TRAFFIC CONTROL AT EDSA/uturn intersections

© All Rights Reserved

41 views

TRAFFIC CONTROL AT EDSA/uturn intersections

© All Rights Reserved

- Spss13 Correlation
- Statistics Course Outline- Uttam Golder
- True_False11.pdf
- online tickting
- Quantative Techniqes
- Clase Regresión Lineal
- L4&5 Multiple Regression 2010B
- Lecture 8 and 9 Regression Correlation and Index
- 11410012_Bab_2 ui
- Principles and Risks of Forecasting-Robert Nau
- Auditor Fee Specialization
- gld-opt-7A
- Verdi Financial Reporting
- C1E3_110725
- Econo
- Factors Affecting the Vitality of Employees in Water and Wastewater Company of Tehran Province, Iran
- multiple_correlation_coefficient.pdf
- 10.1108@14013381111157328(1)
- 2b Multiple Linear Regression
- Chapter_5

You are on page 1of 9

Riches S. Bacero 1, Eddie T. Choa 1, Bryan Allen J. Jose 1, Roel S. Malaqui 1

School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, 1002,

Philippines

Abstract : U-turn slots are used as traffic control facilities that are only suitable for a certain number of vehicles to establish

their turns. The study analyzed the operational performance of median U-turn intersections as a traffic control facility in

EDSA. Traffic operation data were collected and field measurements were conducted on three consecutive U-turn slots. The

data obtained were used to create a regression model, a practical chart that could help traffic engineers in estimating the Uturn slot treatment in turning traffic delay as a function of the turning traffic volume for different levels of conflicting traffic

volumes. This study will also guide the authorities on how to provide solutions on alleviating heavy traffic with the developed

model and proposed recommendations for the U-turn slots.

1

INTRODUCTION

averaging at speeds as low as 7-10 kilometers per hour. A

trip that normally takes 25 minutes will last an hour or more

especially during peak hours. As a result, the Metropolitan

Manila Development Authority (MMDA) has implemented

various projects to alleviate traffic congestion. The

implementation of the U-turn slots along Metro Manila

started during the term of Bayani Fernando as part of the

agencys actions to improve the flow of traffic. The

comprehensive application of the scheme resulted in

shutting down of many intersections and the suspension of

traffic signal operations in support of the system of median

openings.

From an engineers analytical perspective, these U-turn slots

are valuable because it keeps the flow of traffic moving.

Cars dont need to stop at intersections so its more

convenient for motorists who would go through and not

make a turn. The concept of U-turn as a substitute to direct

left turn movement is a relatively innovative approach and

has only been recently implemented in numerous locations.

Depending on the design this eradicates either all the left

turn movements at an intersection or only left turns onto

arterials from cross streets. In highway engineering, we use

U-turns as traffic control facilities; these involve definite

number of vehicles to establish these turns. However, if the

number of vehicles meets or exceeds the requirement for

these turns, it causes traffic congestion from all directions.

The goal of this research is to analyze and evaluate the

operational performance of Median U-turn Intersection as a

traffic control facility in EDSA from Monumento to

Balintawak and propose solutions to alleviate traffic

congestion. In relation to this result, the evaluation for

effectiveness of U-turn slots could be addressed.

RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1 Population/Sample

The survey is done by counting vehicles. The researchers

considered the fact that there are various kinds of vehicles

taking the U-turn Slot such as motorcycles, tricycles,

passenger cars, vans, trucks and buses. It was decided that

the study is mainly focused on 4-wheeled vehicles and

above which are utilizing and passing along the slot. The

study is neglecting vehicles such as motorcycles because of

their insignificant size and tricycles because it was observed

that it had a low occurrence. The number of vehicles passing

along the U-turn slot is called the Through/Conflicting

Traffic Volume while the number of vehicles utilizing the

U-turn slot is called the U-turn Traffic Volume.

2.2 Sampling Day and Time

In order to collect traffic operations data, extensive field

measurements were conducted. A total of 30 hours of traffic

operations data was collected, 10 hours for each U-turn Slot.

The survey was conducted during weekdays mainly during

the morning and evening peak traffic hours which is around

7:00 am to 10:00 am and 5:00 pm to 8:00 pm respectively.

The survey also includes noon or off peak hours which is

around 12:00 pm to 3:00 pm but it has less traffic operations

data. The researchers believe that the indicated day and time

is the most effective parameter in order to gather substantial

traffic operations data because the traffic congestion during

the indicated periods is to be expected. Therefore this is

when the U-turn slots will be utilized by motorist the most.

Traffic operations data were not collected during inclement

weather, flood or unusual traffic conditions on the road.

2.3 Research Instrument and Design

The researchers collected traffic operations data with the use

of a video camera and tripod. The video camera record a

view that shows the through or conflicting traffic volume

and U-turn traffic volume. Video camera on the first U-turn

overlooking the U-turn slot and has an adequate viewing

height therefore it is a great area for survey. On the second

U-turn slot, the video camera was set up at General Malvar

Footbridge; the sight is also overlooking the U-turn slot and

has an adequate viewing height. The third U-turn slot was

recorded at the side of the south bound lane of EDSA in a

parking lot. To achieve an adequate viewing height, the

video camera and tripod was set up on top of a car.

The researchers made use of another method called Floating

Car Technique. It is one of the most common travel-time

collection technique employed to date. This technique

consists of hiring a driver and vehicle to drive a vehicle

along a preselected route and measuring the elapsed time

and distance traversed. The driver is instructed to pass as

many vehicles as pass him or her so that the vehicle is in

effect driving at the median speed of traffic (Federal

Highway Administration, 2013). Another person will

accompany the driver to record the travel time and distance

travelled to collect traffic operations data. Although this

technique is used most commonly on arterial roads, the

researchers tested it for traversing U-turn slots. The car used

in this survey is owned by one of the researchers who is also

the designated driver. The car is driven at base conditions

which mean it is done in the absence of incident, control,

traffic, or geometric delay. This technique was used to

determine the ideal travel time of a vehicle that utilizes the

U-turn slot; it was done during midnight with multiple test

runs to avoid infractions.

The ideal travel time is the hypothetical travel time that the

researchers calculated based on the test runs which mean

that it varies for the three different U-turn slots evaluated.

Also, the researchers were able to gather traffic operations

data from traffic institutions such as MMDA and DPWH on

the said location for extensive range of data collection.

2.4 Traffic Analysis

The study sites and data collection periods were chosen

carefully to cover different ranges of data for traffic volumes,

travel time and delay to increase the validity of the

developed models. The researchers have gathered the

following parameters as quantitative data. The following are

measures of effectiveness and tools to analyze traffic flow to

evaluate the operational performance of U-turn slots:

average travel time, average delay, volume of traffic, traffic

speed, and geometric characteristics.

2.5 Data from Recordings

Delay and travel time data were measured on each of the 3

U-turn slots along EDSA. Video cameras were setup in the

field to record traffic data. The traffic operations data

collected is in the span of 10 hours per U-turn slot for a total

of 30 hours of traffic data. The recorded videos were later

reviewed in the workroom. From these video files, each

vehicle approaching on the highway passing along the Uturn slot and vehicles taking the U-turn slot was counted

manually. Following are the parameters that were gathered

2.6 Data Analysis

The traffic operations data was reviewed and then analyzed

by the researchers carefully. It was done by inputting the

calculated data such as the traffic volume, travel time and

delay in Microsoft Excel. Creating a regression model or

equation relating traffic volume and delay is one of the key

factors of this study. The 15-minute time interval was

adopted for model development in this study to be consistent

with the Highway Capacity Manual procedures. The

researchers conducted a model development by using

correlation matrices and regression using Microsoft Excel in

order to determine the statistical relationship of these

variables. From the regression results, it can be determined

if the data are significantly related with each other. The

resulting data was then tabulated and presented graphically

with the use of relationship charts. Significant differences in

the data regarding the observed parameters were assessed.

The findings were evaluated to come up with valid

conclusions and possible recommendations to be discussed

in the following chapters.

The conflicting traffic volume and the U-turning traffic

volume were manually counted by the researchers by

reviewing the recorded videos. The U-turning travel time

was recorded by timing each vehicle that utilizes the slot

from a certain point when a vehicle decelerates to take the

U-turn slot and accelerates to fully traverse it. The average

U-turning delay was calculated by subtracting the actual

turning travel time with the ideal turning travel time. The

ideal travel time was obtained by the floating car technique.

The geometric characteristics of the U-turn slot were also

measured by the researchers in the field.

Table 1. General information of the U-turn slots

the 3 observed U-turn slots are shown. The researchers

measured the geometric characteristics in the field and found

out that each U-turn slots has similar median width of 5.5

meters but it varies on the opening length. The U-turn slot

on Balintawak has a median opening length of 12m. The Uturn slot which has the narrowest median opening length is

the one near General Tinio Footbridge with 11 meters while

the U-turn slot below General Malvar Footbridge has the

widest median opening length of 14 meters. The average

through traffic speed values were gathered from the traffic

Authority (MMDA) on their travel time survey by car along

EDSA. The survey was conducted on January 2014 and has

the average value of 35.68 km/h.

15-minute time interval

The data for the average ideal turning travel time with the

values of 7.13, 7.35 and 7.22 for the respective U-turn slots

were gathered with the use of the floating car technique. The

car used in this survey is owned by one the researchers who

are also the designated driver. The car is driven at base

condition which means it is done in the absence of incident,

control, traffic, or geometric delay. To simulate this kind of

environment the survey was done at the middle of the night

around 12:00 am.

3.2

Table 2. All of the tabulated data were gathered from 32

observations with 15-minute time intervals. It includes the

minimum, maximum, standard deviation and the average

values of conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic

volume and the average turning delay.

Table 2. Data ranges and their statistical characteristics using a

15-minute time interval

Table 3.

15-minute time interval

of the linear relationship between two variables. The

correlation matrix as can be seen from Table 3 shows a

high linear association between the conflicting traffic

volume and the average turning delay, with a correlation

coefficient of 0.769 and a relatively less linear association

with the turning traffic volume, with a correlation coefficient

of 0.674. Also, the conflicting traffic volume and turning

traffic volume has a correlation coefficient of 0.647 which

also has a significant linear association.

statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted

regression line. The value of the Adjusted R-squared is

equals to 62.11% which means there is a considerable

relationship between the variables used. The significance F

and the P-values are used to determine whether the results of

the regression are statistically significant. The table shows

that the value of significance F is 2.9381x10-7 which is

good because it is below 0.001. The P-values of the

conflicting traffic volume and the U-turning traffic volume

are reliable because their values are below 0.05 which means

that they are significant in a 95% confidence level while the

intercept fails the 95% confidence level with the value of

0.365 meaning that it will not be included in the developed

model. The coefficients of the conflicting traffic volume and

the U-turning traffic volume are the only values included in

the model development. The standard error of the estimate

(SEE) with the value of 0.145 is a measure of the accuracy

of predictions made with a regression line. A lower SEE

means the estimated values are closer with the actual values.

and U-turning traffic volume

The graph shown in Figure 1 shows a significant linear

association between the U-turning traffic volume and the

average turning delay while the graph on Figure 2 shows a

strong linear relationship between the conflicting traffic

volume and the average turning delay. The graphs also show

the predicted average turning delay from the regression

results.

32 observations because there were underlying factors

affecting the average turning delay of vehicles such as the

location for this U-turn slot is near a left turn intersection

being directed by MMDA traffic enforcers meaning there

were cases in which the U-turn slot is blocked by the

queuing traffic volume of the vehicles waiting for the go

signal of the officers for them to pass through the left turn

intersection.

Figure 2. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and

conflicting traffic volume

observation that shows minimal infractions brought by the

near left turn intersection meaning these observations are the

reliable data for model development.

The empirical model method which means that the model

was based entirely on data that were observed and measured

in the field was followed to form a regression model for

approximating the average U-Turning traffic delay that is

shown in the equation below.

Ln(Da) = 0.003891Vc + 0.008596Vu

(1)

where,

Da

Vc

Vu

The residual plots show the difference between the predicted

values from the actual values. The regression residuals were

plotted against the fitted delay value in Figure 3 and Figure

4. It can be seen that the values for the residuals are

randomly distributed along the horizontal axis which have

values of residuals that are close to zero showing that the

developed model was specified correctly and the

assumptions about the error term were not violated.

Figure 5. Graph of predicted turning delay versus measured

turning delay

: volume of conflicting vehicles (vehicles per

15 minutes)

: volume of u-turning vehicles (vehicles per

15 minutes)

confidence level and thus the model equation can be written

as:

Da = (..)

(2)

regression results done with 32 observations. From the

equation above, it is clear that the average delay is directly

proportional to the conflicting volume and the u-turning

volume. The equation has an exponential relationship

because an increase in the number of u-turning vehicles

would generate larger delay since it increases the chances of

forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the

leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing

traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,

decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating

more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps

to make their turns.

actual measured turning delays versus the predicted turning

delay. It can be seen that both of the element has a linear

association with each other.

also has a significant linear association.

Table 7. Regression results for the delay model using a

15-minute time interval

Figure 6 shows the exponential relationship of the U-turning

traffic delay versus the U-turning traffic volume with a

different given values of the conflicting traffic volume. This

graph was developed to help traffic engineers in estimating

the median U-turn treatment turning traffic delay as a

function of the turning traffic volume for different levels of

conflicting traffic volumes. The chart limits were chosen

based on the ranges of data used in developing the model,

and they do not take into account any extrapolations.

3.3

using a 15-minute time interval

Table 5. All of the tabulated data were gathered from 40

observations with 15-minute time intervals. It includes the

minimum, maximum, standard deviation and the average

values of conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic

volume and the average turning delay.

statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted

regression line. The value of the Adjusted R-squared is

equals to 74.57% which means there is a considerable

relationship between the variables used. The significance F

and the P-values are used to determine whether the results of

the regression are statistically significant. The table shows

that the value of significance F is 3.7425x10-12 which is

good because it is below 0.001. The P-values of the

conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic volume and the

intercept are reliable because their values are below 0.05

which means that they are significant in a 95% confidence

level.

The coefficients of the conflicting traffic volume, U-turning

traffic volume and the intercept are all included in the model

development. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) with

the value of 0.1085 is a measure of the accuracy of

predictions made with a regression line. A lower SEE means

the estimated values are closer with the actual values. All of

the calculations for the regression results were done with the

use of Microsoft Excel.

15-minute time interval

of the linear relationship between two variables. The

correlation matrix as can be seen from Table 6 shows a

high linear association between the conflicting traffic

volume and the average turning delay, with a correlation

coefficient of 0.85 and a relatively less linear association

with the turning traffic volume, with a correlation coefficient

of 0.637. Also, the conflicting traffic volume and turning

U-turning traffic volume

actual measured turning delays versus the predicted turning

delay. It can be seen that both of the element has a linear

association with each other.

conflicting traffic volume

The graph shown in Figure 7 shows a significant linear

association between the U-turning traffic volume and the

average turning delay while the graph on Figure 8 shows a

strong linear relationship between the conflicting traffic

volume and the average turning delay. The graph also shows

the predicted average turning delay from the regression

results.

observations because there were minimal underlying factors

affecting the average turning delay of vehicles such as the

location for this U-turn slot is away from signalized or nonsignalized intersections meaning that the U-turn slot is free

from queuing traffic volume of the vehicles.

A total 40 observations were chosen because these

observation shows minimal infractions brought by external

influences that can cause the data to be unreliable meaning

all of the data used for the model development are

significant.

The empirical model method which means that the model

was based entirely on data that were observed and measured

in the field was followed to form a regression model for

approximating the average U-Turning traffic delay that is

shown in the equation below.

Ln(Da) = 0.81950 + 0.00281Vc + 0.00416Vu

(3)

where,

Figure 9. Residual plot of the U-turning traffic volume

Da

Vc

15 minutes)

Vu

15 minutes)

The residual plots show the difference between the predicted

values from the actual values. The regression residuals were

plotted against the fitted delay value in Figure 9 and Figure

10. It can be seen that the values for the residuals are

randomly distributed along the horizontal axis which have

values of residuals that are close to zero showing that the

developed model was specified correctly and the

assumptions about the error term were not violated.

confidence level and thus the model equation can be written

as:

Da = (...)

(4)

regression results done with 40 observations. From the

equation above, it is clear that the average delay is directly

proportional to the conflicting volume and the u-turning

volume. An increase in the number of u-turning vehicles

would generate larger delay since it increases the chances of

forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the

leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing

traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,

decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating

more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps

to make their turns.

measured turning delay

coefficient of 0.6880 which has the highest linear

association.

Table 10. Regression results for the delay model using a

15-minute time interval

Figure 12 shows the exponential relationship of the Uturning traffic delay versus the U-turning traffic volume with

a different given values of the conflicting traffic volume.

This graph was developed to help traffic engineers in

estimating the median U-turn treatment turning traffic delay

as a function of the turning traffic volume for different levels

of conflicting traffic volumes. The chart limits were chosen

based on the ranges of data used in developing the model,

and they do not take into account any extrapolations.

3.4

using a 15-minute time interval

Table 8. All of the tabulated data were gathered from 40

observations with 15-minute time intervals. It includes the

minimum, maximum, standard deviation and the average

values of conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic

volume and the average turning delay.

statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted

regression line. The value of the Adjusted R-squared is

equals to 49.91% which means there is a considerable

relationship between the variables used. The significance F

and the P-values are used to determine whether the results of

the regression are statistically significant. The table shows

that the value of significance F is 1.05x10-6 which is good

because it is below 0.001. The P-values of the conflicting

traffic volume, U-turning traffic volume and the intercept are

reliable because their values are below 0.05 which means

that they are significant in a 95% confidence level.

The coefficients of the conflicting traffic volume, U-turning

traffic volume and the intercept are all included in the model

development. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) with

the value of 0.1287 is a measure of the accuracy of

predictions made with a regression line. A lower SEE means

the estimated values are closer with the actual values. All of

the calculation for the regression results were done with the

use of Microsoft Excel.

15-minute time interval

Figure 13. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and

U-turning traffic volume

The correlation coefficients are the measure of the strength

of the linear relationship between two variables. The

correlation matrix as can be seen from Table 9 shows a

significant linear association between the conflicting traffic

volume and the average turning delay, with a correlation

coefficient of 0.6658 and a moderately less linear

association with the turning traffic volume, with a

correlation coefficient of 0.6653. Also, the conflicting traffic

actual measured turning delays versus the predicted turning

delay. It can be seen that both of the element has a linear

association with each other.

Figure 14. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and

conflicting traffic volume

The graph shown in Figure 13 shows a significant linear

association between the U-turning traffic volume and the

average turning delay while the graph on Figure 14 shows a

strong linear relationship between the conflicting traffic

volume and the average turning delay. The graphs also show

the predicted average turning delay from the regression

results.

observations because there were minimal underlying factors

affecting the average turning delay of vehicles such as the

location for this U-turn slot is away from signalized or nonsignalized intersections meaning that the U-turn slot is free

from queuing traffic volume of the vehicles.

A total 40 observations were chosen because these

observation shows minimal infractions brought by external

influences that can cause the data to be unreliable meaning

all of the data used for the model development are

significant.

The empirical model method which means that the model

was based entirely on data that were observed and measured

in the field was followed to form a regression model for

approximating the average U-Turning traffic delay that is

shown in the equation below.

Ln(Da) = 0.95223 + 0.00194Vc + 0.00711Vu

(5)

where,

Figure 15. Residual plot of the U-turning traffic volume

Da

Vc

Vu

: volume of conflicting vehicles (vehicles per

15 minutes)

: volume of u-turning vehicles (vehicles per

15 minutes)

confidence level and thus the model equation can be written

as:

The residual plots show the difference between the predicted

values from the actual values. The regression residuals were

plotted against the fitted delay value in Figure 15 and Figure

16. It can be seen that the values for the residuals are

randomly distributed along the horizontal axis which have

values of residuals that are close to zero showing that the

developed model was specified correctly and the

assumptions about the error term were not violated.

Da = (.. . )

(6)

regression results done with 40 observations. From the

equation above, it is clear that the average delay is directly

proportional to the conflicting volume and the u-turning

volume. An increase in the number of u-turning vehicles

would generate larger delay since it increases the chances of

forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the

leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing

traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,

decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating

more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps

to make their turns.

turning delay

same direction.

Another undesirable traffic behavior is from jeepney drivers

taking the U-turn slot, they frequently generate more travel

time delay for both u-turning traffic volume and conflicting

traffic volume because of the weaving and larger turning

radius patterns they take so that they can load and unload

passengers on the outer lane of the highway across the Uturn slot. Also, if the conflicting traffic and through traffic

motorists do not take up most of the inner lane of the

highway, the delay experienced by the U-turning vehicles

will lessen because they can traverse the U-turn slot with

minimal disturbance.

Figure 18 shows the exponential relationship of the Uturning traffic delay versus the U-turning traffic volume with

a different given values of the conflicting traffic volume.

This graph was developed to help traffic engineers in

estimating the median U-turn treatment turning traffic delay

as a function of the turning traffic volume for different levels

of conflicting traffic volumes. The chart limits were chosen

based on the ranges of data used in developing the model,

and they do not take into account any extrapolations.

4 CONCLUSION

The conflicting traffic volume has a relatively high linear

association with turning traffic delay while u-turning traffic

volume has a significant but less linear association with

turning traffic delay which may only be true for the collected

data. The developed delay model that describes the turning

traffic delay as a function of the turning traffic volume for

different levels of conflicting traffic volume can help traffic

institutions, engineers and designers in estimating the U-turn

slot treatment and make an educated decision about the

design and location of median U-turn intersections for its

improvement.

An increase in the number of u-turning vehicles would

generate larger delay since it increases the chances of

forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the

leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing

traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,

decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating

more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps

to make their turns.

From the video observation of the researchers, the discipline

of the motorist plays an important role in the effectiveness of

U-turn slots, it can be concluded that the occurrence of

undesirable traffic behavior increase as the length of median

opening increases. This undesirable traffic behavior arises

from the competition for limited space on the median

roadway between drivers traveling through the median in the

away from intersections for highways with high traffic

volumes because in the case of the U-turn slot near General

Tinio Footbridge, the queuing vehicles on the side of the Uturn slot tends to block the u-turning traffic which causes the

U-turning vehicles to experience an extended turning travel

time.

REFERENCES

Liu, Pan (2006) Evaluation of the Operational Effects of Uturn Movement. Graduate School Theses and

Dissertations. University of South Florida.

Jagannathan, Ram (2007) Synthesis of the Median U-turn

Intersection Treatment, Safety and Operational Benefits.

3rd Urban Street Symposium. Seattle, Washington.

Al-Omari, B. K. Al-Akhras (2014)Delay Model for U-Turn

Movement at Median Openings on Multilane Highways.

ITE Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3: 42-47

Liu, P., J.J. Lu, F. Hu, and G. Sokolow (2008) Capacity of

U-Turn Movement at Median Openings on Multilane

Highways. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.

134, No. 4: 147-154

Al-Masaeid, H.R. (1999) Capacity of U-Turn at Median

Openings. ITE Journal, Vol. 69, No. 6:2834.

Bared, J. G. and Kaisar, E. I. (2002) Median U-turn Design

as an Alternative Treatment for Left Turns at Signalized

Intersections. ITE Journal, 50-54

Potts, I.B., Harwood, D.W., Torbic D.J., Richard, K.R.,

Gluck, J.S., and Levinson, H.S. (2004). Safety of U-turns

at Unsignalized Median Opening. NCHRP Report 524,

National Cooperative Highway Research Program, TRB,

National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Zhou, H., Hsu, P., and Lu, J., (2003) Optimal Location of Uturn Median Openings on Roadways

Transportation, Research Record, Transportation Research

Board, National Research Council, Washington D.C.

Crawford, J. A., et al. (2011) A Michigan Toolbox for

Mitigating Traffic Congestion. Texas Transportation

Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station.

- Spss13 CorrelationUploaded byBobby Bintara
- Statistics Course Outline- Uttam GolderUploaded byUttam Golder
- True_False11.pdfUploaded bybersam05
- online ticktingUploaded byChandan Parsad
- Quantative TechniqesUploaded bysaeed meo
- Clase Regresión LinealUploaded byLuis G. Rivera
- L4&5 Multiple Regression 2010BUploaded byNguyen Huynh
- Lecture 8 and 9 Regression Correlation and IndexUploaded byআসিফ বিন মনজুর
- Principles and Risks of Forecasting-Robert NauUploaded bylelouch
- 11410012_Bab_2 uiUploaded byRandy Apriano
- Auditor Fee SpecializationUploaded byBo Cheng
- gld-opt-7AUploaded byfelixprabu
- Verdi Financial ReportingUploaded byMostafa Monzur Hasan
- C1E3_110725Uploaded byЕкатерина Браилица
- EconoUploaded byaslamkatohar
- Factors Affecting the Vitality of Employees in Water and Wastewater Company of Tehran Province, IranUploaded byTI Journals Publishing
- multiple_correlation_coefficient.pdfUploaded byCleber
- 10.1108@14013381111157328(1)Uploaded byMuhammad Afzal Khilji
- 2b Multiple Linear RegressionUploaded byNamita Dey
- Chapter_5Uploaded byNdomadu
- SPE-104543-MS-PUploaded byali
- P3 Acowtancy Notes - 186pUploaded bywedaje2003
- 18.pdfUploaded bysagor
- Week3 HandoutTable of Selecting Proper Stat TestsUploaded byAndrei Corniciuc
- Final ReportUploaded byred8blue8
- m.a Economics 2012 13 NewUploaded byChandrakant
- exposure_to_political_advertising (1).pdfUploaded byJane Sampiano
- Demo Lesson Plan for in Math 11 - Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient 1Uploaded byLira Amansec
- CorrelationUploaded byanand
- The results of drugsUploaded byAgastopia Infinite

- FrameUploaded bythanzawtun1981
- Investing 101Uploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Korean ModUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- QUANTITY DISTANCE.docUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- UnsolProp B Unsol TimelineUploaded byHarvey Dychiao
- BfE 5 Sanitary FacilitiesUploaded byCharo Lionell
- ASDDSDUploaded byShannen Khrisha De Jesus
- pDFgovernmentContractingPart1.pdfUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- 2013 Revised JV GuidelinesUploaded byChin Tecson
- SECLUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- 01-PBD_16F-DOTCConfRmRnv_FINAL-9-1.pdfUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Google Earth Property SurveyingUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- cpes ppaUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- 14_0312-1955 POW - Dredging (H.O.)Uploaded byCo Kho Martin
- No. 14 & 16 Drainage Projects, Dredging, Excavation, Land ReclamationUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- EIS Pasay Harbor ReclamationUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- 2013 Revised JV GuidelinesUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Design 0f Residential BuildingUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Quality Policy StatementUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Pump CalculationUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- bid documentsUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- RevitWorkbook.pdfUploaded byAbdallah Hajj
- Topic 6 - Ms. Amelia S. Dela RosaUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Topic 9 - Engr. Juanito C. CunananUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Design and Drawing of RC StructuresUploaded byCo Kho Martin
- Unsolicited proposalUploaded byCo Kho Martin

- 10.1.1.663.2321Uploaded byo2couk
- non-parametricUploaded byomr7
- Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control for a Nonlinear Electro-hydraulic SystemUploaded bycl108
- PERFROMANCE CALCS TOP Calculating Confidence Intervals for the AHRQ QIUploaded byPassFam14
- APICS-2Uploaded bysiqb004
- A Little Book of r for Time SeriesUploaded byApoorva
- Shill Bidding Empirical Evidence of ItsUploaded byAnonymous BdH65yhF
- SPSS Tutorial: A detailed ExplanationUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Voluntary-corporate-liquidations_1987_Journal-of-Financial-Economics.pdfUploaded byZhang Peilin
- RM Question Bank. (2)Uploaded byJai Gupta
- Math533 Final ReviewUploaded byMustufa Husain
- least square methodUploaded byOmar Ayoub
- Endogeneity and Instrumental VariablesUploaded byjustin bal
- Pica-Daniel-Homework-2.docxUploaded bymitroivlad
- Vijayalakshmi ProjectUploaded byfayazca
- Strain Gauge MeasurementUploaded bygabrielhii1995
- Adiya IndiaUploaded bysbb_241588
- engstatPS2Uploaded byCha Tingjuy
- Understanding Repeated-Measures ANOVA.pdfUploaded bywahida_halim
- Tips and Strategies for Mixed Modeling With SAS STAT ProcedureUploaded byarijitroy
- Time SeriesUploaded byCorlise le Roux
- Industrial Application of Data ReconciliationUploaded bynorbert90
- DSC2008 Exam 2014 Apr (With Answers)Uploaded byDaryl Stark
- Assignment 3Uploaded byYatt Usagi
- punya dhea.docxUploaded byNabila Fitri
- Influence of Job Satisfaction and Codes of Ethics on Integrity Among POLICE OFFICERUploaded byMuhammad Zulkhairi
- Girimaji APS 2011 UQ TurbulenceUploaded bypaganinionspeed
- Applied Statistics BUS173Uploaded byAnonymous 0PxFf89E
- An Introduction to BootstrapUploaded byjotaalex
- TrilaterationUploaded byGinanjar Suwasono