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OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MEDIAN U-TURN

INTERSECTIONS AS TRAFFIC CONTROL FACILITY IN EDSA


Riches S. Bacero 1, Eddie T. Choa 1, Bryan Allen J. Jose 1, Roel S. Malaqui 1

School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, 1002,
Philippines

Abstract : U-turn slots are used as traffic control facilities that are only suitable for a certain number of vehicles to establish
their turns. The study analyzed the operational performance of median U-turn intersections as a traffic control facility in
EDSA. Traffic operation data were collected and field measurements were conducted on three consecutive U-turn slots. The
data obtained were used to create a regression model, a practical chart that could help traffic engineers in estimating the Uturn slot treatment in turning traffic delay as a function of the turning traffic volume for different levels of conflicting traffic
volumes. This study will also guide the authorities on how to provide solutions on alleviating heavy traffic with the developed
model and proposed recommendations for the U-turn slots.

Keywords : Transportation, Performance Analysis, U-turn, Traffic Control


1

INTRODUCTION

Metro Manila is well-known for its traffic jams with trips


averaging at speeds as low as 7-10 kilometers per hour. A
trip that normally takes 25 minutes will last an hour or more
especially during peak hours. As a result, the Metropolitan
Manila Development Authority (MMDA) has implemented
various projects to alleviate traffic congestion. The
implementation of the U-turn slots along Metro Manila
started during the term of Bayani Fernando as part of the
agencys actions to improve the flow of traffic. The
comprehensive application of the scheme resulted in
shutting down of many intersections and the suspension of
traffic signal operations in support of the system of median
openings.
From an engineers analytical perspective, these U-turn slots
are valuable because it keeps the flow of traffic moving.
Cars dont need to stop at intersections so its more
convenient for motorists who would go through and not
make a turn. The concept of U-turn as a substitute to direct
left turn movement is a relatively innovative approach and
has only been recently implemented in numerous locations.
Depending on the design this eradicates either all the left
turn movements at an intersection or only left turns onto
arterials from cross streets. In highway engineering, we use
U-turns as traffic control facilities; these involve definite
number of vehicles to establish these turns. However, if the
number of vehicles meets or exceeds the requirement for
these turns, it causes traffic congestion from all directions.
The goal of this research is to analyze and evaluate the
operational performance of Median U-turn Intersection as a
traffic control facility in EDSA from Monumento to
Balintawak and propose solutions to alleviate traffic
congestion. In relation to this result, the evaluation for
effectiveness of U-turn slots could be addressed.

RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1 Population/Sample
The survey is done by counting vehicles. The researchers
considered the fact that there are various kinds of vehicles
taking the U-turn Slot such as motorcycles, tricycles,
passenger cars, vans, trucks and buses. It was decided that
the study is mainly focused on 4-wheeled vehicles and
above which are utilizing and passing along the slot. The
study is neglecting vehicles such as motorcycles because of
their insignificant size and tricycles because it was observed
that it had a low occurrence. The number of vehicles passing
along the U-turn slot is called the Through/Conflicting
Traffic Volume while the number of vehicles utilizing the
U-turn slot is called the U-turn Traffic Volume.
2.2 Sampling Day and Time
In order to collect traffic operations data, extensive field
measurements were conducted. A total of 30 hours of traffic
operations data was collected, 10 hours for each U-turn Slot.
The survey was conducted during weekdays mainly during
the morning and evening peak traffic hours which is around
7:00 am to 10:00 am and 5:00 pm to 8:00 pm respectively.
The survey also includes noon or off peak hours which is
around 12:00 pm to 3:00 pm but it has less traffic operations
data. The researchers believe that the indicated day and time
is the most effective parameter in order to gather substantial
traffic operations data because the traffic congestion during
the indicated periods is to be expected. Therefore this is
when the U-turn slots will be utilized by motorist the most.
Traffic operations data were not collected during inclement
weather, flood or unusual traffic conditions on the road.
2.3 Research Instrument and Design
The researchers collected traffic operations data with the use
of a video camera and tripod. The video camera record a
view that shows the through or conflicting traffic volume
and U-turn traffic volume. Video camera on the first U-turn

slot was set up at General Tinio Footbridge; the sight is


overlooking the U-turn slot and has an adequate viewing
height therefore it is a great area for survey. On the second
U-turn slot, the video camera was set up at General Malvar
Footbridge; the sight is also overlooking the U-turn slot and
has an adequate viewing height. The third U-turn slot was
recorded at the side of the south bound lane of EDSA in a
parking lot. To achieve an adequate viewing height, the
video camera and tripod was set up on top of a car.
The researchers made use of another method called Floating
Car Technique. It is one of the most common travel-time
collection technique employed to date. This technique
consists of hiring a driver and vehicle to drive a vehicle
along a preselected route and measuring the elapsed time
and distance traversed. The driver is instructed to pass as
many vehicles as pass him or her so that the vehicle is in
effect driving at the median speed of traffic (Federal
Highway Administration, 2013). Another person will
accompany the driver to record the travel time and distance
travelled to collect traffic operations data. Although this
technique is used most commonly on arterial roads, the
researchers tested it for traversing U-turn slots. The car used
in this survey is owned by one of the researchers who is also
the designated driver. The car is driven at base conditions
which mean it is done in the absence of incident, control,
traffic, or geometric delay. This technique was used to
determine the ideal travel time of a vehicle that utilizes the
U-turn slot; it was done during midnight with multiple test
runs to avoid infractions.
The ideal travel time is the hypothetical travel time that the
researchers calculated based on the test runs which mean
that it varies for the three different U-turn slots evaluated.
Also, the researchers were able to gather traffic operations
data from traffic institutions such as MMDA and DPWH on
the said location for extensive range of data collection.
2.4 Traffic Analysis
The study sites and data collection periods were chosen
carefully to cover different ranges of data for traffic volumes,
travel time and delay to increase the validity of the
developed models. The researchers have gathered the
following parameters as quantitative data. The following are
measures of effectiveness and tools to analyze traffic flow to
evaluate the operational performance of U-turn slots:
average travel time, average delay, volume of traffic, traffic
speed, and geometric characteristics.
2.5 Data from Recordings
Delay and travel time data were measured on each of the 3
U-turn slots along EDSA. Video cameras were setup in the
field to record traffic data. The traffic operations data
collected is in the span of 10 hours per U-turn slot for a total
of 30 hours of traffic data. The recorded videos were later
reviewed in the workroom. From these video files, each
vehicle approaching on the highway passing along the Uturn slot and vehicles taking the U-turn slot was counted
manually. Following are the parameters that were gathered

while reviewing the recorded videos.


2.6 Data Analysis
The traffic operations data was reviewed and then analyzed
by the researchers carefully. It was done by inputting the
calculated data such as the traffic volume, travel time and
delay in Microsoft Excel. Creating a regression model or
equation relating traffic volume and delay is one of the key
factors of this study. The 15-minute time interval was
adopted for model development in this study to be consistent
with the Highway Capacity Manual procedures. The
researchers conducted a model development by using
correlation matrices and regression using Microsoft Excel in
order to determine the statistical relationship of these
variables. From the regression results, it can be determined
if the data are significantly related with each other. The
resulting data was then tabulated and presented graphically
with the use of relationship charts. Significant differences in
the data regarding the observed parameters were assessed.
The findings were evaluated to come up with valid
conclusions and possible recommendations to be discussed
in the following chapters.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Traffic Operations Data


The conflicting traffic volume and the U-turning traffic
volume were manually counted by the researchers by
reviewing the recorded videos. The U-turning travel time
was recorded by timing each vehicle that utilizes the slot
from a certain point when a vehicle decelerates to take the
U-turn slot and accelerates to fully traverse it. The average
U-turning delay was calculated by subtracting the actual
turning travel time with the ideal turning travel time. The
ideal travel time was obtained by the floating car technique.
The geometric characteristics of the U-turn slot were also
measured by the researchers in the field.
Table 1. General information of the U-turn slots

As indicated in the Table 1, the geometric characteristics for


the 3 observed U-turn slots are shown. The researchers
measured the geometric characteristics in the field and found
out that each U-turn slots has similar median width of 5.5
meters but it varies on the opening length. The U-turn slot
on Balintawak has a median opening length of 12m. The Uturn slot which has the narrowest median opening length is
the one near General Tinio Footbridge with 11 meters while
the U-turn slot below General Malvar Footbridge has the
widest median opening length of 14 meters. The average
through traffic speed values were gathered from the traffic

operations data of the Metropolitan Manila Development


Authority (MMDA) on their travel time survey by car along
EDSA. The survey was conducted on January 2014 and has
the average value of 35.68 km/h.

Table 4. Regression results for the delay model using a


15-minute time interval

The data for the average ideal turning travel time with the
values of 7.13, 7.35 and 7.22 for the respective U-turn slots
were gathered with the use of the floating car technique. The
car used in this survey is owned by one the researchers who
are also the designated driver. The car is driven at base
condition which means it is done in the absence of incident,
control, traffic, or geometric delay. To simulate this kind of
environment the survey was done at the middle of the night
around 12:00 am.
3.2

General Tinio U-turn Slot

The descriptive statistics of the variables can be seen in


Table 2. All of the tabulated data were gathered from 32
observations with 15-minute time intervals. It includes the
minimum, maximum, standard deviation and the average
values of conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic
volume and the average turning delay.
Table 2. Data ranges and their statistical characteristics using a
15-minute time interval

Table 3.

Correlation Matrix for the model variables using a


15-minute time interval

The correlation coefficients are the measure of the strength


of the linear relationship between two variables. The
correlation matrix as can be seen from Table 3 shows a
high linear association between the conflicting traffic
volume and the average turning delay, with a correlation
coefficient of 0.769 and a relatively less linear association
with the turning traffic volume, with a correlation coefficient
of 0.674. Also, the conflicting traffic volume and turning
traffic volume has a correlation coefficient of 0.647 which
also has a significant linear association.

Regression results are shown in Table 4. R-squared is a


statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted
regression line. The value of the Adjusted R-squared is
equals to 62.11% which means there is a considerable
relationship between the variables used. The significance F
and the P-values are used to determine whether the results of
the regression are statistically significant. The table shows
that the value of significance F is 2.9381x10-7 which is
good because it is below 0.001. The P-values of the
conflicting traffic volume and the U-turning traffic volume
are reliable because their values are below 0.05 which means
that they are significant in a 95% confidence level while the
intercept fails the 95% confidence level with the value of
0.365 meaning that it will not be included in the developed
model. The coefficients of the conflicting traffic volume and
the U-turning traffic volume are the only values included in
the model development. The standard error of the estimate
(SEE) with the value of 0.145 is a measure of the accuracy
of predictions made with a regression line. A lower SEE
means the estimated values are closer with the actual values.

Figure 1. Line fit plots of the average turning delay


and U-turning traffic volume
The graph shown in Figure 1 shows a significant linear
association between the U-turning traffic volume and the
average turning delay while the graph on Figure 2 shows a
strong linear relationship between the conflicting traffic
volume and the average turning delay. The graphs also show
the predicted average turning delay from the regression
results.

The regression of the developed delay model only includes


32 observations because there were underlying factors
affecting the average turning delay of vehicles such as the
location for this U-turn slot is near a left turn intersection
being directed by MMDA traffic enforcers meaning there
were cases in which the U-turn slot is blocked by the
queuing traffic volume of the vehicles waiting for the go
signal of the officers for them to pass through the left turn
intersection.
Figure 2. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and
conflicting traffic volume

The 32 observations were chosen because they are only


observation that shows minimal infractions brought by the
near left turn intersection meaning these observations are the
reliable data for model development.
The empirical model method which means that the model
was based entirely on data that were observed and measured
in the field was followed to form a regression model for
approximating the average U-Turning traffic delay that is
shown in the equation below.

Figure 3. Residual plot of the U-turning traffic volume


Ln(Da) = 0.003891Vc + 0.008596Vu

(1)

where,
Da
Vc
Vu

Figure 4. Residual plot of the conflicting traffic volume


The residual plots show the difference between the predicted
values from the actual values. The regression residuals were
plotted against the fitted delay value in Figure 3 and Figure
4. It can be seen that the values for the residuals are
randomly distributed along the horizontal axis which have
values of residuals that are close to zero showing that the
developed model was specified correctly and the
assumptions about the error term were not violated.
Figure 5. Graph of predicted turning delay versus measured
turning delay

: average delay of u-turning vehicles (s/veh)


: volume of conflicting vehicles (vehicles per
15 minutes)
: volume of u-turning vehicles (vehicles per
15 minutes)

The models coefficient are significant at 95 percent


confidence level and thus the model equation can be written
as:
Da = (..)
(2)

The coefficients for the developed model are from the


regression results done with 32 observations. From the
equation above, it is clear that the average delay is directly
proportional to the conflicting volume and the u-turning
volume. The equation has an exponential relationship
because an increase in the number of u-turning vehicles
would generate larger delay since it increases the chances of
forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the
leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing
traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,
decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating
more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps
to make their turns.

The graph on Figure 5 shows the relationship between the


actual measured turning delays versus the predicted turning
delay. It can be seen that both of the element has a linear
association with each other.

traffic volume has a correlation coefficient of 0.0.564 which


also has a significant linear association.
Table 7. Regression results for the delay model using a
15-minute time interval

Figure 6. Graph of the developed delay model equation


Figure 6 shows the exponential relationship of the U-turning
traffic delay versus the U-turning traffic volume with a
different given values of the conflicting traffic volume. This
graph was developed to help traffic engineers in estimating
the median U-turn treatment turning traffic delay as a
function of the turning traffic volume for different levels of
conflicting traffic volumes. The chart limits were chosen
based on the ranges of data used in developing the model,
and they do not take into account any extrapolations.
3.3

General Malvar U-Turn Slot

Table 5. Data ranges and their statistical characteristics


using a 15-minute time interval

The descriptive statistics of the variables can be seen in


Table 5. All of the tabulated data were gathered from 40
observations with 15-minute time intervals. It includes the
minimum, maximum, standard deviation and the average
values of conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic
volume and the average turning delay.

Regression results are shown in Table 7. R-squared is a


statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted
regression line. The value of the Adjusted R-squared is
equals to 74.57% which means there is a considerable
relationship between the variables used. The significance F
and the P-values are used to determine whether the results of
the regression are statistically significant. The table shows
that the value of significance F is 3.7425x10-12 which is
good because it is below 0.001. The P-values of the
conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic volume and the
intercept are reliable because their values are below 0.05
which means that they are significant in a 95% confidence
level.
The coefficients of the conflicting traffic volume, U-turning
traffic volume and the intercept are all included in the model
development. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) with
the value of 0.1085 is a measure of the accuracy of
predictions made with a regression line. A lower SEE means
the estimated values are closer with the actual values. All of
the calculations for the regression results were done with the
use of Microsoft Excel.

Table 6. Correlation Matrix for the model variables using a


15-minute time interval

The correlation coefficients are the measure of the strength


of the linear relationship between two variables. The
correlation matrix as can be seen from Table 6 shows a
high linear association between the conflicting traffic
volume and the average turning delay, with a correlation
coefficient of 0.85 and a relatively less linear association
with the turning traffic volume, with a correlation coefficient
of 0.637. Also, the conflicting traffic volume and turning

Figure 7. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and


U-turning traffic volume

The graph on Figure 11 shows the relationship between the


actual measured turning delays versus the predicted turning
delay. It can be seen that both of the element has a linear
association with each other.

Figure 8. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and


conflicting traffic volume
The graph shown in Figure 7 shows a significant linear
association between the U-turning traffic volume and the
average turning delay while the graph on Figure 8 shows a
strong linear relationship between the conflicting traffic
volume and the average turning delay. The graph also shows
the predicted average turning delay from the regression
results.

The regression of the developed delay model includes 40


observations because there were minimal underlying factors
affecting the average turning delay of vehicles such as the
location for this U-turn slot is away from signalized or nonsignalized intersections meaning that the U-turn slot is free
from queuing traffic volume of the vehicles.
A total 40 observations were chosen because these
observation shows minimal infractions brought by external
influences that can cause the data to be unreliable meaning
all of the data used for the model development are
significant.
The empirical model method which means that the model
was based entirely on data that were observed and measured
in the field was followed to form a regression model for
approximating the average U-Turning traffic delay that is
shown in the equation below.
Ln(Da) = 0.81950 + 0.00281Vc + 0.00416Vu

(3)

where,
Figure 9. Residual plot of the U-turning traffic volume
Da

: average delay of u-turning vehicles (s/veh)

Vc

: volume of conflicting vehicles (vehicles per


15 minutes)

Vu

: volume of u-turning vehicles (vehicles per


15 minutes)

Figure 10. Residual plot of the Conflicting traffic volume


The residual plots show the difference between the predicted
values from the actual values. The regression residuals were
plotted against the fitted delay value in Figure 9 and Figure
10. It can be seen that the values for the residuals are
randomly distributed along the horizontal axis which have
values of residuals that are close to zero showing that the
developed model was specified correctly and the
assumptions about the error term were not violated.

The models coefficient is significant at 95 percent


confidence level and thus the model equation can be written
as:
Da = (...)

(4)

The coefficients for the developed model are from the


regression results done with 40 observations. From the
equation above, it is clear that the average delay is directly
proportional to the conflicting volume and the u-turning
volume. An increase in the number of u-turning vehicles
would generate larger delay since it increases the chances of
forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the
leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing
traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,
decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating
more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps
to make their turns.

Figure 11. Graph of predicted turning delay versus


measured turning delay

volume and turning traffic volume has a correlation


coefficient of 0.6880 which has the highest linear
association.
Table 10. Regression results for the delay model using a
15-minute time interval

Figure 12. Graph of the developed delay model equation


Figure 12 shows the exponential relationship of the Uturning traffic delay versus the U-turning traffic volume with
a different given values of the conflicting traffic volume.
This graph was developed to help traffic engineers in
estimating the median U-turn treatment turning traffic delay
as a function of the turning traffic volume for different levels
of conflicting traffic volumes. The chart limits were chosen
based on the ranges of data used in developing the model,
and they do not take into account any extrapolations.
3.4

Balintawak U-Turn Slot

Table 8. Data ranges and their statistical characteristics


using a 15-minute time interval

The descriptive statistics of the variables can be seen in


Table 8. All of the tabulated data were gathered from 40
observations with 15-minute time intervals. It includes the
minimum, maximum, standard deviation and the average
values of conflicting traffic volume, U-turning traffic
volume and the average turning delay.

Regression results are shown in Table 10. R-squared is a


statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted
regression line. The value of the Adjusted R-squared is
equals to 49.91% which means there is a considerable
relationship between the variables used. The significance F
and the P-values are used to determine whether the results of
the regression are statistically significant. The table shows
that the value of significance F is 1.05x10-6 which is good
because it is below 0.001. The P-values of the conflicting
traffic volume, U-turning traffic volume and the intercept are
reliable because their values are below 0.05 which means
that they are significant in a 95% confidence level.
The coefficients of the conflicting traffic volume, U-turning
traffic volume and the intercept are all included in the model
development. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) with
the value of 0.1287 is a measure of the accuracy of
predictions made with a regression line. A lower SEE means
the estimated values are closer with the actual values. All of
the calculation for the regression results were done with the
use of Microsoft Excel.

Table 9. Correlation Matrix for the model variables using a


15-minute time interval

Figure 13. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and
U-turning traffic volume
The correlation coefficients are the measure of the strength
of the linear relationship between two variables. The
correlation matrix as can be seen from Table 9 shows a
significant linear association between the conflicting traffic
volume and the average turning delay, with a correlation
coefficient of 0.6658 and a moderately less linear
association with the turning traffic volume, with a
correlation coefficient of 0.6653. Also, the conflicting traffic

The graph on Figure 17 shows the relationship between the


actual measured turning delays versus the predicted turning
delay. It can be seen that both of the element has a linear
association with each other.

Figure 14. Line fit plots of the average turning delay and
conflicting traffic volume
The graph shown in Figure 13 shows a significant linear
association between the U-turning traffic volume and the
average turning delay while the graph on Figure 14 shows a
strong linear relationship between the conflicting traffic
volume and the average turning delay. The graphs also show
the predicted average turning delay from the regression
results.

The regression of the developed delay model includes 40


observations because there were minimal underlying factors
affecting the average turning delay of vehicles such as the
location for this U-turn slot is away from signalized or nonsignalized intersections meaning that the U-turn slot is free
from queuing traffic volume of the vehicles.
A total 40 observations were chosen because these
observation shows minimal infractions brought by external
influences that can cause the data to be unreliable meaning
all of the data used for the model development are
significant.
The empirical model method which means that the model
was based entirely on data that were observed and measured
in the field was followed to form a regression model for
approximating the average U-Turning traffic delay that is
shown in the equation below.
Ln(Da) = 0.95223 + 0.00194Vc + 0.00711Vu

(5)

where,
Figure 15. Residual plot of the U-turning traffic volume

Da
Vc
Vu

: average delay of u-turning vehicles (s/veh)


: volume of conflicting vehicles (vehicles per
15 minutes)
: volume of u-turning vehicles (vehicles per
15 minutes)

The models coefficient is significant at 95 percent


confidence level and thus the model equation can be written
as:

Figure 16. Residual plot of the Conflicting traffic volume


The residual plots show the difference between the predicted
values from the actual values. The regression residuals were
plotted against the fitted delay value in Figure 15 and Figure
16. It can be seen that the values for the residuals are
randomly distributed along the horizontal axis which have
values of residuals that are close to zero showing that the
developed model was specified correctly and the
assumptions about the error term were not violated.

Da = (.. . )

(6)

The coefficients for the developed model are from the


regression results done with 40 observations. From the
equation above, it is clear that the average delay is directly
proportional to the conflicting volume and the u-turning
volume. An increase in the number of u-turning vehicles
would generate larger delay since it increases the chances of
forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the
leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing
traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,
decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating
more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps
to make their turns.

Figure 17. Graph of predicted turning delay versus measured


turning delay

same direction.
Another undesirable traffic behavior is from jeepney drivers
taking the U-turn slot, they frequently generate more travel
time delay for both u-turning traffic volume and conflicting
traffic volume because of the weaving and larger turning
radius patterns they take so that they can load and unload
passengers on the outer lane of the highway across the Uturn slot. Also, if the conflicting traffic and through traffic
motorists do not take up most of the inner lane of the
highway, the delay experienced by the U-turning vehicles
will lessen because they can traverse the U-turn slot with
minimal disturbance.

Figure 18. Graph of the developed delay model equation.


Figure 18 shows the exponential relationship of the Uturning traffic delay versus the U-turning traffic volume with
a different given values of the conflicting traffic volume.
This graph was developed to help traffic engineers in
estimating the median U-turn treatment turning traffic delay
as a function of the turning traffic volume for different levels
of conflicting traffic volumes. The chart limits were chosen
based on the ranges of data used in developing the model,
and they do not take into account any extrapolations.

4 CONCLUSION
The conflicting traffic volume has a relatively high linear
association with turning traffic delay while u-turning traffic
volume has a significant but less linear association with
turning traffic delay which may only be true for the collected
data. The developed delay model that describes the turning
traffic delay as a function of the turning traffic volume for
different levels of conflicting traffic volume can help traffic
institutions, engineers and designers in estimating the U-turn
slot treatment and make an educated decision about the
design and location of median U-turn intersections for its
improvement.
An increase in the number of u-turning vehicles would
generate larger delay since it increases the chances of
forming queues in the median U-turn storage behind the
leading vehicles that are waiting to merge with the opposing
traffic. Also as the conflicting traffic volume increases,
decrease in gaps between vehicles occur, thus generating
more time of delay as they wait to find an appropriate gaps
to make their turns.
From the video observation of the researchers, the discipline
of the motorist plays an important role in the effectiveness of
U-turn slots, it can be concluded that the occurrence of
undesirable traffic behavior increase as the length of median
opening increases. This undesirable traffic behavior arises
from the competition for limited space on the median
roadway between drivers traveling through the median in the

It would be wise to build median U-turn intersections farther


away from intersections for highways with high traffic
volumes because in the case of the U-turn slot near General
Tinio Footbridge, the queuing vehicles on the side of the Uturn slot tends to block the u-turning traffic which causes the
U-turning vehicles to experience an extended turning travel
time.

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