# Physics 220 Homework Problems, Spring Term, 2008 1-1.

A cat slides down a rubber rod and falls from the rod into a metal pail A resting on a non-conducting shelf with two other metal pails, B and C, which are in contact, but neither is in contact with A. The shelf breaks when the cat lands in A, transferring charge to A, and all pails fall separated to the non-conducting ﬂoor. The cat then runs away. (a) At the end of this process the charge on pail A 1. is positive. 2. is negative. 3. is zero. (b) At the end of this process the charge on pail B 1. is positive. 2. is negative. 3. is zero. 4. has the same sign as pail A. 5. has the same sign as pail C. (c) At the end of this process the charge on pail C 1. is positive. 2. is negative. 3. is zero. 4. has the same sign as pail B. 5. both (1) and (4) are correct. 1-2. Consider vectors R = (2.10, y = [01] , 1.00) and S = (3.30, 4.00, 0.90).

ˆ (a) Calculate the magnitude of R. (b) Calculate the z component of unit vector R. (c) Calculate the angle between vectors R and S. (d) Calculate the z component of R × S. [(a) 3.00, 5.00 (b) 0.200, 0.400 (c) 90.0, 110.0◦ (d) 10.0, 30.0] 1-3. There are identical Q = [02] µC charges located at three positions: (0, −1, 2),

(1, 2, 0), and (−2, 0, −1). Coordinates are listed in units of meters. (a) What is the magnitude of the force that a charge of −1.00 µC feels at the origin? (b) What is the angle between this force and the positive x axis? [(a) 5.00 × 10−3 , 9.00 × 10−3 N (b) 120.0, 130.0◦ ]

2-1. A charged particle with a charge of −7.5 pC is placed at the origin where the electric ﬁeld (SI units) is E = (3.75 i − 2.90 j). This force is directed toward which quadrant or axis of the xy plane? 1. I 2. II 3. III 4. IV 5. +x 6. −x 7. +y 8. −y 2-2. The sketch in the square frame represents two negative point charges and one positive point charge, all of the same magnitude. The letters “a” and “b” simply designate two positions within the frame. Note that point “a” is down and to the right from the positive charge. We label several directions as follows: (1) ↑, (2) , (3) →, (4) , (5) ↓, (6) , (7) ←, (8) , (9) magnitude is zero, (10) none of the above. A. What is the approximate direction of the electric ﬁeld at position “a”? B. What is the approximate direction of the electric ﬁeld at position “b”? 2-3. In the lab, an object having a net charge of Q = [01] object if it “ﬂoats” in the ﬁeld? [0.100, 0.300 g] 3-1. Find the area of region bound by the curve y = b − x2 and the x axis, where b = [01] . [1.00, 7.00] µC is placed in a

uniform electric ﬁeld of 500 N/C that is directed vertically. What is the mass of this

3-2. Consider a paraboloid “drinking cup”, as shown. The height of the cup is L, and the radius of the cup at the top is a. What is an appropriate diﬀerential volume for determining the total volume of the cup? The radius r of the cup varies with the height z according to (r/a)2 = z/L. 1. πa2 dz 2. 1 πLa dr 2 3. πa2 z dz/L 4. 1 πa2 dL 2 5. πa2 r dz/L

3-3. Consider a cone of height L and base radius a. What is an appropriate diﬀerential area for determining the total outer surface area? √ 1. 2πa a2 + L2 z dz/L2 2. 2πaz dz/L 3. 2πa dz/L 4. πa2 dz/L2 √ 5. π a2 + L2 dz

3-4. A charged hemispherical bowl with radius 13.7 cm and charge density σ = [02] nC/m2 sits on the xy plane as shown. Determine the magnitude of (a) the x component, (b) the y component, and (c) the z component of the vector electric ﬁeld at the origin. Hint: Try using spherical coordinates. [(a) 0, 200 N/C (b) 0, 200 N/C (c) 0, 200 N/C] 4-1. Complete this problem on a separate sheet of paper and submit it with your CID# prominently displayed. (a) Two conducting spheres of the same radius r, carrying equal but opposite charges, are separated by a center-to-center distance of 4r. Sketch the pattern of electric ﬁeld lines in a plane that includes the centers of the two spheres. (b) A negatively charged rod of ﬁnite length has a uniform charge per unit length. Sketch the pattern of electric ﬁeld lines in a plane that includes the rod.

4-2. Consider the pattern of electric ﬁeld lines in the ﬁgure. (a) By counting ﬁeld lines, rank the left-hand (L) and right-hand (R) charges in order of decreasing magnitude. 1. L > R 2. R > L 3. L = R (b) Rank the points in the ﬁgure according to decreasing electric ﬁeld magnitude. 1. A = B > C 2. C > A = B 3. A > C = B 4. C > B > A 5. A > B > C (c) The direction of the electric ﬁeld at point C is 1. up 2. down 3. left 4. right 5. no direction because magnitude is zero 4-3. An electron is projected from the ground at an angle of 30◦ above the horizontal at a speed of v = [01] m/s in a region where an upward electric ﬁeld has a uniform magnitude of 400 N/C. Neglecting the eﬀects of gravity, ﬁnd (a) the time it takes the electron to return to the ground, (b) the maximum height it reaches along its trajectory, and (c) its horizontal distance between the launching and landing points. [(a) 0.100, 0.150 µs (b) 5.0, 15.0 cm (c) 60, 110 cm] 5-1. A uniform electric ﬁeld E = Ex i + Ey j where Ex = [01] Ey = [02] N/C and

N/C, intersects a surface with area of 2.70 m2 . What is the

magnitude of the ﬂux through this area if the surface lies (a) in the yz plane? (b) in the xz plane? (c) in the xy plane? [(a) 0.00, 9.50 N·m2 /C (b) 0.00, 9.50 N·m2 /C (c) 0.00, 9.50 N·m2 /C]

5-2. Four closed surfaces, S1 through S4 , are drawn together with three charges, −2Q, +Q, and −Q. Rank the four surfaces according to the amount of electric ﬂux exiting each one. In answering this problem we are asking about NET ﬂux. [Exiting ﬂux (ﬁeld lines going out) is canceled by ﬁeld lines coming in.] That is, summing the net charge enclosed is important. 1. S4 > S2 > S1 > S3 2. S3 > S1 > S2 > S4 3. S4 = S2 > S1 > S3 4. S3 > S1 > S2 = S4 5. S2 = S3 > S1 = S4 5-3. A [03] nC point charge is located on the z axis a

distance 0.800 m above the circular end cap of the paraboloidal cup shown in the ﬁgure. If L = 2.00 m and a = 0.510 m, calculate the magnitude of the total electric ﬂux due to the point charge (a) through the circular end cap and (b) through the paraboloidal surface. [(a) 20.0, 40.0 N·m2 /C (b) 20.0, 40.0 N·m2 /C] 5-4. A point charge of q = [04] pC is placed at the center of

a regular triangular pyramid with an edge dimension of a = 1 cm. Determine the total electric ﬂux exiting the pyramid. [0.500, 0.900 N·m2 /C]

6-1. The charge per unit length on a long, straight ﬁlament is λ = [01]

µC/m.

(a) Determine the electric ﬁeld at a distance of 2.50 cm from the ﬁlament. Here, deﬁne + to mean outward and − to mean inward. (b) Repeat for a distance of 25.0 cm from the ﬁlament. [(a) 400, 600 kN/C (b) 40.0, 60.0 kN/C] 6-2. A square plate of copper with 52.6-cm sides has no net charge and is placed in a uniform E = [02] kN/C electric ﬁeld directed perpendicular to the plate. (a) Find the magnitude of the charge density on each face of the plate. (b) Find the magnitude of the total charge on each face of the plate. [(a) 10.0, 40.0 nC/m2 (b) 4.00, 9.90 nC]

6-3. A thick conducting shell contains a second conducting shell as well as three conducting balls with charges of −3 nC, +2 nC, and q = [03] nC, as shown. The conducting shells have zero net charge. The outer shell has outer radius 5.50 m. (a) Determine the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at point A. (b) Determine the total charge on the inner surface of the thick shell. (c) Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld just outside its outer surface. Here, + means outward and − means inward. [(a) 0.00, 3.00 N/C (b) 3.0, 8.0 nC (c) −2.50, 2.50 N/C] 7-1. An electron is placed half way between two parallel plates (A and B). Plate A is held at 0 V and plate B is held at 100 V. The electron will: 1. Hit plate A with 0 J of energy. 2. Hit plate B with 0 J of energy. 3. Hit plate A with 8 × 10−18 J of energy. 4. Hit plate B with 8 × 10−18 J of energy. 5. Hit plate A with 1.6 × 10−17 J of energy. 6. Hit plate B with 1.6 × 10−17 J of energy. 7-2. An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric ﬁeld of magnitude E = [01] V/m. (a) Through what potential diﬀerence will it have passed after moving 1.24 cm? (b) How fast will the electron be moving after having traveled that 1.24 cm? [(a) 40.0, 90.0 V (b) 4.00 × 106 , 6.00 × 106 m/s] 7-3. A charge of +q is at the origin and a charge of [02] q is at x = 2.000 m. (a) For

what ﬁnite positive values of x is the electric potential zero? (b) If q = 1.50 nC, what is the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at this point? [(a) 0.300, 0.700 m (b) 40, 120 N/C] 8-1. Calculate the electric potential at a point x = 0.489 m along the axis of the annulus as shown. The annulus has a uniform charge density of σ = 1.35 µC/m2 , an outer radius of b = 1.13 m and an inner radius of a = [01] m. [20.0, 60.0 kV]

8-2. In the ﬁgure, each of the dots represent a point charge of q1 = [02] µC. The three conducting shells are represented by circles and carry a net charge of −1.00 µC, −2.00 µC, and −3.00 µC on the small, medium, and large shells, respectively. Find the charge on the outer surface of the largest shell. [0.0, 20.0 µC]

8-3. A set of equipotential lines are shown in the ﬁgure. Their potential values are shown. A number of locations are labeled with dots. We also label several directions as follows: (1) ↑, (2) , (3) →, (4) , (5) ↓, (6) , (7) ←, (8) . (a) Which point has the highest electric ﬁeld? (b) What direction is that highest electric ﬁeld pointing? (c) Which point has the lowest electric ﬁeld? (d) What direction is that lowest electric ﬁeld pointing? 9-1. A uniformly charged insulating rod of length 60.0 cm is bent into the shape of a semicircle. If the rod has a total charge of Q = [01] potential at the center of the semicircle. [−2.50, 2.50 V] 9-2. A hollow spherical metallic shell of radius of R = 25 cm holds a net surface charge of Q = [02] pC. (a) Calculate the electric potential at a distance of 2R from the center of the sphere. (b) Calculate the electric potential at the surface of the sphere. (c) Calculate the electric potential at the center of the sphere. [(a) −1.00, 1.00 V (b) −1.00, 1.00 V (c) −1.00, 1.00 V] 10-1. An air ﬁlled capacitor consists of two parallel plates each with an area of 7.60 cm2 , separated by a distance of [01] mm. If a 20-V potential diﬀerence is applied to these plates, calculate (a) the electric ﬁeld between the plates, (b) the capacitance, (c) the charge on each plate, and (d) the surface charge density. [(a) 9.0, 12.0 kV/m (b) 3.00, 4.00 pF (c) 60.0, 80.0 pC (d) 8.00 × 10−8 , 9.90 × 10−8 C/m2 ] pC. Find the electric

10-2. An air ﬁlled spherical capacitor is constructed with inner and outer shell radii of 7.0 cm and [02] cm, respectively. (a) Calculate the capacitance of the device. (b) What potential diﬀerence between the spheres results in a charge of 4.00 µC on the capacitor? [(a) 10.0, 30.0 pF (b) 100, 400 kV] 10-3. In the following capacitance network, C1 = [03] µF, C2 = 10.0 µF, and C3 = 15.0 µF. (a) What is the equivalent capacitance between points a and b? (b) If a potential diﬀerence of 15 V is applied between points a and b, what charge is stored on C3 ? [(a) 9.0, 12.0 µF (b) 100, 120 µC] 10-4. You have a capacitor connected across a battery. If you wish to increase the total charge drawn from this battery, which of the following options will work? Choose all of the correct answers. 1. Add a larger capacitor in series with the ﬁrst. 2. Add a smaller capacitor in series with the ﬁrst. 3. Add a larger capacitor in parallel with the ﬁrst. 4. Add a smaller capacitor in parallel with the ﬁrst. 11-1. Two capacitors C1 = 25.0 µF and C2 = [01] µF are connected in parallel and

charged with a 100 V power supply. (a) Calculate the total energy stored in the two capacitors. (b) If the same two capacitors were connected in series, what potential diﬀerence would be required to store [02] (b) 50, 150 V] 11-2. A parallel plate air gap capacitor is connected across a 12.0 V potential. At this point it stores [03] µC of charge. It is then disconnected from the source while still charged. (a) What is the capacitance of the capacitor? (b) A piece of Teﬂon is inserted between the plates. What is the new capacitance? (c) What is the voltage on the capacitor? (d) What is the charge on the capacitor? [(a) 2.00, 6.00 µF (b) 5.0, 15.0 µF (c) 5.0, 30.0 V (d) 20.0, 70.0 µC] mJ of energy? [(a) 0.150, 0.250 J

11-3. A small rigid object carries positive and negative [04]

nC charges. It is

oriented so that the positive charge is at the point (−1.20 mm, 1.10 mm) and the negative charge is at the point (1.40 mm, −1.30 mm). The object is placed in an electric ﬁeld E = (7800 ˆ − 4900 ˆ) N/C. (a) What is the magnitude of the electric dipole moment ı  of the object? (b) What is the magnitude of the torque acting on the object? (c) What is the potential energy of the object in this orientation? (d) If the orientation of the object can change, what is the diﬀerence between its maximum and its minimum potential energies? [(a) 1.00 × 10−11 , 3.00 × 10−11 C·m (b) 2.00 × 10−8 , 5.00 × 10−8 N·m (c) 1.00 × 10−7 , 3.00 × 10−7 J (d) 2.00 × 10−7 , 5.00 × 10−7 J] 11-4. You have a square parallel plate capacitor (edge length a and separation d). It however does not ﬁt in the assigned volume of space. You plan to make a second conﬁguration of equal capacitance. Which of the following options would work? 1. half the edge length, and half the separation. 2. half the edge length, half the separation, and add a dielectric of constant 2. 3. half the edge length and a dielectric of constant of 2.5. 4. one fourth the edge length and four times the separation. 5. one fourth the edge length, twice the separation, and a dielectric of 8.0. 12-1. A uniform metallic rod, with a cross-sectional area of 1.83 cm2 and a length of 7.08 m, contains 6.24 × 1028 conduction electrons per cubic meter of material, which have a mean collision time of [01] femtoseconds. (a) Determine the resistivity of the rod. When the rod experiences a potential diﬀerence of 2.52 mV from end to end, determine (b) the drift velocity of the electrons and (c) the current density in the rod. [(a) 1.50 × 10−8 , 3.00 × 10−8 Ω·m (b) 1.00 × 10−6 , 2.00 × 10−6 m/s (c) 10000, 20000 ± 100 A/m2 ] 12-2. Suppose that the current through a conductor decreases exponentially with time according to the expression I(t) = I0 e−t/τ , where I0 is the initial current equal to 1.321 mA and τ is a constant equal to [02] s. Consider a piece of the conductor. (a) How much charge passes through this piece between t = 0 and t = τ ? (b) How much charge passes through this piece between t = 0 and t = 4τ ? (c) How much charge passes through this piece between t = 0 and t = ∞? [(a) 1.00, 4.00 mC (b) 1.00, 4.00 mC (c) 1.00, 4.00 mC]

12-3. A resistor is constructed of a carbon rod that has a uniform cross sectional area of 5.00 mm2 . When a potential diﬀerence of 15.0 V is applied across the ends of the rod, there is a current of [03] mA in the rod. What is (a) the resistance of the rod and (b) the rod’s length? [(a) 2.00 × 103 , 6.00 × 103 Ω (b) 400, 800 m] 13-1. When the voltage across a certain conducting ﬁlament is doubled, the current ﬂowing through it is observed to increase by a factor greater than two. What type of material could the conductor be made of? Hint: Consider the eﬀects of heating. 1. copper 2. quartz 3. lead 4. silicon 13-2. The resistance of a platinum wire is to be calibrated for low-temperature measurements. A platinum wire with a resistance of [01] Ω at 20◦ C is immersed in liquid nitrogen at 77 K (−196◦ C). If the temperature response of the platinum wire is linear, what is the expected resistance of the platinum wire in the liquid nitrogen? (αplatinum = 3.92 × 10−3 /◦ C) [0.100, 0.400 Ω] 13-3. A toaster is rated at [02] (b) 10.0, 30.0 Ω] 13-4. An electric car is designed to run oﬀ a 12.0-V battery with a total energy storage of [03] J. (a) If the electric motor draws 8.00 kW, what is the current delivered to the motor? (b) If the electric motor draws 8.00 kW as the car moves at a steady speed of 20.0 m/s, how far will the car travel before it is “out of juice”? [(a) 500, 900 A (b) 30.0, 60.0 km] 14-1. A battery has an emf of 15.00 V. The terminal voltage of the battery is [01] when it is delivering 20.00 W of power to an external load resistor R. (a) What is the value of R? (b) What is the internal resistance of the battery? [(a) 6.00, 9.00 Ω (b) 1.00, 3.00 Ω] V W when connected to a 120-V source. (a) What

current does the toaster carry? (b) What is its resistance? [(a) 4.00, 7.00 A

14-2. Consider the circuit shown. R1 = 5.0 Ω, R2 = 10.0 Ω, R3 = [02] Ω, and E = 25.0 V. (a) What is the current in R3 ? (b) What is Vb − Va ? [(a) 0.100, 0.300 A (b) 5.00, 6.00 V]

14-3. You have a resistor connected across a battery. If you wish to increase the current drawn from the battery, which of the following options will work? Choose all of the correct answers. 1. Add a larger resistor in series with the ﬁrst. 2. Add a smaller resistor in series with the ﬁrst. 3. Add a larger resistor in parallel with the ﬁrst. 4. Add a smaller resistor in parallel with the ﬁrst. 14-4. A resistor is constructed by shaping a material of resistivity ρ into a hollow cylinder of length L and with inner and outer radii ra and rb , respectively. The resistivity ρ = 3.52 × 105 Ω·m, L is 4.00 cm, ra = 0.50 cm and rb = [03] cm. (a) The application of a potential diﬀerence between the ends of the cylinder produces a current parallel to the axis. What is the resistance in this conﬁguration? (b) If the potential diﬀerence is now applied between the inner and outer surfaces, what is the resistance? [(a) 10.0, 50.0 MΩ (b) 1.00, 2.00 MΩ]

15-1. The current in a circuit is tripled by connecting a [01] the additional resistor? [400, 900 Ω]

-Ω resistor in parallel

with the resistance of the circuit. What is the resistance of the circuit in the absence of

15-2. In the following circuit, R1 = 5.00 Ω, R2 = [02]

Ω,

R3 = 25.00 Ω, E1 = 25.00 V, E2 = 15.00 V, and E3 = 5.00 V. (a) What is I1 ? (b) What is I2 ? (c) What is I3 ? (d) What is the potential diﬀerence across R3 ? [(a) 0.70, 1.10 A (b) −0.10, −0.50 A (c) −0.50, −0.70 A (d) 14.0, 17.0 V]

15-3. From the diagram, which of the following are true? 1. I1 + I2 + I3 = 0 2. I1 + I2 = I3 3. I2 + I3 = I1 4. I1 R + E + I2 R = 0 5. I1 R − I3 R = 0 6. −I2 R + E − I3 R = 0 7. I1 R + I3 R = 0 16-1. The circuit shown has been connected for a long time. R1 = 1.00 Ω, R2 = [01] Ω, R3 = 4.00 Ω, R4 = 2.00 Ω, E = 20.0 V, and C = 1.00 µF. (a) What is the voltage across the capacitor? (b) If the battery is disconnected, how long does it take the capacitor to discharge to one-tenth its initial voltage? [(a) 5.0, 14.0 V (b) 4.00 × 10−6 , 9.90 × 10−6 s] 16-2. A [02] -ft extension cord has two 18-Gauge copper wires, each with a diameter

of 1.024 mm. What is the I 2 R loss in this cord when it carries a current of (a) 1.00 A? (b) 10.0 A? Note: Because current ﬂows up one wire and down the other, the length of the current path is twice that of the wire. [(a) 0.050, 0.200 W (b) 5.0, 20.0 W]

16-3. Consider the circuit in the ﬁgure. (a) If at some instant the capacitor in this circuit has no charge, what is the current in the resistors? 1. 0 2. E/2R 3. E/R 4. 2E/R (b) If at some instant the capacitor in this circuit has charge Q = CE, what is the current in the resistors? 1. 0 2. E/2R 3. E/R 4. 2E/R (c) If at some instant the capacitor in this circuit has charge Q = 2CE, what is the current in the resistors? 1. 0 2. E/2R 3. E/R 4. 2E/R 17-1. Consider an electron moving near the earth’s equator. It experiences a Lorentz force due to the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Possible directions for this force include (1) up or outward, (2) down or inward, (3) east, (4) west, (5) north, (6) south, and (7) zero force. What will be the direction of the force if the electron is moving (a) upward? (b) downward? (c) east? (d) west? (e) north? 17-2. An electron is projected at a speed of 3.70 × 106 m/s in the i + j + k direction into a uniform magnetic ﬁeld B = 6.43 i + By j − 8.29 k (Tesla), where By = [01] Calculate (a) the x component, (b) the y component, and (c) the z component of the resulting vector magnetic force on the electron. [(a) 3.00, 4.00 pN (b) −4.00, −6.00 pN (c) 1.00, 2.00 pN] 18-1. A thin, horizontal copper rod is 1.29 m long and has a mass of 52.6 g. What is the minimum current in the rod that can cause it to ﬂoat in a horizontal magnetic ﬁeld of [01] T? [0.100, 0.500 A] T.

18-2. Assume that in Atlanta, Georgia, the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld points northward and downward at 60◦ below the horizontal, with a ﬁeld strength of 52.0 µT. A tube in a neon sign carries a current of 35.0 mA between two diagonally-opposite corners of a shop window, which lies in a north-south vertical plane. The current enters the tube at the bottom south corner and exits at the opposite corner which is [02] DONUTS. Determine (a) the x component, (b) the y component, and (c) the z component of the total vector magnetic force on the neon tube. Deﬁne coordinate axes so that the x axis points east, the y axis points north, and the z axis points up. [(a) −4.00, 4.00 µN (b) −4.00, 4.00 µN (c) −4.00, 4.00 µN] 18-3. A rectangular loop consisting of N = 100 closely wrapped turns of wire has dimensions a = 0.400 m and b = 0.300 m and is oriented in a vertical plane so as to make an angle of 30◦ with the x axis, as shown. The loop carries a current I = 1.20 A and experiences a uniform B = [03] magnetic ﬁeld directed along the +x axis. (a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the current-carrying loop. (b) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic torque experienced by the loop. (c) Calculate the magnetic potential energy of the loop in the ﬁeld. [(a) 10.0, 20.0 A·m2 (b) 1.00, 4.00 J (c) −1.00, −4.00 J] 19-1. A cosmic-ray proton traveling at [01] c is heading directly toward the center of T m farther north and 0.85 m higher up. Between these two points, the tube spells out the word

the Earth in the plane of Earth’s equator. To determine whether or not it will hit the Earth, we must make some assumptions. Let the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld be uniform B = 50.0 µT throughout the equatorial plane out to a distance of twice the radius of the Earth as measured from the center of the Earth and zero beyond that distance. Note that the Earth’s radius is 6.37 × 106 m, and neglect relativistic eﬀects. Determine how close to the surface of the earth the cosmic ray will travel, assuming that it stops if it hits the surface. [0.00 × 106 , 6.50 × 106 m]

19-2. At the equator, assume that the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is directed northward with a magnitude of 50 µT and that there is an electric ﬁeld of 100 N/C directed radially inward. The Earth’s radius is roughly 6.37 × 106 m. A hypothetical charged particle is orbiting the earth in the equatorial plane and near the earth’s surface at [02] m/s in an easterly direction under these conditions. What is this hypothetical particle’s charge to mass ratio (watch the sign)? [−20.0, −40.0 kC/kg] 19-3. A long metallic conductor oriented along the z axis has an oblong cross section in the xy plane as shown and carries current in the −z direction. There is a uniform external magnetic ﬁeld present with ﬁeld lines lying parallel to the xy plane. We label several directions as follows: (1) ↑, (2) , (3) →, (4) , (5) ↓, (6) , (7) ←, (8) , (9) magnitude is zero, (10) none of the above. What is the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld if the most negative potential occurs at (a) point A? (b) point B? (c) point C? (d) point D? 20-1. A loop of wire of length L = 10.8 cm is stretched into the shape of a square and carries a current of I = [01] A. Determine the magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop due to the current-carrying wire. [10.0, 20.0 µT] 20-2. A conductor consisting of a circular loop of radius R = [02] m and two straight, long sections, carries a current of I = 7.00 A. In the ﬁgure, the loop is viewed from the +z direction. Determine the z component of the resulting magnetic ﬁeld at the center of the loop. [−1.00, −3.00 µT] 20-3. Two long parallel wires, each having mass density λ = [03] g/m, are supported in the horizontal plane by strings 6.00 cm long, as shown. When both wires carry the same current I in opposite directions, the wires repel each other so that the angle θ between the supporting strings is 16.0◦ . Determine the magnitude of the current. [10.0, 30.0 A]

21-1. Two square current-carrying loops and two closed integration paths, one dashed and one solid, are arranged as shown. If the positive current direction is chosen to be clockwise, the current in the loop on the left is +10.0 A. Deﬁning ξ = ﬁnd that the ratio ξdashed /ξsolid = [01] B · ds for a given path, we . Determine the current (magnitude

and sign) in the right-hand loop. Hint: Draw a top-view diagram of the ﬁgure, which should make the looped paths and current directions more apparent. [−90.0, 90.0 A]

21-2. In the cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable below, the center conductor is surrounded by a rubber layer, which is surrounded by an outer conductor, which is surrounded by another rubber layer. In a particular application, the current in the inner conductor is Iinner = [02] Iouter = [03] mA, directed out of the page, mA, directed into the page. while the current in the outer conductor is Determine magnitude and sign of the vertical (up = +) component of (a) the magnetic ﬁeld at point a and (b) the magnetic ﬁeld at point b. [(a) −40.0, 40.0 µT (b) −40.0, 40.0 µT] 21-3. A superconducting solenoid with 2000 turns/m is meant to generate a magnetic ﬁeld of [04] T. (a) Calculate the current required. (b) Determine the force per unit length exerted on the windings by this magnetic ﬁeld. Note that while an individual current-carrying wire segment experiences no force due to the B-ﬁeld that it creates, that wire segment does experience a force due to the collective ﬁeld produced by all of the current-carrying coils around the solenoid. [(a) 3.00, 6.00 kA (b) 30.0, 90.0 kN/m]

22-1. An ideal solenoid 7.20 cm in diameter and 38.0 cm long has N = [01] turns and carries 12.0 A of current. Calculate the magnetic ﬂux through the surface of a disk of radius 5.00 cm that is positioned perpendicular to and centered on the axis of the solenoid. [1.00, 5.00 mT·m2 ] 22-2. Consider the hemispherical closed surface with radius R = 3.00 cm shown below, which is in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld of 0.250 T that makes an angle θ = [02]

with the

vertical. (a) Calculate the magnetic ﬂux entering the circular face of the closed surface. (b) Calculate the magnetic ﬂux entering through the hemispherical surface. [(a) −0.700, 0.700 mT·m2 (b) −0.700, 0.700 mT·m2 ] 23-1. A uniform magnetic ﬁeld oscillates in time as B = B0 cos(ωt), where B0 = [01] T, within a circular region of radius a = 2.50 cm. A loop of wire containing a single 1.20 V light bulb surrounds the ﬁeld-containing region. Determine the oscillation frequency needed to light the bulb (i.e. to match the emf amplitude with the light bulb voltage speciﬁcation). Note: do NOT use the more appropriate rms quantities if you know about them. [400, 990 Hz] 23-2. A uniform magnetic ﬁeld points into the page within a circular region of radius a = 2.50 cm, and varies in time as B = B0 e−t/τ , where B0 = [02] T and τ = 1.50 ms. At the instant when the magnetic ﬁeld has dropped to half its original (i.e. t = 0) value, determine the y component of the induced electric ﬁeld at (a) point A, located a distance a/2 from the center, (b) point B, located at the edge of the circular region, and (c) point C, located a distance 2a from the center. [(a) −1.00, −4.00 N/C (b) −1.00, −4.00 N/C (c) −1.00, −4.00 N/C]

23-3. A coil of N2 = 15 turns and radius a = 10.0 cm surrounds a long solenoid of radius r = 2.00 cm and N1 = 1000 turns/m. If the current in the solenoid varies as I = I0 cos(ωt), where I0 = [03] induced emf in the coil. [5.00, 9.00 mV] 24-1. Use Lenz’s law and Figures (a)–(d) below to answer the following questions concerning the direction of induced currents. (a) What is the direction of the induced current in resistor R in Fig. (a) when the bar magnet is moved to the left? (1) left (2) right (3) zero current (b) What is the direction of the current induced in the resistor R right after the switch S in Fig. (b) is closed? (1) left (2) right (3) zero current (c) What is the direction of the induced current in R when the current I in Fig. (c) decreases rapidly to zero? (1) left (2) right (3) zero current (d) A copper bar is moved to the right while its axis is maintained in a direction perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld, as shown in Fig. (d). If the top of the bar becomes positive relative to the bottom, what is the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? (1) left (2) right (3) up (4) down (5) into page (6) out of page. A and ω = 120 s−1 , determine the maximum

24-2. The square loop shown is made of wires with total series resistance of 12.6 Ω. It is placed in a uniform 0.117-T magnetic ﬁeld directed into the plane of the paper. The loop, which is hinged at each corner, is pulled as shown until the separation between points A and B is 3.00 m. If this process takes t = [01] seconds, what is the average current generated in the loop (magnitude and sign). Let “+” indicate clockwise current and “−” indicate counterclockwise current. [2.00, 3.00 mA] 24-3. A helicopter has blades with a length of 3.00 m extending outward from a central hub and rotating at f = [02] hub? [1.00, 3.00 mV] 24-4. A conducting axle with mass m = [03] kg and length L = 1.50 m long rolls at rev/s. If the vertical component of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 50.0 µT, what is the emf induced between the blade tip and the center

constant velocity along a pair of conducting rails that are inclined 30◦ from the horizontal. A resistive load R = 100 Ω connects the rails, which are immersed in a uniform 0.800 T magnetic ﬁeld that points downward. (a) Determine the magnitude of the magnetic force on the axle. (b) Determine the speed of the rolling axle. Hints: Draw a free-body diagram. Separate forces into components, parallel and perpendicular to the rail. Take the inclination angle into account when computing the induced emf. [(a) 50.0, 99.0 N (b) 4.00, 8.00 km/s]

25-1. A circular loop of wire is moved at constant speed through regions where uniform magnetic ﬁelds of the same magnitude are directed into or out of the paper, as indicated. The instantaneous location of the loop, as it moves to the right, is indicated at seven positions. (a) At how many of the seven positions will there be no induced emf in the loop? (b) At how many of the seven positions will there be a CW induced emf in the loop? (c) At how many of the seven positions will there be a CCW induced emf in the loop? (d) At which position will the magnitude of the induced emf be maximum?

25-2. A square coil that consists of 100 turns of wire rotates about a vertical axis at 1500 rev/s. The horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the coil is [01] µT. Determine the maximum emf induced in the coil by this ﬁeld. [30.0, 80.0 mV]

25-3. An electric motor consists of a rectangular coil (2.50 cm × 4.00 cm) with 80 turns of wire that draws I = [02] A of current as it rotates at 3600 rev/min in a uniform B = 0.800 T magnetic ﬁeld. (a) Determine the maximum torque delivered by the motor. (b) Determine the peak power produced by the motor. [(a) 0.100, 0.300 J (b) 40.0, 99.0 W]

25-4. A closed rectangular wire loop has dimensions w = 0.80 m, = 1.50 m, mass m = [03] g, and resistance R = 0.750 Ω. The rectangle is allowed to fall through a region of uniform magnetic ﬁeld, directed out of the page as shown, and accelerates downward as it approaches a terminal speed of 2.00 m/s with its top not yet in the region of the ﬁeld. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld. [0.400, 0.700 T]

26-1. A 10.0-mH inductor carries a current of I = Imax sin ωt with Imax = 5.00 A and ω/2π = 60.0 Hz. What is the magnitude of the back emf at t = [01] [0.0, +20.0 V] 26-2. For the RL circuit shown, let L = 3.00 H, R = 8.00 Ω, and E = [02] V. The switch is closed at t = 0. (a) Calculate the ratio of the potential diﬀerence across the resistor to that across the inductor when I = 2.00 A. (b) Calculate the voltage across the inductor [03] after the switch is closed. [(a) 0.60, 1.20 (b) 0.100, 0.800 V] 26-3. Two coils, held in ﬁxed positions, have a mutual inductance of 130 µH. What is the peak voltage in one when a sinusoidal current given by I(t) = Imax sin(ωt) ﬂows in the other? Imax = 12.0 A and ω = [04] 26-4. A [05] s−1 . [1.00, 1.50 V] s s?

-V battery, a 5.00-Ω resistor, and a 12.0-H inductor are connected in

series. After the current in the circuit has reached its maximum value, calculate (a) the power being supplied by the battery, (b) the power being delivered to the resistor, (c) the power being delivered to the inductor, and (d) the energy stored in the magnetic ﬁeld of the inductor. [(a) 20.0, 99.0 W (b) 20.0, 99.0 W (c) 0.0, 99.0 W (d) 20.0, 99.0 J]

27-1. The switch in the circuit shown is connected to point a for a long time. R = 14.0 Ω, L = 0.110 H, C = [01] µF, and E = 12 V. After the switch is thrown to point b, what are (a) the frequency of oscillation of the LC circuit, (b) the maximum charge that appears on the capacitor, (c) the maximum current in the inductor, and (d) the total energy the circuit possesses at t = 3.00 s? [(a) 400, 500 Hz (b) 10.0, 20.0 µC (c) 30.0, 50.0 mA (d) 7.00 × 10−5 , 9.90 × 10−5 J] 27-2. In the ﬁgure, let R = 7.60 Ω, L = [02] mH, and

C = 1.80 µF. (a) Calculate the frequency of the damped oscillation of the circuit. (b) What is the critical resistance? [(a) 2.00 × 103 , 3.00 × 103 Hz (b) 60.0, 90.0 Ω]

27-3. The switch in the ﬁgure is thrown closed at t = 0. R = 75 Ω, E = [03] V, C = 1.80 µF, and L = 2.20 mH. Before the switch is closed, the capacitor is uncharged and all currents are zero. The instant after the switch is closed, determine the currents in (a) L, (b) C, and (c) R. Also determine the potential diﬀerences across (d) L, (e) C, and (f) R. A long time after the switch is closed, determine the potential diﬀerences across (g) L, (h) C, and (i) R. [(a) 0.000, 0.500 A (b) 0.000, 0.500 A (c) 0.000, 0.500 A (d) 0.0, 40.0 V (e) 0.0, 40.0 V (f) 0.0, 40.0 V (g) 0.0, 40.0 V (h) 0.0, 40.0 V (i) 0.0, 40.0 V]

28-1. An inductor is connected to a 20.0-Hz power supply that produces a 50.0-V peak voltage. What inductance is needed to keep the instantaneous current in the circuit below [01] mA? [4.00, 7.00 H] -µF capacitor when it is

28-2. What maximum current ﬂows through a [02]

connected across (a) a North American outlet having Vrms = 120 V and f = 60.0 Hz? (b) a European outlet having Vrms = 240 V and f = 50.0 Hz? [(a) 0.100, 0.400 A (b) 0.100, 0.400 A] 28-3. (a) Draw to scale a phasor diagram showing Z, XL , XC , and φ for an AC series circuit with R = [03] Ω, C = 11.0 µF, L = 0.200 H, and f = (500/π) Hz. Submit this part of the problem to the 220 homework bins on a single sheet of paper before class. Include your CID!!! (b) What is Z? (c) What is the phase angle φ? [(b) 200, 500 Ω (c) 10.0, 30.0◦ ] 29-1. A series RLC circuit is used in a radio to tune in to an FM station broadcasting at 99.7 MHz. The resistance in the circuit is 12.0 Ω, and the inductance is [01] µH. What capacitance should be used? [1.00, 3.00 pF]

29-2. In a certain series RLC circuit, Irms = 9.00 A, Vrms = 180 V, and the current leads the voltage by [02]

. (a) What is the resistance R of the circuit? (b) What is the

reactance of the circuit (XL − XC )? [(a) 5.0, 20.0 Ω (b) 5.0, 20.0 Ω] 29-3. In a series RLC circuit, R = [03] E = 100 V (rms), and f = [04] Ω, XC = 150 Ω, XL = 100 Ω, Hz. (a) Find L. (b) Find C. (c) Find the rms

current ﬂowing in the circuit. (d) Find the phase shift φ. (e) Find the power dissipated. (f) Find the ratio of VCmax /VRmax . [(a) 0.100, 0.400 H (b) 10.0, 25.0 µF (c) 0.300, 0.700 A (d) −90.0, +90.0◦ (e) 30.0, 70.0 W (f) 0.50, 2.00] 29-4. A step down transformer is used for recharging the batteries of a portable device such as a tape player. The turns ratio inside the transformer is 13:1, and it is used with 120 V (rms) household service. If a particular ideal transformer draws [05] A (rms) from the house outlet, (a) what (rms) voltage is supplied to the tape player from the transformer? (b) What (rms) current is supplied to the tape player from the transformer? (c) How much power is delivered? [(a) 5.00, 9.50 V (b) 3.00, 6.00 A (c) 30.0, 50.0 W]

30-1. An air-ﬁlled circular parallel plate capacitor with radius a = 5.00 cm and plate separation d = 2.00 mm, is driven by a 60 Hz alternating voltage with amplitude V = [01] V. Naturally, the magnitude of the current is greatest at the instant when the voltage is zero. At such an instant, determine the magnitude of the (a) rate of change of electric ﬂux in the capacitor, (b) displacement current in the capacitor, and (c) magnetic ﬁeld near the edge of the capacitor. [(a) 100, 300 kV·m/s (b) 1.00, 3.00 µA (c) 5.00, 9.99 pT] 30-2. Which of the following laws or principles are required to solve the problems described below. In each case, choose only one answer. If more than one response seems appropriate, choose the one most fundamental to the problem at hand. Possible responses are: (1) Gauss’s law of electrostatics, (2) Gauss’s law of magnetism, (3) Faraday’s law, (4) Ampere-Maxwell law, (5) Lorentz force law. (a) Determine the magnetic ﬁeld near a current carrying wire. (b) Determine the trajectory of a proton in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. (c) Determine the electric ﬁeld inside a charged capacitor. (d) Determine the magnetic ﬁeld inside a charging capacitor. (e) Determine the power delivered by a wind-turbine generator. (f) Determine the electric ﬁeld near the surface of a conductor. (g) Determine the voltage diﬀerence between the ends of a metal bar moving in a magnetic ﬁeld. (h) Determine the total magnetic ﬂux through a closed surface. (i) Determine the voltage in the secondary winding of a transformer. (j) The magnetic ﬁeld produced by a moving charged particle. 30-3. Determine the validity of each of the following statements. Possible responses are (1) True or (2) False. (a) Ampere’s law is physically equivalent to the Lorentz force law. (b) Gauss’s law of electrostatics is physically equivalent to Gauss’s law of magnetism. (c) Coulomb’s law is physically equivalent to Gauss’s law of electrostatics. (d) The Biot-Savart law is physically equivalent to Faraday’s law. (e) Lenz’s law is a corollary of Faraday’s law. (f) Gauss’s law of electrostatics relates electric charge to electric ﬂux. (g) Gauss’s law of magnetism relates magnetic charge to magnetic ﬂux. (h) The Ampere-Maxwell law relates magnetic circulation to changing electric ﬂux. (i) The Ampere-Maxwell law relates magnetic circulation to electric current. (j) Faraday’s law relates electric charge to changing magnetic ﬂux. 30-4. Complete this problem on a separate sheet of paper and submit it with your CID# prominently displayed. Name and state each of Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law in plain English with no reference to symbols or acronyms.

31-1. A transverse wave on a string is described by the wave function y = y0 sin(kx + ωt), where y0 = [01] m, k = [02] m−1 , and ω = [03] s−1 . At time t = 0.200 s and string position x = 1.6 m, determine the following quantities: (a) Peak wave amplitude. (b) Average wave amplitude. (c) rms wave amplitude. (d) Transverse string velocity (magnitude and sign). (e) Transverse string acceleration (magnitude and sign). (f) Wave velocity (magnitude and sign). (g) Wavelength. (h) Wavenumber. (i) Wave frequency (cyclic). (j) Wave period. [(a) 0.100, 0.150 m (b) −0.150, 0.150 m (c) 0.0700, 0.0999 m (d) −3.00, +3.00 m/s (e) −40.0, +40.0 m/s2 (f) −60.0, +60.0 m/s (g) 10.0, 25.0 m (h) 0.200, 0.600 m−1 (i) 1.00, 3.00 Hz (j) 0.400, 0.700 s] 31-2. The speed of an electromagnetic wave traveling in a transparent nonmagnetic substance √ is 1/ µ0 κ 0 , where κ is the dielectric constant of the substance, which depends on frequency. Determine the speed of light in a liquid with a dielectric constant of κ = [04] at optical frequencies. FYI, water has a dielectric constant of 1.78 in this range. [2.00 × 108 , 3.00 × 108 m/s] 31-3. A standing-wave interference pattern is set up by radio waves between two metal sheets d = [05] [50.0, 95.0 MHz] m apart. This is the shortest distance between the plates that will produce a standing-wave pattern. What is the fundamental frequency of the radio waves?

31-4. Match the following object sizes to the wavelength of the appropriate electromagnetic radiation. Possible responses are (1) gamma rays, (2) x-rays, (3) ultraviolet rays, (4) visible light, (5) infrared, (6) microwaves, (7) FM radio waves, (8) AM radio wave, (9) long-wavelength radiation. (a) An atom. (b) Your ﬁnger. (c) Your height. (d) The thickness of a human hair. (e) A bacterium (f) A virus. (g) An atomic nucleus. (h) Your campus. (i) Your world (which may also be your campus). 32-1. Neldon the Nerd went to see Star Wars and was fascinated by the red light pulses from the laser blasters. He decides to make such a weapon. He chooses a pulsed laser with a wavelength of 580 nm so that the light will be red. (a) The pulses in the movie appeared to be L = [01] have a temporal duration of only . m long and lasted

roughly 0.2 seconds. But Neldon is annoyed to discover that a light pulse this long must

(b) Neldon can’t make such a pulse, but does manage to build a gun with a T = [02] times. (c) Neldon decides to blast the white clock on the wall across the room since its white reﬂective surface resembles that of a storm trooper uniform. A short time after the small spot of light strikes near the center of the clock face, the electric ﬁeld points toward M = [03] points toward minutes after 12 o’clock. At this same instant, the magnetic ﬁeld minutes after 12 o’clock. µs pulse. At t = 0, when the pulse begins, E is exactly zero at the more muzzle of the gun. During the length of the pulse, E will be zero again

[(a) 1.00, 4.00 ns (b) 1.00 × 109 , 3.00 × 109 (c) 0.0, 59.9 min]

32-2. Neldon then adjusts the pulse length of his laser blaster to 2.00 µs and the beam diameter to D = [04] mm. Though he ﬁnds that his laser pulse has an kJ, he is again annoyed when the clock . He then calculates (b) the average impressive total energy of E = [05] complete reﬂection, and ﬁnds it to be a mere

doesn’t shatter. (a) So he computes the momentum delivered by the pulse assuming beam intensity, (c) the peak beam intensity, (d) the peak E-ﬁeld magnitude, and (e) the peak B-ﬁeld magnitude. [(a) 2.00 × 10−5 , 4.00 × 10−5 kg·m/s (b) 5.00 × 1014 , 9.00 × 1014 W/m2 (c) 1.00 × 1015 , 2.00 × 1015 W/m2 (d) 6.00 × 108 , 9.00 × 108 N/C (e) 2.00, 3.00 T] 32-3. An AM radio station broadcasts isotropically (equally in all directions) with an average power of 4.00 kW. An optimally-oriented λ/2 dipole antenna 65.0 cm long is located d = [06] km from the transmitter. (a) Compute the maximum E-ﬁeld at the receiving antenna. (b) Compute the maximum B-ﬁeld at the receiving antenna. Compare this to the magnetic ﬁeld of the earth, which is roughly 50 µT. (c) Compute the maximum emf induced by this signal between the two ends of receiving antenna. [(a) 0.300, 0.500 N/C (b) 1.00, 2.00 nT (c) 0.200, 0.400 V]