Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

Tech seminar commerce

m-

CONTENT

-1-

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

-2-

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

-3-

Abstract
M-Commerce
Advances in e-commerce have resulted in progress towards strategies,requirements and development of e-commerce application. Nearly all the e-commerce applications envisioned so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure, such as a browser on PC connected to the internet using phone lines on LAN.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce -4Many people do not use a PC outside the office, but keep the mobile phone at their side all the times. Mobile commerce is perfect for this group.M-commerce allows one to reach the consumer directly, not his fax machine, his desk, his secretary or his mailbox, but ones consumer directly, regardless of where he is. M-commerce is "the delivery of electronic commerce capabilities directly into the hands, anywhere, via wireless technology" and "putting a retail outlet in the customer's hands anywhere." This can be done with just a mobile phone, a PDA connected to a

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce -5mobile phone or even a portable PC connected to a mobile phone. M-commerce is also termed as wireless e-commerce. Background And Motivation: Electronic commerce has attracted significant attention in the last few years. Advances in e-commerce have resutled in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce applications. Nearly all the applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce -6infrastructure, such as browser on a PC connected to the Internet using phone lines or a Local Area Network. A new e-commerce application such as "Wireless e-commerce" or "Mobile ecommerce" will benefit one to reach the consumer directly, regardless of where he is. The emergence of M-commerce, a synonym for wireless e-commerce allows one to do the same function that can be done over the internet. This can be done by connecting a PDA to a mobile phone, or even a portable PC connected to a mobile phone. Mobile

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce -7Commerce is perfect for the group who always keep a mobile phone by side all the times. A study from the wireless data and computing service, a division of strategy analytics, reports that the mobile commerce market may rise to $200 billion by 2004. The report predicts that transactions via wireless devices will generate about $14 billion a year. We are aware that consensus within business and industry of future applications is still in its infancy. However, we are interested in examining those future applications and technologies that will form the next frontier of electronic commerce. To help future

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

-8-

applications and to allow designers, developers and researchers to strategize and create mobile commerce applications, a four level integrated framework is proposed.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

-9-

1.INTRODUCTION
M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as cellular telephone and personal digital assistants

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 10 -

(PDAs). Known as next-generation e-commerce, m-commerce enables users to access the Internet without needing to find a place to plug in. The emerging technology behind mcommerce, which is based on the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), has made far greater strides in Europe, where mobile devices equipped with Web-ready microbrowsers are much more common than in the United States. In order to exploit the m-commerce market potential, handset manufacturers such as Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, and Qualcomm are working with carriers such as AT&T

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 11 -

Wireless and Sprint to develop WAP-enabled smart phones, the industry's answer to the Swiss Army Knife, and ways to reach them. Using Bluetooth technology, smart phones offer fax, e-mail, and phone capabilities all in one, paving the way for m-commerce to be accepted by an increasingly mobile workforce. As content delivery over wireless devices becomes faster, more secure, and scalable, there is wide speculation that m-commerce will surpass wireline e-commerce as the method of choice for digital commerce transactions. The industries affected by m-

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce commerce include:

- 12 -

Financial services, which includes mobile banking (when customers use their handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills) as well as brokerage services, in which stock quotes can be displayed and trading conducted from the same handheldevice Telecommunications, in which service changes, bill payment and account reviews can all be conducted from the same handheld deviceService/retail, as consumers are given the ability to place and pay for orders on-the-fly Information services, which include the

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 13 delivery of financial news, sports figures and traffic updates to a single mobile device IBM and other companies are experimenting with speech recognition software as a way to ensure security for m-commerce transactions.

1.1 HISTROY
Mobile commerce was born in 1997 when the first two mobile phone enabled Coca Cola vending machines were installed in the Helsinki area in Finland. They used SMS text messages to send the payment to the vending machines. In 1997 also the first

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 14 mobile phone based banking service was launched by Merita bank of Finland also using SMS.In 1998, the first digital content sales were made possible as downloads to mobile phones when the first commercial downloadable ringing tones were launched in Finland by Radionlinja (now part of Elisa) In 1999, two major national commercial platforms for m-commerce were launched with the introduction of a national m-payments system by Smart as Smart Money in the Philippines and the launch of the first mobile internet platform by NTT DoCoMo in

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 15 Japan, called i-Mode. i-Mode was revolutionary also in offering a revenue-sharing deal where NTT DoCoMo only kept 9% of the content payment and returned 91% to the content owner.Mobile commerce related services spread rapidly in early 2000 from Norway launching mobile parking, Austria offering mobile tickets to trains, and Japan offering mobile purchases of airline tickets.The first conference dedicated to mobile commerce was held in London in July 2001 and the first book to cover m-commerce was Tomi Ahonen's M-profits in 2002. The first university short course to discuss m-

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 16 commerce was held at the University of Oxford in 2003 with Tomi Ahonen and Steve Jones lecturing. UCL Computer Science and Peter Bentley and now run dedicated courses in mobile commerce as of 2008[2].PDAs and cellular phones have become so popular that many businesses are beginning to use m-commerce as a more efficient method of reaching and communicating with their customers. Although technological trends and advances are concentrated in Asia and in Europe, Canada and the United States are also beginning to experiment with early-stage m-commerce.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 17 The less price sensitive early adopters from the 13-25 age group could drive the initial growth. Growth in mobile products such as ringtones, games, and graphics may displace spending on many traditional youth products such as music, clothing, and movies. This would radically change the dynamics of all visual entertainment and product-service distribution world wide so marketers could target end-users with diverse youth mind sets. The youth market has historically shown rapid viral growth which later gains acceptance in the mass market. While emerging markets are proving to be the ideal

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 18 solution for sustaining revenues in the face of falling ARPU average price per unit, analysts say the rapid commercialization of 3G services is likely to open up new opportunities in developed markets. In order to exploit the m-commerce market potential, handset manufacturers such as Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola, and Qualcomm are working with carriers such as AT&T Wireless and Sprint to develop WAP-enabled smart phones and ways to reach them. Using Bluetooth technology, smart phones offer fax, e-mail, and phone capabilities.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 19 "Profitability for device vendors and carriers hinges on high-end mobile devices and the accompanying killer applications," said Burchett. Perennial early adopters, such as the youth market, which are the least price sensitive, as well as more open to premium mobile content and applications, must also be a key target for device vendors. Since the launch of the iPhone m-commerce based systems like FanGo, a popular mcommerce platform mainly for the iPhone and Blackberry, have increasingly moved away from SMS systems and into actual applications. SMS has proved to have significant

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 20 vulnerabilities with security and congestion even though it is widely available and accessible. In addition improvements in the capabilities of modern mobile devices make it more prudent to carry more of the resource burden on the actual device. As phones like the iPhone become more prevalent we will see an increasing exodus from e-commerce platforms to applications and systems that will readily integrate mobile interface with the existing e-commerce back end.

1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 21 -

The finance and banking industry sees the introduction of mobile e-commerce (m-commerce) as extremely important to customer retention, according to a new survey. TANTAU Software Inc found that 80% of organisations interviewed felt that customer retention was a 'significant to major benefit' of the introduction of mobile applications, followed the ability to extend brand presence 'beyond the High Street', cited by 67% as a major benefit.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 22 -

The TANTAU research identified a clear difference between first- and secondgeneration m-commerce applications in terms of benefits to customers. Accessing information, conducting transactions and gaining additional banking channels anywhere, any time, were identified as far greater benefits to customers than the ability simply to browse and talk.

1.3

WORKING OF M-COMMERCE

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 23 The M-Commerce Working Group aims at promoting the interests of European GSM operators in the fields of mobile commerce and mobile Internet. It seeks to position GSM Europe among the reference organizations involved in e-commerce and Internet debates, by focusing on aspects which specifically concern mobile. To achieve these objectives, the Working Group closely follows the developments of the European regulatory framework for electronic commerce, content and Internet and drafts relevant position papers as appropriate.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 24 Members of the Group also hold bilateral meetings and participate in hearings organized within the European arena. The Working Group monitors the implementation of adopted legislation in key areas, in order to be able to respond to developments. Attention is also given to political initiatives such as the i2010 initiative and to international regulatory activities affecting the European framework (for instance within the Council of Europe). The Group works to inform the main decision-makers, presenting key aspects of mobile-commerce and demonstrating the important role played by GSM

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 25 operators in the development of e-commerce and the Internet. The M-Commerce Working group also works in collaboration with and/or provides support to other groups within GSM Europe or GSM Association and liaises with GSMA technical groups on a regular basis.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 26 -

1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERCE
Mobile commerce is electronic commerce over wireless devices. It is often referred to as m-commerce. There are three basic types of m-commerce transactions. The first is carrier-based, using a carrier’s billing system to purchase something with a wireless device. This method lets the user bill their purchase to their monthly carrier bill (or deduct it from their pre-paid deposit). The second type of mobile commerce transaction involves using a credit card over a wireless network connection. In this type

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 27 -

of transaction, the user has securely stores their credit card data on their mobile phone, using their cell phone as a surrogate credit card. The third type of m-commerce transaction involves financial services. These transactions include activities such as transferring money between accounts or paying bills through a wireless transaction. Mobile commerce has lost much of the hype it had in North America and Europe several years ago. At the time, companies predicted that people would be using cell phones to purchase everything from books to home computers. Mobile commerce has,

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 28 -

thus far, failed to live up to these expectations. In Japan, however, mobile commerce has been a huge success, accounting for over $400 million in revenues each year. Through NTT DoCoMo’s popular i-mode service, subscribers can buy sodas from vending machines, purchase food at fast food restaurants, and shop at Internet retailers like Amazon.com, buying all their good through DoCoMo’s billing system. Other companies, like Visa, also offer m-commerce services in Japan. While the European m-commerce market failed to take off as originally planned,

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 29 -

there has been renewed interest as of late. Orange, Vodafone, T-Mobile, and Telefonica Moviles recently announced the creation of an industry-wide group, called the Mobile Payment Services Association, to push for new standards for m-commerce systems. In addition to standardizing technical issues, the new association will promote a common mcommerce brand and help launch new mobile commerce services over Europea networks. As mobile payment systems develop, carriers collaborate, and m-commerce security improves, we expect m-commerce to continue to develop in North America and Europe

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce and to continue its success in Japan.

- 30 -

1.5

MOBILE COMMERCE FROM TH CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW:
• The customer wants to access information, goods and services any time and in any place on his mobile device. • He can use his mobile device to purchase tickets for events or public

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 31 -

transport, pay for parking, download content and even order books and CDs. • He should be offered appropriate payment methods. They can range from secure mobile micropayment to service subscriptions.

1.6

MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW:
The future development of the mobile telecommunication sector is heading

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 32 -

more and more towards value-added services. Analysts forecast that soon half of mobile operators‘ revenue will be earned through mobile commerce. • Consequently operators as well as third party providers will focus on valueadded-services. To enable mobile services, providers with expertise on different sectors will have to cooperate. • Innovative service scenarios will be needed that meet the customer‘s expectations and business models that satisfy all partners involved.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 33 -

2 MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES
• • • Generations, standards and protocals

Fast, secure and user-friendly mobile telecommunication technologies are a

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 34 crucial factor forthe commercial success of Mobile Commerce, since it is largely dependent on the acceptanceof Mobile Commerce applications amongst targeted consumer groups and relevant businessfirms. This paper provides an overview of technological standards that have either contributed to the development of Mobile Commerce or that can be expected to shape its future. This paper is structured on the following lines: The various technologies and generations of mobile data transmission (i.e. 1G, 2G, 2.5G and 3G) are discusses

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 35 some complementary technologies, such as WLAN and Bluetooth. Display and programming standards, WAP and i-mode, expected future trends of 4G.

Technologies for Mobile Data Transmission
The mobile (wireless) telecommunication systems (networks) are generally categorised in three broad generations of technologies. Between the second and the

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 36 -

third generation a “second and half” (2.5) sub-generation is supposed to exist, that bridges the two neighbouring generations (see figure ). These generations and their technologies are described in the following sections.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 37 -

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 38 Fig: Generations of mobile telecommunication standards in Germany

2.1 The First Generation (1G)
The beginning of wireless communication in Germany can be traced back to 1926 as the German Railways introduced a wireless telephone service for first-class passengers on its Berlin-Hamburg route [IMZF, 2005a]. The mobile telecommunication gained currency, however, only with the introduction

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 39 -

of theA-Network in 1958, which was followed by a more advanced B-Network in 1972. A countrywide coverage was provided later by the C-Network4 in 1985 [IMZF, 2005b].5 In the United States of America (USA) a comparable system called the Advanced Mobile Phone System(AMPS) was introduced in 1983. Some more standards that belong to 1G are the Total AccessCommunications System (TACS), the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system and the Japan Digital Cellular (JDC) network system [Elliot and Phillips, 2004; Toh, 2002].The first generation systems were voice-oriented analogue mobile and

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 40 -

cordless telephones[Krishnamurthy and Pahlavan, 2002]. Such systems are not suitable for modern Mobile Commerce services on account of low quality of transmission and their exclusive voiceorientation, i.e. the inability to transmit non-voice data [Geer and Gross, 2001]. 1G is hence not relevant for this paper.

2.2 The Second Generation (2G)
The second generation (2G) systems are based on the digital multiple access

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 41 -

technology, e.g. the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and the Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA), and currently worldwide in use They use digital encoding and support transmission of not only voice but also of other data, e.g. fax and SMS. They make use of encryption techniques to enhance confidentiality of the transmitted data. Such features areprerequisites for mobile services. Examples of 2G systems are the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Personal Access Communication Systems (PACS) and Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) [Toh, 2002].

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 42 -

Since GSM has become “the” dominating standard in the world in general and in Europe in particular, this paper explains GSM and one of its off-shoot, the High Speed Circuit SwitchedData (HSCSD), in some details

2.2.1 Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM):
GSM, first introduced in 1991, is an open, non-proprietary and digital system of second generation [GSM Glossary, 2005; Ericsson Glossary, 2004]. Originally developed as a

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 43 European standard,10 it has come to be the most widely deployed global standard. Some of its basic features are [Schell, 2002]: • • • • • A broad offer on voice and data communication services; Compatibility with fixed-line networks, e.g. Analogue and Integrated Service Digital Networks (ISDN) due to standardised interfaces; Automatic roaming12 and handover13 procedures; Support for various types of mobile devices, e.g. hand-held devices and devices

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce mounted in vehicles; •

- 44 -

Independent of device manufacturers.

The first GSM-based digital network (D-Network) was launched in Germany in 1992 on the frequency of 900 Megahertz (MHz) by two network carriers, namely the Deutsche Telekom AG (launched as D1) and by the Mannesmann AG1 (launched as D2). In 1994 a new GSM based digital network (E-Network) was launched by the E-Plus Service GmbH & Co. KG (launched as E1). The E-Network is based on the Digital Cellular

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 45 System (DCS) standard that utilises the frequencies of 1800 MHz. In 1998 one more network Viag Intercom launched its services as E2. Meanwhile D1 and D2 have also begun using the E-Network to expand their network capacities [At-mix.de, 2005]. Although GSM is a relatively advanced technology, it is not free of drawbacks. One major problem is that of low actual data-transmission rates. Though GSM is theoretically capable of a transmission rate of 22.8 kilobits per second (kbps), the actual rate of datatransmission is reduced to as low as 9.6 kbps as a safety-measure against possible

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 46 transmission errors[Steimer et al., 2001]. Another problem is that GSM is a circuit-switched technology. That means a channel is assigned for the transmission of data for the complete duration of usage. For example, if a user calls a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) page on his mobile phone, a channel is assigned to this process. This channel is kept allocated until the process is cancelled, even when all the data has been transmitted and displayed on the screen. The user is billed for the utilised channel-time and not for the volume of the actually

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 47 transmitted data [Ahlke, 2002]. Both these factors – low actual transmission rates combined with the circuit-switched technology – result in disproportionately high costs for the user and discourage the usage of data services offered. Low transmission rates are also problematic for data-intensive applications, e.g. mobile videos. Such drawbacks make GSM technology sub-optimal for promoting attractive mobile services.

2.2.2 High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD):

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 48 -

HSCSD is an enhancement of data-services based on GSM to enable higher rates by using multiple channels. With a transmission rate of 28.8 kbps HSCSD allows three times faster access to non-voice (data) services. The bundling of channels requires functions that may dissect and consolidate data on and from various channels without compromising the integrity of data. This requires costly and extensive modification in the hardware of mobile devices . There are currently

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 49 few subscribers with voice terminals that support HSCSD. The other alternative is using a special portable computer card that has a built-in GSM phone. This card turns laptops and other portable devices into a high-speed mobile office with the ability to make voice-calls and carry out data transfer. This facility is particularly interesting for subscribers who wish to access the Internet, or their office Intranet, while on the move, by using a mobile device. The main drawback of HSCSD lies in the circuit-switched technology that makes its usage very expensive, considering that the user has to pay for multiple channels.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 50 HSCSD seems to be more interesting and suitable for a laptop than for a mobile phone.

2.3 The 2.5 Generation (2.5G):
The transit between 2G and 3G is known as 2.5G. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS),main standard of this phase, even though based on GSM distinguishes itself from other circuit-switched 2G technologies, in that it is a packet-switched technology [Toh, 2002].Another standard that arguably belongs to both 2.5G as well as to 3G and builds on

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 51 GPRS is the Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution (EDGE).

2.3.1 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS):
GPRS is a non-voice service that allows speedy transmission of data [Buckingham, 2000a]. It is a packet-switched technology, which means that the data to be sent is broken up into small packets, which are “routed by the network between different destinations based on addressing data within each packet. Use of network resources is optimized as the resources are needed only during the handling of each packet” [Toh, 2002]. GPRS

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce offers following advantages: 1)

- 52 -

Speed: By using all eight time-slots simultaneously GPRS can theoretically
achieve transmission rates of up to 115.2 kbps, about two times faster than ISDN and ten times faster than other circuit-switched GSM standards [Buckingham,2000a].

2)

Immediacy: GPRS enabled mobile devices are, subject to network coverage

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 53 of the geographic area, always connected to the network (“Always-on, Always connected” feature). The user does not have to dial up a connection to receive information [Buckingham, 2000a; Ahlke, 2002]. 3)

Innovative services: GPRS can offer services that were hitherto not
possible dueto low transmission rates. It facilitates creation of WAP-pages similar to Internet based web-pages and provides access to many other services, e.g. the Internet, email, music and office applications [Buckingham, 2000a;

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce Gneiting, 2000]. 4)

- 54 -

Costs advantage: The subscriber pays for the volume of the transmitted
data and not the time required in the process [Toh, 2002].

These advantages make GPRS the first technology that can not only enable but also promote mobile applications. But also GPRS has certain shortcomings, which are described in the following:

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

i) Low actual transmission

- 55 rates: The theoretically possible rates of data

transmission are not achieved, because all the eight time-slots are seldom, if ever, vailable simultaneously [Buckingham, 2000a]. The actual rates of data transmission via GPRS is reported be a meagre 14 kbps while sending and between 28 and 64 kbps while receiving [GSM World, 2005b].

ii) Priority for Voice-transmission: The packet-switched GPRS is used
only as a secondary network channel along with the circuit-switched GSM network for

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 56 voice-transmission that has a higher priority. If the capacities are being utilised for a voice-call, then the data-transmission has to take a back seat [Schell, 2002]. These factors handicap the development of data-intensive and/or time-critical Mobile Commerce applications based on GPRS.

2.3.2 Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution (EDGE):
EDGE is a 2.5G technology that is based on GPRS and can be used to offer personalized multimedia services similar to 3G technologies [Toh, 2002]. It can be used

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 57 -

to transmit both voice and data. It however is just an add-on to GPRS and can not work alone [Ericsson,2003]. EDGE allows subscribers to access the Internet and to send and receive data, e.g. digital images and videos, with a broadband like transmission speed of 384 kbps that is about three times faster than an ordinary GPRS network [Ericsson Glossary, 2004].This speed is sufficient even for video-transmissions and in that sense it rivals the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) technology [Ahlke, 2002]. EDGE is reputed to possess high potential and a growing importance in many

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 58 -

regions of the world, e.g. the Americas, Australia and India, where it is reported to be gaining market rapidly [Menon,2005]. The main advantage of EDGE is that it could allow network carriers to offer 3G-likeservices without having to actually acquire a 3G license. Implementing EDGE is relatively simple, as it works with the existing GSM/GPRS structure [Toh, 2002]. It may also be used with laptops with the help of a card [Menon, 2005]. EDGE however does not seem to have very bright prospects in Europe for a practical reason: Most of the network carriers in Europe have invested

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 59 -

heavily in the expensive UMTS licenses and building a UMTS network [Wallbaum / Pils, 2002].Their priority lies in amortisation of these investments.

2.4 The Third Generation (3G):
The 3G technology aims to provide a broad range of services, e.g. interactive multimedia services, video telephony and high speed internet access, in addition to voice

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 60 -

communication. The European 3G standard is called UMTS and is based on a radio access technology called Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). The high speed of data transmission makes it suitable for real-time and time-critical applications [Wallbaum and Pils, 2002].UMTS works with a hierarchical cell structure consisting of different cell types [Schell, 2002;Toh, 2002].

i) Pico cells: The speed of data transmission in Pico cells, i.e. at low mobility, is up
to 2048 kbps, provided the device remains within a geographic range

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 61 -

not exceeding 50 metres, e.g. in a building.

ii) Micro cells: The rate of data transmission in urban areas is 384 kbps at limited
mobility, within a geographic range of 50 to 350 metres.

iii) Macro cells: Data transmission rates of up to 144 kbps at full-mobility in
suburban areas and countryside within a range of 350 metres to 20 kilometres depending on the area’s topology and population density.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 62 iv) Satellite cells: UMTS supports universal roaming and provides global coverage. For this purpose it uses – in addition to terrestrial systems – also satellite systems [Toh, 2002]. The data transmission rate in the satellite cell is 9.6 kbps

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 63 -

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 64 -

Fig: Hierarchical cell structure of UMTS
UMTS uses frequencies in the bandwidth of 1,920 and 2,170 MHz [IZMF, 2005b]. This necessitates new mobile devices that are UMTS-capable. On the other hand these devices must be backward compatible with the GSM/GPRS standards because UMTS is initially available only in metropolitan areas whereas a UMTS subscriber must be able to use “normal” mobile services while on the move outside of big cities.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 65 -

UMTS services are being offered in Germany in nearly all metropolitan cities since 2004.The Vodafone D2 GmbH (Vodafone) and the T-Mobile Deutschland GmbH (TMobile) launched their services in May, 2004, the other two carriers, the e-plus 3G Luxemburg S.à.r.l.(E-Plus) and the O2 (Germany) GmbH und Co OHG (O2) in June 2004 [UMTS Forum,2005b]. There are several UMTS services being offered, e.g. Vodafone has been showing a complete movie on its UMTS network that was running in cinema houses [Vodafone, 2005].

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 66 -

At the end of the year 2004 there were approximately 75 models of UMTS capable mobile telephones [Gfaller, 2004, p. 1]. There are some 16 million UMTS subscribers worldwide, of which 6.5 million in Europe [FAZ, 2005a, p.15]; but only around 0.25 million in Germany [BITKOM, 2005, p. 1]. The customer response so far seems to have been less than enthusiastic on account of high costs for UMTS services [FAZ, 2004, p. 15]. Having discussed different generations of mobile telecommunication standards, it would be useful to have a look at technologies that are sometimes considered to be a

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 67 -

potential threat to the success of 3G technologies.

2.5 The fourth Generation (4G):
As the 3G services are just beginning to reach users, 4G is a distant scenario expected to be launched in year 2010, notwithstanding announcements by individual firms, e.g. NTT, to prepone 4G to year 2006 [Dholakia et al., 2004]. Nevertheless principal trends of 4G

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 68 are expected to go along following lines:

i) A seamless roaming between 2.5G, 3G and WLAN may be achieved so that
mobile devices will automatically detect the presence of a network with higher bandwidth and switch to it. The handover will take place without interrupting existing connections. So that WLAN, as a complementary technology, could become an integrated component of Mobile Commerce [EITO, 2004].

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 69 ii) Speed of data transfer is expected to reach, and probably even exceed, 100 mbps [EITO, 2004]. This would allow offering of highly data-intensive applications, e.g. live video streaming.

iii) 2G and 2.5G technologies are expected to be still around since 3G/UMTS
networks are not expected to extend their reach to all geographic areas. A downward compatibility of mobile devices would have to be ensured [Dholakia et al., 2004].

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 70 -

2.6 Complementary Technologies of Data Transmission:
The WLAN technology is employed for wireless communication with Local Area Networks (LAN) and theoretically provides data transfer rates of up to 54 megabits per second (mbps), which is much higher than UMTS [Krishnamurthy and Pahlavan, 2002]. In practice, WLAN permits data transfer with a speed of up to 2 mbps [Swisscom, 2004]. Most of the WLAN systems are based on the standard developed by the US based

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 71 -

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and work on the free-to-use, unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency.24 The interface to mobile devices, e.g. laptops, is provided by Access Points (popularly known as Hotspots), which are connected to LAN. WLAN usually has a range of 100 meters in buildings and up to 300 meters on open ground. WLAN has gained tremendous popularity in past few years. In Germany there were 109 Hotspots at year-end 2002. Within one year their number increased to 525 [Mobilmedia, 2004]. The number however jumped dramatically in the following years. 9354 Hotspots

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 72 -

were reported to be in operation in Germany by July 2006. These Hotspots were spread across 1035 cities and towns. Over 93% of them were commercially run. The biggest provider was Deutsche Telekom, whose subsidiaries T-Com and T-Mobile controlled the Top-2 places with a market share of 50% and 13% respectively.WLAN is expected to grow in the same manner in coming years. Network carriers such as Vodafone and O2 are cooperating to share their WLAN infrastructure, particularly Hotspots at places such as airports and hotels [Vodafone, 2004].

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 73 -

However, there are currently no mobile telephones available, which can communicate via WLAN. The biggest handicap of WLAN is that the handover of a network connection between two Access Points is not possible. It means that the connection (and every data transfer process) is broken, when the user leaves one WLAN range and enters another one. On account of this handicap WLAN can not be really seen as a viable alternative to mobile telecommunication standards, e.g. UMTS. On the

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 74 contrary it seems likely that WLAN could develop into a complementary standard to UMTS, so that subscribers could use WLAN for data-intensive mobile applications that are needed while outside of one’s home or office but not necessarily while physically on the move. Both the standards could, thus, reinforce the need for each other and give impulses for the success of each other.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 75 -

2.6.1 Bluetooth:
Bluetooth is basically a cable-replacement technology, intended to simplify the communication amongst and between mobile devices and personal computers (PC) [GSM Bluetooth, 2005]. Bluetooth has established itself as a useful tool for Mobile Commerce, serving for diverse business needs such as mobile payment and direct marketing [Incisor,2004]. The primary reasons for its success are [Ericsson Glossary,

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce 2004]:

- 76 -

i) Bluetooth makes it possible to create temporary (ad-hoc) networks; ii) It facilitates both voice- and data communication; iii) It can communicate with any other device having Bluetooth;
iv) It helps synchronise data from different devices (e.g. transfer music and video files from mobile phone to PC or vice versa). Bluetooth works with a freely usable, non-licensed frequency of 2.4 Gigahertz (GHz) in

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 77 -

the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. It is a low-cost, short-range radio technology that can be used in a radius of about 10 meters, in some cases up to 100 meters. Bluetooth can transmit data with a speed of 432.6 kbps in case of synchronous and up to 724 kbps in case of asynchronous data links.26 A Bluetooth device changes its broadcasting frequency (frequency hopping) up to 1600 times per second to provide better security while transmitting data [Ahlke, 2002]. It is, thus, a high speed, secure and yet low-cost as well as low energyconsuming technology and for this reason highly

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 78 -

suitable for mobile devices, despite range limitations.

2.7 Display and Programming Standards:
The previous section described protocols employed for voice- and data transmission. The transmitted data however must be presented to the user on his mobile device via a

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 79 suitable and uncomplicated user-interface. This section describes two such programmable display standards, namely WAP and i-mode.

2.7.1 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP):
WAP is a non-proprietary (open), global standard that was introduced in its first version WAP 1.0 in 1998. It has been developed by the WAP Forum, a consortium of leading manufacturers of mobile phones including Ericsson, Motorola and Nokia. The

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 80 -

objective of developing WAP was to provide an industry-wide specification for developing applications that operate on mobile telecommunications network and transmit Internet contents on mobile devices independent of the transmission technology used by network carriers [WAP-Forum,2001]. WAP applications can be written with the help of Wireless Mark-up Language

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 81 (WML), a language that resembles in its structure the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) used for creating Internet pages. It is used to specify content and user interface for delivery to a narrowband device”, e.g. a mobile phone. WML can work with constraints that a mobile device typically possess, e.g. small display, limited user input facilities, narrowband connections and limited disk and memory resources . A WAP Gateway acts as interpreter between the mobile device and a web server which decodes and encodes the information in a way that the server and the mobile device can

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce communicate with each other .

- 82 -

Ever since the introduction of GPRS and higher data transfer rates, WAP can also work with complicated graphics and images. It allows a relatively easy and unproblematic integration of mobile applications into existing Internet services. Web servers can be modified with the help of suitable software to offer WAP functionality. On the hardware front only a WAP Gateway is required. However the content must be made WML compatible so that it can be read by mobile devices [Lei et al., 2004]. Translating

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 83 -

all relevant content into WML increases the temporal and monetary costs of WAP. Another major problem of WAP 1.0 was that the data were decrypted by WAP Gateway before transmitting them to the web server and sensitive data, e.g. credit card information,could potentially be misused. The new version WAP 2.0, which was introduced in 2001, takes care of this problem and the data are no more stored in decrypted form on the WAP Gateway [Lei et al., 2004]. WAP 2.0 also defines a new

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 84 programming language “Extensible Hypertext Mark-up Language Mobile Profile” (XHTMLMP) that supports both of the established standards, namely WAP and i-mode. On account of its open, non-proprietary nature WAP is attractive for developers and application providers.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 85 -

2.7.2 i-mode:
The Japanese network carrier NTT DoCoMo (NTT) introduced i-mode in 1999 as an open standard based on programming language HTML (i-mode compatible HTML). It is based on packet-switched network technology and is thus GPRS- and UMTS compatible, allowing for a wide range of push- and pull services [Teltarif, 2004]. i-mode users get access to Mobile Internet sites offering specialised services such as e-mail, online

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 86 -

shopping, banking, ticket reservations and restaurant advice. Users can access sites at low rates, because charges are based on the volume of data transmitted, not the amount of time spent.The i-mode compatible sites can be divided in two categories:

i) Content provided by official providers: It is integrated in the i-mode menu and can
be accessed directly by clicking on the menu item. Official partners need an agreement with NTT, which charges a 9% commission for collecting bills on the

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 87 -

behalf of the content providers and approves the content.

ii) Content provided by unofficial providers: Such sites can be viewed by customers
by typing the site-address in a mobile browser, similar to the Internet sites. These providers have to find their own mechanisms to collect charges for their services. Content providers, generally, do not have to pay fees for offering i-mode compatible content.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 88 The real profit of NTT comes by transferring data on account of network usage. Other network carriers wishing to offer i-mode services need a license. i-mode has been successful in Japan, attracting 45 million subscribers and offering access to over 96,000 Internet sites via mobile phones as of January 2006, according to information provided by NTT. In Germany there are over a million E-Plus customers that subscribe to i-mode services. One more network carrier in Germany, namely, O2 is set to launch i-mode services in early 2006. The service shall, however, be named MMO2 owing to legal

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 89 complications with E-Plus [Kroder and Wihofszki, 2004]. The i-mode technology, however, has seen little success outside Japan. Only in 14 countries worldwide, apart from Japan, i-mode services are available up to now. These are: Taiwan (since 2002), Germany (2002), Holland (2002), Belgium (2002), France (2002), Spain (2003), Italy (2003), Greece (2004), Australia (2004), Israel (2005), Russia (2005), United Kingdom (2005), Ireland (2005) and Singapore (2005). The main advantages of i-mode as against WAP are:

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 90 i) Official content providers do not have to install own payment mechanisms and pay relatively low commission charges;

ii) HTML is developed as a subset of HTML so that Internet content can be
transferred to i-mode with less problems. This results in reduced programming costs. This advantage, however, could be offset by XHTMLMP that is HTML based and WAP and i-mode compatible. A severe handicap of i-mode is that it requires special i-mode compatible devices [Kroder

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 91 -

and Wihofszki, 2004]. The proprietary nature of i-mode services for network carriers is another reason why i-mode does not seem to be gaining ground in other parts of the world.

3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE
The advantage of m-commerce: 1- providing wider reach.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce 2- reducing transaction cost 3- streamline business processes. 4- competitive pricing. 5- reducing time to order. The disadvantages of m-commerce:

- 92 -

1- small screens of most devices still limit types of file and data transfer (i.e. streaming videos, etc.)

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 93 2- standards guiding applications and technology development and connection(s) 3- WAP and SMS limited to small number of characters and text. 4- use of graphics limited 5- less functionality for mobile Internet over mobile phones and existing generation of handhelds than for mobile computers (laptops and next generation handhelds) 6- user interface is often difficult to learn how to use 7- limited bandwidth 8- limited roll out of higher bandwidth mobile networks and devices (i.e. 3g networks and

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 94 wireless broadband networks are predominantly located in cities) 9- cost of establishing mobile and wireless broadband infrastructure 10- technology constraints of mobile devices (memory, processing power, display capabilities, input methods) 11- security of data moved across some mobile and wireless networks 12- businesses investment in hardware and infrastructure is seen as riskier as rapid evolution of mobile and wireless technologies continues

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 95 -

4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE
Although a large volume of literature is available on mobile commerce (mcommerce), the topic is still under development and offers potential opportunities for further research and applications. Since the subject is at the stage of development, a review of the literature on m-commerce with the objective of bringing to the fore the state-of-art in m-commerce research and applications will initiate further research on the

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 96 -

growth of m-commerce technologies. This paper reviews the literature on m-commerce and applications using a suitable classification scheme to identify the gap between theory and practice and future research directions. The 149 m-commerce articles are classified and the results of these are presented based on a scheme that consists of five distinct categories: m-commerce theory and research, wireless network infrastructure, mobile middleware, wireless user infrastructure, and m-commerce applications and cases. A comprehensive list of references is presented. We hope that the findings of this research

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 97 -

will provide useful insights into the anatomy of m-commerce literature and be a good source for anyone who is interested in m-commerce. The paper also provides some future directions for research.

5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS
The general m-commerce applications are categorized as transaction management,

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 98 digital content delivery and telemetry services. The applications can be further subdivided into passive and active m-commerce applications. Active application relates with the applications in which the user has to take the initiative on his wireless device. In contrast, the passive applications themselves get activated towards accomplishing the assigned jobs or facilitate the users to carry forward.

5.1 Active Applications:

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 99 M-commerce transactions point to online shopping Web sites tailored to mobile phones and PDAs which are being equipped with the capabilities of browsing, selection, purchase, payment and delivery. These sites also include all the necessary shopping features, such as online catalogs, shopping carts, and back office functions as currently available for desktop computers. Leading online booksellers already started the commercial activities for wireless devices. Another important m-commerce transaction is to initiate and pay for purchases and services in real time. The highest volume of m-

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 100 commerce transactions using wireless devices in the days to come is bound to occur on the side of micro-transactions. When individuals reach for their e-cash-equipped mobile phones or PDAs instead of coins to settle micro transactions, such as subway fees, widespread use of digital cash will become a reality. The second important one is regarding digital content delivery. Wireless devices can retrieve status information, such as weather, transit schedules, flash news, sports scores, ticket availability and market prices, instantly from the providers of information and

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 101 directory services. Digital products, such as MP3 music, software, high-resolution images and full-motion advertising messages, can be easily downloaded to and used in wireless devices when the 3G transmission technology becomes usable. The proposed arrival of better display screen and higher bandwidth will surely trigger the development of innovative video applications. This will help wireless users to access, retrieve, store and display high-resolution video content for a time of entertainment, product demonstration and e-learning.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 102 -

The last major application of m-commerce is telemetry services, which include the monitoring of space flights, meteorological data transmission, video-conference, the Global Positioning System (Global Positioning System), wildlife tracking, camera control robotics, and oceanography. Thus in the near future, wireless phones and appliances can be used by people to contact and communicate with various devices from their homes, offices or any where at any time. For example, delivery drivers will ping intelligent

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 103 dispensing machines or users can transmit messages to activate remote recording devices or service systems.

5.2 Passive Applications:
This type of applications seems manifold and exciting. Instead of using dedicated cash cards for automatic collection of toll charges, digital cash can be used by integrating cash cards with mobile devices. Mobile users can easily pay and record payment of toll,

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 104 mass-transit, fast-food, and other other transactions Nowadays mobile users can send and receive short text messages up to 160 characters that show up on the user's display screen. As digital convergence becomes more commonplace, all kinds of mail, such as e-mail, fax documents and digitized voice mail, can be received passively. Thus it is felt that in near future there will be many novel services for mobile users for a fixed fee. Further on, users may be tempted for some services free of cost for viewing audio or video advertisement delivered to their wireless

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 105 -

devices. Any kind of security breach, illegal intrusion, unusual event or unacceptable condition will trigger automatic notification to users irrespective of location. Airline companies are testing this technology to alert frequent air passengers regarding seat availability and upgradation, to notify the changes made in the timings etc. through wireless devices. Passive m-commerce telemetry is the foundation of still another form of interactive

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 106 marketing. Stores will be able to market their products and services by constantly transmitting promotional and inducing messages and doling out something towards getting the attention of both passers-by and remote mobile users.

6. CONCLUSION
As m-commerce applications and wireless devices are evolving rapidly, one will take forward the other one towards empowering innovation, versatility and power in them.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 107 There are a number of business opportunities and grand challenges of bringing forth viable and robust wireless technologies ahead for fully realizing the enormous strength of m-commerce in this Internet era and thereby meeting both the basic requirements and advanced expectations of mobile users and providers. There are news articles and pictures displaying people, who are ordering things over the Internet while waiting for a bus, downloading merchant coupons on their PDAs as they enter a store or bidding for the last table at a hot restaurant by digital phone in a

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 108 spur-of-the-moment auction. Actually this process represents a tip of a very big iceberg. The advent of m-commerce, as widely referred to among the users, has far-reaching implications. But there are many limitations in the technologies that Once its relevant technologies get matured, widely available and competent, the host of portable devices will be ready to handle the bigger transactional activities not envisioned so far successfully apart from these minor activities.

7. REFERENCES

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 109 -

[1] F. Perich, A. Joshi and R. Chirkova, “Data Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Enabling Technologies for Wireless e-Business Applications, W. Kou & Y. Yesha, eds., Springer, 2005, pp. 1-37. [2] J. Jonker, “M-Commerce & M-Payment: Combining Technologies,” [cited20/06/08]; ken/werkstuk-jonker.pdf. 2003, pp. 1-28. [3] P. Tarasewich, R.C. Nickerson and M. Warkentin, “Issues in Mobile E-Commerce,”

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 110 Communication of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 8, no.3, 2002, pp. 41-46. [4] M. Munusamy and H.P. Leang, “Characteristics of Mobile Devices and an Integrated M-commerce Infrastructure for M-commerce Deployment,” Proc. 4th. Int Conf on Electronic Commerce, 2002, pp. 1-10. [5] J. Veijalainen, V. Terziyan and H. Tirri, “Transaction Management for M-commerce at a Mobile Terminal,” Proc. of the 36th Annual Hawaii Int Conf on System

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce Sciences, IEEE 2003, pp. 89-98.

- 111 -

[6] E. Turban and D. King, Introduction to E-Commerce, Pearson Education, 2003, p. p. 336-337. [7] D. Xioajun, I. Junichi and H. Shu, “Unique features of Mobile Commerce,” [cited 30/06/08]; http://www.is.me.titech.ac.jp/paper/2004/other/ebiz_ding.pdf. 2004, pp. 1-7. [8] Y.H. Choi, S. Yoon, G. Shin and C. Park, “An Approach to Design of Software

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 112 -

Architecture for Mobile-Commerce System,” 7th. Int Conf on Advanced Communication Technology, IEEE 2005, pp. 924-926. [9] W.-C. Hu, C.-W. Lee and J.-H. Yeh, “Mobile Commerce Systems,” Mobile Commerce Applications, Series Mobile Commerce Systems,ed., N. Shi, eds., Idea Group Inc. (IGI), 2004, pp. 2-23. [10] U. Varshney and R. Vetter, “A Framework for the Emerging Mobile Commerce Applications,” Proc. Of the 34th. Hawaii Int Conf on System Sciences, IEEE,

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce 2001, pp. 1-9.

- 113 -

[11] A. Sergio, “M-commerce- What is it? What will it mean for consumers?,” [cited 15/06/08]; [12] R.A. Boadi and A.G. Shaik, “M-Commerce Breakthrough in Developing Countries: the Role of M-Commerce in Wealth Creation and Economic Growth in Developing Countries,” MSc dissertation, Dept. of Business Administration and Social

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 114 Sciences, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden. 2006, pp. 1-92. [13] A. Tsalgatidou and E. Pitoura, “Business Models and Transactions in Mobile Electronic Commerce: Requirements and Properties,” Computer Networks, vol. 37, no. 2, Elsevier Science B.V, 2001, pp. 221-236. [14] G. Elliot and N. Phillips, eds., Mobile Commerce and Wireless Computing Systems, Pearson, 2004, pp. 415-417. [15] S.J. Barnes, “Under the Skin: Short-range Embedded Wireless Technology,” Int

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 115 Journal of Information Management, vol. 22, no. 3, Elsevier Science Ltd., 2002, pp. 165- 179. [16] R. Tiwari, S. Buse and C. Herstatt, “The Mobile Commerce Technologies: Generations, Standards and Protocols,” [cited 20/06/08]; http://www1.unihamburg. de/mcommerce/articles/Working_Paper_40.pdf. 2006, pp. 1-21. [17] F. Perich, A. Joshi, Y. Yesha and T. Finin, “Neighborhood-Consistent Transaction Management for Pervasive Computing Environment,” Proc. 14th Int Conf on

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce - 116 Database and Expert Systems Applications Springer, 2003, pp. 276-286. [18] V. Patil and R.K. Shyamasundar, “Trust Management for E-Transactions,” Sadhana, vol. 30,no. 2 & 3, Indian Academy of Science, 2005, pp.141-158.

Tech seminar

m-commerce

Tech seminar

CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTROY 1.2 IMPORTANCE OF M-COMMERCE 1.3 WORKING OF M-COMMERCE 1.4 TYPES OF M-COMMERC E 1.5 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE CUSTOMER’S POINT OF VIEW 1.6 MOBILE COMMERCE FROM THE PROVIDER’S POINT OF VIEW 2. MOBILE COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES 3.ADVANTAGES AND DIS ADVANTAGES OF M-COMMERCE 4. RESEARCH STATUS OF MOBILE COMMERCE 5 M-COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 6. CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

m-commerce

- 117 -

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful