverse biased, and when a gate pulse is
applied to T1, T2 (at which time they are forward biased), they turn on and reduce
current in T3, T4 to zero thus turning them off. Again, with Ls = 0 only one pair of
thyristors may conduct since otherwise this would violate one of Kirchhoffs
Laws. Note that out of two pairs the winner will be the pair which is forwardbiased at the time a gate pulse is applied. Another important observation is that if
the delay angle = 0 then the circuit acts as a regular diode based rectifier.

That is, the commutation time.


Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual
EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

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Assuming the ac source voltage to be vs(t) = Vm sin(t), the average output
voltage for the controlled converter is given by
+

Vd =

(1.1)

Vm sin d =

2Vm

cos , where = t

Note that Vd depends on . Denoting Vd0 to be the average voltage when = 0


then
Vd 0 =

(1.2)

Vm sin d =

2Vm

, where = t

So that the drop in the average voltage due to is


Vd = Vd Vd 0 =

(1.3)

2Vm

cos

Figure 1.4 The converter can act as a rectifier or an inverter depending on

The power consumed/generated by the constant current source Id is


(1.4)

P=

1
2

vd ( )d =I dVd =

2Vm I d

cos

So that
(1.5)

Vd 0, 00 900

0
0
Vd < 0, 90 < 180

(rectifier mode)
(inverter mode)

If the ac source is inductive (Ls 0) as in Figure 1.1 then the commutation time,
given by the commutation angle u, is not zero:
(1.6)

2 Ls I d
u = cos 1 cos

Vm

Resulting in the average voltage


(1.7)

Vd =

2Vm

cos

Ls I d
Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual
EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

1.2 Laboratory Procedures and Report


It will be required to analyze a phase-controlled bridge converter schematically
shown in Figure 1.5 containing a constant current source load, and analyze its two
modes of operation with both inductive and non-inductive ac voltage source.

Figure 1.5 The experimental setup with gate-pulse sources

1. Capture the schematic with LTspice. Use ee123_math_avg_com and


ee123_isrc_const components. In this experiment it will be required to use
the scr_mod/mn model of SCR. To choose it, select ee123_scr from the
library, right-mouse click on Value cell of SpiceModel line in the
Component Attribute Editor window. From the drop-down list select the
required SCR model as shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6 Selecting models

This model was developed by Professor Ned Mohan of the University of Minnesota at
Minneapolis.
Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual
EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

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2. During our first experiment we will assume that the ac source is noninductive. Set Ls to have a very small, non-zero value, say Ls = 1 pH. The
resistor, parallel to Ls serves as a snubber circuit to reduce voltage spikes
and the so-called ringing effects when currents become zero**;

3. To be effective, run the simulation for three different delay angles = 45,
90, and 135 by using the SPICE directive .step param as shown in the
schematic. In order to choose corresponding results go to MenuPlot
SettingSelect Steps, and choose one or any combination of steps to be
displayed simultaneously in the plot window;
4. For each delay angle, in the steady-state, determine the average voltage
across the load, and compare it with theoretical predictions;
5. For each delay angle, in the steady-state, determine the power
consumed/generated by both the ac-source and the dc-load. Compare the
results with theoretical predictions. For which delay angles do the two
sources act as power generators or consumers?
6. In the same plot pane, plot the thyristor currents ID1 and ID3. What is the
commutation time?
7. Add another plot pane, and plot thyristor voltages to determine times at
which they are forward or reverse biased and, act as short or open circuits
while conducting current. Discuss the results.
8. Set the delay angle to 0. Do the results look like those obtained with fullwave bridges built with regular diodes?
9. Study the effects of inductive ac-sources by changing the source
inductance value to Ls = 1 mH;
10. For a delay angle = 45 determine the commutation time and the
commutation angle u, and compare it with the theoretical predictions;
11. Determine the average voltage Vd and check how the inductive source
affected the average output voltage with respect to the non-inductive
source. Compare it with theory;
12. Discuss the results.

Snubber circuits will be discussed later in the course.


As a welcome bonus, this will also speed up SPICE computations.

**

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual


EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

PART 2. Controlled Converters in Continuous and Discontinuous


Conduction Modes
2.1 Theoretical Analysis

Figure 2.1 Full-Wave Bridge converter with RL+E load (left), and quadrant modes of
operation (right)

Figure 2.2 Waveforms of Figure 2.1 assuming very large L so that i0 = Ia or -Ia

The circuit of Figure 2.1 represents a converter with a controlled full-wave bridge
and an equivalent electrical model of a DC motor armature as a RL+E load. The
Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual
EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

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theoretical analysis requires a solution of the first-order ODE resulting from the
application of Kirchhoffs Laws:
dio
+ Rio + E = Vm sin t , for io 0
dt

(2.1)

(2.2)

io =

Vm
E
sin (t ) + Ae ( R / L ) t
Z
R

where
(2.3)

Z = R 2 + ( L ) , = tan 1 ( L / R )
2

Based on the value of i0, two modes of operation can be identified continuous
conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).

Continuous Conduction Mode (i0 > 0)


(2.4)

io =

Vm
E
E V

sin (t ) + I LO + m sin ( ) e ( R / L )( / t ) , for i0 0


Z
R
R Z

(2.5)

I LO = I L1 =

( R / L )( / )
Vm sin ( ) sin ( ) e
E
, for i0 0
( R / L )( / )
Z
1 e
R

where
(2.6)

I LO = i0 (t = ) and I L1 = i0 (t = + )

Discontinuous Conduction Mode (i0 = 0)


(2.7)

I LO = I L1 =

( R / L )( / )
Vm sin ( ) sin ( ) e
E
, for i0 = 0
( R / L )( / )
Z
1 e
R

The critical angle c at which ILO becomes zero follows from (2.7):

1 + e ( R / L )( / ) E
Vm
sin ( )
+
( R / L )( / )
Z
1 e
R

(2.8)

0=

(2.9)

tan
1

e
x
1
c = sin
,

cos
tan

1 e

x=

E
Vm

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual


EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

10

2.2 Laboratory Procedures and Report


In this experiment it will required to:

1) verify a claim which states that


Fully Loaded Converter ~ output resistance RL = 0 (short circuit)
Unloaded Converter

~ output resistance RL = (open circuit)

2) experimentally determine a critical load at which the converter switches


from the CCM to DCM mode of operation.

Figure 2.3 Schematic of the experimental setup

1. Capture the schematic with LTspice, and assume the delay angle = 45
for the whole experiment;
2. Determine power consumed by the load for two output resistance
nominations: RL = 1 (close to a short circuit) and RL = 1 MEG (close
to an open circuit). Run the simulation long enough for steady-state to be
established;

It can be taken lower then that but this will substantially increase the simulation time.
Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual
EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside

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3. Plot power P consumed by the load by both load resistors. For which
resistor m=nomination the power consumption is larger? Verify the claim
made above;
4. Now it is required to find experimentally such a critical load resistance RL
at which the mode of operation is at the edge between CCM and DCM.
Re-run simulations with different RL values until IRL current just becomes
zero for certain angles. Make a record of this value;
5. With the value of RL obtained in 4. verify the theoretical result for the
critical angle c given by (2.9);
6. Discuss the results.

Presentation and Report


Lab report must be presented according to the general EE123 lab guidelines.

Prelab
1. Study the theoretical materials provided in this manual, and familiarize
yourself with lab procedures.
2. Why is the commutation time non-zero only when the ac source is
inductive, and zero otherwise?

Lab 4 Phase-Controlled Rectifiers and Inverters Manual


EE123 Power Electronics
University of California - Riverside